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Table 1 Plants used for making Bodhi beads

From: Seeds used for Bodhi beads in China

No. Chinese name Common name Family name Scientific name Occurrence frequency Additional use(s) in China Other countries Distribution
1 Wu yan liu tong 五眼六通 Five eyes six sense Anacardiaceae Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) B.L. Burtt & A.W. Hill 26.19 Medicinal, edible, timber plant   *
2 Gui lian 鬼脸 Grimace Anacardiaceae Dracontomelon macrocarpum H.L. Li 18.25 Medicinal, edible, landscape plant   *
3 Xue lian zi 雪莲子 Snow lotus seed Anacardiaceae Pistacia vera L. 14.29 Medicinal, edible plant   **
4 Jin yuan bao 金元宝 Gold ingot Apocynaceae Thevetia peruviana (Persoon) K. Schumann 7.14 Medicinal, landscape plant India [7], Amazonian tribes [13] *
5 Zi guang feng yan 紫光凤眼 Purple phoenix eye Arecaceae Archontophoenix alexandrae (F. Muell.) H. Wendl. & Drude 0.79 andscape plant   **
6 Jin si bao ta 金丝宝塔 Golden pagoda Arecaceae Areca catechu L. 15.08 Medicinal, edible plant India [7] *
7 Yu mi 玉米 Corn Arecaceae Areca triandra Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham. 6.35 landscape, fiber plant   **
8 Jin xian 金线 Gold thread Arecaceae Caryota maxima Blume ex Mart. 38.89 Landscape, edible plant   *
9 Pu ti gen 菩提根 Bodhi root Arecaceae Corypha umbraculifera L. 58.73 Landscape, edible, fiber plant India [7, 14] **
10 Hu ban 虎斑 Tiger brindle Arecaceae Corypha umbraculifera L. 19.84 Landscape, edible, fiber plant India **
11 Mi gua 蜜瓜 Honeydew melon Arecaceae Corypha umbraculifera L. 13.49 Landscape, edible, fiber plant India **
12 Xing yue 星月 Moon and star Arecaceae Daemonorops jenkinsiana (Griff.) Mart. 88.10 Medicinal, landscape, fiber plant   *
13 Jin chan 金蝉 Golden cicada Arecaceae Daemonorops jenkinsiana (Griff.) Mart. 9.52 Medicinal , landscape, fiber plant   *
14 Mo ni zi 摩尼子 Mani Arecaceae Daemonorops jenkinsiana (Griff.) Mart. 8.73 Medicinal, landscape, fiber plant   *
15 Bai yu 白玉 White jade Arecaceae Elaeis guineensis Jacq. 15.08 Medicinal, oil-bearing plant   **
16 San yan jin zhu 三眼金猪 Three eyes gloden pig Arecaceae Elaeis guineensis Jacq. 13.49 Landscape, oil-bearing, fiber plant   **
17 Xian zhi 仙枝 Xian-Zhi Arecaceae Latania loddigesii Mart. 0.79 Landscape plant   **
18 Xiang ya guo 象牙果 Ivory nut Arecaceae Phytelephas macrocarpa Ruiz & Pav. 15.08 - South America [15] ***
19 Zhao cai shu 招财鼠 Money rat Arecaceae Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman 24.60 Landscape plant   **
20 Jin fo zhu 金佛珠 Gold Bead Arecaceae Trachycarpus fortunei (Hook.) H. Wendl. 5.56 Medicinal, landscape, fiber plant   **
21 Fo yan 佛眼 Buddha-eye Arecaceae Washingtonia filifera (Linden ex André) H. Wendl. ex de Bary 0.79 Landscape plant   **
22 Qian si 千丝 Countless ties Arecaceae Wodyetia bifurcata A.K. Irvine 3.97 Landscape   **
23 Gan lan 橄榄 Chinese white olive Burseraceae Canarium pimela K.D. Koenig 13.49 Medicinal, edible plant   *
24 Fo xin 佛心 Buddha-mind Cycadaceae Cycas revoluta Thunb. 1.59 Medicinal, landscape plant   *
25 Jin gang 金刚 King Kong Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume 92.86 Medicinal, landscape, edible plant India, Nepal [2] *
   King Kong (2- furrows) Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus hainanensis Oliv. 12.70 Medicinal, landscape, edible plant   *
26 A xiu luo 阿修罗 Asura Euphorbiaceae Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. 7.14 Medicinal, landscape, oil-bearing plant USA (Hawaii), French Polynesia (Tahiti) [6, 16] *
