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Table 3 Medicinal plants used by ethnic communities in the Kerman province

From: Ethnobotany of the medicinal plants used by the ethnic communities of Kerman province, Southeast Iran

Family Scientific name Local name
(Persian); Voucher no.
Plant part
used
Medicinal use (UR) ICPC
category
Preparation Mode of application (UR) A, B, C
Acanthaceae Blepharis edulis (Forssk.) Pers. Anjereh 503 Leaf, Seed Wound healing (3), Ear ache (2), Eye ache (2), Sore throat (3) DER-S Poultice, Decoction Topical 10 A
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus retroflexus L. Sorkhmaghz 598 Leaf Jaundice (18) GAS-D Decoction Oral 18 B, C
Amaranthaceae Anabasis aphylla L. Aldorak 596 Aerial parts Weight loss (3), Constipation (1) OTH-A, GAS-D Aromatic water Oral 4 B, C
Amaranthaceae Seidlitzia rosmarinus Bunge ex Boiss. Shoor 594 Aerial parts Washing powder (5) -, - Powder - 5 B, C
Amaranthaceae Salsola incanescens C.A. Mey. Jar 593 Aerial parts Washing powder (2) -, - Powder - 2 B, C
Amaranthaceae Dysphania botrys (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Dermeneh 595 Young flowering branches Beauty of skin and hair (4) DER-S Oil Topical 4 B, C
Amaranthaceae Suaeda aegyptiaca (Hasselq.) Zohary Somsil 597 Aerial parts Blood purifier (4), Anemia (29), Vegetable (48) OTH-A, Blood-B Vegetable Oral 81 B, C
Amaryllidaceae Allium atroviolaceum Boiss. Piaze vahshi 268 Bulb Reduce blood sugar (2) MET-T Vegetable Oral 2 B, C
Amaryllidaceae Allium iranicum (Wendelbo) Wendelbo. Serit 245 Leaf Aromatic (4), Flavoring of food (33), Digestive (6) NER-N, -, GAS-D Spice Oral 43 B, C
Amaryllidaceae Ixiolirion tataricum (Pall.) Schult. & Schult.f. Kheyaroo 269 Leaf and flower Pickle (6) OTH-A Vegetable Oral 6 B, C
Amaryllidaceae Narcissus tazetta L. Narges 267 Bulb, Leaf Face rash treatment (3), Sterility treatment (2), Gastric discomfort (2), Blood coagulation (4), Anti-depressants  (5) DER-S, DER-S, GAS-D, Blood-B, NER-N Mask, Decoction, infusion Topical, Oral 16 A, C
Anacardiaceae Pistacia atlantica Desf. Baneh 623 Seed Bone and joint pains (5), Burn healing (68), Wound healing (26), Eczema (34) SKE-L,DER-S, DER-S, DER-S Oil Topical 208 A
Olibanum Scar (39) DER-S Poultice Topical
Olibanum Lung infections (1) RES-R Fume Inhale
Leaf, Olibanum Stomach ulcers (31), Toothache (2) GAS-D, GAS-D Extract, Gum Oral
Fruit, Olibanum Disinfectant (2) OTH-A Edible Oral
Anacardiaceae Pistacia khinjuk Stocks Kasour 621 Seed, Leaf Hemorrhoid (1), Stomachache (9), Toothache (2), Memory Improvement (2), Jaundice (1) CAR-K, GAS-D, GAS-D, NER-N, GAS-D Nuts, Mixed with date, Gum Oral 15 A
Anacardiaceae Pistacia vera L. Pesteh 620 Fruit Reinforcing sexual desire (2), Anti-nausea (1), Anti-diarrhea (1), Constipation (3) OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, Nuts Oral 7 A
Apiaceae Ammi majus L. Golsefid 220 Fruit Anti-nausea (5), diuretic (4) GAS-D, URO-U Decoction Oral 9 A
Apiaceae Anethum graveolens L. Maitokhm 234 Seed Blood fat (3), Gastric discomfort (32), Energetic (2), Reduce blood sugar (2), Joint pain (5) Blood-B, GAS-D, OTH-A, MET-T, SKE-L Decoction Oral 44 A
Apiaceae Apium graveolens L. Karafs 221 Aerial parts Relaxing (1), Disinfectant (2), Flavoring of food (40) NER-N, OTH-A, - Mixed with food, Vegetable Oral 43 B, C
Apiaceae Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B.Fedtsch. Ziresiah 227 Seed Menstrual disorders (30), Flavoring of food (115), Digestive (2), Parasite repellent (3), Carminative (4), Antispasmodic (31), GYN-X, OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, NER-N Decoction, Infusion, Mixed with food Oral 185 A
Apiaceae Carum carvi L. Ziresiah 230 Fruit Carminative (6), Relaxing (1) GAS-D, NER-N Infusion Oral 7 A, C
Apiaceae Conium maculatum L. Showkaran 233 Whole plant Cough (4), Respiratory ailments (6) RES-R, RES-R Decoction Oral 10 A
Apiaceae Coriandrum sativum L. Geshniz 238 Leaf, Seed, Aerial parts Reduce blood sugar (3), Intestinal infections (2), Blood fat (4), lactiferous (5), Flavoring of food (18) Carminative (3) MET-T, GAS-D, Blood-B, PRE-W, OTH-A, GAS-D Decoction, Dried vegetable Oral 35 A
Apiaceae Cuminum cyminum L. Ziresabz 225 Seed Menstrual disorders (10), Flavoring of food (14), Body tonic (5) GYN-X, -, OTH-A Decoction, Infusion, Mixed with food Oral 29 A
Apiaceae Daucus carota L. Havij 235 Bulb Anemia (8), Sight enhancement (7), Appetizing (3) Blood-B, EYE-F, OTH-A Salad oral 18 A, C
Apiaceae Dorema ammoniacum D. Don Oshtork 258 Gum Disinfectant (4), Edible (7), Infectious wound healing (11) OTH-A, OTH-A, DER-S Powder, Mask, Poultice, Vegetable Oral 22 A
Apiaceae Dorema aucheri Boiss. Oshtork 249 Gum Disinfectant (4), Edible (7), Infectious wound (11) OTH-A, OTH-A, DER-S Powder, Mask, Poultice, Vegetable Oral 22 A
Apiaceae Ducrosia anethifolia (DC.) Boiss. Reshkak 291 Leaf, Seed Abdominal pains (6), Body tonic (7), Child Carminative (9) GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D Infusion Oral 22 A
Apiaceae Ducrosia assadii Alava. Reshkak 237 Leaf and fruit Wound and burns healing (8) DER-S Oil Topical 8 A
Apiaceae Eryngium billardieri Delile Chichagh 240 Aerial parts Expectorant (4), Bronchitis (4), Antispasmodic (1), Carminative (2), Cough (4), Pain relief (3), Reduce rheumatic pain (1) RES-R, RES-R, NER-N, GAS-D, RES-R, SKE-L Decoction Oral 19 B, C
Apiaceae Eryngium bungei
Boiss.
Shoochagh 242 Aerial parts Pain relief (4) NER-N Decoction Oral 4 B
Apiaceae Ferula assa-foetida L. Anghouze 245 Gum Parasite intestine (16), Expectorant (2), Menstrual disorders (2), Gastritis (5) GAS-D, RES-R, GYN-X, GAS-D Fume, Infusion Oral 25 A
Apiaceae Ferula gummosa Boiss. Anghouzeh 236 Gum Cough (6), Laxative (3) RES-R, GAS-D Infusion Oral 9 A
Apiaceae Ferula oopoda (Boiss. & Buhse) Boiss. Anghouzeh 252 Latex, Fruit Toothache (35), Carminative (18), Intestinal parasite (30), Tooth infection (10), Expectorant (4) GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, RES-R Poultice, Decoction Oral 97 A
Apiaceae Ferula ovina (Boiss.) Boiss. Anghouze shirin 247 Aerial parts Carminative (15) GAS-D Decoction Oral 15 A
Apiaceae Ferula persica Willd. Anghouzeh 250 Latex, Fruit Cough (6), Laxative (3) RES-R, GAS-D Decoction Oral 9 A
Apiaceae Ferula szowitziana DC. Anghouze 254 Latex Stomachache (6) GAS-D Cooked with meat and vegetables Oral 6 A
Apiaceae Ferulago angulata (Schltdl.) Boiss. Garchi 257 Aerial parts Carminative (6), Flavoring of butter (1), Aromatherapy (1) GAS-D, OTH-A Decoction, Powder, Dressing Oral 8 A
Apiaceae Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Badiuon 244 Seed Carminative (41), Gastric discomfort (27), Bone and joint pains (12), Asthma (1), Digestive (11) GAS-D, GAS-D, SKE-L, RES-R, GAS-D Decoction Oral 92 A
Apiaceae Pulicaria undulata (L.) C.A.Mey. Sooteh 259 Leaf Dysentery (10), Wound healing (3) GAS-D, DER-S Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 14 A, C
Apiaceae Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fisch., C.A.Mey. & Avé-Lall. Golpar 258 Fruit, Flower Relaxing (8) NER-N Aromatic water Oral 8 B, C
Apiaceae Levisticum officinale W.D.J.Koch Karasm 262 Aerial part Carminative (5), Gastric discomfort (10), Blood pressure (19) GAS-D, GAS-D, CAR-K Aromatic water Oral 34 B, C
Apiaceae Levisticum persicum Freyn & Bornm. Karasm 260 Aerial parts, Stem Pickle (3), Aromatherapy (1), Flavoring of food (2) OTH-A, OTH-A Decoction, Dressing, Powder Oral 5 A
Apiaceae Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss Jafari 229 Young branches Urinary stone (3), Digestive (12), Anemia (5) URO-U, GAS-D, Blood-B Decoction Oral 20 A
Apiaceae Pimpinella saxifraga L. Jafari Kouhi 263 Leaf Stomachache (21) GAS-D Decoction Oral 21 A
Apiaceae Platychaete aucheri (Boiss.) Boiss. Zarbarook 255 Leaf Asthma (7) RES-R Decoction Oral 7 A, C
Apiaceae Prangos cheilanthifolia Boiss. Sekbinch 280 Young branches, Gum Carminative (5) GAS-D Mixed with food Oral 5 B, C
Apiaceae Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. Garchi 253 Foliage Flavoring of dairy (8), Parasite repellent (6), Toothache (7), Carminative (3), Acne (2), Infectious wound (5) -, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, DER-S, DER-S Edible, Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 41 B, C
Apiaceae Prangos uloptera DC. Jashir 270 Young branches Carminative (15), Body tonic (17) GAS-D, OTH-A Mixed with food Oral 32 A, C
Apiaceae Psammogeton stocksii (Boiss.) Nasir Izbok 273 Aerial parts Febrifuge (4) OTH-A Decoction Oral 4 B, C
Apiaceae Scandix stellata Banks & Sol. Badiyan koohi 275 Whole plant Body tonic (25), Stomach tonic (13) OTH-A, GAS-D Decoction Oral 38 B, C
Apiaceae Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague Kaserk 277 Fruit Stomachache (19), Carminative (7) GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction Oral 26 A
