Open Access

Analysis of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants from residents in Gayasan National Park (Korea)

  • Mi-Jang Song1,
  • Hyun Kim2Email author,
  • Byoung-Yoon Lee3,
  • Heldenbrand Brian4,
  • Chan-Ho Park3 and
  • Chang-Woo Hyun3
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201410:74

https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-10-74

Received: 22 February 2014

Accepted: 14 September 2014

Published: 21 October 2014

Abstract

Background

The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by residents in Gayasan National Park in order to obtain basic data regarding the sustainable conservation of its natural plant ecosystem.

Methods

Data was collected using participatory observations and in-depth interviews, as the informants also become investigators themselves through attending informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observations with semi-structured questionnaires. Quantitative analyses were accomplished through the informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level, and inter-network analysis (INA).

Results

In total, 200 species of vascular plants belonging to 168 genera and 87 families were utilized traditionally in 1,682 ethnomedicianal practices. The representative families were Rosaceae (6.5%) followed by Asteraceae (5.5%), Poaceae (4.5%), and Fabaceae (4.0%). On the whole, 27 kinds of plant-parts were used and prepared in 51 various ways by the residents for medicinal purposes. The ICF values in the ailment categories were muscular-skeletal disorders (0.98), pains (0.97), respiratory system disorders (0.97), liver complaints (0.97), and cuts and wounds (0.96). In terms of fidelity levels, 57 plant species showed fidelities levels of 100%. Regarding the inter-network analysis (INA) between ailments and medicinal plants within all communities of this study, the position of ailments is distributed into four main groups.

Conclusion

The results of the inter-network analysis will provide a suitable plan for sustainable preservation of the national park through a continued study of the data. Particular species of medicinal plants need to be protected for a balanced plant ecosystem within the park. Consequently, through further studies using these results, proper steps need to be established for preparing a wise alternative to create a sustainable natural plant ecosystem for Gayasan National Park and other national parks.

Keywords

Traditional knowledge Informant consensus factor Fidelity level Inter-network analysis Gayasan National Park

Introduction

National Parks in the world grow various useful bio-resources owing to its well-preserved natural plant ecosystem. For residents living within a national park, these resources become materials for medicine, food, clothing, and other purposes. The relationship between the natural conservation of a national park and the life of its residents is interconnected [1].

Also, the traditional knowledge regarding the bio-resources of residents living in a national park affects the natural conservation of an ecosystem [2]. Among all knowledge, the traditional knowledge of food and medicinal plants causes negative effects to plant ecosystems because of its applicability. Particularly, the additional value of medicinal plants is a major concern for species possessing high efficacy and utility as they are potentially overused and supplies become rapidly depleted [3]. These trends are stronger in developing countries with poor health care systems than in developed countries [4].

From this point, the analysis and investigation of traditional knowledge for medicinal plants used by residents in a national park will be applied for a sustainable conservation plan for a natural plant ecosystem.

Research in this field has been widely accomplished in several countries around the world, including Europe [5, 6], Africa [7, 8], Asia [9, 10], North America [11], and South America [12]. The results of this research have been utilized as basic data to formulate a sustainable conservation plan for natural plant ecosystems within a national park.

In Korea, the research of the same pattern has been only conducted from residents living in Hallasan National Park [13].

The natural plant ecosystem of Gayasan National Park, located in the southeast region of Korea has been well preserved. Residents have maintained a traditional culture for over 30 years. These residents have utilized various ethnomedicine for treating numerous ailments. Therefore, a balance between medicinal plants and their utilization plays a very important role to sustain the natural conservation of a national park.

This study aims to investigate and analyze the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by residents in Gayasan National Park in order to obtain basic data regarding the sustainable conservation of its natural plant ecosystem.

Research area and methods

Climate and geography of Gayasan National Park

The study area is located in the center of the southern region of Korea and lies between 35° 45′N to 35° 51′N latitude and 128° 02′ 30″E to 128° 09′ 30″E longitude (Figure 1). The study area measures 77.256 km2 in areas including two provinces, one city, and four counties in its administrative district [14]. The annual average temperature is 13°C and the annual average precipitation is approximately 1,275.6 mm [15].
Figure 1

Investigation sites.

Investigative method

Proper data was collected using participatory observations and in-depth interviews, as the informants also become investigators themselves through attending informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observations with semi-structured questionnaires [16, 17].

The content of the semi-structured questionnaires was composed of diverse information about medicinal plants, including local names, plant-parts used, ailments, methods of preparation, manufacturing and administration, dosage, and the usable duration regarding each curable formula [1719].

All plant specimens were collected during their flowering or fruiting seasons and were organized utilizing the normal specimen manufacturing method [18, 20]. The voucher specimens were deposited for preservation in the herbarium of Jeonju University. The precise identification of plants mentioned by the informants was performed in accordance with Lee [21] and Lee [22]. Scientific names of plants were confirmed by the National Knowledge and Information System for Biological Species [23] of Korea.

Quantitative analysis

Informant consensus factor (ICF)

The ICF was used to analyze the agreement degree of the informants’ knowledge about each category of ailments [24, 25]. The ICF was calculated using the following formula:
ICF = nur nt / nur 1 ,

where nur stands for the number of use reports of informants for a particular illness category, and nt is the number of species used by all informants for a particular illness.

Fidelity level (FL)

The FL was employed to determine the most important plant species used for treating certain diseases by the local herbal practitioners and elderly people living in the study area [17, 20, 26]. The FL was calculated using the following formula:
FL % = Np × 100 / N ,

where Np is the number of informants that mentioned the specific plant species used to treat certain ailments, and N is the total number of the informants who utilized the plants as medicine for treating any given ailment.

Inter-network analysis (INA)

The INA considers the results of the interrelationship among each individual of a community instead of focusing on the independent characteristics of an individual within the community. The INA has been applied within communities for various ethnographical problems, including ethnogenesis [27] and obesity [2830].

However, the INA has yet to be applied to traditional medicinal knowledge, although it has been included in relation to its ethnographical properties.

Therefore, this research has newly applied this method in order to attain more network information between categories of ailments and medicinal plants within communities in Korea. The results of the INA were analyzed using UCINET (Ver. 6.460) and NetDraw (Ver. 2.125) software [31, 32].

Results and discussion

Demographic characteristics of the informants

Field investigations were conducted from May 2012 to October 2012. All 208 key informants (28 men and 180 women) were randomly selected at 54 sites, which included community halls, the senior welfare centers, and the traditional markets. The average age of the informants was 77 years of age, with a range in age from 52 to 93, with residents living more than 30 years in the study area (Table 1).
Table 1

Demographic characteristics

Gender

 

 Male

28 (13.5%)

 Female

180 (86.5%)

Age

 

 50-59

1 (0.5%)

 60-69

21 (10.1%)

 70-79

106 (51.0%)

 80-89

74 (35.6%)

 90-99

6 (2.9%)

Educational attainment

 

 Never attended school

154 (74.0%)

 Attended school for less than 6 years

13 (6.3%)

 Attended school for 6 years

17 (8.2%)

 Finished middle school

14 (6.7%)

 Finished high school

10 (4.8%)

Ethnomedicinal knowledge

In total, 200 species of vascular plants belonging to 168 genera and 87 families were utilized traditionally in 1,682 ethnomedicianal practices.

The species numbers from the Gayasan National Park were similar to those of other communities from previous research, including the communities of the western region of Jeolla North Province (183 species), the southern mountainous region (217 species) of Korea, and Hallasan National Park [13, 16, 19]. These results conclude that people living in the communities in and around Gayasan National Park possess similar application abilities for ethnomedicinal knowledge with other communities in Korea. Also, the number of species recorded in Gayasan National Park occupied 36.9% of the flora (542 species) in the study area [15]. This high percentage means that all medicinal plants collected by residents may negatively affect the conservation of a natural plant ecosystem.

