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Table 1 Medicinal plants traded in public markets of the Mata, Agreste, Borborema, and Sertão mesoregions of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil, indications, and categories of medicinal use and relative importance (RI) of each species

From: Temporal assessment of the medicinal plants trade in public markets of the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil

Family
Scientific name
Local/Vernacular name Medicinal use categories Mesoregion [number of vendors] RI
Acanthaceae
Justicia pectoralis Jacq Chachambá RES (cough, hoarseness, expectoration);
DIS (indigestion)
Mata [6] 0.47
Adoxaceae
Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl Sabugueira NES (tranquilizer), UDS (fever), BCS (high blood pressure), PAD (measles, infection), RES (cough, flu) Mata [3]; Agreste [5]; Borborema [3]; Sertão [5] 0.81
Alismataceae
Echinodorus sp. Chapéu de couro ENM (diabetes, weight loss, uric acid); BCS (immunity); MSS (bone pain, joints); UDS (pain) Mata [2]; Sertão [3] 0.88
Amaranthaceae
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Mentruz RES (flu, expectoration), PAD (worm infection) Borborema [1] 0.22
Gomphrena demissa Mart Capitãozinho RES (cough, flu, expectoration) Sertão [3] 0.3
Amaryllidaceae
Allium sativum L Alho ENM (cholesterol, "reduce the levels," weight loss); RSS (erectile dysfunction); BCS (anticoagulant, stroke); PAD (worm infection); RES (tiredness) Mata [1]; Sertão [1] 1.06
Allium sp. Cebolinha branca RES (cough, flu, hoarseness, expectoration, bronchitis, sinusitis, common cold); UDS (fever); DIS (baby colic); URS (diuretic) Mata [9]; Agreste [8]; Borborema [3]; Sertão [4] 1.07
Anacardiaceae
Anacardium occidentale L Cajú roxo SST (wound healing); UDS (inflammation);
DIS (intestine inflammation); EXI (stop bleeding); PAD (antibiotic); RSS (uterus inflammation, vaginal discharge, prostate)
Mata [7]; Agreste [5]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [7] 1.17
Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão Aroeira UDS (inflammation); URS (prostate); SST (wound healing, pruritus); DIS (gastritis); EXI (stop bleeding); MSS (bone inflammation); PAD (antibiotic); ENM (menopause); BCS (high blood pressure, blood) Mata [2]; Agreste [4]; Sertão [6] 1.69
Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi Aroeira UDS (inflammation); SST (wound healing); DIS (intestine inflammation) Mata [4] 0.52
Schnopsis brasiliensis Engl Baraúna UDS (inflammation); SST (wound healing); URS (kidneys); MSS (spine); RSS (prostate) Mata [1]; Agreste [1]; Sertão [3] 0.87
Annonaceae
Annona muricata L Graviola DIS (gastritis); NEO (cancer); ENM ("reduce the levels” diabetes); UDS (inflammation) Mata [2]; Sertão [3] 0.76
Xylopia aromática (Lam.) Mart Imbira DIS (bellyache, indigestion, stomach, stomach ache); UDS (pain); RSS (menstrual cramps); MSS (back pain) Mata [3]; Agreste [1]; Sertão [4] 0.88
Apiaceae
Anethum graveolens L Endro NES (tranquilizer, insomnia); UDS (pain); BCS (heart, jaundice, high blood pressure, tachycardia); DIS (intestinal colic, stomach ache, gallbladder pain, constipation, indigestion); RSS (menstrual cramps) Mata [4]; Agreste [1]; Borborema [3]; Sertão [8] 1.37
Centella sp. Centelha asiática ENM (weight loss) Mata [1]; Sertão [1] 0.17