Apiaceae Pycnocycla spinosa Decne. Sagdandan 279 Root Scorpion bite (1) OTH-A Decoction Oral 2 B, C
Apiaceae Pycnocycla bashgardiana Mozaff. Pvander 288 Flower Stomachache (2) GAS-D Decoction Oral 3 B, C
Apocynaceae Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. Kark 849 Latex Eczema (98), Scorpion bite (9), Earache (4), Toothache (6), Cancer (1) DER-S, DER-S, Ear-H, GAS-D, CAN-C Latex Topical, Oral 151 B
Leaf Reduce blood sugar (11), Bruise (10) MET-T, SKE-L Poultice Topical
Apocynaceae Cionura erecta (L.) Griseb. Jaze sabz 852 Leaf Sore throat (3), Expectorant (77), Cough (87) OTH-A, RES-R, RES-R Decoction Oral 167 B, C
Apocynaceae Nerium oleander L. Gish 861 Leaf Stomachache (3), Skin diseases (1) GAS-D Decoction, Latex Oral 4 A, C
Apocynaceae Pergularia tomentosa L. Keshtook 855 Latex Eczema (2), Constipation (1), Parasite repellent (2), Cancer (1) DER-S, GAS-D, CAN-C Poultice, Decoction Topical, Oral 15 B, C
Whole parts Hair removal of animal skin (9) OTH-A Decoction Topical
Apocynaceae Periploca aphylla Decne. Shirbadam 853 Latex, Aerial parts Burn healing (3), Skin inflammation (5) DER-S, DER-S Mask, Poultice Topical 8 B, C
Apocynaceae Rhazya stricta Decne. Eshbarg 859 Leaf Scorpion and snake bite (5), Sore throat (2), Febrifuge (41), Ear ache (1), Eye ache (1) DER-S Decoction Bath 173 B
Leaf Wound healing (63), Joint pains (57), Reduce blood sugar (3) DER-S, SKE-L, MET-T Poultice Topical
Arecaceae Phoenix dactylifera L. Mogh 1123 Pollen Improvement of male fertility (11) PRE-W Mixed with honey Oral 17 B, C
Pith parenchyma Memory improvement  (5) NER-N Edible Oral
Arecaceae Nannorrhops ritchieana (Griff.) Aitch. Daz1 125 Fruit Vegetable (8) OTH-A Edible Oral 8 B, C
Asparagaceae Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl. Sirmook 1235 Bulb Anti-diarrhea (2), Bronchitis (3), Cough (1) GAS-D, RES-R, RES-R Mixed with food Oral 6 B, C
Asteraceae Achillea eriophora DC. Gole bengerask 921 Flowering branches Relaxing (4), Gastric discomfort (7), Parasite repellent (3), Anti-diarrhea (10), Menstrual disorders (2), Cramps, Febrifuge (8), Stomachache (12) NER-N, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GYN-X, SKE-L, OTH-A, GAS-D Infusion, Powder Oral 46 A
Asteraceae Achillea santolinoides Lag. Gole bengerask 918 Flowering branches Relaxing (4), gastric discomfort (7), Parasite repellent (3), Anti-diarrhea (10), Menstrual disorders (2), Cramps, Febrifuge (8), Stomachache (12) NER-N, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GYN-X, SKE-L, OTH-A, GAS-D Infusion, Powder Oral 46 A, C
Asteraceae Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch Gole bengerask 922 Flowering branches Stomach ache (12), Disinfectant (1), Blood purifier (2), Carminative (4), Diuretic (1), Antispasmodic (6) GAS-D, OTH-A, Blood-B, GAS-D, URO-U,NER-N Decoction Oral 26 A
Asteraceae Arctium lappa L. Babaadam 950 Leaf Vertigo (3), Blood purifier (2), Antispasmodic (4), Detoxification (1), Food digestion (7), Parasite repellent (1), Kidney diseases (2) NER-N, OTH-A, NER-N, OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D, URO-U Poultice, Decoction Oral 20 B, C
Asteraceae Artemisia absinthium L. Afsantin 930 Leaf, Flower Intestinal parasites (5) GAS-D Decoction Oral 5 A
Asteraceae Artemisia aucheri Boiss. Jaz 934 Flowering branches Relaxing (6), Abdominal pains (27), Respiratory diseases (3), Body tonic (6), Febrifuge (25) NER-N, GAS-D, RES-R, OTH-A, OTH-A Decoction Oral 68 A, C
Flowering branches Beauty of skin and hair (1) DER-S Essential oil, Aromatic water Topical
Asteraceae Artemisia persica Boiss. Dermene torki 931 Flowering branches Febrifuge (44), Gastric infection (62), Stomachache (73) OTH-A, GAS-D Decoction Oral 179 A, C
Asteraceae Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kitam. Dermeneh 932 Aerial parts Stomachache (13) GAS-D Decoction Oral 13 B, C
Asteraceae Artemisia sieberi Besser Sorkhdermon 953 Flowering branches Anti-nausea (20), Antispasmodic, (8) Parasite repellent (18) GAS-D, NER-N, GAS-D Decoction Oral 61 A
Flowering branches Bruise (15) SKE-L Decoction Topical
Asteraceae Atractylis cancellata L. Kharcharkha 940 Gum, Leaf Vegetable (3) OTH-A Row, Powder Oral 3 B, C
Asteraceae Calendula officinalis L. Gole bahari 942 Aerial parts Carminative (2), Pancreatic cancer (1) GAS- D, CAN-C Infusion Oral 8 B, C
Aerial parts Acne (3), Pterygium (2) DER-S, EYE-F Oil, Aromatic water Topical, Eye drop
Asteraceae Carthamus lanatus L. Kharzard 971 Flower Bruise (2) SKE-L Poultice Topical 2 B, C
Asteraceae Carthamus oxyacantha M.Bieb. Golrangzard 972 Leaf and flower Purgative (1), Menstrual disorders (1), Blood purifier (1) GAS-D, GYN-X, OTH-A Decoction Oral 3 B, C
Asteraceae Centaurea benedicta (L.) L. Khar moghadas 980 Flowering branches Memory tonic (2) NER-N Decoction Oral 2 B, C
Asteraceae Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mazz. Gole gandom 981 Aerial parts Anti-inflammatory (2) SKE-L Decoction Oral 2 A
Asteraceae Cichorium intybus L. Kasni 925 Leaf and Flower Jaundice (15), Liver diseases (2), Diuretic (2), Febrifuge (13), Antihypertensive (2), Laxative (55) GAS-D, GAS-D, URO-U, OTH-A,CAR-K, GAS-D Aromatic water, Maceration Oral 89 A, C
Asteraceae Cichorium pumilum Jacg. Kasni 913 Leaf and Flower Jaundice (14), Liver diseases (2), Febrifuge (14), Blood purifier, Antihypertensive (2), Laxative (50) GAS-D, GAS-D, OTH-A, OTH-A, GAS-D Aromatic water, Maceration Oral 96 A
Root Appetizing (5) OTH-A Decoction Oral
Asteraceae Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Kangar 925 Root, Pith parenchyma Gastric discomfort (8), Appetizing (2), Disinfectant (4), Febrifuge (7) GAS-D, OTH-A, OTH-A, OTH-A Decoction Oral 21 A
Asteraceae Cota tinctoria (L.) J.Gay Babouneh 939 Flowering branches Throat pains (4), Nervous problems (13), Common cold (14), Anti-diarrhea (20), Prostate (5) GAS-D, NER-N, RES-R, GAS-D Decoction Oral 56 A, C
Asteraceae Cousinia congesta Bunge. Poloosh 945 Gum Asthma (2) RES-R Decoction Oral 2 B, C
Asteraceae Cyanus depressus (M.Bieb.) Soják Gole gandom 977 Flower Digestive (11), Cough (1), Laxative (6) GAS-D, RES-R, GAS-D Decoction Oral 18 B, C
Asteraceae Echinops ritrodes Bunge Kaloor 983 Fruit Gastric discomfort (7) GAS-D Decoction Oral 7 B, C
Asteraceae Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass. ex Spach. Davoodi 986 Aerial parts Blood purifier (2), Eyesight enhancement (2) OTH-A, EYE-F Infusion Oral 4 B, C
Asteraceae Gundelia tournefortii L. Kangar 974 Pith parenchyma Gastric discomfort (8), Constipation (12), Reduce Blood fat (1), Blood purifier (15) GAS-D, GAS-D, OTH-A, OTH-A Edible, Salad Oral 36 B, C
Asteraceae Hertia angustifolia (DC.) Kuntze Karkich biabani 975 Leaf, Flower Pain relief (4) NER-N Decoction Oral 4 B, C
Asteraceae Hertia intermedia (Boiss.) Kuntze Karkich 973 Flowering branches Insect bite (5), Purgative (2), Parasite repellent (1) DER-S, GAS-D, GAS-D Poultice, Decoction Topical, Oral 8 A
Asteraceae Inula britannica L. Mosafa 979 Aerial parts Reducing thirst (3) OTH-A Syrup Oral 3 B, C
Asteraceae Lactuca orientalis (Boiss.) Boiss. Jaroo 958 Latex, Flower Insomnia (3) OTH-A Decoction Oral 3 B, C
Asteraceae Lactuca serriola L. Kahokhardar 916 Aerial parts, Latex Bone and joint pains (1), Purgative (1) SKE-L, GAS-D Poultice, Decoction Topical, Oral 2 A
Asteraceae Launaea acanthodes (Boiss.) Kuntze Goojar 918 Aerial parts Animal parasite repellent (122), Pain relief (4) GAS-D, NER-N Maceration Oral 126 B, C
Asteraceae Matricaria chamomilla L. Babounak 946 Flowering branches Anti-inflammation (2), Anti-nausea (3) SKE-L, GAS-D Decoction Oral 5 B, C
Asteraceae Onopordum carmanicum (Bornm.) Bornm. Kangar 919 Young branches Gastric discomfort (4) GAS-D Decoction Oral 4 B, C
Asteraceae Onopordum leptolepis DC. Kangar 920 Aerial parts Urinary stone (6), Abdominal pains (9), Anti-diarrhea (8) URO-U, GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction Oral 23 B, C
Asteraceae Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo Talkhe sadi 927 Aerial parts Baby fever (2), Cancer (2) OTH-A, CAN-C Poultice, Decoction Topical 4 B, C
Asteraceae Scorzonera mucida "Rech.f., Aellen & Esfand. Kalaghoo 912 Fresh leaf Infectious wound (3) DER-S Poultice Topical 3 B, C
Asteraceae Senecio glaucus L. Bangdaneh 990 Aerial parts Chronic wound (6) DER-S Poultice Topical 6 B, C
Asteraceae Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Kharmaryam 995 Leaf Fatty liver (35), Reduce blood sugar (3) GAS-D, MET-T Decoction Oral 38 A, C
Asteraceae Sonchus asper (L.) Hill Shirtighak 996 Leaf Skin rash (3) DER-S Poultice Topical 3 A
Asteraceae Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. Shirtighak 997 Leaf Skin rash (3) DER-S Poultice Topical 4 A
Asteraceae Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip. Babouneh 960 Aerial parts Parasite repellent (4), Migraine (2), Anti-inflammation (10), Peptic ulcer (3), Gastritis (6) OTH-A, NER-N, SKE-L, GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction Oral 25 A