Regarding the number of species in their families and the percentage of the number of times mentioned from the our current investigations, 13 species of Rosaceae occupied 6.5% of the total species mentioned, followed by 12 species of Asteraceae, 11 species of Poaceae, and 9 species of Fabaceae, which occupied 5.5%, 4.5% and 4.0% of the whole, respectively. Generally, these four families contain many more medicinal species than any other family. This data is similar to results obtained within national parks of other countries, including Pollino National Park in Italy [5], Kibale National Park in Uganda [8], Ben En National Park in Vietnam [9], Cumbres de Monterrey National Park in Mexico [11], and Isiboro-Secure National Park in Bolivia [12].

Our overall analysis reveals that 27 plant-parts were selected as medicinal materials. Stems were the most frequently used plant-parts, constituting 25.7% of the whole followed by roots (22.7%), fruits (12.9%), whole parts (7.3%), seeds (5.3%), and other sections of the plant. These results were similar to data obtained in Korea for the western region of Jeolla North Province [19], the southern mountainous regions [16], and Hallasan National Park [13].

The results revealed 51 modes of preparation for the medicinal materials. The percentages for the main modes of preparation were as follows: infusions (32.1%), sweet drinks made from fermented rice (20.1%), brewings (9.3%), macerations (7.1%), and juices (6.8%). Oral administration accounted for 84.8% of all applications, while topical application totaled 15.2%.

Among the medicinal plants mentioned more than 50 times, with certain species used to treat numerous ailments, Hordeum vulgare var. hexastichon (L.) Asch. was used to treat 36 ailments, followed by Artemisia princeps Pamp. in treating 24 ailments, and Zanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold. & Zucc. for treating 11 ailments. One area of major concern is the over application of the Artemisia princeps Pamp. and Zanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold. & Zucc. which can easily lead to its extinction within the plant ecosystem.

Ethno-veterinary knowledge

The medicinal plants for ethno-veterinary treatments were recorded as 15 families, 22 genera, and 23 species that displayed 38 ethnomedicinal practices (Table 2). Among the veterinary medicinal plants, the whole part of Artemisia princeps Pamp., Papaver somniferum L., Picrasma quassioides (D.Don) Benn., Sanguisorba officinalis L., and Poria cocos Wolf were used most often to treat bovine diarrhea. Particularly, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Ricinus communis L., and Zanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold. & Zucc. were ingested for particular pig ailments, while Lageneria leucantha Rushy was generally used for treating a bovine disease caused by a loss of appetite.
Table 2

Plant species for medicinal purposes in community of Gayasan National Park in Korea

Family

Scientific name

Voucher

Abbreviation*

Korean name

Used part

Ailments

Preparation

Application

FL

Aceraceae

Acer pictum subsp. mono (Maxim.) Ohashi

KH5340

S1

Gorosoenamu

Sap

Hypofunction

Sap

Oral

100.00

Actinidiaceae

Actinidia arguta (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq.

KH5341

S5

Darae

Stem

Abdominal pain

Infusion

Oral

100.00

Amaranthaceae

Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai

KH5342

S2

Soemureup

Root

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral

16.71

      

Arthritis

Infusion

Oral

1.62

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral

32.61

      

Common cold

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

2.43

      

Convulsion

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral

3.23

      

Knee pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

2.16

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, decoction, infusion

Oral

31.54

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

9.16

      

Pollakiuria

Infusion

Oral

0.54

 

Celosia cristata L.

KH5343

S41

Maendeurami

Whole part

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Infusion

Oral

50.00

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Infusion

Oral

50.00

Anacardiaceae

Rhus javanica L.

KH5344

S155

Bulknamu

Worm cyst

Coated tongue

Infusion

Topical

15.12

      

Stomatitis

Dried, infusion, maceration, powder, raw, steamed

Oral, topical

84.88

 

Rhus verniciflua Stokes

KH5345

S156

Otnamu

Bark

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

Infusion, simmer

Oral

58.97

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Simmer

Oral

19.87

     

Lacquer

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

Mixed in egg, roast, sap

Oral

58.97

      

Facial nerve paralysis

Raw

Topical

0.64

     

Stem

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

Infusion, simmer, soup

Oral

58.97

      

Diarrhea

Burn, powder

Oral

1.28

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Infusion, simmer

Oral

19.87

      

Hangover

Infusion, simmer

Oral

10.90

      

Indigestion

Infusion

Oral

3.85

      

Lack of energy

Infusion

Oral

1.92

      

Woman diseases

Infusion

Oral

2.56

     

Young leaf

Gastroenteric disorder

Raw

Oral

19.87

Apiaceae

Angelica acutiloba (Siebold & Zucc.) Kitag.

KH5346

S14

Waedanggwi

Root

Poor circulation

Infusion

Oral

53.33

      

Lack of energy

Boiling, decoction

Oral

46.67

 

Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Franch. & Sav.

KH5347

S15

Guritdae

Root

Lack of energy

Decoction

Oral

100.00

 

Angelica gigas Nakai

KH5348

S16

Chamdanggwi

Root

Lack of energy

Decoction, infusion

Oral, topical

100.00

 

Bupleurum falcatum L.

KH5349

S32

Siho

Root

Alopecia

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

100.00

 

Cnidium officinale Makino

KH5350

S48

Cheongung

Root

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

23.53

      

Lack of energy

Boiling, decoction

Oral, topical

52.94

      

Woman diseases

Decoction

Oral

23.53

 

Ledebouriella seseloides (Hoffm.) H.Wolff

KH5351

S99

Bangpung

Root

Hypofunction

Decoction

Oral

100.00

 

Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC.

KH5352

S111

Minari

Stem

Cancer

Juice

Oral

25.00

      

Liver diseases

Juice

Oral

29.17

      

Pus

Maceration

Topical

25.00

      

Snakebite

Maceration

Topical

20.83

     

Whole part

Liver diseases

Juice

Oral

29.17

 

Ostericum praeteritum Kitag.

KH5353

S115

Ganghwal

Root

Hyperthermia

Infusion

Oral

60.00

      

Lack of energy

Decoction

Oral

40.00

Araceae

Arisaema amurense f. serratum (Nakai) Kitag.

KH5354

S19

Cheonnamseong

Corm

Chronic myofascial pain

Chopped noodles, clear soup with flour dumplings

Oral

55.56

      

Extravasated blood

Maceration

Topical

3.70

      

Milk fever

Clear soup with flour dumplings

Oral

12.96

      

Tonsillitis

Clear soup with flour dumplings

Oral

14.81

      

Wound

Maceration

Topical

12.96

     

Stem

Tonsillitis

Infusion

Oral

14.81

 

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott

KH5355

S52

Toran

Flower

Sterility

Infusion

Oral

100.00

Araliaceae

Aralia cordata var. continentalis (Kitag.) Y.C.Chu

KH5356

S17

Dokhwal

Root

Abdominal pain

Infusion

Oral

5.56

      

Anorexia

Infusion

Oral

5.56

      

Arthritis

Infusion

Oral

11.11

      

Bone diseases

Brewing

Oral

14.81

      

Chronic myofascial pain

Brewing

Oral

18.52

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Dissolution, maceration

Oral

11.11

      

Lumbago

Brewing, maceration

Oral

33.33

 

Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem.

KH5357

S18

Dureupnamu

Root

Edema

Infusion

Oral

100.00

 

Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim.

