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Table 1 Fermented foods collected during the fermentation course. Fermentation time categories are listed as “Finished” if active fermentation was halted prior to consumption; those samples listed as “End” were not fermented to completion, but are the last chronological sample we collected within a food item. “Cumulative hours fermented” represent the total time that a food item was fermented. For example, the koji rice sake was fermented for 25.5 h beyond the koji rice that was used as an ingredient. An * indicates fa ood samples for which we were not able to determine an exact count of hours fermented

From: On pickles: biological and sociocultural links between fermented foods and the human gut microbiome

Sample ID Food category Ferment Food item Fermentation time category Hours fermented Cumulative hours fermented
SK001 Bean Acaraje Acaraje Finished * *
SK002 Dosa Dosa Finished 24 24
SK003 Dairy Goat Milk Goat milk Start 0 0
SK011 Kefir Kefir grain Starter Starter culture Starter culture
SK006 Kefir chèvre Start 0 0
SK008 Early 8 8
SK009 Late (curd) 24 26.5
SK010 Late (whey) 24 26.5
SK007 Finished (curd) 26.5 26.5
SK044 Yogurt Yogurt Start 0 0
SK045 Finished 8 8
SK050 Grain Buckwheat batter Buckwheat batter Finished * *
SK004 Injera Injera Early 3 3
SK005 Finished 48 48
SK015 Koji Koji barley Start 0 0
SK017 Early 8 8
SK016 Finished 24 24
SK018 Koji barley miso Start 0 31
SK019 Early 8 43
SK022 Koji rice Start 0 0
SK024 Middle 8 8
SK023 Late 24 24
SK025 Finished 34 34
SK031 Koji rice sake Start 0 34
SK033 End 25.5 59.5
SK035 Koji rice shio Start 0 34
SK036 Koji rice shoyu Start 0 34
SK034 Salt rise bread Salt rise bread Finished ~ 24* ~ 24*
SK041 Tempeh Tempeh Start 0 0
SK043 Early 8 8
SK042 Finished 24 24
SK012 Salted vegetables Kimchi Kimchi Start 0 0
SK014 Early 8 8
SK013 End 24 24
SK028 Pao cai Pao cai Early 0 8
SK026 Early 8 8
SK027 Early 8 8
SK030 Early 8 16
SK029 End 24 32
SK067 Sauerkraut Sauerkraut End (brine) * *
SK065 End (cabbage) * *
SK037 Sugared vegetables Sweet potato fly Sweet potato fly Start 0 0
SK040 Early 17 17
SK038 Middle 24.5 24.5
SK039 Late 36 36