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Table 3 Medicinal plants used by ethnic communities in the Kerman province

From: Ethnobotany of the medicinal plants used by the ethnic communities of Kerman province, Southeast Iran

Family

Scientific name

Local name

(Persian); Voucher no.

Plant part

used

Medicinal use (UR)

ICPC

category

Preparation

Mode of application

(UR)

A, B, C

Acanthaceae

Blepharis edulis (Forssk.) Pers.

Anjereh 503

Leaf, Seed

Wound healing (3), Ear ache (2), Eye ache (2), Sore throat (3)

DER-S

Poultice, Decoction

Topical

10

A

Amaranthaceae

Amaranthus retroflexus L.

Sorkhmaghz 598

Leaf

Jaundice (18)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

18

B, C

Amaranthaceae

Anabasis aphylla L.

Aldorak 596

Aerial parts

Weight loss (3), Constipation (1)

OTH-A, GAS-D

Aromatic water

Oral

4

B, C

Amaranthaceae

Seidlitzia rosmarinus Bunge ex Boiss.

Shoor 594

Aerial parts

Washing powder (5)

-, -

Powder

-

5

B, C

Amaranthaceae

Salsola incanescens C.A. Mey.

Jar 593

Aerial parts

Washing powder (2)

-, -

Powder

-

2

B, C

Amaranthaceae

Dysphania botrys (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants

Dermeneh 595

Young flowering branches

Beauty of skin and hair (4)

DER-S

Oil

Topical

4

B, C

Amaranthaceae

Suaeda aegyptiaca (Hasselq.) Zohary

Somsil 597

Aerial parts

Blood purifier (4), Anemia (29), Vegetable (48)

OTH-A, Blood-B

Vegetable

Oral

81

B, C

Amaryllidaceae

Allium atroviolaceum Boiss.

Piaze vahshi 268

Bulb

Reduce blood sugar (2)

MET-T

Vegetable

Oral

2

B, C

Amaryllidaceae

Allium iranicum (Wendelbo) Wendelbo.

Serit 245

Leaf

Aromatic (4), Flavoring of food (33), Digestive (6)

NER-N, -, GAS-D

Spice

Oral

43

B, C

Amaryllidaceae

Ixiolirion tataricum (Pall.) Schult. & Schult.f.

Kheyaroo 269

Leaf and flower

Pickle (6)

OTH-A

Vegetable

Oral

6

B, C

Amaryllidaceae

Narcissus tazetta L.

Narges 267

Bulb, Leaf

Face rash treatment (3), Sterility treatment (2), Gastric discomfort (2), Blood coagulation (4), Anti-depressants  (5)

DER-S, DER-S, GAS-D, Blood-B, NER-N

Mask, Decoction, infusion

Topical, Oral

16

A, C

Anacardiaceae

Pistacia atlantica Desf.

Baneh 623

Seed

Bone and joint pains (5), Burn healing (68), Wound healing (26), Eczema (34)

SKE-L,DER-S, DER-S, DER-S

Oil

Topical

208

A

Olibanum

Scar (39)

DER-S

Poultice

Topical

Olibanum

Lung infections (1)

RES-R

Fume

Inhale

Leaf, Olibanum

Stomach ulcers (31), Toothache (2)

GAS-D, GAS-D

Extract, Gum

Oral

Fruit, Olibanum

Disinfectant (2)

OTH-A

Edible

Oral

Anacardiaceae

Pistacia khinjuk Stocks

Kasour 621

Seed, Leaf

Hemorrhoid (1), Stomachache (9), Toothache (2), Memory Improvement (2), Jaundice (1)

CAR-K, GAS-D, GAS-D, NER-N, GAS-D

Nuts, Mixed with date, Gum

Oral

15

A

Anacardiaceae

Pistacia vera L.

Pesteh 620

Fruit

Reinforcing sexual desire (2), Anti-nausea (1), Anti-diarrhea (1), Constipation (3)

OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D,

Nuts

Oral

7

A

Apiaceae

Ammi majus L.

Golsefid 220

Fruit

Anti-nausea (5), diuretic (4)

GAS-D, URO-U

Decoction

Oral

9

A

Apiaceae

Anethum graveolens L.

Maitokhm 234

Seed

Blood fat (3), Gastric discomfort (32), Energetic (2), Reduce blood sugar (2), Joint pain (5)

Blood-B, GAS-D, OTH-A, MET-T, SKE-L

Decoction

Oral

44

A

Apiaceae

Apium graveolens L.

Karafs 221

Aerial parts

Relaxing (1), Disinfectant (2), Flavoring of food (40)

NER-N, OTH-A, -

Mixed with food, Vegetable

Oral

43

B, C

Apiaceae

Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B.Fedtsch.

Ziresiah 227

Seed

Menstrual disorders (30), Flavoring of food (115), Digestive (2), Parasite repellent (3), Carminative (4), Antispasmodic (31),

GYN-X, OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, NER-N

Decoction, Infusion, Mixed with food

Oral

185

A

Apiaceae

Carum carvi L.

Ziresiah 230

Fruit

Carminative (6), Relaxing (1)

GAS-D, NER-N

Infusion

Oral

7

A, C

Apiaceae

Conium maculatum L.

Showkaran 233

Whole plant

Cough (4), Respiratory ailments (6)

RES-R, RES-R

Decoction

Oral

10

A

Apiaceae

Coriandrum sativum L.

Geshniz 238

Leaf, Seed, Aerial parts

Reduce blood sugar (3), Intestinal infections (2), Blood fat (4), lactiferous (5), Flavoring of food (18) Carminative (3)

MET-T, GAS-D, Blood-B, PRE-W, OTH-A, GAS-D

Decoction, Dried vegetable

Oral

35

A

Apiaceae

Cuminum cyminum L.

Ziresabz 225

Seed

Menstrual disorders (10), Flavoring of food (14), Body tonic (5)

GYN-X, -, OTH-A

Decoction, Infusion, Mixed with food

Oral

29

A

Apiaceae

Daucus carota L.

Havij 235

Bulb

Anemia (8), Sight enhancement (7), Appetizing (3)

Blood-B, EYE-F, OTH-A

Salad

oral

18

A, C

Apiaceae

Dorema ammoniacum D. Don

Oshtork 258

Gum

Disinfectant (4), Edible (7), Infectious wound healing (11)

OTH-A, OTH-A, DER-S

Powder, Mask, Poultice, Vegetable

Oral

22

A

Apiaceae

Dorema aucheri Boiss.

Oshtork 249

Gum

Disinfectant (4), Edible (7), Infectious wound (11)

OTH-A, OTH-A, DER-S

Powder, Mask, Poultice, Vegetable

Oral

22

A

Apiaceae

Ducrosia anethifolia (DC.) Boiss.

Reshkak 291

Leaf, Seed

Abdominal pains (6), Body tonic (7), Child Carminative (9)

GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D

Infusion

Oral

22

A

Apiaceae

Ducrosia assadii Alava.

Reshkak 237

Leaf and fruit

Wound and burns healing (8)

DER-S

Oil

Topical

8

A

Apiaceae

Eryngium billardieri Delile

Chichagh 240

Aerial parts

Expectorant (4), Bronchitis (4), Antispasmodic (1), Carminative (2), Cough (4), Pain relief (3), Reduce rheumatic pain (1)

RES-R, RES-R, NER-N, GAS-D, RES-R, SKE-L

Decoction

Oral

19

B, C

Apiaceae

Eryngium bungei

Boiss.

Shoochagh 242

Aerial parts

Pain relief (4)

NER-N

Decoction

Oral

4

B

Apiaceae

Ferula assa-foetida L.

Anghouze 245

Gum

Parasite intestine (16), Expectorant (2), Menstrual disorders (2), Gastritis (5)

GAS-D, RES-R, GYN-X, GAS-D

Fume, Infusion

Oral

25

A

Apiaceae

Ferula gummosa Boiss.

Anghouzeh 236

Gum

Cough (6), Laxative (3)

RES-R, GAS-D

Infusion

Oral

9

A

Apiaceae

Ferula oopoda (Boiss. & Buhse) Boiss.

Anghouzeh 252

Latex, Fruit

Toothache (35), Carminative (18), Intestinal parasite (30), Tooth infection (10), Expectorant (4)

GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, RES-R

Poultice, Decoction

Oral

97

A

Apiaceae

Ferula ovina (Boiss.) Boiss.

Anghouze shirin 247

Aerial parts

Carminative (15)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

15

A

Apiaceae

Ferula persica Willd.

Anghouzeh 250

Latex, Fruit

Cough (6), Laxative (3)

RES-R, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

9

A

Apiaceae

Ferula szowitziana DC.

Anghouze 254

Latex

Stomachache (6)

GAS-D

Cooked with meat and vegetables

Oral

6

A

Apiaceae

Ferulago angulata (Schltdl.) Boiss.

Garchi 257

Aerial parts

Carminative (6), Flavoring of butter (1), Aromatherapy (1)

GAS-D, OTH-A

Decoction, Powder, Dressing

Oral

8

A

Apiaceae

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Badiuon 244

Seed

Carminative (41), Gastric discomfort (27), Bone and joint pains (12), Asthma (1), Digestive (11)

GAS-D, GAS-D, SKE-L, RES-R, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

92

A

Apiaceae

Pulicaria undulata (L.) C.A.Mey.

Sooteh 259

Leaf

Dysentery (10), Wound healing (3)

GAS-D, DER-S

Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

14

A, C

Apiaceae

Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fisch., C.A.Mey. & Avé-Lall.

Golpar 258

Fruit, Flower

Relaxing (8)

NER-N

Aromatic water

Oral

8

B, C

Apiaceae

Levisticum officinale W.D.J.Koch

Karasm 262

Aerial part

Carminative (5), Gastric discomfort (10), Blood pressure (19)

GAS-D, GAS-D, CAR-K

Aromatic water

Oral

34

B, C

Apiaceae

Levisticum persicum Freyn & Bornm.

Karasm 260

Aerial parts, Stem

Pickle (3), Aromatherapy (1), Flavoring of food (2)

OTH-A, OTH-A

Decoction, Dressing, Powder

Oral

5

A

Apiaceae

Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss

Jafari 229

Young branches

Urinary stone (3), Digestive (12), Anemia (5)

URO-U, GAS-D, Blood-B

Decoction

Oral

20

A

Apiaceae

Pimpinella saxifraga L.

Jafari Kouhi 263

Leaf

Stomachache (21)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

21

A

Apiaceae

Platychaete aucheri (Boiss.) Boiss.

Zarbarook 255

Leaf

Asthma (7)

RES-R

Decoction

Oral

7

A, C

Apiaceae

Prangos cheilanthifolia Boiss.

Sekbinch 280

Young branches, Gum

Carminative (5)

GAS-D

Mixed with food

Oral

5

B, C

Apiaceae

Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl.

Garchi 253

Foliage

Flavoring of dairy (8), Parasite repellent (6), Toothache (7), Carminative (3), Acne (2), Infectious wound (5)

-, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, DER-S, DER-S

Edible, Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

41

B, C

Apiaceae

Prangos uloptera DC.

Jashir 270

Young branches

Carminative (15), Body tonic (17)

GAS-D, OTH-A

Mixed with food

Oral

32

A, C

Apiaceae

Psammogeton stocksii (Boiss.) Nasir

Izbok 273

Aerial parts

Febrifuge (4)

OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

4

B, C

Apiaceae

Scandix stellata Banks & Sol.

Badiyan koohi 275

Whole plant

Body tonic (25), Stomach tonic (13)

OTH-A, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

38

B, C

Apiaceae

Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague

Kaserk 277

Fruit

Stomachache (19), Carminative (7)

GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

26

A

Apiaceae

Pycnocycla spinosa Decne.