KH5358

S66

Gasiogalpi

Stem

Bone diseases

Decoction

Oral

100.00

 

Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus (Rupr. & Maxim.) S.Y.Hu

KH5359

S67

Ogalpinamu

Fruit

Bone diseases

Extraction

Oral

47.38

      

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral

11.53

      

Arthritis

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

1.05

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral

47.38

      

Glycosuria

Infusion

Oral

1.05

      

Growing pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing

Oral

2.94

      

Hyperthermia

Brewing

Oral

0.21

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral

22.01

      

Liver diseases

Infusion

Oral

1.89

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

9.64

      

Neuralgia

Infusion

Oral

0.42

      

Paralysis

Infusion

Oral

1.26

      

Shoulder pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

0.42

      

Sinews and joint pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

0.21

 

Kalopanax septemlobus (Thunb.) Koidz.

KH5360

 

Eumnamu

 

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

9.76

      

Bone diseases

Brewing, infusion

Oral

55.10

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

17.57

     

Stem

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

Infusion, simmer

Oral

0.65

      

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, Infusion, Simmer

Oral

9.76

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion, simmer

Oral

55.10

      

Gastroenteric disorder

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing

Oral

3.04

      

Hyperthermia

Brewing

Oral

0.22

      

Indigestion

Infusion

Oral

0.22

      

Lack of energy

Infusion

Oral

0.87

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion, simmer

Oral

17.57

      

Liver diseases

Infusion

Oral

0.87

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

9.11

      

Neuralgia

Infusion

Oral

0.43

      

Paralysis

Brewing, infusion

Oral

2.17

Aristolochiaceae

Asarum sieboldii Miq.

KH5361

S24

Jokdoripul

Root

Dental pain

Chew, dried

Topical

22.22

      

Pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

77.78

Aspleniaceae

Athyrium yokoscense (Franch. & Sav.) H.Christ

KH5362

S26

Baemgosari

Stem

Abrasion

Maceration, rubbing

Topical

13.41

      

Common cold

Infusion

Oral

6.10

      

Hemorrhaging

Maceration, rubbing

Topical

62.20

      

Snakebite

Maceration, raw

Topical

15.85

      

Wound

Maceration

Topical

2.44

Asteraceae

Artemisia capillaris Thunb.

KH5363

S21

Sacheolssuk

Aerial part

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

Infusion

Oral

2.18

      

Boils

Decoction

Oral

0.87

      

Cattle disease

Burn, dried, fumigation

Topical

0.87

      

Glycosuria

Infusion

Oral

1.75

      

Jaundice

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, grain syrup, infusion, pill, simmer

Oral

67.25

      

Liver diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, decoction, grain syrup, infusion, juice, simmer

Oral

20.96

     

Leaf

Indigestion

Decoction

Oral

0.87

      

Jaundice

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, decoction, dried, infusion

Oral

67.25

      

Liver diseases

Infusion

Oral

20.96

      

Pollakiuria

Infusion

Oral

1.75

     

Stem

Indigestion

Decoction

Oral

0.87

      

Jaundice

Decoction

Oral

67.25

     

Whole part

Gastroenteric disorder

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion, pill

Oral

3.49

      

Jaundice

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

67.25

      

Liver diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, pill

Oral

20.96

 

Artemisia montana (Nakai) Pamp.

KH5364

S22

Sanssuk

Leaf

Leg pain

Rubbing

Topical

50.00

      

Lumbago

Rubbing

Topical

50.00

 

Artemisia princeps Pamp.

KH5365

S23

Ssuk

Aerial part

Abdominal pain

Juice

Oral

16.35

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

1.26

      

Cattle disease

Burn, dried, fumigation

Topical

1.26

      

Diarrhea

Infusion, juice

Oral

6.29

      

Dysentery

Infusion, juice

Oral

2.52

      

Head laceration

Raw

Topical

1.26

      

Hemorrhage

Maceration, rubbing

Topical

38.36

      

Hookworm

Raw

Topical

0.63

      

Irregular menstruation

Decoction, infusion, pill

Oral

0.63

     

Leaf

Abdominal pain

Juice, maceration

Oral

16.35

      

Anorexia

Juice

Oral

2.83

      

Arthritis

Dried, powder

Topical

1.26

      

Burn

Maceration

Topical

0.31

      

Diarrhea

Juice, raw

Oral

6.29

      

Epistaxis

Maceration, rubbing

Topical

4.09

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Powder

Topical

5.66

      

Hemorrhaging

Maceration, powder, rubbing

Topical

38.36

      

Hoove

Raw

Oral

2.20

      

Indigestion

Juice, raw

Oral

2.52

      

Jaundice

Rubbing

Topical

1.57

      

Pus

Powder

Topical

1.26

      

Overheating

Juice

Oral

0.94

      

Wound

Rubbing

Topical

6.60

     

Root

Woman diseases

Infusion

Oral

2.20

     

Whole part

Abdominal pain

Juice

Oral

16.35

      

Anorexia

Juice

Oral

2.83

      

Diarrhea

Juice

Oral

6.29

      

Dysentery

Juice

Oral

2.52

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Infusion, juice

Oral

5.66

      

Hemorrhage

Maceration, rubbing

Topical

38.36

      

Indigestion

Juice

Oral

2.52

 

Atractylodes ovata (Thunb.) DC.

KH5366

S28

Sapju

Root

Arm pain

Decoction

Oral

1.09

      

Bone diseases

Decoction

Oral

1.09

      

Gastroenteric disorder

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, decoction, dried, infusion maceration, pill, powder, raw, steep in rice water

Oral

52.17

      

Indigestion

Dried, maceration, powder, raw, steep in rice water

Oral

6.52

      

Lack of energy

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, boiling, decoction, dried, infusion, pill, powder, steep in rice water

Oral

38.04

      

Leg pain

Decoction

Oral

1.09

 

Carthamus tinctorius L.

KH5367

S37

Itggot

Seed

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

33.33

      

Fracture

Boiling

Oral

33.33

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

33.33

 

Cirsium japonicum var. maackii (Maxim.) Matsum.

KH5368

S45

Eonggeongkwi

Root

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

Juice

Oral

1.80

      

Abdominal pain

Juice

Oral

0.90

      

Anhidrosis

Infusion, juice

Oral

4.50

      

Bone diseases

Juice

Oral

0.90

      

Epistaxis

Juice

Oral

0.90

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Juice

Oral

0.90

      

Hangover

Juice

Oral

3.15

      

Hookworm

Juice

Oral

2.70

      

Lack of energy

Juice

Oral

3.60

      

Lumbago

Infusion, juice

Oral

4.50

      

Sexual enhancement

Infusion, juice

Oral

75.23

      

Sterility

Infusion

Oral

0.90

 

Helianthus tuberosus L.

KH5369

S86

Ddungddanji

Tuber

Glycosuria

Maceration, tea

Oral

100.00

 

Lactuca sativa L.

KH5370

S97

Sangchu

Seed

Oligogalactia

Infusion

Oral

100.00

 

Petasites japonicus (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim.

KH5371

S123

Meowi

Leaf

Gastroenteric disorder

Infusion, wrapped in leaves

Oral

27.59

      

Lacquer poisoning

Maceration

Topical

37.93

      

Paralysis

Maceration

Oral

10.34

     

Root

Convulsion

Maceration

Oral

6.90

      

Leg pain

Brewing

Oral

17.24

     

Stem

Gastroenteric disorder

Seasoned cooked vegetables

Oral

27.59

 

Sigesbeckia glabrescens (Makino) Makino

KH5372

S175

Jindeukchal

Aerial part

Pruritus

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion, pill, simmer

Oral, topical

79.89

     

Flower

Hypertension

Grain syrup, infusion

Oral

3.45

      

Postpartum myofascial pain syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

11.49

      

Pruritus

Dried, mixed in liquor, maceration, pill

Oral

79.89

     

Fruit

Pruritus

Brewing, infusion

Oral, topical

79.89

     

Leaf

Postpartum myofascial pain syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

11.49

     

Whole part

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

5.17

      

Pruritus

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral, topical

79.89

 

Taraxacum platycarpum Dahlst.