Asteraceae Taraxacum assemanii Boiss. Shirdandan 998 Leaf, Flower Liver tonic (1), Diuretic (1) GAS-D, URO-U Decoction Oral 2 B, C
Asteraceae Taraxacum pseudocalocephalum Soest. Gasedak 906 Seed Blood fat (1) Blood-B Decoction Oral 1 B, C
Asteraceae Tragopogon graminifolius DC. Sheng 999 Leaf, Root Diuretic (3), Gastrointestinal disorders (2) URO-U, GAS-D Decoction Oral 5 B, C
Berberidaceae Berberis integerrima Bunge Zarch 681 Root Reduce blood sugar (61), Animal parasite repellent (2), Hepatitis (2), Joint pains (22), Breaking bone healing (15), Leaving addiction (27) MET-T, GAS-D, CAR-K, GAS-D, SKE-L, SKE-L Decoction Oral 182 A
Leaf Textile fiber color (9), Blood pressure (28) OTH-A, CAR-K Decoction -
Fruit Blood purifier (30), Heat regulation (1), Hives (3), Laxative (4) OTH-A, OTH-A, DER-S, GAS-D Decoction Oral
Biebersteiniaceae Biebersteinia multifida DC. Piche bahman 683 Root Reinforcing sexual desire (9), Pain relief (5), Colic (3) OTH-A, NER-N, GAS-D Decoction Oral 17 B, C
Bignoniaceae Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem. Golparak 701 Stem bark, Leaf Skin ailments (79), Eczema (64), Reduce blood sugar (41), Urinary problems (10) DER-S, DER-S, MET-T Poultice, Decoction Topical 194 A
Boraginaceae Anchusa azurea Mill. Gavzaban 710 Flower Relaxing (4) NER-N Decoction, Infusion Oral 4 A, C
Boraginaceae Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M.Johnst. Sangdaneh 711 Leaf, Root Pain relief (6) NER-N Decoction Oral 6 B, C
Boraginaceae Caccinia macranthera (Banks & Sol.) Brand Gavzaban 720 Flower Relaxing (3) NER-N Decoction Oral 3 A, C
Boraginaceae Cordia myxa L. Pohil 724 Fruit Common cold (5), Appetizing (4),Throat pain (10), Eczema (2), Kidney stone (5) RES-R, -, GAS-D, DER-S, URO-U Poultice, Infusion Oral, Topical 26 B, C
Boraginaceae Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A.Mey. Golgavzaban 734 Flower Sleeplessness (27), Relaxing (76), Anorexia (1) NER-N, NER-N, Psy-P Decoction Oral 104 A, C
Boraginaceae Nonea caspica (Willd.) G.Don Gavzabanak 715 Leaf, Flower Relaxing (2), Anorexia (1) RES-R, NER-N, Psy-P Decoction Oral 5 A
Boraginaceae Nonea persica Boiss. Serkoee Cheskoee 712 Flower and Leaf Relaxing (3), Heart tonic (5), Expectorant (2), Disinfectant (4), NER-N, CAR-K, RES-R, OTH-A Decoction Oral 14 B, C
Boraginaceae Onosma stenosiphon Boiss. Hoochoo 716 Root Women infection (7), Pain relief (6), Bruise (8), Wound sucker (13), Burn healing (9) GYN-X, NER-N, DER-S, DER-S, DER-S Poultice, Decoction Oral, Topical 43 B, C
Boraginaceae Solenanthus circinatus Ledeb. Choobe Azar 725 Stem bark Bruise (95) DER-S Poultice Topical 95 B, C
Boraginaceae Trichodesma stocksii Boiss. Gavzaban 727 Flower Nerve tonic (6), Respiratory ailments (1), Sore throat (1), Relaxing (1) NER-N, RES-R, GAS-D Decoction Oral 9 A
Brassicaceae Alyssum linifolium Stephan ex Willd. Ghodoomeh 756 Seed Laxative (3), Cough (2) GAS-D, RES-R Decoction Oral 5 A, C
Brassicaceae Alyssum szovitsianum Fisch. & C.A.Mey. Toodari karopoo 740 Seed Laxative (14) GAS-D Decoction Oral 14 B, C
Brassicaceae Brassica nigra (L.) K.Koch Khardal 750 Root, Leaf, Seed Memory improvement (1), Skin clarification (2) NER-N, DER-S Poultice, Decoction Oral, Topical 3 B, C
Brassicaceae Brassica rapa L. Shalgham 749 Root Respiratory ailments (5) ,Common cold (69) RES-R, RES-R Edible Oral 74 A
Brassicaceae Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Kisekeshish 745 Aerial parts Blood purifier (7) Blood-B Decoction Oral 7 B, C
Brassicaceae Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb. ex Prantl Khakshir 762 Seed Laxative (42), Disinfectant (5), Reducing thirst (7), Constipation (46), Throat infection (10), Intestinal pain (7), Blood purifier (4), Heatstroke (7), Anti-diarrhea (5) GAS-D, GAS-D, OTH-A, -, GAS-D , GAS-D, GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D Decoction, Syrup,
Maceration
Oral 96 A
Brassicaceae Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. Mandow 755 Young stem and leaf Body tonic (2) OTH-A Salad Oral 2 B, C
Brassicaceae Erysimum crassicaule (Boiss.) Boiss. Khakshire talkh 760 Seed Respiratory ailments (4) RES-R Maceration Oral 4 A, C
Brassicaceae Fortuynia garcinii (Burm.f.) Shuttlew. Shabboo 765 Aerial parts, Laef and flower Migraine (5), Relaxing (6), Menstrual disorders (2), Flavoring of food (4), Antispasmodic (3), Stomach tonic (6) NER-N, NER-N, GYN-X, NER-N, GAS-D Decoction, Infusion, Mixed with food Oral 26 A, C
Brassicaceae Goldbachia laevigata (M.Bieb.) DC. Nakhonak 780 Seed Antimicrobial (1) OTH-A Decoction Oral 1 B, C
Brassicaceae Lepidium draba L. Mookoo 759 Leaf Eczema (4), Reduce rheumatic pain (7), Diuretic (8), Gastritis (4), Stomach acidification (4), Cough (8), Flavoring of food (16), Anemia (3) DER-S, SKE-L, URO-U, GAS-D, GAS-D, RES-R, OTH-A, Blood-B Poultice, Decoction Topical, Oral 54 B, C
Brassicaceae Lepidium latifolium L. Tarantizak 770 Aerial parts Pickle (9), Body tonic (3) OTH-A , OTH-A Edible Oral 12 B, C
Brassicaceae Lepidium sativum L. Shahi 776 Leaf Muscle cramps (2), Reduce rheumatic pain (3) SKE-L, SKE-L, SKE-L, SKE-L Decoction Oral 5 B, C
Brassicaceae Raphanus caudatus L. Torobcheh 784 Root Digestive (6), Urinary problems (2) GAS-D, URO-U Vegetable, Decoction Oral 8 B, C
Brassicaceae Sisymbrium irio L. Khakshir 763 Seed Laxative, Constipation GAS-D, GAS-D Infusion Oral   A
Brassicaceae Isatis tinctoria L. Vasmeh 783 Leaf Hair tonic and hair color (24) DER-S Powder mixed with water Topical 24 A, C
Brassicaceae Thlaspi perfoliatum L. Kisehchoochan 785 Seed Diuretic (5) URO-U Decoction Oral 5 B, C
Cannabaceae Cannabis sativa L. Kanaf 1240 Seed, Leaf, flowering branches Urinary problems (3), Sleeplessness (2), Nervous system tonic (7), Relaxing (2) URO-U, NER-N, NER-N, NER-N Decoction Oral 14 B, C
Campanulaceae Campanula kermanica (Rech.f., Aellen & Esfand.) Rech.f. Gole ghifoo 1325 Flower and leaf Cough (4) RES-R Decoction Oral 4 B, C
Capparidaceae Capparis spinosa L. Dak 634 Fruit, Leaf Liver diseases (1), Anemia (1), Joint pains (3), Antimicrobial (12), Pickle (7), Eczema (16) RES-R, OTH-A, SKE-L, OTH-A, OTH-A, DER-S Decoction, Poultice Oral , Topical 40 A
Caprifoliaceae Lomelosia olivieri (Coult.) Greuter & Burdet Sarbanafsheh talkh 1331 Flower Diarrhea (5), Joint pans (4) GAS-D, SKE-L Decoction, Poultice Topical, Oral 9 B, C
Caprifoliaceae Scabiosa candollei DC. Talhkou 1332 Flower Anti-diarrhea (8), Abdominal pains (5), Bone and joint pains (2) GAS-D, GAS-D, SKE-L Decoction, Poultice Topical 16 A
Caprifoliaceae Scabiosa flavida Boiss. & Hausskn. Sarbanafsheh talkh 1334 Flower Anti-diarrhea (4), Joint pans (3) GAS-D, SKE-L Decoction, Poultice Topical, Oral 7 B, C
Caprifoliaceae Valeriana ficariifolia Boiss. Alafe gorbe 1337 Root, Rhizome Relaxing (5) NER-N Decoction Oral 5 B, C
Caryophyllaceae Dianthus crinitus Sm. Ghernefel 612 Seed Toothache (17), Breath freshener (2) OTH-A, RES-R Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 19 B, C
Caryophyllaceae Dianthus orientalis Adams Mikhak 611 Leaf, Flower Toothache (24), Breath freshener (2), Headache (18), Nerve pain (27) OTH-A, RES-R, NER-N, NER-N Poultice, Decoction Oral, Topical 71 A
Caryophyllaceae Herniaria hirsuta L. Fetgh 613 Aerial parts Burn wound healing (5) DER-S Poultice Topical 5 B, C
Cleomaceae Cleome coluteoides Boiss. Alafe maar 1350 Leaf, Flower and Fruit Diuretic (5), Laxative (2), Anti-nausea (2), psoriasis (2) URO-U, GAS-D, GAS-D, DER-S Decoction, Poultice Oral 11 B, C
Colchicaceae Colchicum schimperi Janka ex Stef. Hasratoo 452 Root Wart treatment (5), Joint pains (6), Reduce the pain of gout disease (4) DER-S, SKE-L, NER-N Poultice Topical 15 B, C
Convolvulaceae Convolvulus arvensis L. Pichak 791 Leaf, Flower, Seed Gastric discomfort (12), Wound healing (3), Asthma (2) GAS-D, DER-S Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 17 A
Convolvulaceae Cressa cretica L. Alaf mourcheh 790 Aerial parts Antifungal (4), Antibacterial (14) OTH-A, OTH-A Poultice Topical 18 A
Convolvulaceae Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L. Ses 792 Aerial parts Diuretic (2), Jaundice (2) URO-U, GAS-D Decoction Oral 4 A, C
Cucurbitaceae Citrullus colocynthis (L) Schrad. Gelgenjak 890 Fruit, Seed, Root Reduce blood sugar (91), Reduce rheumatic pain (3), Scorpion bite (6), Chronic ulcers (5), Antihypertensive (4), Febrifuge (2), Bone and joint pains (8) MET-T, DER-S, DER-S, OTH-A, CAR-K, DER-S, SKE-L Poultice, powder Topical, Oral 119 A
Cucurbitaceae Cucumis sativus L. Kheyar 889 Aerial parts Laxative (13) GAS-D Decoction Oral 13 A, C
Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita moschata Duchesne Kadoohalvaee 891 Seed Prostate (6) URO-U Decoction Oral 6 A, C
Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita pepo L. Kadoo 885 Fruit Blood fat (8), Constipation (4) Blood-B, GAS-D Edible Oral 12 A, C
Cupressaceae Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. Avors 203 Fruit Common cold (14), Hair tonic and hair color (3), Freshener body (6), Skin rash (31), Wound healing (12) RES-R, DER-S, OTH-A, DER-S, DER-S Powder, Bath, Decoction, Poultice Topical, Oral 143 B
Leaf Pest Control (15), Algae Pool Control (3), Wood corrosion (10), Pain relief (4) OTH-A, OTH-A, OTH-A, NER-N Dressing, Powder, Decoction Topical, Oral
Leaf and fruit Stomach tonic (7), Appetizing (5), Reduce rheumatic pain (11) GAS-D, OTH-A, SKE-L Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical
Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Senjed 544 Seed Joint pains (26), Anti-diarrhea (48), Peptic ulcer (10) SKE-L, GAS-D, GAS-D Poultice, Powder Topical, Oral 90 A
  seed Health tonic (6) OTH-A Oil Oral
Ephedraceae Ephedra distachya L. Khimouk 182 Young branches Stomachache (12), Relaxing (8), Peptic ulcer (62), Stomach burning, (22) Traditional tannery (10), Relaxing (1) GAS-D, NER-N, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, NER-N Decoction, Infusion Oral 115 B, C
Ephedraceae Ephedra foliata Boiss. ex C.A.Mey. Khimouk 180 Young branches Stomachache (2), Relaxing (3), Peptic ulcer (3), Relaxing (1) GAS-D, NER-N, GAS-D, NER-N Decoction, Infusion Oral 9 B, C
Ephedraceae Ephedra major Host Alijoon 185 Young branches, Fruit Respiratory ailments (4), Cough (4), Common cold (5), Pain relief (24), Relaxing (1) RES-R, RES-R, RES-R, NER-N, NER-N Decoction Oral 53 A
Young branches, Fruit Traditional tannery (15) OTH-A Decoction -
Ephedraceae Ephedra intermedia Schrenk & C.A.Mey. Khimouk 179 Young branches Common cold (5), Stomachache (7), Weight loss (36), Peptic ulcer (50), Traditional tannery (15), Relaxing (1) RES-R, GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D, OTH-A, NER-N Decoction, Infusion Oral 114 B, C
Ephedraceae Ephedra pachyclada Boiss. Hoome nar 186 Young branches, Fruit Cramp (9), Food coloring (10) SKE-L, OTH-A Decoction, Infusion Oral 19 A, C
Ephedraceae Ephedra strobilacea Bunge Khimook 189 Young branches, Fruit Pain relief (37), Gastric discomfort (53), Relaxing (1) NER-N, GAS-D, NER-N Decoction Oral 91 A
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia bussei Pax Shirsag 470 Young leaf Treatment of Blister (5), Skin stimulant (3), Reduced vision (3), Anemia (2) DER-S, DER-S, EYE-F, Blood-B Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 13 A, C
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia granulata Forssk. Shirbeng 472 Latex Eczema (2) DER-S Latex Topical 2 B, C
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia helioscopia L. Shirbeng 484 Leaf, Seed Joint pains (3), Skin rash (3), Reduce rheumatic pain (2) SKE-L, DER-S, SKE-L Decoction, Poultice Topical, Oral 8 A
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia peplus L. Alafe zegi l475 Latex Eczema (2) DER-S Latex Topical 2 B, C
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia serpens Kunth Gazeroo 477 Latex Eczema (10) DER-S Latex Topical 10 B, C
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia turcomanica Boiss. Farfeyeon 478 Latex Eczema (3) DER-S Latex Topical 3 B, C
Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis L. Kenton 499 Seed Laxative (3), Skin patches (2), Hair tonic (5), Disinfectant (4) GAS-D, DER-S, DER-S, OTH-A Poultice, Oil Topical 13 A
Fabaceae Alhagi maurorum Medik. Adoor 675 Aerial parts Urinary stone (13), Hemorrhoid (2),
Reduce rheumatic pain (1)
URO-U, CAR-K, SKE-L Decoction, Poultice Topical, Oral 15 A, C
Fabaceae Alhagi pseudalhagi (M. Bieb.) Desv. ex B. Keller & Shap. Adoor 674 Aerial parts Urinary stone (13), Child jaundice (4) URO-U, GAS-D Aromatic water, Decoction Oral 17 A
Fabaceae Astracantha lateritia (Boiss. & Hausskn.) Podlech Khar 640 Stem Hair tonic (22), Eczema (45) DER-S, DER-S Gel Topical 67 B, C
Fabaceae Astragalus eremophilus Boiss. Gavan 643 Seed Reinforcing sexual desire (3), Asthma (5), Preventing of the Blood coagulation (2), Expectorant (5) OTH-A, RES-R, Blood-B , RES- R Decoction Oral 15 A
Fabaceae Astragalus fasciculifolius subsp.arbusculinus (Bornm. & Gauba) Tietz Anzaroot 645 Gum, Stem bark Ear infection (3), Earache (2), Cough (3), Stomachache (5), Livestock parasite (6), Common cold (4), Detoxification (5), Foot-and-mouth disease of livestock (10), Wart (6), Eye ache (2) Ear-H , Ear-H, RES-R, GAS-D, GAS-D, RES-R, OTH-A, GAS-D, DER-S, EYE-F Poultice, Decoction Oral, Topical 46 B, C
Fabaceae Astragalus gossypinus Fisch. Gavan 641 Gum, Stem bark Traditional kohl (67), Hair beauty (15), Hair tonic (15) DER-S, DER-S, DER-S Gel, Poultice Topical 97 B, C
Fabaceae Astragalus ovoideus Širj. & Rech.f. Margin 685 Gum Anti-stress (4), Relaxing (4) NER-N, NER-N Decoction Oral 8 B, C
Fabaceae Cercis siliquastrum L. Argavan 646 Leaf, Stem bark Gastric discomfort (3), Expectorant (2) GAS-D, RES-R Decoction, Infusion Oral 5 B, C
Fabaceae Cicer arietinum L. Nokhod kermani 659 Seed Hair tonic (2), Diuretic (3) DER-S, URO-U, CAN-C Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 5 A, C
Fabaceae Cicer kermanense Bornm. Nokhod-e kermani 660 Fruit Hair tonic (2), Diuretic (3), Menstrual regulation (2) DER-S, URO-U, GYN-X Decoction, Poultice Topical, Oral 7 A
Fabaceae Colutea persica Boiss. Feh 652 Stem bark Wound healing (3) DER-S Poultice Topical 3 B, C
Fabaceae Dalbergia sissoo DC. Jag 653 Stem bark Abortion (2), Expectorant (7), Anti-parasitic (2), Burn healing (2), Anti-nausea (2), Reducing thirst (1) PRE-W, RES-R, GAS-D, DER-S, GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 16 A
Fabaceae Genista tinctoria L. Rangineh 654 Aerial parts Anti-diarrhea (2), Gastric discomfort (4), Abdominal pains (3), Constipation (2) GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction Oral 11 A
Fabaceae Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Matki 650 Root Stomach ulcers (28), Aphthous ulcer (83), Expectorant (9), Breaking bone healing (14), Prostate (4) GAS-D, GAS-D, RES-R, SKE-L, URO-U Decoction, Poultice Oral 138 A, C
Fabaceae Lathyrus sativus L. Karoo 661 Arial part Laxative (5), Common cold (2), Fatty liver (2), Jaundice (3), Eczema (2) GAS-D, RES-R, GAS-D, GAS-D, DER-S Edible, Poultice Oral, Topical 14 B, C
Fabaceae Lens culinaris Medik. Adas 663 Seed Body tonic (10) OTH-A Edible Oral 10 A, C
Fabaceae Medicago sativa L. Yonjeh 665 Young Leaf Intestinal parasites (1), Eyesight tonic (7), Appetizing (2), Anemia (8) GAS-D, EYE-F, OTH-A, OTH-A Edible Oral 28 A
Root Stomach tonic (3), Gastric discomfort (3), Leaving addiction (2), Reduce blood sugar (2) GAS-D, GAS-D, NER-N, MET-T Decoction Oral
Fabaceae Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. Kalilalmolk 697 Leaf and young stem Common cold (4), Diuretic (2), Relaxing (9), Antispasmodic (3) RES-R, URO-U, NER-N, NER-N Edible Oral 18 B, C
Fabaceae Onobrychis altissima Grossh. Esperes 670 Leaf, Flower Jaundice (7), Appetizing (2) GAS-D, OTH-A Decoction Oral 9 A
Fabaceae Ononis spinosa L. Kharkhar 668 Root Inflammation of the urinary tract (6), Diuretic (6) URO-U, URO-U Decoction Oral 12 B, C
Fabaceae Phaseolus vulgaris L. Loobia sabz 669 Fruit Cardiovascular diseases (5), Diuretic (2), Cancer (1) CAR-K, URO-U, CAN-C Mixed with food Oral 8 B, C
Fabaceae Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce Kahoor 655 Latex Eczema (10) DER-S Latex of burning stem Topical 26 B, C
Stem bark Traditional tannery (16) OTH-A Decoction -
Fabaceae Prosopis farcta (Banks & Sol.) J.F.Macbr. Kahoorak 684 Dried Fruit Antihistamine (2), Preventing of nose bleeding (2) RES-R, RES-R Decoction Oral 4 B, C
Fabaceae Sophora alopecuroides L. Talkheh 687 Whole plant Antihypertensive (1), Antibacterial (2), Constipation (2), Pain relief (1) CAR-K, OTH-A, GAS-D, NER-N Decoction Oral 6 B, C
Fabaceae Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker Talkheh 688 Seed Antihypertensive (1), Antibacterial (2), Constipation (2), Pain relief (1) CAR-K, OTH-A, GAS-D, NER-N Mixed with food Oral 6 B, C
Fabaceae Sophora pachycarpa C.A.Mey. Talkheh 690 Seed Antihypertensive (1), Antibacterial (2), Constipation (2), Pain relief (1) CAR-K, OTH-A, GAS-D, NER-N Mixed with food Oral 6 B, C
Fabaceae Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Ali Lati 614 Leaf Wound healing (9) DER-S Poultice Topical 9 B, C
Fabaceae Taverniera nummularia DC. Daf 615 Leaf Wound healing (9) DER-S Poultice Topical 9 B, C
Fabaceae Tragacantha fasciculifolia (boiss.) Kuntze Khaar 680 Stem and leaf Hair tonic (3), Gingival inflammation (5) DER-S, GAS-D Gum, Powder Topical, Oral 8 B, C
Fabaceae Trifolium repens L. Shabdare sefid
693
Aerial parts Blood purifier (3), Cough (2), Cardiovascular disorders (1), Anti-diarrhea (3), Digestive (4), Burn healing (6) OTH-A, RES-R, CAR-K, GAS-D, GAS-D, DER-S Decoction, vegetable Oral 9 A, C