Coriandrum sativum L Coentro BCS (high blood pressure); ENM (cholesterol, menopause); DIS (indigestion, throat problems); UDS (dizziness, headache); SES (labyrinthitis) Mata [1]; Agreste [1]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [3] 1.06
Foeniculum vulgare Mill Erva doce NES (tranquilizer, depression, insomnia); RES (sinusitis, runny nose); BCS (high blood pressure, heart); UDS (fever, dizziness, headache); INT (Intoxication); ENM (menopause); DIS (bellyache) Mata [13]; Agreste [10]; Borborema [4]; Sertão [8] 1.59
Pimpinella anisum L Erva doce NES (tranquilizer, depression, insomnia); RES (sinusitis, runny nose); BCS (high blood pressure, heart); UDS (fever, dizziness, headache); INT (Intoxication); ENM (menopause); DIS (bellyache) Mata [13]; Agreste [10]; Borborema [4]; Sertão [7] 1.59
Apocynaceae
Hancornia speciosa Gomes Mangaba BCS (high blood pressure) Mata [1] 0.17
Aquifoliaceae
Ilex sp. Chá mate DIS (indigestion) Mata [2]; Borborema [1] 0.17
Arecaceae
Cocos nucifera L Côco BCS (jaundice); URS (diuretic) Sertão [1] 0.35
Copernicia prunifera (Mill.) H.E. Moore Carnaúba URS (kidneys) Sertão [2] 0.17
Syagrus oleracea (Mart.) Becc Côco catolé MSS (spine); URS (kidneys, kidney stones, urinary tract infection); DIS (gallstones) Mata [1]; Agreste [3]; Sertão [5] 0.65
Aristolochiaceae
Aristolochia sp. Cipó-de-mil-homem DIS (indigestion) Mata [1] 0.17
Asparagaceae
Agave sp. Agave branco UDS (inflammation); ENM (cholesterol) Agreste [1]; Sertão [1] 0.35
Sansevieria trifasciata Prain Espada de São Jorge URS (kidneys); UDS (inflammation) Sertão [1] 0.35
Asphodelaceae
Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f Babosa SST (wound healing) Mata [1] 0.17
Asteraceae
Acanthospermum hispidum DC Espinho de cigano RES (flu, bronchitis) Sertão [1] 0.24
Ageratum conyzoides L Mentraste RSS (regulation of menstruation); UDS (inflammation) Sertão [2] 0.35
Artemisia sp. Artemísia UDS (inflammation) Mata [1] 0.17
Baccharis sp. Carqueja ENM (liver, liver fat, weight loss, diabetes, cholesterol, blood fat); URS (diuretic, kidneys) Mata [8]; Agreste [1]; Borborema 1]; Sertão [4] 0.72
Bidens pilosa L Picão preto UDS (inflammation) Mata [1] 0.17
Egletes viscosa (L.) Less Macela DIS (indigestion, diarrhea, stomach, liver, intestine, intestinal infection); ENM (diabetes) Mata [9]; Agreste [3]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [7] 0.66
Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch. Bip. ex Walp Alcachofra ENM (cholesterol, diabetes, liver inflammation, liver fat) Mata [3]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [4] 0.36
Helianthus annuus L Girassol UDS (dizziness); SES (labyrinthitis); BCS (thrombosis, CVA); musculoskeletal system (rheumatism, bursitis); BCS (high blood pressure) Mata [6]; Agreste [7]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [5] 0.99
Matricaria chamomilla L Camomila NES (tranquilizer, depression, insomnia); UDS (fever); NEO (cancer); URS (urethral inflammation); SST (lighten skin spots); BCS (high blood pressure) Mata [12]; Agreste [9]; Borborema [3]; Sertão [7] 1.17
Solidago chilensis Meyen Arnica UDS (pain); MSS (joints); EXI (wounds, blood clot) Mata [1]; Sertão [3] 0.58
Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg Dente de leão ENM (liver fat, weight loss); NES (memory); MSS (joints); DIS (intestine); BCS (blood circulation) Mata [2]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [2] 0.93