KH5373

S184

Mindeulre

Leaf

Liver diseases

Dried, infusion, juice, Kimchi, raw, seasoned cooked vegetables

Oral

91.76

     

Root

Cancer

Infusion

Oral

8.24

     

Whole part

Cancer

Dried, infusion

Oral

8.24

      

Liver diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, dried, extraction, infusion, juice

Oral

91.76

 

Xanthium strumarium L.

KH5374

S195

Doggomari

Aerial part

Boils

Infusion

Topical

22.22

     

Fruit

Pruritus

Infusion

Topical

40.74

     

Stem

Boils

Infusion

Topical

22.22

     

Whole part

Boils

Infusion

Topical

22.22

      

Gastroenteric disorder

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

11.11

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

11.11

      

Pruritus

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral, topical

40.74

      

Skin diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral, topical

14.81

Balsaminaceae

Impatiens balsamina L.

KH5375

S91

Bongseonhwa

Whole part

Indigestion

Infusion

Oral

59.26

      

Sterility

Decoction, infusion

Oral

40.74

Berberidaceae

Epimedium koreanum Nakai

KH5376

S68

Samjigueopcho

Aerial part

Sexual enhancement

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

57.14

      

Sterility

Tea

Oral

42.86

Betulaceae

Betula costata Trautv.

KH5377

S29

Geojesunamu

Sap

Hypofunction

Sap

Oral

35.71

      

Indigestion

Sap

Oral

7.14

     

Stem

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

28.57

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

28.57

Bignoniaceae

Catalpa ovata G.Don

KH5378

S39

Gaeodong

Stem

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

30.77

      

Indigestion

Infusion

Oral

7.69

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

30.77

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

30.77

Boraginaceae

Lithospermum erythrorhizon Siebold & Zucc.

KH5379

S102

Jichi

Root

Bruising

Infusion, poultice

Oral, topical

10.00

      

Convulsion

Decoction, infusion, oil, panbroiled, poultice, roast

Oral, topical

83.33

      

Indigestion

Panbroiled

Oral

6.67

Brassicaceae

Brassica rapa var. glabra Regel

KH5380

S30

Baechu

Leaf

Burn

Kimchi, raw

Topical

100.00

 

Capsella bursapastoris (L.) L.W.Medicus

KH5381

S34

Naengi

Whole part

Liver diseases

Juice, seasoned cooked vegetables, soup

Oral

100.00

 

Raphanus sativus L.

KH5382

S151

Mu

Leaf

Lumbago

Steamed

Topical

1.72

     

Tuberous root

Bronchitis

Infusion

Oral

4.31

      

Common cold

Decoction, extraction, fermentation, infusion, raw, roast

Oral

56.90

      

Cough

Infusion, raw, roast

Oral

37.07

Campanulaceae

Adenophora triphylla var. japonica (Regel) H. Hara

KH5383

S6

Jandae

Root

Sterility

Infusion

Oral

20.00

      

Woman diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, raw, simmer

Oral

80.00

 

Codonopsis lanceolata (Siebold & Zucc.) Trautv.

KH5384

S50

Deodeok

Root

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

Maceration, raw

Oral

17.39

      

Bronchitis

Maceration, raw

Oral

19.57

      

Cough

Steamed

Oral

10.87

      

Orchiopathy

Brewing, maceration, raw

Oral

26.09

      

Sexual enhancement

Brewing, infusion

Oral

26.09

 

Codonopsis ussuriensis (Rupr. & Maxim.) Hemsl.

KH5385

S51

Sogyeongbulal

Root

Sexual enhancement

Infusion

Oral

100.00

 

Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A.DC.

KH5386

S134

Doraji

Flower

Sterility

Infusion

Oral

2.62

     

Root

Abdominal pain

Infusion

Oral

1.12

      

Anorexia

Infusion

Oral

1.12

      

Asthma

Brewing

Oral

11.99

       

Dried, fermentation, infusion, powder, pill

Oral

 
      

Bronchitis

Extraction, infusion, juice, powder

Oral

7.12

      

Common cold

Brewing, decoction, dried, infusion, maceration, mixed in honey, pill, powder

Oral

21.72

      

Cough

Brewing, decoction, dissolution, dried, extraction, fermentation, infusion, maceration, mixed in honey, powder, pill

Oral

50.56

      

Hyperthermia

Infusion

Oral

1.50

      

Leukorrhea

Infusion

Oral

1.50

      

Sinews and joint pain

Infusion

Oral

0.75

      

Sterility

Infusion

Oral

2.62

Cannabaceae

Cannabis sativa L.

KH5387

S33

Sam

Leaf

Paralysis

Infusion

Oral

100.00

 

Humulus japonicus Sieboid & Zucc.

KH5388

S90

Hwansamdeonggul

Aerial part

Athlete’s foot

Juice

Topical

100.00

Caprifoliaceae

Lonicera japonica Thunb.

KH5389

S103

Indongdeonggul

Aerial part

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

36.11

     

Flower

Lack of energy

Brewing

Oral

1.39

     

Stem

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, decoction, infusion

Oral

19.79

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, decoction, infusion

Oral

36.11

      

Bronchitis

Infusion

Oral

0.35

      

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Infusion

Oral

1.04

      

Lack of energy

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

1.39

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice,, brewing, decoction, infusion

Oral

26.04

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

14.24

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Infusion

Oral

1.04

Caryophyllaceae

Dianthus longicalyx Miq.

KH5390

S60

Sulpaeraengikkot

Whole part

Pollakiuria

Infusion

Oral

100.00

Celastraceae

Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Siebold

KH5391

S70

Hwasalnamu

Leaf

Gastroenteric disorder

Seasoned cooked vegetables

Oral

100.00

     

Stem

Gastroenteric disorder

Decoction

Oral

100.00

 

Euonymus sachalinensis (F.Schmidt) Maxim.

KH5392

S71

Hoenamu

Leaf

Hemorrhoids

Infusion

Topical

100.00

     

Stem

Hemorrhoids

Fumigation, infusion

Topical

100.00

Chenopodiaceae

Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. var. scoparia

KH5393

S96

Daepssari

Aerial part

Pollakiuria

Infusion

Oral

100.00

Commelinaceae

Commelina communis L.

KH5394

S53

Dalkuijangpul

Whole part

Bruising

Maceration

Topical

33.33

      

Snakebite

Maceration

Topical

33.33

      

Sprain

Maceration

Topical

33.33

Convolvulaceae

Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.

KH5395

S93

Goguma

Root

Pig disease

Raw

Oral

100.00

Cornaceae

Cornus officinalis Siebold & Zucc.

KH5396

S55

Sansuyu

Fruit

Lack of energy

Decoction

Oral

53.85

      

Pollakiuria

Infusion

Oral

46.15

Crassulaceae

Orostachys japonica (Maxim.) A.Berger

KH5397

S112

Bawisol

Aerial part

Cancer

Maceration

Oral

75.00

     

Whole part

Cancer

Dried, infusion

Oral

75.00

      

Snakebite

Maceration

Topical

25.00

 

Sedum sarmentosum Bunge

KH5398

S171

Dolnamul

Whole part

Gastroenteric disorder

Watery plain Kimchi

Oral

13.21

      

Hepatitis

Juice

Oral

16.98

      

Liver diseases

Maceration, powder, raw, watery plain Kimchi

Oral

52.83

      

Snakebite

Maceration, raw

Topical

16.98

Cucurbitaceae

Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.

KH5399

S46

Subak

Fruit

Overheating

Extraction

Oral

100.00

 

Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino

KH5400

S56

Chamoe

Peduncle

Jaundice

Powder

Topical

55.56

      

Otalgia

Powder

Topical

44.44

 

Cucumis sativus L.