Fabaceae Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Shanbalileh 694 Leaf and young stem Antihypertensive (6), Reduce blood sugar (5) CAR-K, MET-T Decoction Oral 21 A
Fabaceae Vicia faba L. Bagla 689 Seed Reduce the blood fat (3), Constipation (4) Blood-B, GAS-D Food Oral 7 A
Fabaceae Vicia sativa L. Mash 617 Seed Anti-diarrhea (2), Diuretic (1), Gumboil (2) GAS-D, URO-U, GAS-D Eat as food Oral 5 A
Fabaceae Lens culinaris Medik. Adas 630 Seed Anti-diarrhea (2), Diuretic (1), Gumboil (2) GAS-D, URO-U, GAS-D Eat as food Oral 5 A
Geraniaceae Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Hér. Soozan Kalaghoo 1411 Aerial parts Antibacterial (2), Wound healing (5), Anti-diarrhea (3), Intestinal infection (4) OTH-A, DER-S, GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction, Poultice Oral 14 B, C
Geraniaceae Geranium rotundifolium L. Soozani 1412 Bulb Intestinal infection (3), Anti-diarrhea (1) GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction Oral 4 A, C
Gentianaceae Centaurium pulchellum (Sw.) Druce Ghontorionasa 1413 Aerial parts Febrifuge (4), Body tonic (3), Carminative (3) OTH-A, OTH-A, GAS-D Decoction Oral 10 B, C
Gisekiaceae Gisekia pharnaceoides L. Bargdyereii 1416 Aerial parts Remove skin bur (5) DER-S Dressing Topical 5 A
Hypericaceae Hypericum perforatum L. Raee 859 Leaf and flower Burn wound (3) DER-S Poultice Topical 3 A, C
Iridaceae Iris germanica L. Zanbagh 314 Aerial parts Antifungal (2), Reduce rheumatic pain (2) OTH-A, SKE-L Decoction Oral 4 B, C
Iridaceae Moraea sisyrinchium (L.) Ker Gawl. Zanbagh 317 Aerial parts Cough (3), Common cold (5) RES-R, RES-R Decoction Oral 8 A, C
Juglandaceae Juglans regia L. Gerdoo 1450 Leaf Beans pest (12), Arthritis (1), treatment of Secretions of the womb (2) OTH-A, SKE-L, GYN-X Powder, Decoction Topical 16 A, C
Root bark Tooth germ (2) GAS-D Tooth brush Oral
Lamiaceae Ajuga chamaecistus Ging. ex Benth. Sameesk 811 Leaf and flowering branched Febrifuge (5), Antihypertensive (4), Kidney disorders (2), Antifungal (1) OTH-A, CAR-K, URO-U, OTH-A Vegetable Oral 12 B, C
Lamiaceae Clinopodium graveolens (M.Bieb.) Kuntze. Melangoo 813 Fruit, Seed, Aerial parts Detoxification (7), Peptic ulcer (6), Dry cough (8), Expectorant (8) OTH-A, GAS-D, RES-R, RES-R Vegetable, mixed with food, Decoction Oral 29 B, C
Lamiaceae Dracocephalum polychaetum Bornm. Zarab 834 Leaf, flowering branches Reduce rheumatic pain (2), Stomachache (34), Toothache (15), Headache (12), Reduce blood sugar (8), Anti-diarrhea (26), Detoxification (33), Body tonic (37), Relaxing (9), Back pain (23), Blood purifier (17) SKE-L, GAS-D, GAS-D, NER-N, MET-T, GAS-D, OTH-A, OTH-A, NER-N, SKE-L, CAR-K Decoction, Infusion Oral 216 B
Lamiaceae Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) Benth. Malangoo 821 Fruit Carminative (3), Cough (4), Constipation (4), Expectorant (3), Vermicide (5), Dysentery (3) GAS-D, RES-R, GAS-D, RES-R, GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction Oral 22 A
Lamiaceae Lamium album L. Gazaneh 816 Flowering branches, Root Anti-diarrhea (2), Wound healing (2), Reduce rheumatic pain (3) GAS-D, DER-S, SKE-L Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 7 A
Lamiaceae Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Ostokhodoos 823 Leaf Bone and joint pains (20), Reduce rheumatic pain (12), Relaxing (10) SKE-L, SKE-L, NER-N Decoction Oral 62 A, C
Lamiaceae Leonurus cardiaca L. Dom shir 825 Leaf Cardiac distress (4) CAR-K Decoction Oral 4 A
Lamiaceae Marrubium vulgare L. Boogandoo 820 Leaf and flower Bone and joint pains (4), Reduce blood sugar (7), Antibacterial (1), Reinforcing sexual desire (3), Prostate (4), Anti-diarrhea (6), Women diseases (3) SKE-L, MET-T, OTH-A, OTH-A, URO-U, GAS-D, GYN-X Decoction Oral, Topical 28 B, C
Lamiaceae Melissa officinalis L. Badranjbooye 830 Foliage Bone and joint pains (12), Appetizing (10), Headache (5), Dizziness (6) SKE-L, -, NER-N, NER-N Decoction Oral 33 A, C
Lamiaceae Mentha longifolia (L.) L. Poodeneh 827 Leaf and Flower Stomach ache (31), Edible (44), Common cold (6), Anti-diarrhea (30), Carminative (14), Cough (6), Gastrointestinal pains (27), Antispasmodic (3) GAS-D, -, RES-R, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, NER-N, Edible, Decoction Oral 161 A
Lamiaceae Mentha spicata L. Pooneh sonbolehee 832 Leaf and flower Anti-diarrhea (10), Carminative (5), Antispasmodic (6), Pain relief (7) GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, NER-N Infusion, Mixed with food, Aromatic water Oral 28 A
Lamiaceae Nepeta bornmuelleri Hausskn. ex Bornm. Poodeneh 837 Aerial parts Relaxing (4), Anti-diarrhea (12), Carminative (2) NER-N, GAS-D Decoction Oral 18 A
Lamiaceae Nepeta bracteata Benth. Zoofa 840 Flowering branches Disinfectant (9), Common cold (15) OTH-A, RES-R Decoction, Powder Oral 24 A
Lamiaceae Nepeta cataria L. Nana 841 Leaf Cough (17), Febrifuge (22), Colic (18), Stomachache (42), Edible (62), Common cold (35), Anti-diarrhea (68), Carminative (19), Cough (9), Antispasmodic (7), Gastrointestinal pains (31) RES-R, OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D, -, RES-R, GAS-D, GAS-D, RES-R, GAS-D, GAS-D Infusion, Mixed with food, Aromatic water Oral 328 A
Lamiaceae Nepeta daenensis Boiss. Pooodneh 842 Leaf and flowering branched Antimicrobial (2), Stomachache (5), Anti-diarrhea (14) OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D Aromatic water Oral 21 A
Lamiaceae Lophanthus dschuparensis (Bornm.) Levin Pooodneh 843 Leaf and flowering branched Antimicrobial (2), Stomachache (5), Anti-diarrhea (14) OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D Aromatic water Oral 21 B, C
Lamiaceae Nepeta glomerulosa Boiss. Badrange golmowroo 844 Aerial parts Disinfectant (6), Joints pain (2) OTH-A, SKE-L Decoction, Powder Oral 8 A
Lamiaceae Nepeta ispahanica Boiss. Gole Zoofa 845 Leaf, Flower Anti-inflammatory (6), Antifungal (5), Antispasmodic (3) SKE-L, OTH-A, NER-N Aromatic water, Decoction Oral 14 A
Lamiaceae Nepeta rivularis Bomm. Pooodneh 846 Leaf and flowering branched Antimicrobial (1), Stomachache (7), Anti-diarrhea (15) OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D Aromatic water Oral 23 A
Lamiaceae Nepeta saccharata Bunge. Pooodneh 847 Leaf and flowering branched Antimicrobial (2), Stomachache (5), Anti-diarrhea (14) OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D Aromatic water Oral 21 A
Lamiaceae Nepeta supina Steven Makhleseh 848 Leaf and flowering branched Anti-nausea (7) GAS-D Aromatic water Oral 7 A, C
Lamiaceae Nepeta teucriifolia Willd. Poodeneh 837 Leaf and flowering branched Antimicrobial (2), Stomachache (5), Anti-diarrhea (14), Anti-nausea (8), Gastrointestinal pains (4), Carminative (3) OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D Aromatic water Oral 36 A
Lamiaceae Ocimum basilicum L. Reyhan 835 Aerial parts Sore throat (2), Common cold (8), Flavoring of food (16), Digestive (5), Asthma (2) OTH-A, RES-R, -, GAS-D, RES-R Edible, decoction Oral 33 A
Lamiaceae Origanum vulgare L. Mirzangoo 810 Aerial parts Carminative (2), Diuretic (3), Disinfectant (3), Flavoring of food (5) GAS-D, URO-U, OTH-A, OTH-A Decoction, Poultice, mixed with food Oral, Topical 13 A, C
Lamiaceae Rydingia persica (Burm.f.) Scheen &V.A.Albort Golder 822 Leaf, Flower Reduce blood sugar (26), Liver diseases (10), Leaving addiction (28), Bone and joints pains (69), Bone tonic (68), Body tonic (52), Relaxing (1) MET-T,GAS-D, NER-N, SKE-L, SKE-L, OTH-A, NER-N Decoction Oral 254 B, C
Lamiaceae Salvia compressa Vent. Morporzou 806 Aerial parts Stomachache (47), Anti-diarrhea (25), Gastric discomfort (20), Women infection (18) GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GYN-X Decoction Oral 110 A
Lamiaceae Salvia leriifolia Benth. Nowroozak 807 Foliage Carminative (5), Stomach tonic (9) GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction Oral 14 A, C
Lamiaceae Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. Mooreshk 812 Seed Menstrual disorders (13), Leaving addiction (16), Anti-diarrhea (5), Antibacterial (4), Carminative (2), Reduce blood sugar (4), Wound healing (7), Blood purifier (1), Respiratory infection (2), Expectorant (3) GYN-X, NER-N, GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D, MET-T, DER-S, CAR-K, RES-R, RES-R Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 56 A
Lamiaceae Salvia mirzayanii Rech.f. & Esfand. Mourporzoo 814 Leaf and young branches Stomachache (54), Leaving addiction (11), Anti-diarrhea (46), Women infection (6) GAS-D, NER-N, GAS-D, GYN-X Decoction, Poultice Oral 117 A
Lamiaceae Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl Gole moureshk 831 Leaf Antifungal (5) OTH-A Decoction Oral 5 A, C
Lamiaceae Stachys inflata Benth. Gole moorshak 805 Leaf and flower Febrifuge (4), Body tonic (4), Anti-inflammatory (4), Respiratory ailments (2) OTH-A, OTH-A, SKE-L, RES-R Decoction Oral 14 A