Vernonanthura phosphorica (Vell.) H. Rob Assa peixe URS (kidneys) Mata [1] 0.17
Bignoniaceae
Anemopaegma sp. Catuaba UDS (inflammation); RSS (aphrodisiac); MSS (bone pain) Mata [2]; Sertão [2] 0.52
Handroanthus heptaphyllus (Vell.) Mattos Pau d'arco roxo UDS (pain, inflammation); NEO (cancer); RSS (cysts, myoma, ovary problems); MSS (rheumatism) Mata [3]; Sertão [2] 0.88
Handroanthus sp. Pau d'arco URS (kidneys) Agreste [1] 0.17
Jacaranda sp. Caroba SST (pruritus, skin irritation); BCS (depurative) Sertão [2] 0.41
Bixaceae
Bixa orellana L Urucum ENM (reduce cholesterol) Mata [2]; Sertão [1] 0.17
Boraginaceae
Heliotropium indicum L Fedegoso PRP ("female cleaning after childbirth") Sertão [2] 0.17
Heliotropium nicotianaefolium Poir Sete Sangrias URS (kidneys) Mata [1]; Sertão [4] 0.17
Symphytum officinale L Confrei ENM (uric acid); SES (labyrinthitis); UDS (inflammation) Mata [2]; Sertão [1] 0.52
Varronia curassavica Jacq Erva balieira UDS (inflammation) Mata [1] 0.17
Brassicaceae
Brassica sp. Mostarda BCS (thrombosis, CVA, stroke, circulation); MSS (rheumatism); UDS (pain, headache, swelling) Mata [6]; Agreste [4]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [2] 0.83
Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek Agrião RES (bronchitis, asthma) Sertão [1] 0.24
Burseraceae
Commiphora leptophloeos (Mart.) J.B. Gillett Imburana RES (flu), MSS (osteoarthritis) Mata [1]; Agreste [1]; Sertão [2] 0.35
Cactaceae
Cereus jamacaru DC Cardeiro URS (kidneys) Sertão [2] 0.17
Melocactus zehntneri (Britton & Rose) Luetzelb Coroa de Frade RES (tiredness, asthma) Mata [1] 0.24
Capparaceae
Cynophalla flexuosa (L.) J. Presl Feijão brabo MSS (back pain) Sertão [1] 0.17
Caprifoliaceae
Valeriana sp. Valeriana NES (tranquilizer) Mata [1] 0.17
Caryocaraceae
Caryocar sp. Pequi RES (flu, cough) Sertão [1] 0.24
Celastraceae
Monteverdia rigida (Mart.) Biral Bom nome UDS (pain, inflammation, infection), MSS (fracture healing, joints); EXI (bumps); URS (kidneys, urinary tract infection) Mata [1]; Sertão [2]; Agreste [4] 0.94
Monteverdia ilicifolia (Mart. ex Reissek) Biral Espinheira santa DIS (stomach, stomach pain, gastritis, ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux, heartburn, hepatitis, cirrhosis); MSS (joint pain); UDS (inflammation); BCS (anticoagulant) Mata [8]; Agreste [7]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [5] 1.13
Chrysobalanaceae
Microdesmia rigida (Benth.) Sothers & Prance Oiticica ENM (diabetes), MSS (muscle strain) Mata [5]; Sertão [3] 0.35
Cleomaceae
Cleome spinosa Jacq Mussambê RES (expectoration, cough) Sertão [1] 0.24
Combretaceae
Combretum fruticosum (Loefl.) Stuntz Mufumbo RES (flu, cough) Sertão [1] 0.24
Combretum glaucocarpum Mart João Mole BCS (swollen heart) Mata [1] 0.17
Convolvulaceae
Operculina macrocarpa (L.) Urb Batata de purga DIS (purgative), BCS (anticoagulant, hemorrhoids), UDS (inflammation) Mata [1]; Agreste [3]; Sertão [2] 0.58
Costaceae
Costus spicatus (Jacq.) Sw Cana da índia URS (kidney problems, urinary tract infection) Mata [1] 0.24
Cucurbitaceae
Luffa operculata (L.) Cogn Cabacinha RES (sinusitis); SST (shrink lumps) Mata [3]; Agreste [2]; Sertão [3] 0.35
Momordica charantia L Melão de São Caetano BCS (hemorrhoids) Sertão [1] 0.17
Sicana odorifera (Vell.) Naudin Croá RSS (cysts, myoma), ENM (thyroid), URS (kidney stones), UDS (inflammation) Mata [1]; Agreste [1] 0.76
