Skip to main content

Table 3 Local plants considered for improving the animals’ well-being in the study area

From: Resilience at the border: traditional botanical knowledge among Macedonians and Albanians living in Gollobordo, Eastern Albania

Taxon, family and voucher specimen code Folk name(s) recorded among Albanians Folk name(s) recorded among Macedonians Status Plant part(s) used Recorded local use(s)/perceptions(s) Alb Mac
Acer campestre L.   Клен W Br Fodder (goats)   +
Sapindaceae
CAME 26252
Acer pseudoplatanus L.   Jавор W Br Fodder   +
Sapindaceae
CAME 26313
Achillea millefolium L. = = W FAP Infusion: for treating rumination troubles   +
Asteraceae
CAME 26294
Allium sativum L. # # C Bu In necklaces to be worn on the cow’s horns against the evil-eye (sysh, naok); evil-eye symptoms include the animal not producing milk + +
Amaryllidaceae
      Crushed, mixed with salt, and given as fodder to the sheep on St. George’s Day (May 6th): considered propitiatory for the good health of the animals +  
Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.   Габор W Br Fodder   +
Betulaceae
CAME 26307
Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. Kokuta   W AP Fodder +  
Asteraceae
CAME 26296
Arctium lappa L.
Asteraceae
Avena sativa L.   Овес C Fr Fodder, esp. considered good for the horse’s coat   +
Poaceae
Beta vulgaris L. # # C L Fodder (raw or in decoctions) + +
Amaranthaceae
Bovista sp. = = W DFB Externally applied on wounds as an haemostatic (horses)   +
Agaricaceae
Capsicum annuum L. # # C Fr Lacto-fermented; the resulting fruits opened and externally applied on the forehead for treating headaches   +
Solanaceae
Carpinus orientalis Mill. Shkoza Шкоз W Br Fodder at St. George’s Day (considered as a good omen)   +
Betulaceae
CAME 26301
Chelidonium majus L. Gjak edhe qumësht   W AP Crushed, mixed with salt, and given as fodder to the sheep on St. George’s Day (May 6th): considered propitiatory for the good health of the animals, but also as a blood depurative and galactagogue +  
Papaveraceae
CAME 26250
Chenopodium album L. Llabot   W AP Fodder +  
Amaranthaceae
CAME 26300
Clematis vitalba L. Kurpna Повит W AP Fodder +  
Ranunculaceae
CAME 26259
Cornus mas L. # # W Fl Honey plant +  
Cornaceae
CAME 26279
Corylus avellana L. # # W Fl Honey plant +  
Betulaceae
CAME 26242
     Br Fodder (sheep and goats)   +
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. # # W Fl Honey plant   +
Rosaceae
CAME 26280
Crataegus sericea Dzekov§
Rosaceae
CAME 26278
     FB Hung on churns and stable doors on St. George’s Day (May 6th) as a good omen for the dairy production   +
Cruciata laevipes Opiz =   W AP Crushed, mixed with salt, and given as fodder to the sheep on St. George’s Day (May 6th): considered propitiatory for the good health of the animals +  
Rubiaceae
CAME 26276
Cucurbita maxima Duch. # # C Fr Fodder   +
Cucurbitaceae
Cydonia oblonga Mill. # # C Fl Honey plant +  
Rosaceae
CAME 26290  
     L Infusion: stomachache   
     FB Hung on churns and stable doors on St. George’s Day (May 6th) as a good omen for the dairy production   +
Euphorbia characias L. #   W WP Considered poisonous and irritating the skin +  
Euphorbiaceae
CAME 26283
Fagus sylvatica L. # # W Fr Fodder (esp. sheep) + +
Fagaceae
CAME 26249
     L Fodder, esp. for sheep and equines + +
     Wo Burned, as repellent for the bees when removing honey from the hives   
Fraxinus excelsior L. =   W Br Fodder for sheep   +
Oleaceae
CAME 26304
Helleborus odorus Waldst. et Kit. ex Willd. = = W AP Ritually hung on doors and gates on March 13th as a good omen + +
Ranunculaceae
CAME 26282
     R Inserted on the horse ear: panacea +  
     BFAP Hung on the entry gates (to homes and stables), or on the churn on St. George's Day (May 6th): considered a good omen + +
Helichrysum plicatum DC. and other Helichrysum spp. = = W FAP Infusion: for treating rumination troubles and diarrhea; kerato-conjunctivitis in sheep   +
Asteraceae
CAME 26274
Hordeum vulgare L.   Jачмен C Fr Fodder, esp. considered good for improving the beauty of horse’s coat   +
Poaceae
Malus domestica Borkh. # # C L Fodder for goats   +
Rosaceae
CAME 26236
     FB Hung on churns and stable doors on St. George’s Day (May 6th) as a good omen for the dairy production   +