Sagdandan 279

Root

Scorpion bite (1)

OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

2

B, C

Apiaceae

Pycnocycla bashgardiana Mozaff.

Pvander 288

Flower

Stomachache (2)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

3

B, C

Apocynaceae

Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand.

Kark 849

Latex

Eczema (98), Scorpion bite (9), Earache (4), Toothache (6), Cancer (1)

DER-S, DER-S, Ear-H, GAS-D, CAN-C

Latex

Topical, Oral

151

B

Leaf

Reduce blood sugar (11), Bruise (10)

MET-T, SKE-L

Poultice

Topical

Apocynaceae

Cionura erecta (L.) Griseb.

Jaze sabz 852

Leaf

Sore throat (3), Expectorant (77), Cough (87)

OTH-A, RES-R, RES-R

Decoction

Oral

167

B, C

Apocynaceae

Nerium oleander L.

Gish 861

Leaf

Stomachache (3), Skin diseases (1)

GAS-D

Decoction, Latex

Oral

4

A, C

Apocynaceae

Pergularia tomentosa L.

Keshtook 855

Latex

Eczema (2), Constipation (1), Parasite repellent (2), Cancer (1)

DER-S, GAS-D, CAN-C

Poultice, Decoction

Topical, Oral

15

B, C

Whole parts

Hair removal of animal skin (9)

OTH-A

Decoction

Topical

Apocynaceae

Periploca aphylla Decne.

Shirbadam 853

Latex, Aerial parts

Burn healing (3), Skin inflammation (5)

DER-S, DER-S

Mask, Poultice

Topical

8

B, C

Apocynaceae

Rhazya stricta Decne.

Eshbarg 859

Leaf

Scorpion and snake bite (5), Sore throat (2), Febrifuge (41), Ear ache (1), Eye ache (1)

DER-S

Decoction

Bath

173

B

Leaf

Wound healing (63), Joint pains (57), Reduce blood sugar (3)

DER-S, SKE-L, MET-T

Poultice

Topical

Arecaceae

Phoenix dactylifera L.

Mogh 1123

Pollen

Improvement of male fertility (11)

PRE-W

Mixed with honey

Oral

17

B, C

Pith parenchyma

Memory improvement  (5)

NER-N

Edible

Oral

Arecaceae

Nannorrhops ritchieana (Griff.) Aitch.

Daz1 125

Fruit

Vegetable (8)

OTH-A

Edible

Oral

8

B, C

Asparagaceae

Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl.

Sirmook 1235

Bulb

Anti-diarrhea (2), Bronchitis (3), Cough (1)

GAS-D, RES-R, RES-R

Mixed with food

Oral

6

B, C

Asteraceae

Achillea eriophora DC.

Gole bengerask 921

Flowering branches

Relaxing (4), Gastric discomfort (7), Parasite repellent (3), Anti-diarrhea (10), Menstrual disorders (2), Cramps, Febrifuge (8), Stomachache (12)

NER-N, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GYN-X, SKE-L, OTH-A, GAS-D

Infusion, Powder

Oral

46

A

Asteraceae

Achillea santolinoides Lag.

Gole bengerask 918

Flowering branches

Relaxing (4), gastric discomfort (7), Parasite repellent (3), Anti-diarrhea (10), Menstrual disorders (2), Cramps, Febrifuge (8), Stomachache (12)

NER-N, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GYN-X, SKE-L, OTH-A, GAS-D

Infusion, Powder

Oral

46

A, C

Asteraceae

Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch

Gole bengerask 922

Flowering branches

Stomach ache (12), Disinfectant (1), Blood purifier (2), Carminative (4), Diuretic (1), Antispasmodic (6)

GAS-D, OTH-A, Blood-B, GAS-D, URO-U,NER-N

Decoction

Oral

26

A

Asteraceae

Arctium lappa L.

Babaadam 950

Leaf

Vertigo (3), Blood purifier (2), Antispasmodic (4), Detoxification (1), Food digestion (7), Parasite repellent (1), Kidney diseases (2)

NER-N, OTH-A, NER-N, OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D, URO-U

Poultice, Decoction

Oral

20

B, C

Asteraceae

Artemisia absinthium L.

Afsantin 930

Leaf, Flower

Intestinal parasites (5)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

5

A

Asteraceae

Artemisia aucheri Boiss.

Jaz 934

Flowering branches

Relaxing (6), Abdominal pains (27), Respiratory diseases (3), Body tonic (6), Febrifuge (25)

NER-N, GAS-D, RES-R, OTH-A, OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

68

A, C

Flowering branches

Beauty of skin and hair (1)

DER-S

Essential oil, Aromatic water

Topical

Asteraceae

Artemisia persica Boiss.

Dermene torki 931

Flowering branches

Febrifuge (44), Gastric infection (62), Stomachache (73)

OTH-A, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

179

A, C

Asteraceae

Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kitam.

Dermeneh 932

Aerial parts

Stomachache (13)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

13

B, C

Asteraceae

Artemisia sieberi Besser

Sorkhdermon 953

Flowering branches

Anti-nausea (20), Antispasmodic, (8) Parasite repellent (18)

GAS-D, NER-N, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

61

A

Flowering branches

Bruise (15)

SKE-L

Decoction

Topical

Asteraceae

Atractylis cancellata L.

Kharcharkha 940

Gum, Leaf

Vegetable (3)

OTH-A

Row, Powder

Oral

3

B, C

Asteraceae

Calendula officinalis L.

Gole bahari 942

Aerial parts

Carminative (2), Pancreatic cancer (1)

GAS- D, CAN-C

Infusion

Oral

8

B, C

Aerial parts

Acne (3), Pterygium (2)

DER-S, EYE-F

Oil, Aromatic water

Topical, Eye drop

Asteraceae

Carthamus lanatus L.

Kharzard 971

Flower

Bruise (2)

SKE-L

Poultice

Topical

2

B, C

Asteraceae

Carthamus oxyacantha M.Bieb.

Golrangzard 972

Leaf and flower

Purgative (1), Menstrual disorders (1), Blood purifier (1)

GAS-D, GYN-X, OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

3

B, C

Asteraceae

Centaurea benedicta (L.) L.

Khar moghadas 980

Flowering branches

Memory tonic (2)

NER-N

Decoction

Oral

2

B, C

Asteraceae

Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mazz.

Gole gandom 981

Aerial parts

Anti-inflammatory (2)

SKE-L

Decoction

Oral

2

A

Asteraceae

Cichorium intybus L.

Kasni 925

Leaf and Flower

Jaundice (15), Liver diseases (2), Diuretic (2), Febrifuge (13), Antihypertensive (2), Laxative (55)

GAS-D, GAS-D, URO-U, OTH-A,CAR-K, GAS-D

Aromatic water, Maceration

Oral

89

A, C

Asteraceae

Cichorium pumilum Jacg.

Kasni 913

Leaf and Flower

Jaundice (14), Liver diseases (2), Febrifuge (14), Blood purifier, Antihypertensive (2), Laxative (50)

GAS-D, GAS-D, OTH-A, OTH-A, GAS-D

Aromatic water, Maceration

Oral

96

A

Root

Appetizing (5)

OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

Asteraceae

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.

Kangar 925

Root, Pith parenchyma

Gastric discomfort (8), Appetizing (2), Disinfectant (4), Febrifuge (7)

GAS-D, OTH-A, OTH-A, OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

21

A

Asteraceae

Cota tinctoria (L.) J.Gay

Babouneh 939

Flowering branches

Throat pains (4), Nervous problems (13), Common cold (14), Anti-diarrhea (20), Prostate (5)

GAS-D, NER-N, RES-R, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

56

A, C

Asteraceae

Cousinia congesta Bunge.

Poloosh 945

Gum

Asthma (2)

RES-R

Decoction

Oral

2

B, C

Asteraceae

Cyanus depressus (M.Bieb.) Soják

Gole gandom 977

Flower

Digestive (11), Cough (1), Laxative (6)

GAS-D, RES-R, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

18

B, C

Asteraceae

Echinops ritrodes Bunge

Kaloor 983

Fruit

Gastric discomfort (7)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

7

B, C

Asteraceae

Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass. ex Spach.

Davoodi 986

Aerial parts

Blood purifier (2), Eyesight enhancement (2)

OTH-A, EYE-F

Infusion

Oral

4

B, C

Asteraceae

Gundelia tournefortii L.

Kangar 974

Pith parenchyma

Gastric discomfort (8), Constipation (12), Reduce Blood fat (1), Blood purifier (15)

GAS-D, GAS-D, OTH-A, OTH-A

Edible, Salad

Oral

36

B, C

Asteraceae

Hertia angustifolia (DC.) Kuntze

Karkich biabani 975

Leaf, Flower

Pain relief (4)

NER-N

Decoction

Oral

4

B, C

Asteraceae

Hertia intermedia (Boiss.) Kuntze

Karkich 973

Flowering branches

Insect bite (5), Purgative (2), Parasite repellent (1)

DER-S, GAS-D, GAS-D

Poultice, Decoction

Topical, Oral

8

A

Asteraceae

Inula britannica L.

Mosafa 979

Aerial parts

Reducing thirst (3)

OTH-A

Syrup

Oral

3

B, C

Asteraceae

Lactuca orientalis (Boiss.) Boiss.

Jaroo 958

Latex, Flower

Insomnia (3)

OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

3

B, C

Asteraceae

Lactuca serriola L.

Kahokhardar 916

Aerial parts, Latex

Bone and joint pains (1), Purgative (1)

SKE-L, GAS-D

Poultice, Decoction

Topical, Oral

2

A

Asteraceae

Launaea acanthodes (Boiss.) Kuntze

Goojar 918

Aerial parts

Animal parasite repellent (122), Pain relief (4)

GAS-D, NER-N

Maceration

Oral

126

B, C

Asteraceae

Matricaria chamomilla L.

Babounak 946

Flowering branches

Anti-inflammation (2), Anti-nausea (3)

SKE-L, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

5

B, C

Asteraceae

Onopordum carmanicum (Bornm.) Bornm.

Kangar 919

Young branches

Gastric discomfort (4)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

4

B, C

Asteraceae

Onopordum leptolepis DC.

Kangar 920

Aerial parts

Urinary stone (6), Abdominal pains (9), Anti-diarrhea (8)

URO-U, GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

23

B, C

Asteraceae

Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo

Talkhe sadi 927

Aerial parts

Baby fever (2), Cancer (2)

OTH-A, CAN-C

Poultice, Decoction

Topical

4

B, C

Asteraceae

Scorzonera mucida "Rech.f., Aellen & Esfand.

Kalaghoo 912

Fresh leaf

Infectious wound (3)

DER-S

Poultice

Topical

3

B, C

Asteraceae

Senecio glaucus L.

Bangdaneh 990

Aerial parts

Chronic wound (6)

DER-S

Poultice

Topical

6

B, C

Asteraceae

Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.

Kharmaryam 995

Leaf

Fatty liver (35), Reduce blood sugar (3)

GAS-D, MET-T

Decoction

Oral

38

A, C

Asteraceae

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill

Shirtighak 996

Leaf

Skin rash (3)

DER-S

Poultice

Topical

3

A

Asteraceae

Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L.

Shirtighak 997

Leaf

Skin rash (3)

DER-S

Poultice

Topical

4

A

Asteraceae

Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip.

Babouneh 960

Aerial parts

Parasite repellent (4), Migraine (2), Anti-inflammation (10), Peptic ulcer (3), Gastritis (6)

OTH-A, NER-N, SKE-L, GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

25

A

Asteraceae

Taraxacum assemanii Boiss.

Shirdandan 998

Leaf, Flower

Liver tonic (1), Diuretic (1)

GAS-D, URO-U

Decoction

Oral

2

B, C

Asteraceae

Taraxacum pseudocalocephalum Soest.