Wilbrandia sp. Cabeça de negro ENM (blood clotting), SST (shrink lumps) Mata [1]; Agreste [1]; Sertão [2] 0.35
Erythroxylaceae
Erythroxylum sp. Rompe gibão MSS (back pain, joints), NES (nerves) Sertão [3] 0.41
Equisetaceae
Equisetum giganteum L Cavalinha URS (kidney stones, urinary tract infection, kidneys, diuretic), ENM (weight loss); UDS (infection); NEO (breast cysts); RSS (prostate); UDS (inflammation) Mata [9]; Sertão [5] 1.17
Euphorbiaceae
Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl Favela UDS (inflammation); URS (kidney stones); DIS (gastritis, ulcer); RSS (vaginal discharge, myoma, cysts, prostate) Agreste [3]; Sertão [3] 0.94
Cnidoscolus urens (L.) Arthur Urtiga branca URS (urinary tract infection, urine cleaning); MSS (spine inflammation); UDS (inflammation, infection); SST (wound healing); DIS (appendix); RSS (prostate); NEO (cancer); RES (cough) Mata [6]; Agreste [2]; Sertão [2] 1.51
Croton sp. Velame branco MSS (bone pain, rheumatism); Agreste [2]; Sertão [2] 0.24
Fabaceae
Abarema cochliacarpos (Gomes) Barneby & J.W. Grimes Babatenom UDS (inflammation); SST (wound healing); NEO (cancer); PAD (antibiotic); RSS (uterus inflammation); MSS (bone inflammation); DIS (gastritis) Mata [6]; Agreste [5]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [6] 1.22
Amburana cearensis (Allemão) A.C. Smith Cumarú RES (expectorant, sinusitis, flu, cough); BCS (hemorrhoid); UDS (inflammation) Mata [5]; Agreste [3]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [6] 0.71
Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan Angico RES (cough, flu, expectorant); UDS (inflammation) Mata [3]; Agreste [3]; Sertão [3] 0.47
Bauhinia sp.1 Mororó ENM (diabetes, cholesterol) Mata [3]; Sertão [5] 0.24
Bauhinia sp.2 Pata de vaca ENM (diabetes, cholesterol); MSS (spine problems); UDS (inflammation) Mata [2]; Agreste [1]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [2] 0.58
Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth Feijão gandú NEO (intestinal cancer), ENM (diabetes), BCS (thrombosis) Mata [1] 0.52
Cenostigma pyramidale (Tul.) E. Gagnon & G.P. Lewis Catingueira RES (cough, flu); DIS (bellyache); ENM (cholesterol) Agreste [1]; Sertão [4] 0.58
Erythrina velutina Willd Mulungú NES (insomnia, tranquilizer, nerve weakness, memory); RES (cough) Mata [4]; Agreste [2]; Sertão [5] 0.53
Glycyrrhiza glabra L Alcaçuz RES (expectoration) Mata [1] 0.17
Hymenaea courbaril L Jatobá RES (expectoration, cough, flu); RSS (prostate inflammation; cysts; erectile dysfunction); URS (kidney problems); BCS (anemia); ENM (fortifying, rickets) UDS (inflammation, pain) Mata [5]; Agreste [3]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [5] 1.42
Libidibia ferrea (Mart. ex Tul.) L.P. Queiroz Jucá MSS (bone pain, spine, tendinitis, bursitis, spine inflammation); URS (kidney pain); SST (lumps); RSS (cysts); UDS (inflammation); RES (expectorant) Mata [1]; Agreste [1]; Sertão [5] 1.29
Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir Jurema preta UDS (inflammation); SST (wound healing); BCS (hemorrhoid) Mata [2]; Sertão [3] 0.52
Mimosa sp. Malícia SST (wound healing) Sertão [1] 0.17
Mucuna urens (L.) Medik Coronha UDS (inflammation, pain); MSS (herniated disc, spine inflammation) Agreste [1]; Sertão [2] 0.65
Myroxylon peruiferum L. f Bálsamo RES (expectorant) Mata [1]; Sertão [1] 0.17