Medicago sativa L. Jonxha Njonxhë   C AP Fodder; considered good for improving the beauty of horse’s coat + +
Fabaceae
CAME 26292
     AP Galactagogue for animals +  
Melissa officinalis L. = = W Fl Honey plant +  
Lamiaceae
CAME 26235
Populus nigra L. Plepi   W L Fodder +  
Salicaceae
CAME 26302
Primula veris L. = = W FAP Hung on churns and stable doors on St. George’s Day (May 6th) as a good omen   +
Primulaceae
CAME 26317
Prunus avium (L.) L. # # W Br Fodder   +
Rosaceae
CAME 26240
Prunus domestica L. # # C L Fodder for goats   +
Rosaceae
CAME 26239
Prunus cerasus L. # # C Br Fodder   +
Rosaceae
CAME 26298
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Fier   W L Bedding for animals +  
Dennstaedtiaceae
CAME 26315
Quercus cerris L. Bung, Çarri, Dushk, Lis Добк W Fr Fodder for sheep and goats + +
Fagaceae
CAME 26256
Quercus frainetto Ten.
Fagaceae
CAME 26246
     Br Dried, and stored in loft: fodder + +
    W Sa Externally instilled in the ear for treating earaches   +
Robinia pseudoacacia L. Akac, Bagren   W Fl Honey plant +  
Fabaceae
CAME 26305
Rosa canina L. s.l.    W Fl Honey plant   +
Rosaceae
CAME 26237
Salix alba L. Shelçë, Shelgë   W L Fodder for goats +  
CAME 26251
Salicaceae
Salix eleagnos Scop.
Salicaceae
CAME 26248
Salix purpurea L.
Salicaceae
CAMNE 26255
    W Fl Honey plant +  
Salvia verticillata L. Gombelik, Lule bulli Гомбели W AP Fodder + +
Lamiaceae
Sambucus ebulus L. = = W Fr Externally for treating wounds in sheep   +
Adoxaceae
CAME 26254
      Consumed by cats and dogs on their own when they do not feel well +  
     Fr Fermented and distilled into raki (rare) +  
Secale cereale L. # # C St Galactagogue for animals (esp. given to the cows one month before giving birth) + +
Poaceae
Solanum tuberosum L. # # C T Fodder +  
Solanaceae
Syringa vulgaris L.   Jоргован C FB Hung on churns and stable doors on St. George’s Day (May 6th) as a good omen for the dairy production   +
Oleaceae
CAME 26309
Tanacetum macrophyllum (Waldst. et Kit.) Sch. Bip.   Вратика W AP Together with nettles, this is rubbed on the goat’s mammaries on St. George’s day (May 6th) to improve milk production   +
Asteraceae
CAME 26269
Tanacetum vulgare L.    W AP Hung on churns and stable doors on St. George’s Day (May 6th) as a good omen for the dairy production   +
Asteraceae
CAME 26268
      Mixed with salt and given to sheep who are thirsty   +
      Fodder   +
Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H. Wigg. # # W Fl Crushed, mixed with salt, and ritually given as fodder to the animals on St. George’s Day (May 6th): considered a good omen and galactagogue   +
Asteraceae
CAME 26289
      Honey plant   +
Trifolium pratense L. Detelina   W L Fodder for sheep + +
Fabaceae
CAME 26297,
Trifolium incarnatum L. ssp. molineri (Hornem.) Ces.
Fabaceae
CAME 26318, and other Trifolium spp.
Fabaceae
      Honey plant   +
Urtica dioica L. # # W AP Rubbed onto the mammaries of cows affected by the Evil-Eye   +
Urticaceae
CAME 26262
      Together with Tanacetum macrophyllum, this is rubbed onto goat mammaries on St. George’s day (May 6th) to improve milk production   +
      Hung on churns and stable doors on St. George’s Day (May 6th) as a good omen for dairy production   +
      Fodder   +
Vicia ervilia (L.) Willd.   Уров C Se Fodder   +
Fabaceae
Zea mays L. # # C Fr Fodder, esp. for increasing the growth speed of lambs and for improving the coat of horses + +
Poaceae
      Galactagogue for all animals   +
Diverse tree species    W; C WA Repellent against other insects in the bee hives   +
Not identified   Лула манушаче W FAP Hung on home gates, churns and stable doors on St. George’s Day (May 6th) as a good omen   +
Not identified Spenger   W R Inserted on the animal ear for treating diverse diseases +  
  1. §: first record of the species in Albania.
  2. In bold: folk taxa quoted by more than 40% of the informants.
  3. C: cultivated; SD: semi-domesticated; W: wild.
  4. *: past use.
  5. #: see Table 1.
  6. =: see Table 2.
  7. +: recorded use.
  8. Plant part(s) used: AP aerial parts; Br branches; Bu bulbs; BAFP Branches with flowering aerial parts; FAP flowering aerial parts; FB flowering branches; Fl flowers; Fr fruits; L leaves; R roots; Sa sap; Se seeds; St stems; T tubers; Wo wood; WA ashes from wood; WP whole plant.