Lamiaceae Teucrium polium L. Kalpooreh 819 Leaf and young branches Menstrual disorders (17), Bone pain (21), Child diarrhea (58), Stomachache (70), Febrifuge (34), Carminative (15), Reduce rheumatic pain (2), Anti-nausea (4), Anti-diarrhea (16), Reduce blood sugar (3), Gastrointestinal infection (20) GYN-X, SKE-L, GAS-D, GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D, SKE-L, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction Oral 260 A
Lamiaceae Teucrium scordium L. Maryamgoli 815 Flowering branches Stomachache (17) GAS-D Decoction Oral 17 A,
Lamiaceae Thymus fedtschenkoi Ronneger. Avishan 828 Leaf and flower Cough (102), Expectorant (31), Common cold (55), Antibacterial (20), Sore throat (32) RES-R, RES-R, RES-R, RES-R, OTH-A Decoction Oral 240 A
Lamiaceae Zataria multiflora Boiss. Avishane-shirazi 807 Leaf and young stem Cough (104), Expectorant (36), Common cold (64), Sore throat (43), Antibacterial (32) RES-R, RES-R, RES-R, RES-R, OTH-A Decoction Oral 281 A
Lamiaceae Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. Aghalaleh 804 Leaf and flower Flavoring of food (30), Common cold (20), Nerve tonic (13), Relaxing (15) OTH-A, RES-R, NER-N, NER-N Edible, Decoction Oral 83 A
Lamiaceae Ziziphora tenuior L. Kakooti 803 Aerial parts Gastrointestinal pains (18), Body tonic (9), Stomach tonic (5), Flavoring of food (30) GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D Decoction Oral 62 A
Liliaceae Tulipa biflora Pall. Laleh 1010 Bulb Cough (6) RES-R Powder Oral 6 A
Linaceae Linum album Ky. ex Boiss. Gole-sefidoo 604 Seed Prostate (3), Weight loss (2), Anorexia (4) URO-U, OTH-A, Psy-P Infusion Oral 14 B, C
Linaceae Linum usitatissimum L. Ketan 606 Seed Prostate (3), Weight loss (2), Anorexia (4) URO-U, OTH-A, Psy-P Infusion Oral 9 A, C
Lythraceae Lawsonia inermis L. Hana 1020 Leaf Jaundice (63), Fingernail and hair tonic (57), Eczema (18), Burn scar (21) GAS-D, DER-S, DER-S, DER-S Bath, Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 164 A
Root Diuretic (3), Bronchitis (2) DER-S, RES-R Decoction Oral
Lythraceae Punica granatum L. Anar 1021 Peel skin Stomach ulcers (35), Wound healing (32), Sore throat (10) GAS-D, DER-S, OTH-A Poultice, Decoction, Powder Oral, Topical 77 A
Malvaceae Althaea aucheri Boiss. Khatmi 584 Leaf Laxative (30), Cough (3), Antihypertensive (7), Jaundice (15), Skin discomfort (8) GAS-D, RES-R, CAR-K, GAS-D, DER-S Maceration Oral 63 A
Malvaceae Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori. Pootoorak 570 Stem Cough (2) RES-R Decoction Oral 2 B, C
Malvaceae Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Chay torsh 571 Leaf Antihypertensive (10) CAR-K Decoction Oral 10 A, C
Malvaceae Malva microcarpa Pers. Khatmi 574 Seed, Leaf Pain relief (13), Anti-inflammatory (10), Disinfectant (3), Jaundice (19), Infectious wound (6) NER-N, SKE-L, OTH-A, GAS-D, DER-S Decoction, Maceration, Poultice Oral, Topical 51 A
Malvaceae Malva neglecta Wallr. Khatmi sefid 575 Seed, Leaf Diuretic (5), Anti-inflammatory (3) URO-U, SKE-L Maceration Oral 8 A, C
Malvaceae Malva sylvestris L. Khatmi 577 Seed, Leaf Heatstroke (4), Febrifuge (4), Mouth and throat protuberance (5), Cough (6), OTH-A, OTH-A, GAS-D, RES-R, Maceration Oral 19 A
 Menispermaceae Cocculus pendulus (J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) Diels Pichakoo 1030 Leaf Febrifuge (9) OTH-A Decoction Oral 9 B, C
Moraceae Ficus carica L. Anjir 1040 Fruit, Leaf Constipation (5), Memory improvement (3), Common cold (5), Sore throat (6) GAS-D, NER-N, RES-R, OTH-A Infusion Oral 19 B, C
Moraceae Ficus johannis Boiss. Anjir-e dalmi 1042 Leaf Stomach tonic (15) GAS-D Decoction Oral 15 B, C
Moraceae Morus alba L. Toot-e sefid 1043 Fruit Reduce blood sugar (2), Relaxing (2), Diuretic (1) MET-T, NER-N, URO-U Edible Oral 11 A
Leaf Febrifuge (3) OTH-A Edible Oral
Stem bark Constipation (3) GAS-D Edible Oral
Moraceae Morus nigra L. Shahtoot 1044 Fruit Common cold (8), Sore throat (7), Urinary infection (2) RES-R, OTH-A, URO-U Syrup Oral 17 A
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Kalitus 1700 Leaf Common cold (28), Respiratory ailments (22), Disinfectant (3) RES-R, RES-R, OTH-A Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 54 A
Myrtaceae Myrtus communis L. Moordaneh 1050 Leaf, Seed Common cold (14), Relaxing (3), Removing the armpit odor (5) RES-R, NER-N, OTH-A Decoction Oral, Topical 22 A
Myrtaceae Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Jam1051 Ash of Leaf and seed Blood purifier (4), Gastric discomfort (4) OTH-A, GAS-D Burnt ash Oral 8 B, C
Nitrariaceae Peganum harmala L. Esfand 1060 Fruit, Seed Disinfectant (52), Reduce rheumatic pain (2), Reduce blood sugar (9), bruise (18) OTH-A, SKE-L, MET-T, SKE-L Poultice, Decoction Topical, Oral 81 A
Oleaceae Jasminum officinale L. Yas sefid 1065 Flower Antivirus (2), Relaxing (6) OTH-A, NER-N Infusion Oral 8 B, C
Oleaceae Olea europaea L. Zeytoon 1066 Leaf, Fruit Antihypertensive (21), Bone and joint pains (5), Appetizing (2), Urinary, (5), Hair tonic (3) CAR-K, DER-S, SKE-L, OTH-A, URO-U Decoction, Oil, Pickle Oral, Topical 61 A
Leaf, Fruit Antibacterial (4) OTH-A Decoction, Poultice Topical, Oral
Oil Reduce blood sugar (5), Remove bur from skin (16) MET-T, DER-S Oil, Poultice Topical, Oral
Oleaceae Syringa persica L. Yas 1069 Stem bark, Fruit Relaxing (3) NER-N Infusion Oral 3 B, C
Onagraceae Epilobium angustifolium L. Bid alafi 1070 Leaf and seed Pesticide (4), Anti-inflammation of mucosa and mouth (6), Wound healing (9), Heart tonic (8), Febrifuge (7) OTH-A, OTH-A, DER-S, CAR-K, OTH-A Decoction Oral 34 A
Onagraceae Epilobium hirsutum L. Bid alafi korkee 1072 Leaf, Root Relaxing (5) NER-N Infusion Oral 5 B, C
Orobancheaceae Orobanche ramosa L. Poor 1080 Stem Stomachache (19) GAS-D Edible, Decoction Oral 19 B, C
Papaveraceae Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley. Shatereh 1090 Leaf and young branches Anti-diarrhea (5), Anti-nausea (4), Stomachache (5) GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction Oral 14 A
Papaveraceae Fumaria officinalis L. Shatreh 1091 Foliage Blood purifier (6) OTH-A Infusion Oral 6 A, C
Papaveraceae Fumaria parviflora Lam. Shatereh 1093 Leaf and young branches Anti-diarrhea (3), Anti-nausea (4), Stomachache (4), Blood purifier (6), Diuretic (3), Cutaneous itching (5) GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, OTH-A, URO-U, DER-S Decoction Oral 25 A
Papaveraceae Fumaria vaillantii Loisel. Shatereh1095 Leaf and young branches Anti-diarrhea (3), Anti-nausea (4), Stomachache (4) GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction Oral 11 B, C
Papaveraceae Hypecoum pendulum L. Shatereh 1096 Root, Leaf Cough (3), Anti-diarrhea (2) RES-R, GAS-D Decoction Oral 5 B, C
Papaveraceae Papaver dubium L. Taryakoo 1098 Bulb, Leaf Eczema (3), Acne (4), Anti-inflammatory (5), Bronchitis (6), Cough (5), Pain relief (3) DER-S, DER-S, SKE-L, RES-R, RES-R, NER-N Mixed with vinegar, Decoction Topical, Oral 32 B, C
Papaveraceae Roemeria hybrida (L.) DC. Shagayeg 1099 Flower Pain relief (9) NER-N Decoction Oral 9 B, C
Pedalicaceae Sesamum indicum L. Konjed 1140 Seed Prevention of hair loss (24),
Blood fat (5)
DER-S, Blood-B Decoction, Oil Oral, Topical 29 A
Plantaginaceae Plantago amplexicaulis Cav. Tangbar 491 Leaf, Seed Wound healing (5), Allergy (3), Heatstroke (2), Infectious disease (3), Stomachache (2), Respiratory ailments (2) DER-S, OTH-A, OTH-A, OTH-A, GAS-D, RES-R Poultice, Decoction Topical, Oral 17 B, C
Plantaginaceae Plantago ciliata Desf. Kowchak 493 Leaf, Seed Antibacterial (4), Burns (9), Anti-inflammatory (2), Constipation (3) OTH-A, DER-S, SKE-L, GAS-D Poultice, Decoction, Syrup Topical, Oral 13 A
Plantaginaceae Plantago gentianoides Sm. Tangbar 494 Leaf, Seed Constipation (5), Anti-inflammatory (5), Cough (4) GAS-D, SKE-L, RES-R Decoction Oral 14 B, C
Plantaginaceae Plantago indica L. Kowchak 495 Seed Anti-inflammatory (2), Constipation (3) SKE-L, GAS-D Decoction,
Poultice, Syrup
Topical, Oral 5 B, C
Plantaginaceae Plantago lanceolata L. Kowchak 490 Leaf, Root,Seed Baby jaundice (22), Constipation (18), Blood coagulation (3), Asthma (4), Stomachache (6) OTH-A, GAS-D, Blood-B, RES-R, GAS-D Dressing, Decoction Topical, Oral 40 A
Plantaginaceae Plantago major L. Barhang 492 Aerial parts Dry cough (6), Itchy throat (8), Alzheimer (5), Cancer (2), Anti-inflammatory (3), Baby jaundice (21), Cough (2), Expectorant (4), Burn healing (4) RES-R, RES-R, NER-N, CAN-C, SKE-L, OTH-A, RES-R, RES-R, DER-S Dressing, Decoction Topical, Oral 28 A
Plantaginaceae Plantago ovata Forssk. Tokhm sefid 499 Seed Anti-inflammatory (2), Constipation (3) SKE-L, GAS-D Decoction,
Poultice, Syrup
Topical, Oral 5 B, C
Plantaginaceae Veronica anagallis L. Sizab 489 Aerial parts Stomach tonic (10), Diuretic (7) GAS-D, URO-U Decoction Oral 17 B