Gasedak 906

Seed

Blood fat (1)

Blood-B

Decoction

Oral

1

B, C

Asteraceae

Tragopogon graminifolius DC.

Sheng 999

Leaf, Root

Diuretic (3), Gastrointestinal disorders (2)

URO-U, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

5

B, C

Berberidaceae

Berberis integerrima Bunge

Zarch 681

Root

Reduce blood sugar (61), Animal parasite repellent (2), Hepatitis (2), Joint pains (22), Breaking bone healing (15), Leaving addiction (27)

MET-T, GAS-D, CAR-K, GAS-D, SKE-L, SKE-L

Decoction

Oral

182

A

Leaf

Textile fiber color (9), Blood pressure (28)

OTH-A, CAR-K

Decoction

-

Fruit

Blood purifier (30), Heat regulation (1), Hives (3), Laxative (4)

OTH-A, OTH-A, DER-S, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

Biebersteiniaceae

Biebersteinia multifida DC.

Piche bahman 683

Root

Reinforcing sexual desire (9), Pain relief (5), Colic (3)

OTH-A, NER-N, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

17

B, C

Bignoniaceae

Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem.

Golparak 701

Stem bark, Leaf

Skin ailments (79), Eczema (64), Reduce blood sugar (41), Urinary problems (10)

DER-S, DER-S, MET-T

Poultice, Decoction

Topical

194

A

Boraginaceae

Anchusa azurea Mill.

Gavzaban 710

Flower

Relaxing (4)

NER-N

Decoction, Infusion

Oral

4

A, C

Boraginaceae

Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M.Johnst.

Sangdaneh 711

Leaf, Root

Pain relief (6)

NER-N

Decoction

Oral

6

B, C

Boraginaceae

Caccinia macranthera (Banks & Sol.) Brand

Gavzaban 720

Flower

Relaxing (3)

NER-N

Decoction

Oral

3

A, C

Boraginaceae

Cordia myxa L.

Pohil 724

Fruit

Common cold (5), Appetizing (4),Throat pain (10), Eczema (2), Kidney stone (5)

RES-R, -, GAS-D, DER-S, URO-U

Poultice, Infusion

Oral, Topical

26

B, C

Boraginaceae

Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A.Mey.

Golgavzaban 734

Flower

Sleeplessness (27), Relaxing (76), Anorexia (1)

NER-N, NER-N, Psy-P

Decoction

Oral

104

A, C

Boraginaceae

Nonea caspica (Willd.) G.Don

Gavzabanak 715

Leaf, Flower

Relaxing (2), Anorexia (1)

RES-R, NER-N, Psy-P

Decoction

Oral

5

A

Boraginaceae

Nonea persica Boiss.

Serkoee Cheskoee 712

Flower and Leaf

Relaxing (3), Heart tonic (5), Expectorant (2), Disinfectant (4),

NER-N, CAR-K, RES-R, OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

14

B, C

Boraginaceae

Onosma stenosiphon Boiss.

Hoochoo 716

Root

Women infection (7), Pain relief (6), Bruise (8), Wound sucker (13), Burn healing (9)

GYN-X, NER-N, DER-S, DER-S, DER-S

Poultice, Decoction

Oral, Topical

43

B, C

Boraginaceae

Solenanthus circinatus Ledeb.

Choobe Azar 725

Stem bark

Bruise (95)

DER-S

Poultice

Topical

95

B, C

Boraginaceae

Trichodesma stocksii Boiss.

Gavzaban 727

Flower

Nerve tonic (6), Respiratory ailments (1), Sore throat (1), Relaxing (1)

NER-N, RES-R, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

9

A

Brassicaceae

Alyssum linifolium Stephan ex Willd.

Ghodoomeh 756

Seed

Laxative (3), Cough (2)

GAS-D, RES-R

Decoction

Oral

5

A, C

Brassicaceae

Alyssum szovitsianum Fisch. & C.A.Mey.

Toodari karopoo 740

Seed

Laxative (14)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

14

B, C

Brassicaceae

Brassica nigra (L.) K.Koch

Khardal 750

Root, Leaf, Seed

Memory improvement (1), Skin clarification (2)

NER-N, DER-S

Poultice, Decoction

Oral, Topical

3

B, C

Brassicaceae

Brassica rapa L.

Shalgham 749

Root

Respiratory ailments (5) ,Common cold (69)

RES-R, RES-R

Edible

Oral

74

A

Brassicaceae

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

Kisekeshish 745

Aerial parts

Blood purifier (7)

Blood-B

Decoction

Oral

7

B, C

Brassicaceae

Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb. ex Prantl

Khakshir 762

Seed

Laxative (42), Disinfectant (5), Reducing thirst (7), Constipation (46), Throat infection (10), Intestinal pain (7), Blood purifier (4), Heatstroke (7), Anti-diarrhea (5)

GAS-D, GAS-D, OTH-A, -, GAS-D , GAS-D, GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D

Decoction, Syrup,

Maceration

Oral

96

A

Brassicaceae

Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav.

Mandow 755

Young stem and leaf

Body tonic (2)

OTH-A

Salad

Oral

2

B, C

Brassicaceae

Erysimum crassicaule (Boiss.) Boiss.

Khakshire talkh 760

Seed

Respiratory ailments (4)

RES-R

Maceration

Oral

4

A, C

Brassicaceae

Fortuynia garcinii (Burm.f.) Shuttlew.

Shabboo 765

Aerial parts, Laef and flower

Migraine (5), Relaxing (6), Menstrual disorders (2), Flavoring of food (4), Antispasmodic (3), Stomach tonic (6)

NER-N, NER-N, GYN-X, NER-N, GAS-D

Decoction, Infusion, Mixed with food

Oral

26

A, C

Brassicaceae

Goldbachia laevigata (M.Bieb.) DC.

Nakhonak 780

Seed

Antimicrobial (1)

OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

1

B, C

Brassicaceae

Lepidium draba L.

Mookoo 759

Leaf

Eczema (4), Reduce rheumatic pain (7), Diuretic (8), Gastritis (4), Stomach acidification (4), Cough (8), Flavoring of food (16), Anemia (3)

DER-S, SKE-L, URO-U, GAS-D, GAS-D, RES-R, OTH-A, Blood-B

Poultice, Decoction

Topical, Oral

54

B, C

Brassicaceae

Lepidium latifolium L.

Tarantizak 770

Aerial parts

Pickle (9), Body tonic (3)

OTH-A , OTH-A

Edible

Oral

12

B, C

Brassicaceae

Lepidium sativum L.

Shahi 776

Leaf

Muscle cramps (2), Reduce rheumatic pain (3)

SKE-L, SKE-L, SKE-L, SKE-L

Decoction

Oral

5

B, C

Brassicaceae

Raphanus caudatus L.

Torobcheh 784

Root

Digestive (6), Urinary problems (2)

GAS-D, URO-U

Vegetable, Decoction

Oral

8

B, C

Brassicaceae

Sisymbrium irio L.

Khakshir 763

Seed

Laxative, Constipation

GAS-D, GAS-D

Infusion

Oral

 

A

Brassicaceae

Isatis tinctoria L.

Vasmeh 783

Leaf

Hair tonic and hair color (24)

DER-S

Powder mixed with water

Topical

24

A, C

Brassicaceae

Thlaspi perfoliatum L.

Kisehchoochan 785

Seed

Diuretic (5)

URO-U

Decoction

Oral

5

B, C

Cannabaceae

Cannabis sativa L.

Kanaf 1240

Seed, Leaf, flowering branches

Urinary problems (3), Sleeplessness (2), Nervous system tonic (7), Relaxing (2)

URO-U, NER-N, NER-N, NER-N

Decoction

Oral

14

B, C

Campanulaceae

Campanula kermanica (Rech.f., Aellen & Esfand.) Rech.f.

Gole ghifoo 1325

Flower and leaf

Cough (4)

RES-R

Decoction

Oral

4

B, C

Capparidaceae

Capparis spinosa L.

Dak 634

Fruit, Leaf

Liver diseases (1), Anemia (1), Joint pains (3), Antimicrobial (12), Pickle (7), Eczema (16)

RES-R, OTH-A, SKE-L, OTH-A, OTH-A, DER-S

Decoction, Poultice

Oral , Topical

40

A

Caprifoliaceae

Lomelosia olivieri (Coult.) Greuter & Burdet

Sarbanafsheh talkh 1331

Flower

Diarrhea (5), Joint pans (4)

GAS-D, SKE-L

Decoction, Poultice

Topical, Oral

9

B, C

Caprifoliaceae

Scabiosa candollei DC.

Talhkou 1332

Flower

Anti-diarrhea (8), Abdominal pains (5), Bone and joint pains (2)

GAS-D, GAS-D, SKE-L

Decoction, Poultice

Topical

16

A

Caprifoliaceae

Scabiosa flavida Boiss. & Hausskn.

Sarbanafsheh talkh 1334

Flower

Anti-diarrhea (4), Joint pans (3)

GAS-D, SKE-L

Decoction, Poultice

Topical, Oral

7

B, C

Caprifoliaceae

Valeriana ficariifolia Boiss.

Alafe gorbe 1337

Root, Rhizome

Relaxing (5)

NER-N

Decoction

Oral

5

B, C

Caryophyllaceae

Dianthus crinitus Sm.

Ghernefel 612

Seed

Toothache (17), Breath freshener (2)

OTH-A, RES-R

Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

19

B, C

Caryophyllaceae

Dianthus orientalis Adams

Mikhak 611

Leaf, Flower

Toothache (24), Breath freshener (2), Headache (18), Nerve pain (27)

OTH-A, RES-R, NER-N, NER-N

Poultice, Decoction

Oral, Topical

71

A

Caryophyllaceae

Herniaria hirsuta L.

Fetgh 613

Aerial parts

Burn wound healing (5)

DER-S

Poultice

Topical

5

B, C

Cleomaceae

Cleome coluteoides Boiss.

Alafe maar 1350

Leaf, Flower and Fruit

Diuretic (5), Laxative (2), Anti-nausea (2), psoriasis (2)

URO-U, GAS-D, GAS-D, DER-S

Decoction, Poultice

Oral

11

B, C

Colchicaceae

Colchicum schimperi Janka ex Stef.

Hasratoo 452

Root

Wart treatment (5), Joint pains (6), Reduce the pain of gout disease (4)

DER-S, SKE-L, NER-N

Poultice

Topical

15

B, C

Convolvulaceae

Convolvulus arvensis L.

Pichak 791

Leaf, Flower, Seed

Gastric discomfort (12), Wound healing (3), Asthma (2)

GAS-D, DER-S

Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

17

A

Convolvulaceae

Cressa cretica L.

Alaf mourcheh 790

Aerial parts

Antifungal (4), Antibacterial (14)

OTH-A, OTH-A

Poultice

Topical

18

A

Convolvulaceae

Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L.

Ses 792

Aerial parts

Diuretic (2), Jaundice (2)

URO-U, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

4

A, C

Cucurbitaceae

Citrullus colocynthis (L) Schrad.

Gelgenjak 890

Fruit, Seed, Root

Reduce blood sugar (91), Reduce rheumatic pain (3), Scorpion bite (6), Chronic ulcers (5), Antihypertensive (4), Febrifuge (2), Bone and joint pains (8)

MET-T, DER-S, DER-S, OTH-A, CAR-K, DER-S, SKE-L

Poultice, powder

Topical, Oral

119

A

Cucurbitaceae

Cucumis sativus L.

Kheyar 889

Aerial parts

Laxative (13)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

13

A, C

Cucurbitaceae

Cucurbita moschata Duchesne

Kadoohalvaee 891

Seed

Prostate (6)

URO-U

Decoction

Oral

6

A, C

Cucurbitaceae

Cucurbita pepo L.