KH5401

S57

Oi

Stem

Pollakiuria

Dried, infusion

Oral

100.00

 

Cucurbita moschata Duchesne

KH5402

S58

Hobak

Fruit

Asthma

Simmer

Oral

11.11

      

Edema

Infusion, roast

Oral

61.11

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Infusion

Oral

27.78

 

Lagenaria leucantha Rusby

KH5403

S98

Bak

Endodermis

Cattle disease

Infusion

Oral

56.25

     

Fruit

Cattle disease

Infusion

Oral

56.25

      

Common cold

Infusion

Oral

31.25

     

Pericarp

Pollakiuria

Infusion

Oral

12.50

 

Luffa cylindrica Roem.

KH5404

S104

Susemioi

Fruit

Asthma

Extraction, sap

Oral

19.51

      

Bronchitis

Extraction

Oral

10.98

      

Chronic cough

Extraction, sap

Oral

4.88

      

Cough

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, extraction, fermentation, infusion, oil, pan fried, sap

Oral

43.90

      

Skin diseases

Extraction, sap

Oral, Topical

15.85

     

Stem

Asthma

Sap

Oral

19.51

      

Atopic dermatitis

Raw

Topical

4.88

      

Bronchitis

Sap

Oral

10.98

      

Skin diseases

Raw

Topical

15.85

 

Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim.

KH5405

S186

Haneultari

Fruit

Bruising

Dough

Topical

4.69

      

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Dough

Topical

1.56

      

Chronic myofascial pain

Brewing, infusion

Oral

37.50

      

Lumbago

Brewing, infusion

Oral

12.50

      

Neuralgia

Infusion

Oral

9.38

      

Overheating

Extraction, infusion

Oral

18.75

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Dough

Topical

1.56

      

Urticaria

Infusion

Oral

9.38

     

Root

Induced abortion

Maceration

Oral

4.69

      

Neuralgia

Infusion

Oral

9.38

      

Overheating

Infusion

Oral

18.75

     

Stem

Neuralgia

Infusion

Oral

9.38

Dioscoreaceae

Dioscorea batatas Decne.

KH5406

S61

Ma

Root

Gastroenteric disorder

Maceration, oil, raw

Oral

37.14

      

Lack of energy

Maceration, oil, raw

Oral

34.29

      

Milk fever

Maceration

Oral, topical

17.14

      

Osteoporosis

Maceration

Oral

11.43

 

Dioscorea japonica Thunb.

KH5407

S62

Chamma

Root

Gastroenteric disorder

Raw

Oral

100.00

Ebenaceae

Diospyros kaki Thunb.

KH5408

S63

Gamnamu

Fruit

Boils

Raw

Topical

4.05

      

Cough

Ripe persimmon

Oral

6.76

      

Diarrhea

Raw, roast

Oral

9.46

      

Indigestion

Infusion, raw

Oral

47.30

     

Peduncle

Acute gastroenteritis

Infusion

Oral

6.76

      

Hiccups

Decoction, infusion

Oral

18.92

      

Indigestion

Infusion

Oral

47.30

     

Pericarp

Common cold

Infusion

Oral

6.76

Elaeagnaceae

Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.

KH5409

S65

Borisunamu

Fruit

Asthma

Raw

Oral

11.59

      

Bronchitis

Extraction

Oral

4.35

      

Common cold

Extraction

Oral

5.80

      

Cough

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, extraction, raw

Oral

75.36

     

Stem

Asthma

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

11.59

      

Cough

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

75.36

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

2.90

Ericaceae

Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz.

KH5410

S153

Jindalrae

Stem

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

100.00

 

Rhododendron weyrichii Maxim.

KH5411

S154

Chamkkoknamu

Root

Cough

Extraction

Oral

100.00

Eucommiaceae

Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.

KH5412

S69

Duchung

Bark

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

21.05

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

21.05

      

Cancer

Infusion

Oral

10.53

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

21.05

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, decoction

Oral

26.32

Euphorbiaceae

Ricinus communis L.

KH5413

S157

Pimaja

Aerial part

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

2.80

     

Fruit

Constipation

Oil, pan fried

Oral, topical

42.66

      

Cough

Oil, pan fried

Oral

2.80

      

Dental pain

Roast

Topical

3.50

      

Indigestion

Oil, pan fried

Oral

44.06

      

Pig disease

Oil

Oral

1.40

     

Leaf

Otalgia

Infusion

Topical

2.80

Fabaceae

Albizia julibrissin Durazz.

KH5414

S8

Jagwinamu

Stem

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

18.18

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing

Oral

54.55

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

18.18

      

Neuralgia

Infusion

Oral

9.09

 

Astragalus mongholicus Bunge

KH5415

S27

Hwanggi

Root

Afterpain

Decoction, infusion, simmer

Oral

25.00

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

15.63

      

Hyperridrosis

Boiling, infusion

Oral

37.50

      

Lumbago

Simmer

Oral

15.63

      

Woman diseases

Simmer

Oral

6.25

 

Caragana sinica (Buc'hoz) Rehder

KH5416

S36

Goldamcho

Leaf

Chronic myofascial pain

Brewing, maceration

Oral, topical

9.00

      

Leg pain

Brewing, maceration

Oral, topical

18.51

      

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral

12.85

      

Arthritis

Infusion

Oral

1.54

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion, juice

Oral

47.56

      

Chronic myofascial pain

Brewing, juice, maceration

Oral, topical

9.00

      

Gastroenteric disorder

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

1.03

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion, maceration

Oral, topical

18.51

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion, juice

Oral

8.48

      

Neuralgia

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral

1.03

 

Gleditsia sinensis Lamarck

KH5417

S83

Jogakjanamu

Stem

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

26.92

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

11.54

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

26.92

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

19.23

      

Shoulder pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

15.38

 

Glycine max (L.) Merr.

KH5418

S84

Kong

Seed

Acute gastroenteritis

Raw

Oral

3.33

      

Asthma

Oil

Oral

1.43

      

Bee sting

Fermentation

Topical

0.95

      

Carpal tunnel syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

3.81

      

Common cold

Fermentation, roast

Oral

23.33

      

Cough

Fermentation, infusion, oil, panbroiled, roast

Oral

19.05

      

Hangover

Soup

Oral

0.48

      

Head laceration

Fermentation

Topical

17.14

      

Hemorrhaging

Boiling, fermentation, fumigation

Topical

5.24

      

Milk fever

Infusion

Oral

15.24

      

Snakebite

Fermentation

Topical

0.95

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

3.81

      

Urticaria

Infusion

Oral

2.86

      

Whitlow

Boiling

Topical

1.90

      

Wound

Fermentation

Topical

0.48

     

Young leaf

Common cold

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, extraction, fermentation, infusion, roast

Oral

23.33

      

Milk fever

Fumigation, infusion, soup

Oral, topical

15.24

 

Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

KH5419

S85

Gamcho

Root

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

Infusion

Oral

19.23

      

Abdominal pain

Infusion

Oral

5.77

      

Anorexia

Infusion

Oral

5.77

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

38.46

      

Common cold

Decoction

Oral

11.54

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Decoction

Oral

1.92

      

Osteoporosis

Infusion

Oral

5.77

      

Poisonings

Infusion

Oral

5.77

      

Sterility

Infusion

Oral

5.77

 

Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi

KH5420

S143

Chilk

Flower

Abdominal pain

Decoction

Oral

15.89

      

Hangover

Decoction

Oral

49.53

     

Root

Abdominal pain

Grain syrup, infusion

Oral

15.89

      

Anorexia

Infusion

Oral

2.80

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Boiled rice, brewing, decoction, infusion, juice

Oral

14.95

      

Hangover

Clear soup with flour dumplings, grain syrup, infusion, juice, maceration, raw, tea

Oral

49.53

      

Indigestion

Clear soup with flour dumplings, juice, tea

Oral

16.82

 

Sophora flavescens Solander ex Aiton

KH5421

S180

Gosam

Leaf

Cattle disease

Infusion

Oral

61.96

     

Root

Abdominal pain

Maceration

Oral

0.54

      

Cattle disease

Infusion, juice, raw

Oral

61.96

      

Chronic myofascial pain

Dissolution

Oral

2.17

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Infusion

Oral

3.80

      

Hansen's Disease

Dried, infusion

Oral

3.80

      

Leg pain

Infusion, maceration

Oral

5.43

      

Lumbago

Juice, maceration

Oral

7.61

      

Neuralgia

Infusion, juice

Oral

5.43

      

Paralysis

Infusion

Oral

2.72

      

Pruritus

Dried, maceration, mixed in liquor, pill

Oral

1.63

      

Pus

Maceration

Topical

2.72

      

Skin diseases

Maceration, raw

Oral

2.17

 

Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & H.Ohashi

KH5422

S190

Pat

Seed

Cattle disease

Infusion

Oral

100.00

Fagaceae

Castanea crenata Siebold & Zucc.