Platanaceae Platanus orientalis L. Chenar 487 Fruit, Root, Leaf, Stem bark Acne (3), Snakebite (3), Hoarseness (2) DER-S, DER-S, OTH-A Poultice, Decoction Oral, Topical 8 B, C
Plumbaginaceae Acantholimon scorpius
(Jaub.&Spach) Boiss
Kharposhtoo 511 Root Livestock wound healing (6), Washing powder (10) DER-S, OTH-A Poultice, Powder Topical 16 B, C
Poaceae Avena sativa L. Jow dosar 334 Leaf, Seed Disinfectant (3) OTH-A Decoction Topical 3 B, C
Poaceae Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng. Kaboo 335 Leaf and stem Body tonic (4) OTH-A Decoction Oral 4 B, C
Poaceae Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Marg 337 Aerial parts Anti-diarrhea (3), Asthma (2) GAS-D, RES-R Decoction Oral 8 B, C
Poaceae Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf Kerteh 339 Root Body tonic (4) OTH-A Decoction Oral 4 B, C
Poaceae Hordeum distichon L. Jow 329 Fruit Febrifuge (2), Reducing thirst (3) OTH-A, OTH-A Decoction Oral 7 B, C
Poaceae Hordeum vulgare L. Jow 328 Fruit Reduce blood sugar (3) MET-T Decoction, Oral 7 A
Buds Acne (4) DER-S Mask Topical  
Poaceae Melica persica Kunth Oshlom 325 Aerial parts Washing powder (7) OTH-A Powder - 7 B, C
Poaceae Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Ney 324 Root and Rhizome Breast milk reduction (5) OTH-A Pickle Oral 5 A, C
Poaceae Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. Garch 340 Seed Hair tonic (5), Carminative (2) DER-S, GAS-D Poultice, Decoction Topical, Oral 7 A
Poaceae Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Garch 342 Seed Diuretic (6) URO-U decoction Oral 5 A
Poaceae Triticum aestivum L. Gandom 345 Oil of seed Eczema (6) DER-S Poultice Topical 6 B, C
Poaceae Zea mays L. Zorat 347 Style Kidney stone (27) URO-U Decoction Oral 37 A, C
Polygonaceae Polygonum persicaria L. Bandvash 430 Leaf and flower Asthma (8), Constipation (5) RES-R, GAS-D Infusion, Oil, Aromatic water Oral 13 B, C
Polygonaceae Pteropyrum aucheri Jaub. and Spach Perent 425 Foliage Acne (4), Infectious wounds (5) DER-S, ER-S Poultice Topical 9 B, C
Polygonaceae Rheum ribes L. Rohoo 432 Aerial parts Reduce blood sugar (5), Stomach and liver tonic (3), Appetizing (2), Laxative (6), Blood purifier (3), Vermicide (2), Bone tonic (4), Sight Enhancement (6) MET-T, GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D, OTH-A, GAS-D, SKE-L, EYE-F Decoction Oral 31 B, C
Polygonaceae Rumex crispus L. Torshak 437 Aerial parts Laxative (4), Acute pulmonary embolism (7), Detoxificant of body (5) GAS-D, RES-R, GAS-D Decoction Oral 16 B, C
Polygonaceae Rumex vesicarius L. Torshak 438 Laef and petiole Reduce blood sugar (2) GAS-D Vegetable Oral 2 A
Portulacaceae Portulaca oleracea L. Gholfeh 561 Leaf, Seed Stomach tonic (1), Reducing thirst (2), Febrifuge (1), Cough (6), Blood purifier (12) GAS-D, -, OTH-A, RES-R, OTH-A Vegetable Oral 21 B, C
Primulaceae Anagallis arvensis L. Delpasand 1145 Aerial parts Liver cysts (4), Urinary stones (4) GAS-D, URO-U Infusion Oral 8 A
Primulaceae Lysimachia maritima (L.) Galasso, Banfi & Soldano. Shabdari 1147 Whole plant Antispasmodic (5), Bronchitis (3) NER-N, RES-R Decoction Oral 8 B, C
Primulaceae Primula capitellata Boiss. Pamchoo1149 Root and flower Vermicide (4), Antispasmodic (8) GAS-D, NER-N Aromatic water Oral 12 B, C
Primulaceae Samolus valerandi L. Alaf 1150 Aerial parts Body tonic (4) OTH-A Decoction Oral 4 A
Pteridaceae Adiantum capillus-veneris L. Siahlengoo 1170 Leaf Common cold (49), Expectorant (51), Relaxing (3), Menstrual disorders (2), Earache (3) RES-R, RES-R, NER-N, GYN-X, Ear-H Decoction Oral 110 A, C
Ranunculaceae Adonis aestivalis L. Chashm gargavol 1180 Whole plant Anti-inflammatory (5) SKE-L Decoction Oral 5 B, C
Ranunculaceae Adonis microcarpa DC. Chashm gargavo 1182 Flower Anti-inflammatory (3) SKE-L Decoction Oral 3 B, C
Ranunculaceae Anemone biflora DC. Shagayeg neman1185 Flower Common cold (6) RES-R Decoction Oral 6 B, C
Ranunculaceae Clematis ispahanica Boiss. Chaspakoo 1187 Aerial parts Diuretic (3), Joint pain (3), Headache (3), Eczema and psoriasis (3) URO-U, SKE-L, NER-N, DER-S Decoction Oral 12 A
Ranunculaceae Consolida rugulosa (Boiss.) Schrödinger Zaban mooshoo 1189 Aerial parts Anti-inflammatory (4) SKE-L Decoction Oral 4 B, C
Ranunculaceae Nigella sativa L. Siahdaneh 1190 Seed Blood pressure (7), Blood fat (7), Asthma (2) CAR-K, Blood-B, RES-R Infusion Oral 16 B, C
Ranunculaceae Ranunculus arvensis L. Alaleh 1192 Flower Urinary disease (3) URO-U Aromatic water Oral 3 B, C
Ranunculaceae Ranunculus muricatus L. Alaleh 1193 Root, Leaf, Flower Skin diseases (2) DER-S Poultice Topical 2 B, C
Ranunculaceae Thalictrum minus L. Sadabi 1195 Aerial parts Gastric discomfort (4) GAS-D Decoction Oral 4 A
Resedaceae Ochradenus aucheri Boiss. Kolirim1200 Leaf Parasite repellent (2), Wound healing (3) GAS-D Decoction, Poultice Oral 5 B, C
Resedaceae Reseda aucheri Boiss. Varas 1205 Leaf Laxative (1), Diuretic (3) Reducing thirst (3) GAS-D, URO-U, OTH-A Decoction, Row Oral 5 B, C
Rhamnaceae Rhamnus persica Boiss. & Hohen Titoomari 1210 Fruit Anti-diarrhea (11) GAS-D Decoction Oral 11 B, C
Rhamnaceae Rhamnus prostrata Jacq. Titoomari 1211 Fruit Anti-diarrhea (5) GAS-D Decoction Oral 5 B, C
Rhamnaceae Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C. Johnst. Ch Bastel 215 Fruit Laxative (2), Blood purifier (2) GAS-D, CAR-K Decoction Oral 4 A
Rhamnaceae Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Annab 1218 Fruit Bronchitis (3), Common cold (4), Laxative (20) RES-R, RES-R, GAS-D Infusion, Edible Oral 24 B, C
Rhamnaceae Ziziphus nummularia (Burn.f.)Wight & Am. Konar 1220 Leaf Common cold (3), Antimicrobial (1) RES-R, OTH-A Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 4 A
Rhamnaceae Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. Konar 1221 Leaf, Fruit Stomach tonic (5), Hair tonic (4), Infectious tuber (2), Skin rash (7) GAS-D, DER-S, DER-S, DER-S Eat as fruit, Poultice, Shampoo Oral, Topical 18 A
Rosaceae Agrimonia eupatoria L. Ghafes 370 Aerial parts Wound healing (18), Fatty liver (8), Anti-diarrhea (7) DER-S, GAS-D, GAS-D Poultice, Decoction Topical, Oral 33 A, C
Rosaceae Amygdalus elaeagnifolia
Spach
Arjan 372 Stem, Fruit Nuts (18), Eczema (7) OTH-A, DER-S burning of semi dried wood, Edible Oral,Topdical 25 B, C
Rosaceae Amygdalus wendelboi Freitag Archen 373 Latex Eczema (4), Bone and joint pains (3) DER-S Latex of burning stem Topical 7 B, C
Rosaceae Cotoneaster kotschyi (C.K.Schneid.) G.Klotz Siahchoo 375 Latex, Leaf Jaundice (5), Constipation (6), Dry cough(4) GAS-D, GAS-D, RES-R Infusion Oral 15 A
Rosaceae Crataegus ambigua C.A.Mey. ex A.K.Becker Kalkouhi 365 Leaf, fruit,
Flower
Relaxing (5), Spasms (4), Cardiac distress (4), Hypertension (4), Anti-diarrhea (7) NER-N, NER-N, CAR-K, CAR-K, GAS-D Decoction, Salad Oral 24 B, C
Rosaceae Crataegus azarolus L. KalKoohi 380 Leaf and fruit Antihypertensive (6), Relaxing (11), Antispasmodic (10), Cardiac distress (5) CAR-K, NER-N, NER-N, CAR-K Decoction Oral 32 A
Rosaceae Crataegus meyeri Pojark. Kalkouhi 381 Leaf, fruit,
Flower
Relaxing (5), Spasms (4), Cardiac distress (4), Antihypertensive (4)   Decoction Oral 17 B, C
Rosaceae Cydonia oblonga Mill. Beh 351 Seed Sore throat (4) OTH-A Decoction Oral 4 B, C
Rosaceae Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb Badam-e shirin 353 Seed Hair tonic (5), Preventing of hair loss (9) DER-S, DER-S Oil Topical 14 B, C
Rosaceae Prunus eburnea (Spach) Aitch. & Hemsl. Archen 354 Fruit, Gum Bone and joint pains (6), Allergies (5), Hair tonic (3) OTH-A, DER-S Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 14 B, C
Rosaceae Prunus lycioides (Spach) C.K.Schneid. Badame koohi 355 Leaf and fruit Preventing of hair loss (5) DER-S Poultice, Oil Topical 8 B, C
Rosaceae Prunus mahaleb L. Mahlab 356 Leaf bark Relaxing (5), Liver cysts (4), Parasite repellent (4), Joint pain (4) NER-N, GAS-D, GAS-D, SKE-L Decoction, dressing Oral, Topical 17 A
Rosaceae Prunus orientalis (Mill.) Koehne Archen 357 Fruit Bone and joint pains (6), Allergies (5), hair tonic (3) OTH-A, DER-S Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 14 B, C
Rosaceae Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Holo 358 Fruit Laxative (6) GAS-D Nuts, Maceration Oral 6 B, C
Rosaceae Prunus scoparia (Spach) C.K.Schneid. Badam-e koohi 376 Seed Anti-dandruff (29), Preventing of hair loss (27), Earache (3), Health and beauty of the skin (8), Cancer prevention (3), Burned wound healing (4) DER-S, DER-S, Ear-H, DER-S, CAN-C, DER-S Poultice, Nut, Oil Topical, Oral 74 B
Stem bark Stomach tonic (4) GAS-D Decoction Oral
Rosaceae Prunus avium (L.) L. Gilas 378 Pedicel Kidney stone (7) URO-U Decoction Oral 24 A, C
Rosaceae Prunus cerasus L. Albaloo 359 Pedicel Kidney stone (5) URO-U Decoction Oral 5 A, C
