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Table 1 A. Derivatives of “generic” names: A1. Mandragora; A2. Alraune; A3. Yabroukh

From: In search of traces of the mandrake myth: the historical, and ethnobotanical roots of its vernacular names

Language/sub-category Name Ethnic transcription Meaning Selected references
A1
Albanian mandragora, madëronë, matergonë    Albanian Bible [12:163]
Armenian [mandragora]   [48: 1268]
Bulgarian [mandragora] maндpaгopa   [49: 36]; [50]; [51: 394]
Catalan mandràgola, mandràgora    [46: 190] (13th c.)
Corsican tramangula    [52: 471]
Dutch mandragers kruit   [“mandrake herb”] [53: 11]; [31: 45]
Dutch mandragore    [31: 45]
English mandrake
Spelling variations:
mandrage,
mandrag, mandragge,
mendrage
   [54: 51]; [55: 322]; [56:66]; [28: 71]; [31: 43]; [30: 333]
French mandrigoula    [28: 71]; [31: 44]
Georgian [mandragora]   Rainer Bussmann (Pers. Comm 25.1.20)
Greek [mandragora]
Spelling variations: [mandragúda, mandragúdas, matragúra, mantragúras,
mandragúri,
mandraúla,
mandraúna,
mentragúra]
μαντραγόρα Spelling variations: μαντραγούδα, μανδραγούδας, ματραγούρα, μαντραγούρας, μαντραγούρι, μανδραούλα, μανδραούνα, μεντραγούρα   [57: 173]; [58: 2509]; [59: 433,437]; [60: 408]
Greek [mandragóras] (m) μανδραγόρας   [45: IV, 75]; [58: 2509]; [59: 440]; [61: 9,8,8]; [62: 600]
Hungarian nadraguyla    [63: I, 537]; [64: 55]
Italian mandragora
Spelling variations:
mandræela, mandràhura, mandràgura, mandràura, mandulàgrona, mandràgura
   [65]; [28: 71]
Polish matryguna, matrygan, medregula    [12: 170]
Portuguese mandragora, mandragola    [66]
Russian [mandragora] Maндpaгopa   [67: 75–76]; [68: 411]; [69: 187]
Serbo-Croatian [mandragora] Maндpaгopa   [70: 291]; [71: 20]
Serbo-Croatian [mandragula] Maндpaгyлa In Serbo-Croatian it is easier to pronounce “mandragula” than “mandragora [70: 291]
Serbo-Croatian [narangulina] Hapaнгyлинa Probably a variation of “mandragula [71: 20]
Spanish mandrágora
Spelling variations:
mandrágora, mandracola, mandrácola
  Frequently adjectivized as “mandragora macho/hembra” (male or female) or “mandragora de flor azul/blanca” (regarding flower’s color) [66]; [72: 585]
Spanish mandrágula,
mandragula, mandrácula
   [66]; [72: 585]
Turkish mandırağa   [“Landlord Mandir”]
(folk etymology of
mandrake)
[73:107]
Ukranian [mandrygula] aндpигyлa   [12:163]
A2
Danish alrune    [74:160]
Dutch alrüneken, alrunik    [75: 229]; [76, I:95]
Dutch alruyne, alruin    [77: 333]; [74: 160]; [28: 71]; [31: 45]
Finnish alruna    [78:64]
German alraun (+ ca 60
spelling variations; see text)
   [79: 5]; [75: 229]; [28: 71]; [31: 41]; [30: 329]; [29: II: 336]; [27: 344]; [80: 19]; [81: 23] [82];
Norwegian alrune    [74: 169]
Serbo-Croatian [alrauna, alrun] aлpayнa, aлpyн   [71: 20]
Swedish alruna    [83: 258]; [74: 160]
Swedish alrunsrot   [“alrune (mandrake) root”] [63; I:23]
A3
Arabic [ež-žarbūḥ] الجربوح   AGK Pers. obs. (Palestine)
Arabic [yabrūh, yabróâh] يبروح   [84: 351] (Andalusia, 6–7th c.); [85, II: 773] (Andalusia, 11th c.)
Arabic [yabrūh, yabrūx] يبروح ، يبروخ   [86: 207] (Arabia, 9th c.); [87: 54] (Arabia, 10–11th c.); [88: 592]; [89: 299] (Jordan); [90: 115] (Palestine); [91: 203] (Syria); [84: 351] (Andalusia, 6–7th c.); [85: II: 773] (Andalusia, 11th c.); [92: 26] (Morocco)
Aramaic [yabroukh, yabroukha, yabroukhin] יברוח,
יברוחא,
יברוחין
See text concerning the etymology of yabroukh Onkelos (Rome, 1st c., Aramaic translation, Genesis 30:14 [93: 14]); Babylonian Talmud [94]
Bengali [yebruj]    [28: 71]
Farsi [sāyeh-borūj] سایه بروج Derivative
of yabroukh
in Aramaic
(see text)
[95: 645]
Turkish Yebrûh   See text concerning the etymology of yabroukh [73: 107]; [41: 124]; [96: 232–234]
Turkish yebrûhu’s-sanem   Idol’s yabroukh [97: 1391]; [73: 107]; [41: 124]; [96: 232–234]