Piptadenia sp. Jurema branca DIS (gastritis) Sertão [2] 0.17
Pterodon emarginatus (Vogel.) Kunth Sucupira MSS (spine pain, spine inflammation, herniated disc, joint pain, bone pain, bone inflammation, osteoarthritis), DIS (sore throat); ENM (diabetes); BCS (thrombosis; high blood pressure); RES (sinusitis, tonsillitis); URS (kidneys) Mata [7]; Agreste [4]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [5] 1.54
Senna sp. Sena DIS (indigestion; constipation, "release dry feces," intestinal colic); ENM (weight loss); RES (cough); PAD (worm infection); UDS (fever, infection) Mata [6]; Agreste [2]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [7] 1.12
Tamarindus indica L Tamarindo BCS (anemia) Mata [2]; Sertão [2] 0.17
Humiriaceae
Endopleura uchi (Huber) Cuatrec Uxi amarelo RSS (uterus, cysts, polycysts, myoma, uterus inflammation) Mata [1]; Sertão [4] 0.42
Illiaceae
Illicium verum Hooker Anil estrelado BCS (heart, high blood pressure); MSS (bone pain, back pain); DIS (indigestion, bellyache, liver, stomach ache); UDS (pain); RSS (colic) Mata [4]; Agreste [6]; Borborema [3]; Sertão [3] 1.18
Lamiaceae
Lavandula angustifolia Mill Alfazema DIS (baby colic, constipation, intestine); RES (cough); NES (tranquilizer), UDS (colic, pain, fever), CUD (“evil eye”), BCS (jaundice); PAD (infection) Mata [7]; Agreste [3]; Borborema [2]; Sertão [4] 1.4
Melissa officinalis L Melissa NES (tranquilizer) Mata [1] 0.17
Mentha sp. Hortelã RES (flu, expectoration); ENM (weight loss); PAD (“bacteria in the stomach”); BCS (prevent strokes) Mata [1]; Sertão [2] 0.76
Mesosphaerum suaveolens (L.) Kuntze Alfazema braba DIS (bellyache, constipation, intestine); ENM (cholesterol, diabetes, weight loss) Sertão [1] 0.6
Ocimum sp.1 Manjericão CUD ("bad air"); RES (flu) Mata [2]; Sertão [1] 0.35
Ocimum sp.2 Alfavaca RES (sinusitis) Mata [2] 0.17
Origanum sp. Orégano ENM (menopause); NEO (cancer); DIS (constipation); NES (insomnia); PAD (candidiasis); RES (cough) Mata [2]; Agreste [1]; Sertão [1] 1.04
Rosmarinus officinalis L Alecrim BCS (arrhythmia, high blood pressure, heart problems, circulation, CVA); DIS (stomach ache, constipation, indigestion); NES (depression, tranquilizer, meningitis); UDS (headache); RES (sinusitis, tiredness, asthma); ENM (thyroid) Mata [10]; Agreste [6]; Borborema [3]; Sertão [4] 1.67
Salvia hispanica L Chia ENM (weight loss, appetite suppressant, menopause); DIS (intestinal regulation) Mata [3]; Agreste [1]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [3] 0.47
Salvia officinalis L Sálvia ENM (weight loss) Mata [1] 0.17
Vitex gardneriana Schauer Jaramataia URS (kidneys, prostate), ENM (diabetes, cholesterol) Sertão [4] 0.47
Lauraceae
Cinnamomum sp. Canela NES (tranquilizer, stimulant); ENM (weight loss, diabetes); BCS (low blood pressure, prevent blood clotting); DIS (throat, stomach ache); RES (hoarseness); UDS (vomiting); MSS (bones); EXI (bumps) Mata [7]; Agreste [6]; Borborema [3]; Sertão [8] 1.64
Laurus nobilis L Louro DIS (diarrhea, indigestion, stomach); UDS (headache); URS (kidneys); UDS (headache) Mata [6]; Agreste [4]; Borborema [2]; Sertão [3] 0.82
Persea americana Mill Abacate BCS (heart); URS (kidneys) Agreste [1]; Borborema [2]; Sertão [2] 0.35
Lecythidaceae
Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl Castanha do Pará ENM (liver fat) Mata [1]; Sertão [1] 0.17
Linaceae