KH5423

S38

Bamnamu

Bark

Indigestion

Infusion

Oral

6.02

      

Lacquer poisoning

Infusion

Topical

27.71

     

Fruit

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

Decoction, grain syrup, infusion, pill, simmer

Oral

36.14

      

Anorexia

Simmer, pill

Oral

6.02

      

Lack of energy

Simmer, pill

Oral

6.02

      

Measles

Panbroiled

Oral

3.61

      

Sterility

Grain syrup, infusion, Simmer, pill

Oral

14.46

     

Leaf

Lacquer poisoning

Infusion

Topical

27.71

     

Stem

Lacquer poisoning

Infusion

Topical

27.71

 

Quercus acutissima Carruth.

KH5424

S148

Sangsurinamu

Fruit

Cattle disease

Raw

Oral

100.00

Ganodermataceae

Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst.

KH5425

S77

Bulrocho

Whole part

Abdominal pain

Boiling

Oral

4.35

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

13.04

      

Cancer

Boiling, decoction

Oral

26.09

      

Common cold

Boiling

Oral

26.09

      

Indigestion

Infusion

Oral

13.04

      

Woman diseases

Dried, infusion

Oral

17.39

Gentianaceae

Gentiana scabra Bunge

KH5426

S80

Yongdam

Leaf

Pollakiuria

Infusion

Oral

45.45

     

Root

Abdominal pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

54.55

Geraniaceae

Geranium thunbergii Siebold & Zucc.

KH5427

S81

Ijilpul

Leaf

Abdominal pain

Infusion

Oral

100.00

     

Whole part

Abdominal pain

Infusion

Oral

100.00

Ginkgoaceae

Ginkgo biloba L.

KH5428

S82

Eunhaengnamu

Fruit

Asthma

Brewing

Oral

33.33

      

Glycosuria

Infusion, roast

Oral

66.67

Hymenochaetaceae

Phellinus linteus (Berk. & Curt.) Teng

KH5429

S124

Mokjiljinheulkbeoseot

Whole part

Cancer

Boiling, infusion

Oral

68.97

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Infusion

Oral

10.34

      

Hypofunction

Infusion

Oral

3.45

      

Lumbago

Infusion

Oral

17.24

Juglandaceae

Juglans regia L.

KH5430

S94

Hodunamu

Fruit

Lack of energy

Raw

Oral

100.00

 

Platycarya strobilacea Siebold & Zucc.

KH5431

S133

Gulpinamu

Stem

Abdominal pain

Infusion

Oral

1.27

      

Anorexia

Infusion

Oral

0.76

      

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, decoction

Oral

6.36

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, decoction, infusion

Oral

60.31

      

Cattle disease

Infusion

Oral

3.82

      

Hyperthermia

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing

Oral

0.51

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, decoction, infusion

Oral

16.03

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

10.43

      

Neuralgia

Infusion

Oral

0.51

Lamiaceae

Leonurus japonicus Houtt.

KH5432

S100

Ikmocho

Aerial part

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, decoction, dried, grain syrup, infusion, juice, maceration, pill, raw, simmer, taffy

Oral

42.17

      

Abdominal pain

Infusion, juice

Oral

2.07

      

Afterpain

Maceration

Oral

1.61

      

Anorexia

Maceration, pill, simmer

Oral

3.00

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, dried, infusion

Oral

0.92

      

Cattle disease

Brewing, maceration

Oral

1.38

      

Dysmenorrhea

Infusion

Oral

1.61

      

Fatigue

Maceration

Oral

1.38

      

Jaundice

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion, juice, pill, tea

Oral

1.84

      

Lack of energy

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, dried, infusion, pill, simmer

Oral

2.07

      

Leukorrhea

Infusion

Oral

2.53

      

Liver diseases

Infusion, pill

Oral

0.46

      

Raynaud's Phenomenon

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion, juice

Oral

4.84

      

Sterility

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, decoction, infusion, juice, maceration, pill, simmer

Oral

21.20

      

Woman diseases

Boiling dried, grain syrup, infusion, juice, pill, simmer, taffy

Oral

10.60

     

Leaf

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

Grain syrup, infusion, pill

Oral

42.17

      

Anorexia

Juice

Oral

3.00

      

Irregular menstruation

Infusion

Oral

0.46

      

Raynaud's Phenomenon

Infusion

Oral

4.84

      

Sterility

Grain syrup, infusion, simmer

Oral

21.20

      

Woman diseases

Grain syrup

Oral

10.60

     

Root

Sterility

Infusion

Oral

21.20

     

Stem

Raynaud's Phenomenon

Juice

Oral

4.84

      

Sterility

Grain syrup, juice

Oral

21.20

     

Whole part

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

Decoction, grain syrup, infusion, juice

Oral

42.17

      

Paralysis

Decoction, juice

Oral

0.92

      

Sterility

Grain syrup, juice

Oral

21.20

      

Overheating

Juice

Oral

0.92

      

Woman diseases

Decoction, juice

Oral

10.60

 

Mentha piperascens (Malinv.) Holmes

KH5433

S107

Bakha

Stem

Dental pain

Maceration

Topical

100.00

 

Perilla frutescens var. acuta Kudo

KH5434

S121

Soyeop

Leaf

Atopic dermatitis

Infusion, juice

Oral, topical

7.69

      

Cattle disease

Infusion

Oral

25.00

      

Common cold

Decoction, infusion

Oral

57.69

      

Headache

Decoction

Oral

1.92

      

Pruritus

Infusion, juice

Oral, topical

7.69

 

Perilla frutescens var. japonica (Hassk.) H.Hara

KH5435

S122

Deulggae

Seed

Abdominal pain

Raw

Oral

13.73

      

Convulsion

Decoction, oil

Oral

31.37

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Seasoned cooked vegetables

Oral

7.84

      

Lacquer poisoning

Maceration, powder, raw

Topical

47.06

 

Salvia plebeia R.Br.

KH5436

S164

Baeamchajeugi

Leaf

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, dried, infusion,

Oral

7.22

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Infusion

Oral

5.15

      

Hypofunction

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, dried, infusion,

Oral

10.31

     

Root

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

19.59

     

Stem

Arthritis

Infusion

Oral

3.09

     

Whole part

Abdominal pain

Infusion

Oral

7.22

      

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

5.15

      

Asthma

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, dried, infusion,

Oral

4.12

      

Bone diseases

Infusion

Oral

7.22

      

Cough

Dried, grain syrup, infusion

Oral

28.87

      

Empyema

Infusion

Oral

3.09

      

Hypofunction

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing

Oral

10.31

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

19.59

      

Woman diseases

Infusion

Oral

6.19

Lardizabalaceae

Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Decne.