Kadoo 885

Fruit

Blood fat (8), Constipation (4)

Blood-B, GAS-D

Edible

Oral

12

A, C

Cupressaceae

Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb.

Avors 203

Fruit

Common cold (14), Hair tonic and hair color (3), Freshener body (6), Skin rash (31), Wound healing (12)

RES-R, DER-S, OTH-A, DER-S, DER-S

Powder, Bath, Decoction, Poultice

Topical, Oral

143

B

Leaf

Pest Control (15), Algae Pool Control (3), Wood corrosion (10), Pain relief (4)

OTH-A, OTH-A, OTH-A, NER-N

Dressing, Powder, Decoction

Topical, Oral

Leaf and fruit

Stomach tonic (7), Appetizing (5), Reduce rheumatic pain (11)

GAS-D, OTH-A, SKE-L

Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

Elaeagnaceae

Elaeagnus angustifolia L.

Senjed 544

Seed

Joint pains (26), Anti-diarrhea (48), Peptic ulcer (10)

SKE-L, GAS-D, GAS-D

Poultice, Powder

Topical, Oral

90

A

 

seed

Health tonic (6)

OTH-A

Oil

Oral

Ephedraceae

Ephedra distachya L.

Khimouk 182

Young branches

Stomachache (12), Relaxing (8), Peptic ulcer (62), Stomach burning, (22) Traditional tannery (10), Relaxing (1)

GAS-D, NER-N, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, NER-N

Decoction, Infusion

Oral

115

B, C

Ephedraceae

Ephedra foliata Boiss. ex C.A.Mey.

Khimouk 180

Young branches

Stomachache (2), Relaxing (3), Peptic ulcer (3), Relaxing (1)

GAS-D, NER-N, GAS-D, NER-N

Decoction, Infusion

Oral

9

B, C

Ephedraceae

Ephedra major Host

Alijoon 185

Young branches, Fruit

Respiratory ailments (4), Cough (4), Common cold (5), Pain relief (24), Relaxing (1)

RES-R, RES-R, RES-R, NER-N, NER-N

Decoction

Oral

53

A

Young branches, Fruit

Traditional tannery (15)

OTH-A

Decoction

-

Ephedraceae

Ephedra intermedia Schrenk & C.A.Mey.

Khimouk 179

Young branches

Common cold (5), Stomachache (7), Weight loss (36), Peptic ulcer (50), Traditional tannery (15), Relaxing (1)

RES-R, GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D, OTH-A, NER-N

Decoction, Infusion

Oral

114

B, C

Ephedraceae

Ephedra pachyclada Boiss.

Hoome nar 186

Young branches, Fruit

Cramp (9), Food coloring (10)

SKE-L, OTH-A

Decoction, Infusion

Oral

19

A, C

Ephedraceae

Ephedra strobilacea Bunge

Khimook 189

Young branches, Fruit

Pain relief (37), Gastric discomfort (53), Relaxing (1)

NER-N, GAS-D, NER-N

Decoction

Oral

91

A

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia bussei Pax

Shirsag 470

Young leaf

Treatment of Blister (5), Skin stimulant (3), Reduced vision (3), Anemia (2)

DER-S, DER-S, EYE-F, Blood-B

Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

13

A, C

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia granulata Forssk.

Shirbeng 472

Latex

Eczema (2)

DER-S

Latex

Topical

2

B, C

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia helioscopia L.

Shirbeng 484

Leaf, Seed

Joint pains (3), Skin rash (3), Reduce rheumatic pain (2)

SKE-L, DER-S, SKE-L

Decoction, Poultice

Topical, Oral

8

A

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia peplus L.

Alafe zegi l475

Latex

Eczema (2)

DER-S

Latex

Topical

2

B, C

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia serpens Kunth

Gazeroo 477

Latex

Eczema (10)

DER-S

Latex

Topical

10

B, C

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia turcomanica Boiss.

Farfeyeon 478

Latex

Eczema (3)

DER-S

Latex

Topical

3

B, C

Euphorbiaceae

Ricinus communis L.

Kenton 499

Seed

Laxative (3), Skin patches (2), Hair tonic (5), Disinfectant (4)

GAS-D, DER-S, DER-S, OTH-A

Poultice, Oil

Topical

13

A

Fabaceae

Alhagi maurorum Medik.

Adoor 675

Aerial parts

Urinary stone (13), Hemorrhoid (2),

Reduce rheumatic pain (1)

URO-U, CAR-K, SKE-L

Decoction, Poultice

Topical, Oral

15

A, C

Fabaceae

Alhagi pseudalhagi (M. Bieb.) Desv. ex B. Keller & Shap.

Adoor 674

Aerial parts

Urinary stone (13), Child jaundice (4)

URO-U, GAS-D

Aromatic water, Decoction

Oral

17

A

Fabaceae

Astracantha lateritia (Boiss. & Hausskn.) Podlech

Khar 640

Stem

Hair tonic (22), Eczema (45)

DER-S, DER-S

Gel

Topical

67

B, C

Fabaceae

Astragalus eremophilus Boiss.

Gavan 643

Seed

Reinforcing sexual desire (3), Asthma (5), Preventing of the Blood coagulation (2), Expectorant (5)

OTH-A, RES-R, Blood-B , RES- R

Decoction

Oral

15

A

Fabaceae

Astragalus fasciculifolius subsp.arbusculinus (Bornm. & Gauba) Tietz

Anzaroot 645

Gum, Stem bark

Ear infection (3), Earache (2), Cough (3), Stomachache (5), Livestock parasite (6), Common cold (4), Detoxification (5), Foot-and-mouth disease of livestock (10), Wart (6), Eye ache (2)

Ear-H , Ear-H, RES-R, GAS-D, GAS-D, RES-R, OTH-A, GAS-D, DER-S, EYE-F

Poultice, Decoction

Oral, Topical

46

B, C

Fabaceae

Astragalus gossypinus Fisch.

Gavan 641

Gum, Stem bark

Traditional kohl (67), Hair beauty (15), Hair tonic (15)

DER-S, DER-S, DER-S

Gel, Poultice

Topical

97

B, C

Fabaceae

Astragalus ovoideus Širj. & Rech.f.

Margin 685

Gum

Anti-stress (4), Relaxing (4)

NER-N, NER-N

Decoction

Oral

8

B, C

Fabaceae

Cercis siliquastrum L.

Argavan 646

Leaf, Stem bark

Gastric discomfort (3), Expectorant (2)

GAS-D, RES-R

Decoction, Infusion

Oral

5

B, C

Fabaceae

Cicer arietinum L.

Nokhod kermani 659

Seed

Hair tonic (2), Diuretic (3)

DER-S, URO-U, CAN-C

Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

5

A, C

Fabaceae

Cicer kermanense Bornm.

Nokhod-e kermani 660

Fruit

Hair tonic (2), Diuretic (3), Menstrual regulation (2)

DER-S, URO-U, GYN-X

Decoction, Poultice

Topical, Oral

7

A

Fabaceae

Colutea persica Boiss.

Feh 652

Stem bark

Wound healing (3)

DER-S

Poultice

Topical

3

B, C

Fabaceae

Dalbergia sissoo DC.

Jag 653

Stem bark

Abortion (2), Expectorant (7), Anti-parasitic (2), Burn healing (2), Anti-nausea (2), Reducing thirst (1)

PRE-W, RES-R, GAS-D, DER-S, GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

16

A

Fabaceae

Genista tinctoria L.

Rangineh 654

Aerial parts

Anti-diarrhea (2), Gastric discomfort (4), Abdominal pains (3), Constipation (2)

GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

11

A

Fabaceae

Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

Matki 650

Root

Stomach ulcers (28), Aphthous ulcer (83), Expectorant (9), Breaking bone healing (14), Prostate (4)

GAS-D, GAS-D, RES-R, SKE-L, URO-U

Decoction, Poultice

Oral

138

A, C

Fabaceae

Lathyrus sativus L.

Karoo 661

Arial part

Laxative (5), Common cold (2), Fatty liver (2), Jaundice (3), Eczema (2)

GAS-D, RES-R, GAS-D, GAS-D, DER-S

Edible, Poultice

Oral, Topical

14

B, C

Fabaceae

Lens culinaris Medik.

Adas 663

Seed

Body tonic (10)

OTH-A

Edible

Oral

10

A, C

Fabaceae

Medicago sativa L.

Yonjeh 665

Young Leaf

Intestinal parasites (1), Eyesight tonic (7), Appetizing (2), Anemia (8)

GAS-D, EYE-F, OTH-A, OTH-A

Edible

Oral

28

A

Root

Stomach tonic (3), Gastric discomfort (3), Leaving addiction (2), Reduce blood sugar (2)

GAS-D, GAS-D, NER-N, MET-T

Decoction

Oral

Fabaceae

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall.

Kalilalmolk 697

Leaf and young stem

Common cold (4), Diuretic (2), Relaxing (9), Antispasmodic (3)

RES-R, URO-U, NER-N, NER-N

Edible

Oral

18

B, C

Fabaceae

Onobrychis altissima Grossh.

Esperes 670

Leaf, Flower

Jaundice (7), Appetizing (2)

GAS-D, OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

9

A

Fabaceae

Ononis spinosa L.

Kharkhar 668

Root

Inflammation of the urinary tract (6), Diuretic (6)

URO-U, URO-U

Decoction

Oral

12

B, C

Fabaceae

Phaseolus vulgaris L.

Loobia sabz 669

Fruit

Cardiovascular diseases (5), Diuretic (2), Cancer (1)

CAR-K, URO-U, CAN-C

Mixed with food

Oral

8

B, C

Fabaceae

Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce

Kahoor 655

Latex

Eczema (10)

DER-S

Latex of burning stem

Topical

26

B, C

Stem bark

Traditional tannery (16)

OTH-A

Decoction

-

Fabaceae

Prosopis farcta (Banks & Sol.) J.F.Macbr.

Kahoorak 684

Dried Fruit

Antihistamine (2), Preventing of nose bleeding (2)

RES-R, RES-R

Decoction

Oral

4

B, C

Fabaceae

Sophora alopecuroides L.

Talkheh 687

Whole plant

Antihypertensive (1), Antibacterial (2), Constipation (2), Pain relief (1)

CAR-K, OTH-A, GAS-D, NER-N

Decoction

Oral

6

B, C

Fabaceae

Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker

Talkheh 688

Seed

Antihypertensive (1), Antibacterial (2), Constipation (2), Pain relief (1)

CAR-K, OTH-A, GAS-D, NER-N

Mixed with food

Oral

6

B, C

Fabaceae

Sophora pachycarpa C.A.Mey.

Talkheh 690

Seed

Antihypertensive (1), Antibacterial (2), Constipation (2), Pain relief (1)

CAR-K, OTH-A, GAS-D, NER-N

Mixed with food

Oral

6

B, C

Fabaceae

Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Ali

Lati 614

Leaf

Wound healing (9)

DER-S

Poultice

Topical

9

B, C

Fabaceae

Taverniera nummularia DC.

Daf 615

Leaf

Wound healing (9)

DER-S

Poultice

Topical

9

B, C

Fabaceae

Tragacantha fasciculifolia (boiss.) Kuntze

Khaar 680

Stem and leaf

Hair tonic (3), Gingival inflammation (5)

DER-S, GAS-D

Gum, Powder

Topical, Oral

8

B, C

Fabaceae

Trifolium repens L.

Shabdare sefid

693

Aerial parts

Blood purifier (3), Cough (2), Cardiovascular disorders (1), Anti-diarrhea (3), Digestive (4), Burn healing (6)

OTH-A, RES-R, CAR-K, GAS-D, GAS-D, DER-S

Decoction, vegetable

Oral

9

A, C

Fabaceae

Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

Shanbalileh 694

Leaf and young stem

Antihypertensive (6), Reduce blood sugar (5)

CAR-K, MET-T

Decoction

Oral

21

A

Fabaceae

Vicia faba L.