Linum usitatissimum L Linhaça DIS (constipation, intestinal regulation); BCS (thrombosis, CVA); MSS (rheumatism); ENM (weight loss) Mata [2]; Agreste[2]; Sertão [2] 0.82
Lyrthaceae
Punica granatum L Romã DIS (sore throat, gastritis, stomach, heartburn); RES (hoarseness, cough; tonsillitis); RSS (prostate, erectile dysfunction); BCS (heart); ENM (liver fat); UDS (inflammation); PAD (antibiotic); SST (wound healing); URS (kidneys) Mata [7]; Agreste [4]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [3] 2
Malvaceae
Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench Quiabo BCS (CVA); MSS (bones) Sertão [2] 0.35
Chorisia glaziovii (Kuntze) E. Santos Barriguda MSS (spine); URS (kidneys) Sertão [3] 0.35
Gossypium herbaceum L Algodão SST (furuncles) Sertão [1] 0.17
Hibiscus sp. Hibisco ENM (diabetes, cholesterol, triglycerides, liver fat, weight loss); URS (diuretic); BCS (blood circulation, swelling, low immunity, blood pressure, prevent blood clotting); UDS (inflammation); DIS (liver inflammation) Mata [10]; Agreste [2]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [8] 1.37
Pseudobombax marginatum (A. St.-Hil., Juss. & Cambess.) A. Robyns Imbiratanha MSS (spine); URS (kidneys, kidney inflammation) Sertão [5] 0.41
Melastomataceae
Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana Canela de velho MSS (arthritis, osteoarthritis, bursitis, herniated disc, bone pain, joint pain, tendinitis, rheumatism, bone inflammation); UDS (pain, infection, headache, inflammation); PAD (Chikungunya) Mata [10]; Agreste [3]; Borborema [2]; Sertão [4] 1.21
Meliaceae
Cedrela odorata L Cedro DIS (intestinal problems, constipation, bellyache); UDS (pain, inflammation) Mata [2]; Sertão [1] 0.53
Menispermaceae
Cissampelos sympodialis Eichler Milona RES (cough, flu); ENM (diabetes, liver fat) Sertão [3] 0.47
Monimiaceae
Peumus boldus Molina Boldo do Chile DIS (diarrhea, liver problems, stomach ache, indigestion, intestine, stomach problems, sulfur burps, gastritis); URS (kidneys); MBD (hangover); ENM (liver fat) Mata [13]; Agreste [9]; Borborema [3]; Sertão [8] 1.13
Moraceae
Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul Mamica de cadela SST (Vitiligo) Mata [1] 0.17
Morus sp. Amora ENM (diabetes, menopause, weight loss, cholesterol); URS (diuretic); BCS (boost immunity, high blood pressure); UDS (inflammation) Mata [7]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [4] 0.94
Moringaceae
Moringa sp. Moringa NES (memory); NEO (cancer) Sertão [1] 0.35
Musaceae
Musa x paradisiaca L Banana RES (cough) Sertão [1] 0.17
Myristicaceae
Myristica fragans Houtt Noz moscada SES (labyrinthitis); BCS (prevent strokes) Mata [1]; Agreste [1]; Sertão [1] 0.35
Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus globulus Labill Eucalipto RES (sinusitis, common cold, flu, expectorant); NES (tranquilizer); DIS (bellyache); UDS (fever); MSS (bone pain) Mata [4]; Agreste [4]; Borborema [3]; Sertão [5] 1.06
Eugenia uniflora L Pitanga DIS (bellyache) Sertão [1] 0.17
Myrcia speciosa (Amshoff) McVaugh Pedra-hume-kar ENM (diabetes) Mata [1] 0.17
Psidium guajava L Guava DIS (bellyache) Sertão [1] 0.17
Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry Cravo UDS (headache, dizziness, bad breath); DIS (indigestion; toothache); SES (Labyrinthitis); NES (Insomnia, tranquilizer); BCS (high blood pressure) Mata [4]; Agreste [3]; Borborema [3]; Sertão [3] 1.18
