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Table 2 Ethnomedicinal plant used to treat human diseases in District Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

From: Exploration of ethnomedicinal plants and their practices in human and livestock healthcare in Haripur District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

S. no Taxonomic name/ family, voucher no Local name Locality Life habit/life span Part used Diseases treated Ethnomedicinal recipes Quantitative indices
1 Achyranthus aspera L. (Amaranthaceae), 04-Z Puth-Kanda, Lehndi Booti Choi H P RT Tonsillitis External application of fresh root paste for one week twice a day 12 0.15 70 0.87
2 Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Simaroubaceae), 06-Z Darawa Dartian T P BA Dysentery and Diarrhea Bark Juice (½ cup) mixed with milk and taken 13 0.16 64 0.8
3 Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), 07-Z Thoom Khanpur H B BB High blood pressure Two bulbs are eaten with a meal 15 0.18 42 0.52
4 Althaea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), 10-Z Khatmi Jabri H A LE Cough and tonsillitis One cup of seed or leaf tea is used thrice a day 23 0.28 45 0.56
5 Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), 12-Z Afsanteen Joulian H P TW Hepatitis 10-g twigs powdered with water are taken thrice times a day 22 0.27 25 0.31
6 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae), 13-Z Nim Pakshai T P FR Diabetes Powder (1 spoon) form of fruit with water, orally everyday 13 0.16 35 0.43
7 Bauhinia variegata L. (Fabaceae; subfamily Caesalpinioidea), 14-Z Kalyarh, Kachnar Garam thoon T P FL Stomach Tonic Young flowers are cooked as a vegetable and eaten 14 0.17 62 0.77
8 Boerhavia diffusa L. (Nyctaginaceae), 17-Z It-sit Barkot H P LE Diabetes and jaundice Decoction of leaves is taken 16 0.2 17 0.21
9 Caralluma edulis (Edgew.) Benth. ex Hook.f. (Apocynaceae), 23-Z Chong Karwali H P ST Diabetes One cup of stem juice is taken thrice times a day 29 0.36 65 0.81
10 Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don (Apocynaceae), 29-Z Sadabahar Bagra H p LE Wasp-sting Leaf juice is applied 12 0.15 66 0.82
11 Celtis australis auct. non L. (Ulmaceae), 30-Z Batkhar Najafpur T P FR Stomach problems 10 g of fruit powdered is taken with water 13 0.16 24 0.3
12 Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae), 37-Z Kasni Kotla H P RT Stomach problem Grinded root is taken 12 0.15 15 0.18
13 Cissampelos pareira L. (Menispermaceae), 42-Z Phalaan jarhi, Ghora-sum Dhuniya C P LE Wounds Leaves are crushed and applied 14 0.17 36 0.45
14 Colebrookea oppositifolia Sm. (Lamiaceae), 44-Z Shakardana Dhuniya S P LE Cough Leaves are chewed 13 0.16 34 0.42
15 Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae), 58-Z Datura Dara H A FL, LE Bleeding piles Powdered flowers and leaves are used as an ointment 12 0.15 35 0.43
16 Diospyros lotus L. (Ebenaceae), 60-Z Amlok Shah kabul T P FR Chest phlegm Fruit is eaten 16 0.2 19 0.23
17 Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Myrtaceae), 67-Z Gond Khanpur T P RE Cuts and wounds Resin is applied externally 13 0.16 25 0.31
18 Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), 78-Z Anjeer Ranjha T P FR Blood deficiency Fruit is eaten 25 0.31 32 0.4
19 Ficus palmata Forssk. (Moraceae), 79-Z Phagwari Ranjha T P FR Blood deficiency and abdominal problems The fruit is left in the water overnight and eaten as a first food in the morning 13 0.16 45 0.56
20 Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae), 120-Z Khabazi Kohala H B LE Chest infection and asthma One cup of leaf tea is taken 2–3 times a day 13 0.16 32 0.4
21 Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae), 131-Z Chita podna Bhamala H P LE Fever, dysentery and vomiting Leaf tea is used 13 0.16 24 0.3
22 Myrsine africana L. (Primulaceae), 148-Z khokonr Najafpur S P FR Anthelmintic Fruit is eaten 13 0.16 35 0.43
23 Nasturtium officinaleW.T.Aiton (Brassicaceae), 155-Z Tara meera Chaskalawaan H P LE Constipation, diuretic and obesity Cooked vegetable of leaves is eaten 6 0.07 62 0.77
24 Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae), 174-Z Niaz-bo Desra H A LE Skin care Leaf juice is applied 16 0.2 32 0.4
25 Olea ferruginea Royle (Oleaceae), 186-Z Kaho Garam thoon T P LE Skin pimples Leaf tea is used 23 0.28 45 0.56
27 Oxalis corniculata L. (Oxalidaceae), 197-Z Khat-matra Halli H A LE Skin inflammations Powdered leaves are applied as a poultice 12 0.15 34 0.42
28 Papaver somniferum L. (Papaveraceae), 202-Z Khashkhash Halli H A FR Chest infection and cough Tea of dried fruit is taken 11 0.13 45 0.56
29 Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae), 212-Z Chir Bagla T P RE Skin problems Resin is applied externally 13 0.16 25 0.31
30 Pistacia chinensis subsp. integerrima (J.L.Stewart) Rech.f. (Anacardiaceae), 218-Z Kangur Chasklawaan T P BA Jaundice ½ cup of bark decoction is taken daily 13 0.16 39 0.48
31 Rubus fruticosus L. (Rosaceae), 235-Z Garacha Ranjha S P FR Carminative Fruit is eaten 15 0.18 42 0.52
26 Rydingia limbata (Benth.) Scheen & V.A. Albert (Lamiaceae), 192-Z Chita Kanda, Bamboli Old Khanpur S P WP Wounds The powder of whole plant mixed with butter before being applied 24 0.3 36 0.45
32 Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C.Johnst. (Rhamnaceae), 252-Z Gangeeri Rajdhani S P FR Diabetes and kidney stones Dried powdered (½ spoon) of fruit, taken in the morning and evening with water 10 0.12 42 0.52
33 Sisymbrium irio L. (Brassicaceae), 257-Z Khub kalan Kot-jandaan H A LE Chest infection Leaves infusion is given 8 0.1 26 0.32
34 Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae), 260-Z Kach mach Najafpur H A LE Asthma Tea of shade dried leaves is taken 16 0.2 43 0.53
35 Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae), 268-Z Imli Bees ban T P PP Fever and liver tonic Juice of pulp is drunk daily 23 0.28 50 0.62
36 Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae), 274-Z Gokhru Neelan bhoto H A LE Male sexual weakness A few leaves are soaked for a while in a glass of water and taken three times daily 13 0.16 33 0.41
37 Viola odorata L. (Violaceae), 277-Z Ba-nafsha Kharian H A LE Cough, cold and flu Leaf tea is taken 27 0.33 73 0.91
38 Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz (Lythraceae), 279-Z Taawi, Dhawi Shah Kabul S   LE Skin diseases A poultice of leaves is applied externally 9 0.11 45 0.56
39 Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (Rutaceae), 280-Z Timber Halli S/T P SD Jaundice One spoon of dried or fresh seeds powdered is taken daily 32 0.4 60 0.75
40 Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Wight & Arn. (Rhamnaceae), 281-Z Beri Sarhadna S P LE Wounds Paste of grinded leaves are applied 13 0.16 38 0.47