KH5437

S7

Eureumdeonggul

Stem

Abdominal pain

Infusion

Oral

4.84

      

Anorexia

Infusion

Oral

4.84

      

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

6.45

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

46.77

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

6.45

      

Pollakiuria

Infusion

Oral

20.97

      

Sterility

Infusion

Oral

9.68

Lauraceae

Cinnamomum cassia Presl

KH5438

S44

Gyepinamu

Bark

Common cold

Decoction

Oral

100.00

 

Lindera obtusiloba Blume

KH5439

S101

Saenggangnamu

Stem

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

28.00

      

Leg pain

Brewing

Oral

28.00

      

Lumbago

Infusion

Oral

28.00

      

Postpartum myofascial pain syndrome

Infusion

Oral

16.00

Liliaceae

Allium fistulosum L.

KH5440

S9

Pa

Root

Common cold

Decoction, infusion

Oral

65.52

      

Cough

Infusion

Oral

12.07

      

Hyperthermia

Infusion

Oral

22.41

 

Allium scorodorpasum var. viviparum Regel

KH5441

S10

Maneul

Bulb

Lymphnoditis

Maceration

Topical

100.00

 

Allium thunbergii G.Don

KH5442

S11

Sanbuchu

Aerial part

Angina pectoris

Kimchi, raw, seasoned cooked vegetables

Oral

100.00

 

Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng.

KH5443

S12

Buchu

Leaf

Epistaxis

Juice

Oral

18.18

      

Lacquer poisoning

Maceration, raw

Topical

48.48

     

Leaf

Pruritus

Maceration

Topical

12.12

     

Root

Pollakiuria

Infusion, juice

Oral

21.21

 

Asparagus schoberioides Kunth

KH5444

S25

Bijjaru

Whole part

Edema

Infusion

Oral

13.46

      

Pollakiuria

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

73.08

      

Sexual enhancement

Infusion

Oral

13.46

 

Scilla scilloides (Lindl.) Druce

KH5445

S170

Mureut

Root

Edema

Simmer

Oral

100.00

Loranthaceae

Viscum album var. coloratum (Kom.) Ohwi

KH5446

S193

Gyeousali

Leaf

Edema

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

100.00

     

Stem

Edema

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

100.00

Magnoliaceae

Magnolia obovata Thunb.

KH5447

S106

Ilbonmokryeon

Fruit

Heart disease

Infusion

Oral

100.00

Malvaceae

Althaea rosea (L.) Cav.

KH5448

S13

Jeopsikkot

Root

Leukorrhea

Infusion

Oral

50.00

      

Sterility

Infusion

Oral

50.00

     

Whole part

Sterility

Decoction

Oral

50.00

Meliaceae

Cedrela sinensis Juss.

KH5449

S40

Chamjuknamu

Flower

Sterility

Simmer

Oral

100.00

Menispermaceae

Cocculus trilobus (Thunb.) DC.

KH5450

S49

Daengdaengideonggul

Fruit

Cough

Mixed in ripe persimmon, raw

Oral

35.29

     

Leaf

Food poisoning

Infusion

Oral

11.76

     

Root

Acute gastroenteritis

Infusion, maceration

Oral

47.06

      

Indigestion

Juice

Topical

5.88

     

Stem

Acute gastroenteritis

Infusion

Oral

47.06

      

Food poisoning

Infusion

Oral

11.76

Moraceae

Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold

KH5451

S31

Daknamu

Fruit

Hookworm

Infusion

Oral

100.00

 

Cudrania tricuspidata (Carr.) Bureau ex Lavallee

KH5452

S59

Kkujippongnamu

Bark

Cancer

Infusion

Oral

25.31

      

Glycosuria

Infusion

Oral

33.44

      

Liver diseases

Infusion

Oral

6.56

     

Leaf

Extravasated blood

Dried, maceration

Oral

1.25

     

Root

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

17.19

      

Cancer

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, boiling, brewing, infusion

Oral

25.31

      

Poor circulation

Infusion

Oral

1.88

      

Glycosuria

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, decoction, infusion

Oral

33.44

      

Hypofunction

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

7.50

      

Leg pain

Infusion

Oral

1.25

      

Lumbago

Infusion

Oral

3.75

      

Neuralgia

Infusion

Oral

1.25

      

Paralysis

Infusion

Oral

0.63

     

Stem

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral

17.19

      

Cancer

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, boiling, brewing, infusion

Oral

25.31

      

Poor circulation

Infusion

Oral

1.88

      

Glycosuria

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral

33.44

      

Hypofunction

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

7.50

      

Leg pain

Infusion

Oral

1.25

      

Liver diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

6.56

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

3.75

      

Paralysis

Infusion

Oral

0.63

 

Morus alba L.

KH5453

S108

Ppongnamu

Stem

Cancer

Dried, infusion

Oral

33.33

      

Glycosuria

Infusion

Oral

66.67

     

Young leaf

Cancer

Dried, infusion

Oral

33.33

      

Glycosuria

Dried, infusion, panbroiled, raw, tea

Oral

66.67

Nymphaeaceae

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.

KH5454

S109

Yeonggot

Root

Epistaxis

Infusion, juice

Oral

100.00

Oleaceae

Forsythia koreana (Rehder) Nakai

KH5455

S76

Gaenari

Stem

Otalgia

Infusion

Topical

100.00

Orchidaceae

Gastrodia elata Blume

KH5456

S79

Cheonma

Root

Lack of energy

Brewing

Oral

100.00

Paeoniaceae

Paeonia obovata Maxim.

KH5457

S116

Sanjakyak

Root

Irregular menstruation

Infusion

Oral

37.50

      

Lack of energy

Boiling, decoction

Oral, topical

62.50

Papaveraceae

Chelidonium majus var. asiaticum (H.Hara) Ohwi

KH5458

S43

Aegittongpul

Aerial part

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, dried, infusion,

Oral

5.06

      

Chronic myofascial pain

Juice

Oral

68.35

      

Hypofunction

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, dried, infusion,

Oral

5.06

     

Root

Chronic myofascial pain

Brewing

Oral

68.35

     

Stem

Chronic myofascial pain

Brewing

Oral

68.35

     

Whole part

Chronic myofascial pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, dissolution, infusion, juice, maceration

Oral, topical

68.35

      

Glycosuria

Brewing

Oral

5.06

      

Induced abortion

Juice

Oral

11.39

      

Lumbago

Brewing

Oral

5.06

 

Papaver somniferum L.

KH5459

S117

Yanggwibi

Fruit

Abdominal pain

Dissolution, dried, grain syrup, juice, maceration, raw

Oral

53.76

      

Bone diseases

Infusion

Oral

6.45

      

Cattle disease

Dried, dissolution, infusion

Oral

15.05

      

Diarrhea

Dried, dissolution

Oral

2.15

      

Hypofunction

Infusion

Oral

8.60

      

Pain

Dried, dissolution

Oral

3.23

      

Sinews and joint pain

Dissolution

Oral

3.23

      

Wound

Dried, dissolution, raw

Topical

3.23

     

Leaf

Abdominal pain

Raw

Oral

53.76

     

Stem

Abdominal pain

Dried, infusion

Oral

53.76

      

Bone diseases

Infusion

Oral

6.45

      

Cattle disease

Infusion

Oral

15.05

      

Hoove

Infusion

Oral

4.30

     

Whole part

Abdominal pain

Brewing

Oral

53.76

Pedaliaceae

Sesamum indicum L.

KH5460

S173

Chamggae

Seed

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

Simmer

Oral

21.05

      

Burn

Oil

Topical

21.05

      

Convulsion

Oil

Oral

10.53

      

Hemorrhaging

Raw, rubbing

Topical

21.05

      

Otalgia

Oil

Topical

26.32

Phytolaccaceae

Phytolacca esculenta VanHoutte

KH5461

S128

Jarigong

Root

Abdominal pain

Infusion

Oral

10.42

      

Cattle disease

Juice

Oral

8.33

      

Constipation

Raw

Topical

12.50

      

Edema

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

39.58

      

Indigestion

Infusion

Oral

4.17

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral

25.00

Pinaceae

Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc.