27 Fu gui zi 富贵子 Riches and honour seed Fabaceae Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 11.11 Medicinal, timber, oil-bearing plant   *
28 Tian zhu 天竺 Tenjiku Fagaceae Lithocarpus corneus (Lour.) Rehder 14.29 Timber plant   *
29 Yi yi 薏苡 Job’s tears Gramineae Coix lacryma-jobi L. 2.38 Medicinal, edible plant India [7, 18, 20], Colombia [17] *
30 He tao 核桃 Playing Walnut Juglandaceae Juglans regia L. 10.32 Medicinal, edible, timber plant   *
31 Xiang si zi 相思子 Lovesick Fabaceae Abrus precatorius L. 3.97 Medicinal plant India [7], Europe, and America [21] *
32 Li yu lin 鲤鱼鳞 Carp’s scales Fabaceae Acacia confusa Merr. 2.38 Medicinal plant   *
33 Hong xin 红心 Red heart Fabaceae Adenanthera pavonina L. 38.89 Medicinal plant India [7], Amazonia [22] *
34 Mian qie 缅茄 Doussie Fabaceae Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib 30.16 Medicinal plant   **
35 Yue liang zi 月亮子 Moon Fabaceae Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. 10.32 Medicinal plant India [7], Caribbean, Mexico, and Central America [6] *
37 Tai yang zi 太阳子 Sun Fabaceae Caesalpinia major (Medik.) Dandy & Exell 23.02 Medicinal plant Caribbean, Mexico, and Central America [6] ***
36 Tie lian zi 铁链子 Iron lotus seed Fabaceae Caesalpinia minax Hance 3.97 Medicinal plant   *
38 Mu yao zi 木腰子 Climbing entada Fabaceae Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. 7.14 Medicinal plant India [7, 23] *
39 Mu yu guo 木鱼果 Temple block fruit Fabaceae Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC. 27.78 Landscape plant Caribbean, Mexico, and Central America [6] *
40 Jin ling zi 金铃子 Golden jingle bell Meliaceae Melia azedarach L. 1.59 Medicinal, timber plant India [7, 24] *
41 Jin zhong 金钟 Golden bell Myrtaceae Eucalyptus exserta F.Muell. 7.14 Medicinal, timber, oil-bearing plant   **
42 Di xue lian hua 滴血莲花 Bleeding lotus Pandanaceae Pandanus tectorius Parkinson ex Du Roi 3.17 Medicinal, oil-bearing plant   *
43 Feng yan 凤眼 Phoenix eye Rhamnaceae Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst. ex A. Rich. 57.94 - India, Nepal [2] ***
44 Long yan 龙眼 Dragon eye Rhamnaceae Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst. ex A. Rich. 26.19 - India, Nepal [2] ***
45 Qi lin yan 麒麟眼 Kylin eye Rhamnaceae Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst. ex A. Rich. 17.46 - India, Nepal [2] ***
46 Lian hua 莲花 Lotus Rhamnaceae Ziziphus jujuba Miller 12.70 Medicinal, edible, timber plant   *
47 Xiao feng yan 小 凤眼 Small phoenix eye Rhamnaceae Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chow 19.84 Medicinal, edible, timber plant India, Nepal [2] *
48 Tao he 桃核 Peach Rosaceae Amygdalus persica L. 9.52 Medicinal, edible, timber plant   *
49 Xian tao 仙桃 Flat peach Rosaceae Amygdalus persica var. compressa (Loudon) T.T. Yu & L.T. Lu 0.79 Medicinal, edible, timber plant   *
50 Gui jian chou 鬼见愁 Sorrowful to a ghost Sapindaceae Sapindus saponaria L. 13.49 Medicinal, landscape plant United States and Mexico [6] *
51 Tian tai 天台 Tiantai Tiliaceae Tilia miqueliana Maxim. 7.14 Medicinal, landscape plant   *
52 Niu tou ma mian 牛头马面 Ox-head and horse-face Trapaceae Trapa natans L. 3.97 Medicinal, edible plant   *
  1. (Ranked by family names alphabetically, followed by generic and species names).
  2. Distribution: *Native to China; **Cultivated in China only; ***Not occurring in China.