Bagla 689

Seed

Reduce the blood fat (3), Constipation (4)

Blood-B, GAS-D

Food

Oral

7

A

Fabaceae

Vicia sativa L.

Mash 617

Seed

Anti-diarrhea (2), Diuretic (1), Gumboil (2)

GAS-D, URO-U, GAS-D

Eat as food

Oral

5

A

Fabaceae

Lens culinaris Medik.

Adas 630

Seed

Anti-diarrhea (2), Diuretic (1), Gumboil (2)

GAS-D, URO-U, GAS-D

Eat as food

Oral

5

A

Geraniaceae

Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Hér.

Soozan Kalaghoo 1411

Aerial parts

Antibacterial (2), Wound healing (5), Anti-diarrhea (3), Intestinal infection (4)

OTH-A, DER-S, GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction, Poultice

Oral

14

B, C

Geraniaceae

Geranium rotundifolium L.

Soozani 1412

Bulb

Intestinal infection (3), Anti-diarrhea (1)

GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

4

A, C

Gentianaceae

Centaurium pulchellum (Sw.) Druce

Ghontorionasa 1413

Aerial parts

Febrifuge (4), Body tonic (3), Carminative (3)

OTH-A, OTH-A, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

10

B, C

Gisekiaceae

Gisekia pharnaceoides L.

Bargdyereii 1416

Aerial parts

Remove skin bur (5)

DER-S

Dressing

Topical

5

A

Hypericaceae

Hypericum perforatum L.

Raee 859

Leaf and flower

Burn wound (3)

DER-S

Poultice

Topical

3

A, C

Iridaceae

Iris germanica L.

Zanbagh 314

Aerial parts

Antifungal (2), Reduce rheumatic pain (2)

OTH-A, SKE-L

Decoction

Oral

4

B, C

Iridaceae

Moraea sisyrinchium (L.) Ker Gawl.

Zanbagh 317

Aerial parts

Cough (3), Common cold (5)

RES-R, RES-R

Decoction

Oral

8

A, C

Juglandaceae

Juglans regia L.

Gerdoo 1450

Leaf

Beans pest (12), Arthritis (1), treatment of Secretions of the womb (2)

OTH-A, SKE-L, GYN-X

Powder, Decoction

Topical

16

A, C

Root bark

Tooth germ (2)

GAS-D

Tooth brush

Oral

Lamiaceae

Ajuga chamaecistus Ging. ex Benth.

Sameesk 811

Leaf and flowering branched

Febrifuge (5), Antihypertensive (4), Kidney disorders (2), Antifungal (1)

OTH-A, CAR-K, URO-U, OTH-A

Vegetable

Oral

12

B, C

Lamiaceae

Clinopodium graveolens (M.Bieb.) Kuntze.

Melangoo 813

Fruit, Seed, Aerial parts

Detoxification (7), Peptic ulcer (6), Dry cough (8), Expectorant (8)

OTH-A, GAS-D, RES-R, RES-R

Vegetable, mixed with food, Decoction

Oral

29

B, C

Lamiaceae

Dracocephalum polychaetum Bornm.

Zarab 834

Leaf, flowering branches

Reduce rheumatic pain (2), Stomachache (34), Toothache (15), Headache (12), Reduce blood sugar (8), Anti-diarrhea (26), Detoxification (33), Body tonic (37), Relaxing (9), Back pain (23), Blood purifier (17)

SKE-L, GAS-D, GAS-D, NER-N, MET-T, GAS-D, OTH-A, OTH-A, NER-N, SKE-L, CAR-K

Decoction, Infusion

Oral

216

B

Lamiaceae

Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) Benth.

Malangoo 821

Fruit

Carminative (3), Cough (4), Constipation (4), Expectorant (3), Vermicide (5), Dysentery (3)

GAS-D, RES-R, GAS-D, RES-R, GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

22

A

Lamiaceae

Lamium album L.

Gazaneh 816

Flowering branches, Root

Anti-diarrhea (2), Wound healing (2), Reduce rheumatic pain (3)

GAS-D, DER-S, SKE-L

Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

7

A

Lamiaceae

Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

Ostokhodoos 823

Leaf

Bone and joint pains (20), Reduce rheumatic pain (12), Relaxing (10)

SKE-L, SKE-L, NER-N

Decoction

Oral

62

A, C

Lamiaceae

Leonurus cardiaca L.

Dom shir 825

Leaf

Cardiac distress (4)

CAR-K

Decoction

Oral

4

A

Lamiaceae

Marrubium vulgare L.

Boogandoo 820

Leaf and flower

Bone and joint pains (4), Reduce blood sugar (7), Antibacterial (1), Reinforcing sexual desire (3), Prostate (4), Anti-diarrhea (6), Women diseases (3)

SKE-L, MET-T, OTH-A, OTH-A, URO-U, GAS-D, GYN-X

Decoction

Oral, Topical

28

B, C

Lamiaceae

Melissa officinalis L.

Badranjbooye 830

Foliage

Bone and joint pains (12), Appetizing (10), Headache (5), Dizziness (6)

SKE-L, -, NER-N, NER-N

Decoction

Oral

33

A, C

Lamiaceae

Mentha longifolia (L.) L.

Poodeneh 827

Leaf and Flower

Stomach ache (31), Edible (44), Common cold (6), Anti-diarrhea (30), Carminative (14), Cough (6), Gastrointestinal pains (27), Antispasmodic (3)

GAS-D, -, RES-R, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, NER-N,

Edible, Decoction

Oral

161

A

Lamiaceae

Mentha spicata L.

Pooneh sonbolehee 832

Leaf and flower

Anti-diarrhea (10), Carminative (5), Antispasmodic (6), Pain relief (7)

GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, NER-N

Infusion, Mixed with food, Aromatic water

Oral

28

A

Lamiaceae

Nepeta bornmuelleri Hausskn. ex Bornm.

Poodeneh 837

Aerial parts

Relaxing (4), Anti-diarrhea (12), Carminative (2)

NER-N, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

18

A

Lamiaceae

Nepeta bracteata Benth.

Zoofa 840

Flowering branches

Disinfectant (9), Common cold (15)

OTH-A, RES-R

Decoction, Powder

Oral

24

A

Lamiaceae

Nepeta cataria L.

Nana 841

Leaf

Cough (17), Febrifuge (22), Colic (18), Stomachache (42), Edible (62), Common cold (35), Anti-diarrhea (68), Carminative (19), Cough (9), Antispasmodic (7), Gastrointestinal pains (31)

RES-R, OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D, -, RES-R, GAS-D, GAS-D, RES-R, GAS-D, GAS-D

Infusion, Mixed with food, Aromatic water

Oral

328

A

Lamiaceae

Nepeta daenensis Boiss.

Pooodneh 842

Leaf and flowering branched

Antimicrobial (2), Stomachache (5), Anti-diarrhea (14)

OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D

Aromatic water

Oral

21

A

Lamiaceae

Lophanthus dschuparensis (Bornm.) Levin

Pooodneh 843

Leaf and flowering branched

Antimicrobial (2), Stomachache (5), Anti-diarrhea (14)

OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D

Aromatic water

Oral

21

B, C

Lamiaceae

Nepeta glomerulosa Boiss.

Badrange golmowroo 844

Aerial parts

Disinfectant (6), Joints pain (2)

OTH-A, SKE-L

Decoction, Powder

Oral

8

A

Lamiaceae

Nepeta ispahanica Boiss.

Gole Zoofa 845

Leaf, Flower

Anti-inflammatory (6), Antifungal (5), Antispasmodic (3)

SKE-L, OTH-A, NER-N

Aromatic water, Decoction

Oral

14

A

Lamiaceae

Nepeta rivularis Bomm.

Pooodneh 846

Leaf and flowering branched

Antimicrobial (1), Stomachache (7), Anti-diarrhea (15)

OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D

Aromatic water

Oral

23

A

Lamiaceae

Nepeta saccharata Bunge.

Pooodneh 847

Leaf and flowering branched

Antimicrobial (2), Stomachache (5), Anti-diarrhea (14)

OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D

Aromatic water

Oral

21

A

Lamiaceae

Nepeta supina Steven

Makhleseh 848

Leaf and flowering branched

Anti-nausea (7)

GAS-D

Aromatic water

Oral

7

A, C

Lamiaceae

Nepeta teucriifolia Willd.

Poodeneh 837

Leaf and flowering branched

Antimicrobial (2), Stomachache (5), Anti-diarrhea (14), Anti-nausea (8), Gastrointestinal pains (4), Carminative (3)

OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D

Aromatic water

Oral

36

A

Lamiaceae

Ocimum basilicum L.

Reyhan 835

Aerial parts

Sore throat (2), Common cold (8), Flavoring of food (16), Digestive (5), Asthma (2)

OTH-A, RES-R, -, GAS-D, RES-R

Edible, decoction

Oral

33

A

Lamiaceae

Origanum vulgare L.

Mirzangoo 810

Aerial parts

Carminative (2), Diuretic (3), Disinfectant (3), Flavoring of food (5)

GAS-D, URO-U, OTH-A, OTH-A

Decoction, Poultice, mixed with food

Oral, Topical

13

A, C

Lamiaceae

Rydingia persica (Burm.f.) Scheen &V.A.Albort

Golder 822

Leaf, Flower

Reduce blood sugar (26), Liver diseases (10), Leaving addiction (28), Bone and joints pains (69), Bone tonic (68), Body tonic (52), Relaxing (1)

MET-T,GAS-D, NER-N, SKE-L, SKE-L, OTH-A, NER-N

Decoction

Oral

254

B, C

Lamiaceae

Salvia compressa Vent.

Morporzou 806

Aerial parts

Stomachache (47), Anti-diarrhea (25), Gastric discomfort (20), Women infection (18)

GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GYN-X

Decoction

Oral

110

A

Lamiaceae

Salvia leriifolia Benth.

Nowroozak 807

Foliage

Carminative (5), Stomach tonic (9)

GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

14

A, C

Lamiaceae

Salvia macrosiphon Boiss.

Mooreshk 812

Seed

Menstrual disorders (13), Leaving addiction (16), Anti-diarrhea (5), Antibacterial (4), Carminative (2), Reduce blood sugar (4), Wound healing (7), Blood purifier (1), Respiratory infection (2), Expectorant (3)

GYN-X, NER-N, GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D, MET-T, DER-S, CAR-K, RES-R, RES-R

Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

56

A

Lamiaceae

Salvia mirzayanii Rech.f. & Esfand.

Mourporzoo 814

Leaf and young branches

Stomachache (54), Leaving addiction (11), Anti-diarrhea (46), Women infection (6)

GAS-D, NER-N, GAS-D, GYN-X

Decoction, Poultice

Oral

117

A

Lamiaceae

Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl

Gole moureshk 831

Leaf

Antifungal (5)

OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

5

A, C

Lamiaceae

Stachys inflata Benth.

Gole moorshak 805

Leaf and flower

Febrifuge (4), Body tonic (4), Anti-inflammatory (4), Respiratory ailments (2)

OTH-A, OTH-A, SKE-L, RES-R

Decoction

Oral

14

A

Lamiaceae

Teucrium polium L.

Kalpooreh 819

Leaf and young branches

Menstrual disorders (17), Bone pain (21), Child diarrhea (58), Stomachache (70), Febrifuge (34), Carminative (15), Reduce rheumatic pain (2), Anti-nausea (4), Anti-diarrhea (16), Reduce blood sugar (3), Gastrointestinal infection (20)

GYN-X, SKE-L, GAS-D, GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D, SKE-L, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

260

A

Lamiaceae

Teucrium scordium L.

Maryamgoli 815

Flowering branches

Stomachache (17)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

17

A,

Lamiaceae

Thymus fedtschenkoi Ronneger.