Rosaceae Rosa beggeriana Schrenk ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey. Roz sefid 360 Flower Stomach tonic (5), Relaxing (8) GAS-D, NER-N Decoction Oral 13 B, C
Rosaceae Rosa canina L. Korrik 362 Leaf, Flower, Fruit Relaxing (5) NER-N Decoction Oral 5 B, C
Rosaceae Rosa damascena Herrm. Gole mohammadi 374 Flower Flavoring of food (8), Laxative (25), Nervous tonic (43) OTH-A, GAS-D, NER-N Aromatic water Oral 76 B, C
Rosaceae Rosa moschata Herrm. Korrik 377 Flower Nervous tonic (3) NER-N Decoction Oral 3 B, C
Rosaceae Rubus caesius L. Saghder 371 Leaf, Fruit Laxative (14) GAS-D Decoction, Syrup Oral 14 A
Rosaceae Sanguisorba minor Scop. Gheytaran 379 Fruit Common cold (3), Relaxing (4), Cough (4), Jaundice (5), Toothache (6) RES-R, NER-N, NER-N, GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction Oral 32 A
Rubiaceae Plocama aucheri (Guill.) M.Backlund & Thulin Khargo l520 Foliage Bone and joint pain (3), Reduce rheumatic pain (2), Reduce blood sugar (3), Digestive (3) SKE-L, SKE-L, MET-T, GAS-D Decoction, Infusion, Poultice Topical, Oral 11 B, C
Rubiaceae Rubia albicaulis Boiss. Roonask 523 Fruit Bone tonic (4), Constipation (3) SKE-L, GAS-D Decoction, Infusion Oral 7 B, C
Rubiaceae Rubia tinctorum L. Roonask 524 Root Bone tonic (4), Constipation (3) SKE-L, GAS-D Decoction, Infusion Oral 7 B, C
Rutaceae Citrus aurantium L. Nareng 527 Flower Anti-diarrhea (5), Relaxing (8), Eye diseases (8), Traditional kohl (3) GAS-D, NER-N, EYE-F Decoction, Kohl Oral 24 B, C
Rutaceae Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck Limoo torsh 528 Fruit, Seed Eye diseases (15), Traditional kohl (3) EYE-F Juice, Kohl Eye Drop 18 B, C
Rutaceae Haplophyllum robustum Bunge Sadoo 530 Aerial parts Gastric discomfort (1) GAS-D Decoction Oral 1 B, C
Rutaceae Haplophyllum tuberculatum Juss. Gahich 531 Aerial parts Febrifuge (2), Headache (2) GAS-D, NER-N Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 4 A
Rutaceae Ruta graveolens L. Soddab 535 Leaf Urinary stone (6) URO-U Decoction Oral 6 A
Salicaceae Populus alba L. Sepidar 600 Stem bark and leaf Blood purifier (4), Pain relief (3) OTH-A, NER-N Decoction Oral 7 A
Salicaceae Populus euphratica Oliv. Senewbar 601 Stem bark Parasite repellent (7) GAS-D Decoction   4 A
Salicaceae Salix aegyptiaca L. Beedmeshk 605 Inflorescence Laxative (3), Anti-diarrhea (2), Gastrointestinal pains (2), Menstruation pains (3) GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GYN-X Decoction, Aromatic water Oral 10 A
Salicaceae Salix alba L. Beed 606 Stem bark, Leaf Febrifuge (21), Common cold (6) OTH-A, RES-R Decoction, Aromatic water Oral 27 A
Salvadoraceae Salvadora oleoides Decne. Pir 1230 Fruit Appetizing (7), Laxative (4), Parasite repellent (10), Hemorrhoids (4), Bronchitis (3) OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D, CAR-K, RES-R Decoction, Edible Oral 28 B, C
Salvadoraceae Salvadora persica L. Chooch1231 Fruit Appetizing (5), Expectorant (8) OTH-A, RES-R Decoction, Edible Oral 15 B, C
Scrophulariaceae Scrophularia scopolii Hoppe ex Pers. Makhleseh 842 Young stem, Fruit Waist pain (3), Respiratory diseases (2) OTH-A, SKE-L Poultice, Decoction Topical, Oral 5 A, C
Scrophulariaceae Scrophularia striata Boiss. Makhleseh 840 Fruit Gastric discomfort (2), Respiratory diseases (2), Waist pain (3), Wound healing (2) GAS-D, RES-R, OTH-A, DER-S Poultice, Decoction Oral, Topical 9 A, C
Solanaceae Datura stramonium L. Tatooreh 1250 Leaf, Seed Sexual tonic (6), Bone and join pains (8), Reduce rheumatic pain (5), Asthma (5), Cough (4), Burn (5) OTH-A, SKE-L, SKE-L, RES-R, RES-R, DER-S Decoction, Poultice Oral, Topical 33 B, C
Solanaceae Hyoscyamus reticulatus L. Bonji 1255 Aerial parts Pain relief (9), Leaving addiction (9), Narcotic (15) NER-N, NER-N, RES-R Infusion Oral 33 A, C
Solanaceae Hyoscyamus senecionis Willd. Bangdaneh 1256 Flower Pain relief (8) NER-N Decoction Oral 8 A, C
Solanaceae Hyoscyamus squarrosus Griff. Bangdaneh 1257 Whole plant Pain relief (8) NER-N Decoction Oral 8 A, C
Solanaceae Lycium barbarum L. Zeel 1260 Fruit Sleeplessness (4) NER-N Eat as fruit Oral 8 B, C
Solanaceae Lycium depressum Stocks Zeel 1261 Fruit Anticonvulsant  (11) OTH-A, NER-N Decoction Oral 11 B
Solanaceae Lycium shawii Roem. & Schult. Dahir1262 Leaf Vision enhancement (2) EYE-F Crashed Juice Topical 2 B, C
Solanaceae Physalis alkekengi L. Aroosak-e posht-e pardeh 1265 Fruit Kidney diseases (3), Laxative (5), Expectorant (2) OTH-A, GAS-D, RES-R Edible Oral 10 B, C
Solanaceae Solanum nigrum var.villosum L. Roopas 1268 Fruit Febrifuge (6), Blood coagulation (5), Pain relief (4) OTH-A, Blood-B, NER-N Decoction Oral 15 A
Solanaceae Solanum lycopersicum L. Gewjeh 1251 Fruit Infectious wounds (5) DER-S Poultice Topical 5 B, C
Solanaceae Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal Kahkenj 1270 Aerial parts Nerve tonic (5) NER-N Decoction Oral 5 A
Tamaricaceae Tamarix aphylla  (L.) Karst. Koor gaz 1350 Latex of burning stem Eczema (16), Skin disease (8) DER-S, DER-S Poultice Topical 24 B, C
Tamaricaceae Tamarix kotschyi Bunge Gole kist 1351 Latex of burning stem Eczema (16), Skin disease (8) DER-S, DER-S Poultice Topical 24 B, C
1Thymelaeaceae Daphne mucronata Royale Terveet 704 Leaf Influenza (3), Arthritis (3), Blood cancer (1) MET-T, RES-R, SKE-L, CAN-C Decoction, Dressing Oral, Topical 7 A
Thymelaeaceae Daphne oleoides Schreb. Terveet 705 Foliage Traditional dyeing (10), Natural color for textile (10) OTH-A, OTH-A Decoction, Fume - 24 B, C
  Foliage Constipation (4) GAS-D Decoction Oral
Thymelaeaceae Daphne stapfii Bornm.& Keisslere. Terveet 706 Fruit Influenza (3), Arthritis (3) MET-T, RES-R, SKE-L Decoction, Fume, Poultice Oral, Inhale, Topical 6 B, C
Thymelaeaceae Diarthron lessertii (Wikstr.) Kit Tan Gole bidi 708 Leaf and flowering branches Stomachache (2), Stomach and liver tonic (2), Arthritis (2) GAS-D, GAS-D, SKE-L Aromatic water, Poultice Oral, Topical 6 B, C
Urticaceae Parietaria judaica L. Gooshe Moosh 323 Leaf and flower Diuretic (3), Acute pulmonary embolism (4) URO-U, RES-R Decoction Oral 7 B, C
Urticaceae Urtica dioica L. Soosonakoo 320 Leaf and flower Urinary stone (7), Reduce blood sugar (4) URO-U, MET-T Infusion Oral 11 A
Urticaceae Urtica urens L. Soosonakoo 321 Aerial parts Febrifuge (5), Gastrointestinal pains (4), Relaxing (2), Anti parasite (2), Toothache(3) OTH-A, GAS-D, NER-N, GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction, Aromatic water Oral 15 B, C
Violaceae Viola odorata L. Gol-e banafsheh 1370 Leaf and flower Laxative (8), Chronic cough (5), Expectorant (3) GAS-D, RES-R, RES-R Decoction Oral 16 B, C
Verbenaceae Verbena officinalis L. Shahpasand 1380 Aerial parts Febrifuge (3), Nerve tonic (7) OTH-A, NER-N Poultice, Decoction Topical 10 A
Vitaceae Vitis vinifera L. Maviz 1390 Dried Fruit Memory improvement (5) NER-N Nuts Oral 5 A
Xanthorrhoeaceae Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. Alovera 1500 glazed materials Diabetic wound (7), Eczema (22) DER-S, DER-S Poultice Topical 29 A
Xanthorrhoeaceae Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav. Peemazoo1505 Seed Diuretic (15) URO-U Decoction Oral 17 A
Root Herbal adhesive (2) OTH-A Crushed extract -
Xanthorrhoeaceae Eremurus kopetdaghensis M.Pop.ex B.Fedtsch. Horishoo 1510 Root, Leaf and flower Herbal adhesive (4), Vegetable (8), Jaundice (6), Liver Disease (5), Disinfectant (4) OTH-A, OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D, OTH-A Vegetable, Decoction. Poultice Topical, Oral 27 B, C
Xanthorrhoeaceae Eremurus persicus (Jaub. & Spach) Boiss. Serishoo 1511 Leaf and flower Flavoring of food (15), Laxative (6), Herbal adhesive (4), Vegetable (7), Disinfectant (3), Jaundice (6), Liver and kidney Disease (2) OTH-A, GAS-D, OTH-A, OTH-A, OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D Powder, Vegetable, Decoction. Poultice Topical, Oral 52 B, C
Root Liver and stomach discomfort (31) GAS-D Powder Oral
Zygophyllaceae Fagonia bruguieri DC. Alaf kharoo 1550 Aerial parts Appetizing (2), Vermicide (2), Carminative (5) OTH-A, GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction, infusion Oral 9 A
Zygophyllaceae Tribulus terrestris L. Kharkhesak 1555 Aerial parts Kidney stone (43) URO-U Decoction Oral 43 A
Zygophyllaceae Zygophyllum eurypterum Boiss. & Buhse. Gich 1560 Seed Lactiferous (4), Anti-nausea (3), Stomach tonic (4), Laxative (4), Vermicide (3) PRE-W, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction Oral 18 B, C
Zygophyllaceae Zygophyllum fabago L. Gich 1561 Seed Lactiferous (4), Anti-nausea (3), Stomach tonic (4), Laxative (4), Vermicide (3) PRE-W, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D, GAS-D Decoction Oral 18 B, C
  1. C: indicate the medicinal plants which reported in this region for the first. A: indicate the ethno-medicinal uses of the medicinal plants which quoted in the in the Persian ethnobotany, B: was not quoted in the in the Persian ethnobotany.