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Table 2 Pangolin’s items used in traditional medecine and spiritual practices in Benin. Spiritual purposes are in bold. Use report (UR), International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and Use Value (UV)

From: Ethnozoological and commercial drivers of the pangolin trade in Benin

Items Conditions treated UR ICD UV
Scales Physical strength, oedema, cough, hiccups, rheumatism, convulsion of new born, pharyngitis, healing wound, snake bite, measles, man dominance in household, healing fire burns, defeating the opponent in case of litigation, facilitate delivery, infertility, scabies, sexual bewitchment, ringworm, joint pain, stomach aches, vigour of new born, breast cancer, dizziness, heart palpitations, late infantile spinal muscular atrophy, osteoarthritis and asthma 56 14 1.56
Tongue Stomach aches, pneumonia, hip pain, developmental language disorders, protection against sexual bewitchment, Epilepsy, incantation, defeating the opponent in case of litigation, sterility, thief sickness and stop women’s infidelity 12 7 0.33
Bones Hiccups, cough, osteoarthritis, healing wound, ataxia, asthma, coxarthrosis, developmental language disorders and late infantile spinal muscular atrophy. 11 6 0.31
Head Oedema, pharyngitis, epilepsy, defeating the opponent in case of litigation, vigour of new born, unnatural power and luck 9 5 0.25
Xiphisternum Impotence, sexual bewitchment 4 2 0.11
Blood Asthma and convulsion of new born 3 2 0.08
Heart Man dominance in household 1 1 0.03