Avishan 828

Leaf and flower

Cough (102), Expectorant (31), Common cold (55), Antibacterial (20), Sore throat (32)

RES-R, RES-R, RES-R, RES-R, OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

240

A

Lamiaceae

Zataria multiflora Boiss.

Avishane-shirazi 807

Leaf and young stem

Cough (104), Expectorant (36), Common cold (64), Sore throat (43), Antibacterial (32)

RES-R, RES-R, RES-R, RES-R, OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

281

A

Lamiaceae

Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.

Aghalaleh 804

Leaf and flower

Flavoring of food (30), Common cold (20), Nerve tonic (13), Relaxing (15)

OTH-A, RES-R, NER-N, NER-N

Edible, Decoction

Oral

83

A

Lamiaceae

Ziziphora tenuior L.

Kakooti 803

Aerial parts

Gastrointestinal pains (18), Body tonic (9), Stomach tonic (5), Flavoring of food (30)

GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

62

A

Liliaceae

Tulipa biflora Pall.

Laleh 1010

Bulb

Cough (6)

RES-R

Powder

Oral

6

A

Linaceae

Linum album Ky. ex Boiss.

Gole-sefidoo 604

Seed

Prostate (3), Weight loss (2), Anorexia (4)

URO-U, OTH-A, Psy-P

Infusion

Oral

14

B, C

Linaceae

Linum usitatissimum L.

Ketan 606

Seed

Prostate (3), Weight loss (2), Anorexia (4)

URO-U, OTH-A, Psy-P

Infusion

Oral

9

A, C

Lythraceae

Lawsonia inermis L.

Hana 1020

Leaf

Jaundice (63), Fingernail and hair tonic (57), Eczema (18), Burn scar (21)

GAS-D, DER-S, DER-S, DER-S

Bath, Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

164

A

Root

Diuretic (3), Bronchitis (2)

DER-S, RES-R

Decoction

Oral

Lythraceae

Punica granatum L.

Anar 1021

Peel skin

Stomach ulcers (35), Wound healing (32), Sore throat (10)

GAS-D, DER-S, OTH-A

Poultice, Decoction, Powder

Oral, Topical

77

A

Malvaceae

Althaea aucheri Boiss.

Khatmi 584

Leaf

Laxative (30), Cough (3), Antihypertensive (7), Jaundice (15), Skin discomfort (8)

GAS-D, RES-R, CAR-K, GAS-D, DER-S

Maceration

Oral

63

A

Malvaceae

Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori.

Pootoorak 570

Stem

Cough (2)

RES-R

Decoction

Oral

2

B, C

Malvaceae

Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

Chay torsh 571

Leaf

Antihypertensive (10)

CAR-K

Decoction

Oral

10

A, C

Malvaceae

Malva microcarpa Pers.

Khatmi 574

Seed, Leaf

Pain relief (13), Anti-inflammatory (10), Disinfectant (3), Jaundice (19), Infectious wound (6)

NER-N, SKE-L, OTH-A, GAS-D, DER-S

Decoction, Maceration, Poultice

Oral, Topical

51

A

Malvaceae

Malva neglecta Wallr.

Khatmi sefid 575

Seed, Leaf

Diuretic (5), Anti-inflammatory (3)

URO-U, SKE-L

Maceration

Oral

8

A, C

Malvaceae

Malva sylvestris L.

Khatmi 577

Seed, Leaf

Heatstroke (4), Febrifuge (4), Mouth and throat protuberance (5), Cough (6),

OTH-A, OTH-A, GAS-D, RES-R,

Maceration

Oral

19

A

 Menispermaceae

Cocculus pendulus (J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) Diels

Pichakoo 1030

Leaf

Febrifuge (9)

OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

9

B, C

Moraceae

Ficus carica L.

Anjir 1040

Fruit, Leaf

Constipation (5), Memory improvement (3), Common cold (5), Sore throat (6)

GAS-D, NER-N, RES-R, OTH-A

Infusion

Oral

19

B, C

Moraceae

Ficus johannis Boiss.

Anjir-e dalmi 1042

Leaf

Stomach tonic (15)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

15

B, C

Moraceae

Morus alba L.

Toot-e sefid 1043

Fruit

Reduce blood sugar (2), Relaxing (2), Diuretic (1)

MET-T, NER-N, URO-U

Edible

Oral

11

A

Leaf

Febrifuge (3)

OTH-A

Edible

Oral

Stem bark

Constipation (3)

GAS-D

Edible

Oral

Moraceae

Morus nigra L.

Shahtoot 1044

Fruit

Common cold (8), Sore throat (7), Urinary infection (2)

RES-R, OTH-A, URO-U

Syrup

Oral

17

A

Myrtaceae

Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.

Kalitus 1700

Leaf

Common cold (28), Respiratory ailments (22), Disinfectant (3)

RES-R, RES-R, OTH-A

Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

54

A

Myrtaceae

Myrtus communis L.

Moordaneh 1050

Leaf, Seed

Common cold (14), Relaxing (3), Removing the armpit odor (5)

RES-R, NER-N, OTH-A

Decoction

Oral, Topical

22

A

Myrtaceae

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

Jam1051

Ash of Leaf and seed

Blood purifier (4), Gastric discomfort (4)

OTH-A, GAS-D

Burnt ash

Oral

8

B, C

Nitrariaceae

Peganum harmala L.

Esfand 1060

Fruit, Seed

Disinfectant (52), Reduce rheumatic pain (2), Reduce blood sugar (9), bruise (18)

OTH-A, SKE-L, MET-T, SKE-L

Poultice, Decoction

Topical, Oral

81

A

Oleaceae

Jasminum officinale L.

Yas sefid 1065

Flower

Antivirus (2), Relaxing (6)

OTH-A, NER-N

Infusion

Oral

8

B, C

Oleaceae

Olea europaea L.

Zeytoon 1066

Leaf, Fruit

Antihypertensive (21), Bone and joint pains (5), Appetizing (2), Urinary, (5), Hair tonic (3)

CAR-K, DER-S, SKE-L, OTH-A, URO-U

Decoction, Oil, Pickle

Oral, Topical

61

A

Leaf, Fruit

Antibacterial (4)

OTH-A

Decoction, Poultice

Topical, Oral

Oil

Reduce blood sugar (5), Remove bur from skin (16)

MET-T, DER-S

Oil, Poultice

Topical, Oral

Oleaceae

Syringa persica L.

Yas 1069

Stem bark, Fruit

Relaxing (3)

NER-N

Infusion

Oral

3

B, C

Onagraceae

Epilobium angustifolium L.

Bid alafi 1070

Leaf and seed

Pesticide (4), Anti-inflammation of mucosa and mouth (6), Wound healing (9), Heart tonic (8), Febrifuge (7)

OTH-A, OTH-A, DER-S, CAR-K, OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

34

A

Onagraceae

Epilobium hirsutum L.

Bid alafi korkee 1072

Leaf, Root

Relaxing (5)

NER-N

Infusion

Oral

5

B, C

Orobancheaceae

Orobanche ramosa L.

Poor 1080

Stem

Stomachache (19)

GAS-D

Edible, Decoction

Oral

19

B, C

Papaveraceae

Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley.

Shatereh 1090

Leaf and young branches

Anti-diarrhea (5), Anti-nausea (4), Stomachache (5)

GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

14

A

Papaveraceae

Fumaria officinalis L.

Shatreh 1091

Foliage

Blood purifier (6)

OTH-A

Infusion

Oral

6

A, C

Papaveraceae

Fumaria parviflora Lam.

Shatereh 1093

Leaf and young branches

Anti-diarrhea (3), Anti-nausea (4), Stomachache (4), Blood purifier (6), Diuretic (3), Cutaneous itching (5)

GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, OTH-A, URO-U, DER-S

Decoction

Oral

25

A

Papaveraceae

Fumaria vaillantii Loisel.

Shatereh1095

Leaf and young branches

Anti-diarrhea (3), Anti-nausea (4), Stomachache (4)

GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

11

B, C

Papaveraceae

Hypecoum pendulum L.

Shatereh 1096

Root, Leaf

Cough (3), Anti-diarrhea (2)

RES-R, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

5

B, C

Papaveraceae

Papaver dubium L.

Taryakoo 1098

Bulb, Leaf

Eczema (3), Acne (4), Anti-inflammatory (5), Bronchitis (6), Cough (5), Pain relief (3)

DER-S, DER-S, SKE-L, RES-R, RES-R, NER-N

Mixed with vinegar, Decoction

Topical, Oral

32

B, C

Papaveraceae

Roemeria hybrida (L.) DC.

Shagayeg 1099

Flower

Pain relief (9)

NER-N

Decoction

Oral

9

B, C

Pedalicaceae

Sesamum indicum L.

Konjed 1140

Seed

Prevention of hair loss (24),

Blood fat (5)

DER-S, Blood-B

Decoction, Oil

Oral, Topical

29

A

Plantaginaceae

Plantago amplexicaulis Cav.

Tangbar 491

Leaf, Seed

Wound healing (5), Allergy (3), Heatstroke (2), Infectious disease (3), Stomachache (2), Respiratory ailments (2)

DER-S, OTH-A, OTH-A, OTH-A, GAS-D, RES-R

Poultice, Decoction

Topical, Oral

17

B, C

Plantaginaceae

Plantago ciliata Desf.

Kowchak 493

Leaf, Seed

Antibacterial (4), Burns (9), Anti-inflammatory (2), Constipation (3)

OTH-A, DER-S, SKE-L, GAS-D

Poultice, Decoction, Syrup

Topical, Oral

13

A

Plantaginaceae

Plantago gentianoides Sm.

Tangbar 494

Leaf, Seed

Constipation (5), Anti-inflammatory (5), Cough (4)

GAS-D, SKE-L, RES-R

Decoction

Oral

14

B, C

Plantaginaceae

Plantago indica L.

Kowchak 495

Seed

Anti-inflammatory (2), Constipation (3)

SKE-L, GAS-D

Decoction,

Poultice, Syrup

Topical, Oral

5

B, C

Plantaginaceae

Plantago lanceolata L.

Kowchak 490

Leaf, Root,Seed

Baby jaundice (22), Constipation (18), Blood coagulation (3), Asthma (4), Stomachache (6)

OTH-A, GAS-D, Blood-B, RES-R, GAS-D

Dressing, Decoction

Topical, Oral

40

A

Plantaginaceae

Plantago major L.

Barhang 492

Aerial parts

Dry cough (6), Itchy throat (8), Alzheimer (5), Cancer (2), Anti-inflammatory (3), Baby jaundice (21), Cough (2), Expectorant (4), Burn healing (4)

RES-R, RES-R, NER-N, CAN-C, SKE-L, OTH-A, RES-R, RES-R, DER-S

Dressing, Decoction

Topical, Oral

28

A

Plantaginaceae

Plantago ovata Forssk.

Tokhm sefid 499

Seed

Anti-inflammatory (2), Constipation (3)

SKE-L, GAS-D

Decoction,

Poultice, Syrup

Topical, Oral

5

B, C

Plantaginaceae

Veronica anagallis L.

Sizab 489

Aerial parts

Stomach tonic (10), Diuretic (7)

GAS-D, URO-U

Decoction

Oral

17

B

Platanaceae

Platanus orientalis L.

Chenar 487

Fruit, Root, Leaf, Stem bark

Acne (3), Snakebite (3), Hoarseness (2)

DER-S, DER-S, OTH-A

Poultice, Decoction

Oral, Topical

8

B, C

Plumbaginaceae

Acantholimon scorpius

(Jaub.&Spach) Boiss

Kharposhtoo 511

Root

Livestock wound healing (6), Washing powder (10)

DER-S, OTH-A

Poultice, Powder

Topical

16

B, C

Poaceae

Avena sativa L.