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Oliveira ENM (weight loss, "reduce the levels"); NEO (cancer) Sertão [2] 0.41
Nyctaginaceae
Boerhavia diffusa L Pega pinto URS (kidneys, urinary tract infection) Sertão [1] 0.24
Olacaceae
Ximenia americana L Ameixa DIS (gastritis); UDS (inflammation); SST (wound healing); ENM (cholesterol) Mata [1]; Agreste [2]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [6] 0.69
Opiliaceae
Agonandra brasiliensis Miers ex Benth. & Hook. f Marfim RES (cough, flu) Mata [1] 0.24
Papaveraceea
Argemone mexicana L Cardo santo BCS (CVA, thrombosis) Mata [3]; Agreste [1]; Sertão [1] 0.24
Passifloraceae
Turnera subulata Smith Chanana URS (urinary tract infection) Sertão [2] 0.17
Pedaliaceae
Sesamum orientale L Gergelim preto BCS (thrombosis, CVA); MSS (bone pain, joint pain, rheumatism, bone calcium); UDS (numbness); DIS (intestinal regulation); ENM (menopause, appetite suppressant, weight loss) Mata [5]; Agreste [5]; Sertão [3] 1.24
Petiveriaceae     
Petiveria alliacea L Tipi MSS (rheumatism) Mata [1]; Sertão [1] 0.17
Phyllanthaceae
Phyllanthus niruri L Quebra pedra URS (kidney stones, kidney problems); DIS (liver, gallstones); EXI (bumps) Mata [2]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [2] 0.65
Piperaceae
Piper nigrum L Pimenta do reino NES (labyrinthitis); UDS (headache) Mata [2]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [1] 0.35
Poaceae
Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Capim santo NES (tranquilizer, stimulant); DIS (bellyache); BCS (high blood pressure) Mata [2]; Agreste [1]; Sertão [2] 0.58
Zea mays L Milho URS (kidneys), BCS (jaundice) Sertão [1] 0.35
Polygonaceae
Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx Erva de bicho URS (kidneys) Mata [1] 0.17
Rhamnaceae
Ziziphus joazeiro Mart Juá SST (dandruff); DIS (gum disease) Mata [2]; Sertão [3] 0.35
Rubiaceae
Coutarea hexandra (Jacq.) K. Schum Quina quina ENM (diabetes, blood clotting), RES (sinusitis), MSS (rheumatism), UDS (fever) Mata [3]; Agreste [1]; Sertão [5] 0.76
Genipa americana L Jenipapo MSS (fracture healing); BCS (increase blood platelets) Sertão [3] 0.35
Guettarda sp. Angélica RSS (menstrual cramps) Sertão [1] 0.17
Morinda citrifolia L Noni ENM (diabetes, weight loss); NEO (cancer); BCS (blood circulation; fluid retention, hemorrhoids, high blood pressure); DIS (gastritis); RSS (uterus inflammation) Agreste [1]; Sertão [1] 1.12
Uncaria sp. Unha de gato UDS (inflammation); RSS (cysts, nodule, myoma, polycysts, uterus inflammation); MSS (bone inflammation) Mata [4]; Agreste [2]; Sertão [4] 0.77
Rutaceae
Citrus aurantium L Laranja NES (tranquilizer) Mata [1]; Sertão [2] 0.17
Pilocarpus sp. Jaborandi UDS (fever) Mata [1] 0.17
Sapotaceae
Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Roem & Schult.) T.D. Penn Quixaba UDS (inflammation, pain); MSS (spine inflammation); SST (wound healing); URS (kidneys); EXI (bumps) Mata [5]; Agreste [6]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [5] 0.93
Selaginellaceae
Selaginella convoluta (Arn.) Spring Mão fechada RES (cough, flu) Sertão [1] 0.24
Smilacaceae
Smilax sp. Japecanga SST (vitiligo); MSS (spine inflammation) Mata [1] 0.35
Solanaceae
Solanum americanum Mill Erva moura SST (wound healing) Sertão [1] 0.17
Solanum paniculatum L Jurubeba DIS (liver, gastritis); ENM (diabetes); RSS (menstrual cramps) Sertão [2] 0.58