Jow dosar 334

Leaf, Seed

Disinfectant (3)

OTH-A

Decoction

Topical

3

B, C

Poaceae

Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng.

Kaboo 335

Leaf and stem

Body tonic (4)

OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

4

B, C

Poaceae

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

Marg 337

Aerial parts

Anti-diarrhea (3), Asthma (2)

GAS-D, RES-R

Decoction

Oral

8

B, C

Poaceae

Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf

Kerteh 339

Root

Body tonic (4)

OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

4

B, C

Poaceae

Hordeum distichon L.

Jow 329

Fruit

Febrifuge (2), Reducing thirst (3)

OTH-A, OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

7

B, C

Poaceae

Hordeum vulgare L.

Jow 328

Fruit

Reduce blood sugar (3)

MET-T

Decoction,

Oral

7

A

Buds

Acne (4)

DER-S

Mask

Topical

 

Poaceae

Melica persica Kunth

Oshlom 325

Aerial parts

Washing powder (7)

OTH-A

Powder

-

7

B, C

Poaceae

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.

Ney 324

Root and Rhizome

Breast milk reduction (5)

OTH-A

Pickle

Oral

5

A, C

Poaceae

Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.

Garch 340

Seed

Hair tonic (5), Carminative (2)

DER-S, GAS-D

Poultice, Decoction

Topical, Oral

7

A

Poaceae

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.

Garch 342

Seed

Diuretic (6)

URO-U

decoction

Oral

5

A

Poaceae

Triticum aestivum L.

Gandom 345

Oil of seed

Eczema (6)

DER-S

Poultice

Topical

6

B, C

Poaceae

Zea mays L.

Zorat 347

Style

Kidney stone (27)

URO-U

Decoction

Oral

37

A, C

Polygonaceae

Polygonum persicaria L.

Bandvash 430

Leaf and flower

Asthma (8), Constipation (5)

RES-R, GAS-D

Infusion, Oil, Aromatic water

Oral

13

B, C

Polygonaceae

Pteropyrum aucheri Jaub. and Spach

Perent 425

Foliage

Acne (4), Infectious wounds (5)

DER-S, ER-S

Poultice

Topical

9

B, C

Polygonaceae

Rheum ribes L.

Rohoo 432

Aerial parts

Reduce blood sugar (5), Stomach and liver tonic (3), Appetizing (2), Laxative (6), Blood purifier (3), Vermicide (2), Bone tonic (4), Sight Enhancement (6)

MET-T, GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D, SKE-L, EYE-F

Decoction

Oral

31

B, C

Polygonaceae

Rumex crispus L.

Torshak 437

Aerial parts

Laxative (4), Acute pulmonary embolism (7), Detoxificant of body (5)

GAS-D, RES-R, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

16

B, C

Polygonaceae

Rumex vesicarius L.

Torshak 438

Laef and petiole

Reduce blood sugar (2)

GAS-D

Vegetable

Oral

2

A

Portulacaceae

Portulaca oleracea L.

Gholfeh 561

Leaf, Seed

Stomach tonic (1), Reducing thirst (2), Febrifuge (1), Cough (6), Blood purifier (12)

GAS-D, -, OTH-A, RES-R, OTH-A

Vegetable

Oral

21

B, C

Primulaceae

Anagallis arvensis L.

Delpasand 1145

Aerial parts

Liver cysts (4), Urinary stones (4)

GAS-D, URO-U

Infusion

Oral

8

A

Primulaceae

Lysimachia maritima (L.) Galasso, Banfi & Soldano.

Shabdari 1147

Whole plant

Antispasmodic (5), Bronchitis (3)

NER-N, RES-R

Decoction

Oral

8

B, C

Primulaceae

Primula capitellata Boiss.

Pamchoo1149

Root and flower

Vermicide (4), Antispasmodic (8)

GAS-D, NER-N

Aromatic water

Oral

12

B, C

Primulaceae

Samolus valerandi L.

Alaf 1150

Aerial parts

Body tonic (4)

OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

4

A

Pteridaceae

Adiantum capillus-veneris L.

Siahlengoo 1170

Leaf

Common cold (49), Expectorant (51), Relaxing (3), Menstrual disorders (2), Earache (3)

RES-R, RES-R, NER-N, GYN-X, Ear-H

Decoction

Oral

110

A, C

Ranunculaceae

Adonis aestivalis L.

Chashm gargavol 1180

Whole plant

Anti-inflammatory (5)

SKE-L

Decoction

Oral

5

B, C

Ranunculaceae

Adonis microcarpa DC.

Chashm gargavo 1182

Flower

Anti-inflammatory (3)

SKE-L

Decoction

Oral

3

B, C

Ranunculaceae

Anemone biflora DC.

Shagayeg neman1185

Flower

Common cold (6)

RES-R

Decoction

Oral

6

B, C

Ranunculaceae

Clematis ispahanica Boiss.

Chaspakoo 1187

Aerial parts

Diuretic (3), Joint pain (3), Headache (3), Eczema and psoriasis (3)

URO-U, SKE-L, NER-N, DER-S

Decoction

Oral

12

A

Ranunculaceae

Consolida rugulosa (Boiss.) Schrödinger

Zaban mooshoo 1189

Aerial parts

Anti-inflammatory (4)

SKE-L

Decoction

Oral

4

B, C

Ranunculaceae

Nigella sativa L.

Siahdaneh 1190

Seed

Blood pressure (7), Blood fat (7), Asthma (2)

CAR-K, Blood-B, RES-R

Infusion

Oral

16

B, C

Ranunculaceae

Ranunculus arvensis L.

Alaleh 1192

Flower

Urinary disease (3)

URO-U

Aromatic water

Oral

3

B, C

Ranunculaceae

Ranunculus muricatus L.

Alaleh 1193

Root, Leaf, Flower

Skin diseases (2)

DER-S

Poultice

Topical

2

B, C

Ranunculaceae

Thalictrum minus L.

Sadabi 1195

Aerial parts

Gastric discomfort (4)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

4

A

Resedaceae

Ochradenus aucheri Boiss.

Kolirim1200

Leaf

Parasite repellent (2), Wound healing (3)

GAS-D

Decoction, Poultice

Oral

5

B, C

Resedaceae

Reseda aucheri Boiss.

Varas 1205

Leaf

Laxative (1), Diuretic (3) Reducing thirst (3)

GAS-D, URO-U, OTH-A

Decoction, Row

Oral

5

B, C

Rhamnaceae

Rhamnus persica Boiss. & Hohen

Titoomari 1210

Fruit

Anti-diarrhea (11)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

11

B, C

Rhamnaceae

Rhamnus prostrata Jacq.

Titoomari 1211

Fruit

Anti-diarrhea (5)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

5

B, C

Rhamnaceae

Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C. Johnst. Ch

Bastel 215

Fruit

Laxative (2), Blood purifier (2)

GAS-D, CAR-K

Decoction

Oral

4

A

Rhamnaceae

Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

Annab 1218

Fruit

Bronchitis (3), Common cold (4), Laxative (20)

RES-R, RES-R, GAS-D

Infusion, Edible

Oral

24

B, C

Rhamnaceae

Ziziphus nummularia (Burn.f.)Wight & Am.

Konar 1220

Leaf

Common cold (3), Antimicrobial (1)

RES-R, OTH-A

Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

4

A

Rhamnaceae

Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf.

Konar 1221

Leaf, Fruit

Stomach tonic (5), Hair tonic (4), Infectious tuber (2), Skin rash (7)

GAS-D, DER-S, DER-S, DER-S

Eat as fruit, Poultice, Shampoo

Oral, Topical

18

A

Rosaceae

Agrimonia eupatoria L.

Ghafes 370

Aerial parts

Wound healing (18), Fatty liver (8), Anti-diarrhea (7)

DER-S, GAS-D, GAS-D

Poultice, Decoction

Topical, Oral

33

A, C

Rosaceae

Amygdalus elaeagnifolia

Spach

Arjan 372

Stem, Fruit

Nuts (18), Eczema (7)

OTH-A, DER-S

burning of semi dried wood, Edible

Oral,Topdical

25

B, C

Rosaceae

Amygdalus wendelboi Freitag

Archen 373

Latex

Eczema (4), Bone and joint pains (3)

DER-S

Latex of burning stem

Topical

7

B, C

Rosaceae

Cotoneaster kotschyi (C.K.Schneid.) G.Klotz

Siahchoo 375

Latex, Leaf

Jaundice (5), Constipation (6), Dry cough(4)

GAS-D, GAS-D, RES-R

Infusion

Oral

15

A

Rosaceae

Crataegus ambigua C.A.Mey. ex A.K.Becker

Kalkouhi 365

Leaf, fruit,

Flower

Relaxing (5), Spasms (4), Cardiac distress (4), Hypertension (4), Anti-diarrhea (7)

NER-N, NER-N, CAR-K, CAR-K, GAS-D

Decoction, Salad

Oral

24

B, C

Rosaceae

Crataegus azarolus L.

KalKoohi 380

Leaf and fruit

Antihypertensive (6), Relaxing (11), Antispasmodic (10), Cardiac distress (5)

CAR-K, NER-N, NER-N, CAR-K

Decoction

Oral

32

A

Rosaceae

Crataegus meyeri Pojark.

Kalkouhi 381

Leaf, fruit,

Flower

Relaxing (5), Spasms (4), Cardiac distress (4), Antihypertensive (4)

 

Decoction

Oral

17

B, C

Rosaceae

Cydonia oblonga Mill.

Beh 351

Seed

Sore throat (4)

OTH-A

Decoction

Oral

4

B, C

Rosaceae

Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb

Badam-e shirin 353

Seed

Hair tonic (5), Preventing of hair loss (9)

DER-S, DER-S

Oil

Topical

14

B, C

Rosaceae

Prunus eburnea (Spach) Aitch. & Hemsl.

Archen 354

Fruit, Gum

Bone and joint pains (6), Allergies (5), Hair tonic (3)

OTH-A, DER-S

Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

14

B, C

Rosaceae

Prunus lycioides (Spach) C.K.Schneid.

Badame koohi 355

Leaf and fruit

Preventing of hair loss (5)

DER-S

Poultice, Oil

Topical

8

B, C

Rosaceae

Prunus mahaleb L.

Mahlab 356

Leaf bark

Relaxing (5), Liver cysts (4), Parasite repellent (4), Joint pain (4)

NER-N, GAS-D, GAS-D, SKE-L

Decoction, dressing

Oral, Topical

17

A

Rosaceae

Prunus orientalis (Mill.) Koehne

Archen 357

Fruit

Bone and joint pains (6), Allergies (5), hair tonic (3)

OTH-A, DER-S

Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

14

B, C

Rosaceae

Prunus persica (L.) Batsch

Holo 358

Fruit

Laxative (6)

GAS-D

Nuts, Maceration

Oral

6

B, C

Rosaceae

Prunus scoparia (Spach) C.K.Schneid.

Badam-e koohi 376

Seed

Anti-dandruff (29), Preventing of hair loss (27), Earache (3), Health and beauty of the skin (8), Cancer prevention (3), Burned wound healing (4)

DER-S, DER-S, Ear-H, DER-S, CAN-C, DER-S

Poultice, Nut, Oil

Topical, Oral

74

B

Stem bark

Stomach tonic (4)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

Rosaceae

Prunus avium (L.) L.

Gilas 378

Pedicel

Kidney stone (7)

URO-U

Decoction

Oral

24

A, C

Rosaceae

Prunus cerasus L.

Albaloo 359

Pedicel

Kidney stone (5)

URO-U

Decoction

Oral

5

A, C

Rosaceae

Rosa beggeriana Schrenk ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.

Roz sefid 360

Flower

Stomach tonic (5), Relaxing (8)

GAS-D, NER-N

Decoction

Oral

13

B, C

Rosaceae

Rosa canina L.

Korrik 362

Leaf, Flower, Fruit

Relaxing (5)

NER-N

Decoction

Oral

5

B, C

Rosaceae

Rosa damascena Herrm.

Gole mohammadi 374

Flower

Flavoring of food (8), Laxative (25), Nervous tonic (43)

OTH-A, GAS-D, NER-N

Aromatic water

Oral

76

B, C

Rosaceae

Rosa moschata Herrm.

Korrik 377

Flower

Nervous tonic (3)

NER-N

Decoction

Oral

3

B, C

Rosaceae

Rubus caesius L.

Saghder 371

Leaf, Fruit

Laxative (14)

GAS-D

Decoction, Syrup

Oral

14

A

Rosaceae

Sanguisorba minor Scop.

Gheytaran 379

Fruit

Common cold (3), Relaxing (4), Cough (4), Jaundice (5), Toothache (6)

RES-R, NER-N, NER-N, GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

32

A

Rubiaceae

Plocama aucheri (Guill.) M.Backlund & Thulin

Khargo l520

Foliage

Bone and joint pain (3), Reduce rheumatic pain (2), Reduce blood sugar (3), Digestive (3)

SKE-L, SKE-L, MET-T, GAS-D

Decoction, Infusion, Poultice

Topical, Oral

11

B, C

Rubiaceae

Rubia albicaulis Boiss.

Roonask 523

Fruit

Bone tonic (4), Constipation (3)

SKE-L, GAS-D

Decoction, Infusion

Oral

7

B, C

Rubiaceae

Rubia tinctorum L.

Roonask 524

Root

Bone tonic (4), Constipation (3)

SKE-L, GAS-D

Decoction, Infusion

Oral

7

B, C

Rutaceae

Citrus aurantium L.

Nareng 527

Flower

Anti-diarrhea (5), Relaxing (8), Eye diseases (8), Traditional kohl (3)

GAS-D, NER-N, EYE-F

Decoction, Kohl

Oral

24

B, C

Rutaceae

Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck

Limoo torsh 528

Fruit, Seed

Eye diseases (15), Traditional kohl (3)

EYE-F

Juice, Kohl

Eye Drop

18

B, C

Rutaceae

Haplophyllum robustum Bunge

Sadoo 530

Aerial parts

Gastric discomfort (1)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

1

B, C

Rutaceae

Haplophyllum tuberculatum Juss.

Gahich 531

Aerial parts

Febrifuge (2), Headache (2)

GAS-D, NER-N

Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

4

A

Rutaceae

Ruta graveolens L.

Soddab 535

Leaf

Urinary stone (6)

URO-U

Decoction

Oral

6

A

Salicaceae

Populus alba L.

Sepidar 600

Stem bark and leaf

Blood purifier (4), Pain relief (3)

OTH-A, NER-N

Decoction

Oral

7

A

Salicaceae

Populus euphratica Oliv.

Senewbar 601

Stem bark

Parasite repellent (7)

GAS-D

Decoction

 

4

A

Salicaceae

Salix aegyptiaca L.

Beedmeshk 605

Inflorescence

Laxative (3), Anti-diarrhea (2), Gastrointestinal pains (2), Menstruation pains (3)

GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GYN-X

Decoction, Aromatic water

Oral

10

A

Salicaceae

Salix alba L.

Beed 606

Stem bark, Leaf

Febrifuge (21), Common cold (6)

OTH-A, RES-R

Decoction, Aromatic water

Oral

27

A

Salvadoraceae

Salvadora oleoides Decne.

Pir 1230

Fruit

Appetizing (7), Laxative (4), Parasite repellent (10), Hemorrhoids (4), Bronchitis (3)

OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D, CAR-K, RES-R

Decoction, Edible

Oral

28

B, C

Salvadoraceae

Salvadora persica L.

Chooch1231

Fruit

Appetizing (5), Expectorant (8)

OTH-A, RES-R

Decoction, Edible

Oral

15

B, C

Scrophulariaceae

Scrophularia scopolii Hoppe ex Pers.

Makhleseh 842

Young stem, Fruit

Waist pain (3), Respiratory diseases (2)

OTH-A, SKE-L

Poultice, Decoction

Topical, Oral

5

A, C

Scrophulariaceae

Scrophularia striata Boiss.

Makhleseh 840

Fruit

Gastric discomfort (2), Respiratory diseases (2), Waist pain (3), Wound healing (2)

GAS-D, RES-R, OTH-A, DER-S

Poultice, Decoction

Oral, Topical

9

A, C

Solanaceae

Datura stramonium L.

Tatooreh 1250

Leaf, Seed

Sexual tonic (6), Bone and join pains (8), Reduce rheumatic pain (5), Asthma (5), Cough (4), Burn (5)

OTH-A, SKE-L, SKE-L, RES-R, RES-R, DER-S

Decoction, Poultice

Oral, Topical

33

B, C

Solanaceae

Hyoscyamus reticulatus L.

Bonji 1255

Aerial parts

Pain relief (9), Leaving addiction (9), Narcotic (15)

NER-N, NER-N, RES-R

Infusion

Oral

33

A, C

Solanaceae

Hyoscyamus senecionis Willd.

Bangdaneh 1256

Flower

Pain relief (8)

NER-N

Decoction

Oral

8

A, C

Solanaceae

Hyoscyamus squarrosus Griff.

Bangdaneh 1257

Whole plant

Pain relief (8)

NER-N

Decoction

Oral

8

A, C

Solanaceae

Lycium barbarum L.

Zeel 1260

Fruit

Sleeplessness (4)

NER-N

Eat as fruit

Oral

8

B, C

Solanaceae

Lycium depressum Stocks

Zeel 1261

Fruit

Anticonvulsant  (11)

OTH-A, NER-N

Decoction

Oral

11

B

Solanaceae

Lycium shawii Roem. & Schult.

Dahir1262

Leaf

Vision enhancement (2)

EYE-F

Crashed Juice

Topical

2

B, C

Solanaceae

Physalis alkekengi L.

Aroosak-e posht-e pardeh 1265

Fruit

Kidney diseases (3), Laxative (5), Expectorant (2)

OTH-A, GAS-D, RES-R

Edible

Oral

10

B, C

Solanaceae

Solanum nigrum var.villosum L.

Roopas 1268

Fruit

Febrifuge (6), Blood coagulation (5), Pain relief (4)

OTH-A, Blood-B, NER-N

Decoction

Oral

15

A

Solanaceae

Solanum lycopersicum L.

Gewjeh 1251

Fruit

Infectious wounds (5)

DER-S

Poultice

Topical

5

B, C

Solanaceae

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

Kahkenj 1270

Aerial parts

Nerve tonic (5)

NER-N

Decoction

Oral

5

A

Tamaricaceae

Tamarix aphylla  (L.) Karst.

Koor gaz 1350

Latex of burning stem

Eczema (16), Skin disease (8)

DER-S, DER-S

Poultice

Topical

24

B, C

Tamaricaceae

Tamarix kotschyi Bunge

Gole kist 1351

Latex of burning stem

Eczema (16), Skin disease (8)

DER-S, DER-S

Poultice

Topical

24

B, C

1Thymelaeaceae

Daphne mucronata Royale

Terveet 704

Leaf

Influenza (3), Arthritis (3), Blood cancer (1)

MET-T, RES-R, SKE-L, CAN-C

Decoction, Dressing

Oral, Topical

7

A

Thymelaeaceae

Daphne oleoides Schreb.

Terveet 705

Foliage

Traditional dyeing (10), Natural color for textile (10)

OTH-A, OTH-A

Decoction, Fume

-

24

B, C

 

Foliage

Constipation (4)

GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

Thymelaeaceae

Daphne stapfii Bornm.& Keisslere.

Terveet 706

Fruit

Influenza (3), Arthritis (3)

MET-T, RES-R, SKE-L

Decoction, Fume, Poultice

Oral, Inhale, Topical

6

B, C

Thymelaeaceae

Diarthron lessertii (Wikstr.) Kit Tan

Gole bidi 708

Leaf and flowering branches

Stomachache (2), Stomach and liver tonic (2), Arthritis (2)

GAS-D, GAS-D, SKE-L

Aromatic water, Poultice

Oral, Topical

6

B, C

Urticaceae

Parietaria judaica L.

Gooshe Moosh 323

Leaf and flower

Diuretic (3), Acute pulmonary embolism (4)

URO-U, RES-R

Decoction

Oral

7

B, C

Urticaceae

Urtica dioica L.

Soosonakoo 320

Leaf and flower

Urinary stone (7), Reduce blood sugar (4)

URO-U, MET-T

Infusion

Oral

11

A

Urticaceae

Urtica urens L.

Soosonakoo 321

Aerial parts

Febrifuge (5), Gastrointestinal pains (4), Relaxing (2), Anti parasite (2), Toothache(3)

OTH-A, GAS-D, NER-N, GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction, Aromatic water

Oral

15

B, C

Violaceae

Viola odorata L.

Gol-e banafsheh 1370

Leaf and flower

Laxative (8), Chronic cough (5), Expectorant (3)

GAS-D, RES-R, RES-R

Decoction

Oral

16

B, C

Verbenaceae

Verbena officinalis L.

Shahpasand 1380

Aerial parts

Febrifuge (3), Nerve tonic (7)

OTH-A, NER-N

Poultice, Decoction

Topical

10

A

Vitaceae

Vitis vinifera L.

Maviz 1390

Dried Fruit

Memory improvement (5)

NER-N

Nuts

Oral

5

A

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.

Alovera 1500

glazed materials

Diabetic wound (7), Eczema (22)

DER-S, DER-S

Poultice

Topical

29

A

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav.

Peemazoo1505

Seed

Diuretic (15)

URO-U

Decoction

Oral

17

A

Root

Herbal adhesive (2)

OTH-A

Crushed extract

-

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Eremurus kopetdaghensis M.Pop.ex B.Fedtsch.

Horishoo 1510

Root, Leaf and flower

Herbal adhesive (4), Vegetable (8), Jaundice (6), Liver Disease (5), Disinfectant (4)

OTH-A, OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D, OTH-A

Vegetable, Decoction. Poultice

Topical, Oral

27

B, C

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Eremurus persicus (Jaub. & Spach) Boiss.

Serishoo 1511

Leaf and flower

Flavoring of food (15), Laxative (6), Herbal adhesive (4), Vegetable (7), Disinfectant (3), Jaundice (6), Liver and kidney Disease (2)

OTH-A, GAS-D, OTH-A, OTH-A, OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D

Powder, Vegetable, Decoction. Poultice

Topical, Oral

52

B, C

Root

Liver and stomach discomfort (31)

GAS-D

Powder

Oral

Zygophyllaceae

Fagonia bruguieri DC.

Alaf kharoo 1550

Aerial parts

Appetizing (2), Vermicide (2), Carminative (5)

OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction, infusion

Oral

9

A

Zygophyllaceae

Tribulus terrestris L.

Kharkhesak 1555

Aerial parts

Kidney stone (43)

URO-U

Decoction

Oral

43

A

Zygophyllaceae

Zygophyllum eurypterum Boiss. & Buhse.

Gich 1560

Seed

Lactiferous (4), Anti-nausea (3), Stomach tonic (4), Laxative (4), Vermicide (3)

PRE-W, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

18

B, C

Zygophyllaceae

Zygophyllum fabago L.

Gich 1561

Seed

Lactiferous (4), Anti-nausea (3), Stomach tonic (4), Laxative (4), Vermicide (3)

PRE-W, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D

Decoction

Oral

18

B, C

  1. C: indicate the medicinal plants which reported in this region for the first. A: indicate the ethno-medicinal uses of the medicinal plants which quoted in the in the Persian ethnobotany, B: was not quoted in the in the Persian ethnobotany.