Theaceae
Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Chá verde/Chá preto ENM (cholesterol, diuretic, weight loss, loss of appetite); NES (nervousness); UDS (inflammation, fever); DIS (bellyache, intestine, intestinal infection); SES (vision problems); URS (diuretic) Mata [9]; Agreste [4]; Borborema [3]; Sertão [6] 1.42
Verbenaceae
Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson Erva cidreira RES (expectoration); BCS (anemia); DIS (indigestion, bellyache); NES (tranquilizer, insomnia); ENM (whet the appetite) Mata [8]; Agreste [1]; Sertão [5] 0.99
Violaceae
Pombalia lanata (A. St.-Hil.) Paula-Souza Papaconha RES (expectoration, cough, flu); PAD (worm infection); UDS (fever) Mata [1]; Borborema [1]; Sertão [6] 0.65
Vitaceae
Cissus sp. Parreira URS (kidneys); MSS (spine) Sertão [3] 0.35
Zingiberaceae
Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L. Burtt & R.M. Sm Colônia UDS (fever); RES (expectoration) Mata [1]; Sertão [2] 0.35
Curcuma longa L Cúrcuma UDS (inflammation); BCS (hepatitis; jaundice); PAD (antibiotic); RES (flu); MSS (bones) Mata [4]; Sertão [1] 0.93
Zingiber officinale Roscoe Gengibre BCS (high blood pressure, prevent blood clotting); DIS (throat pain, sore throat, stomach); RES (cough, expectoration, flu, hoarseness); ENM (liver fat, cholesterol, weight loss); UDS (pain, inflammation); NES (stimulant); URS (diuretic) Mata [9]; Agreste [7]; Borborema [3]; Sertão [4] 1.78
Indeterminated
Indeterminated 1 Baço RES (cough, flu, tiredness), UDS (pain) Mata [1];
Borborema [1]; Sertão [1]
0.47
Indeterminated 2 Caninana SST (wound healing) Sertão [1] 0.17
Indeterminated 3 Catinga branca DIS (diarrhea) Borborema [1] 0.17
Indeterminated 4 Cauaçú DIS (gastritis, ulcer) Borborema [1] 0.24
Indeterminated 5 Chocalho de vaqueiro MSS (bone pain, joint pain, rheumatism) Sertão [4] 0.3
Indeterminated 6 Cipó de cruz MSS (joints, rheumatism, spine), UDS (inflammation) Sertão [2] 0.47
Indeterminated 7 Espriteira RES (common cold, flu) Agreste [1] 0.24
Indeterminated 8 Jalapa ENM (diabetes) Mata [1]  
Indeterminated 9 Junço UDS (pain) Sertão [1] 0.17
Indeterminated 10 Mapirunga MSS (rheumatism), UDS (pain) Agreste [1] 0.28
Indeterminated 11 Maria leite URS (kidney stones), DIS (gallstone) Mata [1] 0.34
Indeterminated 12 Pau tenente ENM (diabetes, cholesterol), UDS (inflammation) Mata [1]; Sertão [3] 0.41
Indeterminated 13 Pimenta parda RES (throat) Agreste [1] 0.17
Indeterminated 14 Porangaba ENM (cholesterol, blood clotting, diabetes), DIS (intestine) Mata [2]; Agreste [1]; Sertão [4] 0.47
Indeterminated 15 Quebra faca ENM (diabetes, cholesterol), SST (pruritus) Sertão [2] 0.41
Indeterminated 16 Sassafrás URS (urinary tract infection, kidneys) Sertão [2] 0.24
Indeterminated 17 Urinana URS (urinary tract infection), ENM (retained fat) Mata [1] 0.35
  1. Categories: BCS = blood and cardiovascular system; CUD = cultural diseases; DIS = digestive system; ENM = endocrine system, nutrition, and metabolism; EXI = external injuries; INT = intoxication; MBD = mental and behavioral diseases; MSS = musculoskeletal system; NEO = neoplasms; NES = nervous system; PAD = parasitic diseases; PRP = pregnancy and parturition; RES = respiratory system; RSS = reproductive system and sexual health; SES = sensory system; SST = skin and subcutaneous tissue; UDS = unspecified diseases and symptoms; URS = urinary system