KH5462

S130

Sonamu

Leaf

Dental pain

Raw

Topical

33.33

      

Lumbago

Steamed

Topical

11.11

     

Pollen

Hemorrhaging

Powder

Topical

22.22

     

Stem

Otalgia

Infusion

Topical

33.33

 

Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc.

KH5463

S131

Jatnamu

Pine resin

Boils

Raw

Topical

44.44

      

Wound

Melt

Topical

55.56

Plantaginaceae

Plantago asiatica L.

KH5464

S132

Jilgyeongi

Leaf

Heart disease

Infusion

Oral

4.97

     

Root

Abdominal pain

Juice

Oral

0.62

      

Pollakiuria

Infusion

Oral

78.26

     

Whole part

Epistaxis

Dried,infusion, raw

Oral

8.70

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Decoction

Oral

3.73

      

Heart disease

Infusion

Oral

4.97

      

Pollakiuria

Decoction, dried, infusion, raw

Oral

78.26

      

Sterility

Infusion

Oral

3.73

Poaceae

Hordeum vulgare var. hexastichon (L.) Asch.

KH5465

S87

Bori

Malt

Abdominal pain

Malted barley seedling

Oral

0.62

      

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

6.69

      

Arthritis

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

1.87

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, dried, infusion

Oral

29.70

      

Cancer

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

0.47

      

Carpal tunnel syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

1.09

      

Chronic myofascial pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

1.09

      

Common cold

Decoction

Oral

0.78

      

Cough

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

1.87

      

Edema

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

1.87

      

Eye disease

Boiling, dried

Oral

0.78

      

Fatigue

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

1.09

      

Finger pain

Decoction

Oral

1.24

      

Gastric ulcer

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

0.16

      

Gastritis

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

0.16

      

Gastroenteric disorder

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion, pill

Oral

3.73

      

Hemorrhaging

Rubbing

Topical

0.78

      

Hookworm

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

0.47

      

Hyperthermia

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

0.16

      

Hypofunction

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, dried, infusion

Oral

1.87

      

Indigestion

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion, maceration, malted barley seedling, raw

Oral

4.98

      

Jaundice

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

2.33

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, decoction, infusion

Oral

14.46

      

Liver diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, pill

Oral

1.24

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing

Oral

6.22

      

Paralysis

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

4.82

      

Pollakiuria

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

1.09

      

Pruritus

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

1.71

      

Pus

Boiled rice, maceration

Topical

1.87

      

Raynaud's Phenomenon

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

0.31

      

Sexual enhancement

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

0.31

      

Shoulder pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

1.56

      

Sinews and joint pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

0.16

      

Skin diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

0.93

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

1.09

      

Woman diseases

Grain syrup

Oral

0.47

 

Hordeum vulgare var. nudum Spenn.

KH5466

S88

Ssalbori

Seed

Pollakiuria

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

100.00

 

Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii (Retz.) Pilg.

KH5467

S92

Tti

Flower

Bloody discharge

Infusion

Oral

15.38

      

Burn

Burn, raw

Topical

84.62

 

Oryza sativa L.

KH5468

S113

Byeo

Root

Lacquer poisoning

Infusion

Topical

48.98

     

Seed

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Infusion

Oral

4.08

      

Hangover

Powder

Oral

4.08

      

Jaundice

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

5.10

      

Lacquer poisoning

Maceration, raw

Topical

48.98

      

Pollakiuria

Infusion, rice water

Oral

9.18

      

Snakebite

Porridge, raw

Topical

8.16

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Infusion

Oral

4.08

     

Stem

Burn

Raw

Topical

2.04

      

Hemorrhaging

Raw

Topical

2.04

      

Indigestion

Dried, infusion

Oral

2.04

      

Urticaria

Roast

Topical

5.10

      

Wound

Raw

Topical

5.10

 

Oryza sativa var. glutinosa Blanco

KH5469

S114

Chalbyeo

Seed

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

Pill, simmer

Oral

31.25

      

Anorexia

Pill, simmer

Oral

7.81

      

Carpal tunnel syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

3.13

      

Lack of energy

Pill, simmer

Oral

7.81

      

Paralysis

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

12.50

      

Pollakiuria

Porridge

Oral

7.81

      

Sterility

Pill, simmer

Oral

7.81

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

3.13

     

Stem

Cattle disease

Fumigation

Topical

7.81

      

Urticaria

Fumigation

Topical

7.81

     

Young leaf

Epistaxis

Infusion

Oral

3.13

 

Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zucc.

KH5470

S126

Wangdae

Leaf

Common cold

Infusion

Oral

38.46

     

Root

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

61.54

 

Sasa borealis (Hack.) Makino

KH5471

S167

Joritdae

Aerial part

Cattle disease

Infusion

Oral

100.00

 

Sasa coreana Nakai

KH5472

S168

Sinidae

Leaf

Common cold

Decoction, infusion

Oral

56.25

     

Stem

Cattle disease

Infusion

Oral

43.75

 

Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv.

KH5473

S174

Jo

Aerial part

Cattle disease

Infusion

Oral

100.00

 

Triticum aestivum L.

KH5474

S187

Mil

Seed

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing

Oral

5.26

      

Asthma

Brewing

Oral

0.58

      

Boils

Dough

Topical

2.05

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, dough, infusion

Oral, topical

19.30

      

Bruising

Dough

Topical

9.94

      

Carpal tunnel syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, dough

Oral, topical

2.05

      

Cattle disease

Brewing

Oral

0.88

      

Chronic myofascial pain

Brewing, chopped noodles, clear soup with flour dumplings, dissolution, dried, mixed in liquor, powder, roast

Oral

9.94

      

Common cold

Brewing, tea

Oral

2.92

      

Cough

Brewing

Oral

1.46

      

Extravasated blood

Dough

Topical

0.29

      

Gastroenteric disorder

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, juice

Oral

5.56

      

Hangover

Clear soup with flour dumplings

Oral

1.75

      

Hookworm

Infusion

Oral

2.05

      

Hyperthermia

Brewing

Oral

0.29

      

Indigestion

Clear soup with flour dumplings, extraction

Oral

2.92

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing

Oral

12.28

      

Lumbago

Brewing, powder

Oral

8.48

      

Milk fever

Clear soup with flour dumplings

Oral

2.05

      

Orchiopathy

Brewing

Oral

0.58

      

Paralysis

Brewing

Oral

1.17

      

Pus

Dough, powder

Topical

2.92

      

Sprain

Dough

Topical

2.63

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, dough

Oral, topical

2.63

 

Zea mays L.

KH5475

S198

Oksusu

Fruit

Pollakiuria

Tea

Oral

94.62

     

Style

Abdominal pain

Infusion

Oral

2.31

      

Anorexia

Infusion

Oral

2.31

      

Lung diseases

Infusion

Oral

0.77

      

Pollakiuria

Decoction, dried, infusion

Oral

94.62

Polygonaceae

Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

KH5476

S72

Memil

Pericarp

Pus

Maceration

Topical

100.00

 

Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) RonseDecr.

KH5477

S73

Hojanggeun

Aerial part

Pollakiuria

Infusion

Oral

100.00

     

Root

Pollakiuria

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

100.00

     

Whole part

Pollakiuria

Infusion

Oral

100.00

 

Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Haraldson

KH5478

S74

Hasuo

Root

Lack of energy

Dried, powder

Oral

9.09

      

Sthenia

Brewing

Oral, topical

90.91

 

Rumex acetosa L.

KH5479

S160

Suyeong

Whole part

Pollakiuria

Infusion

Oral

41.18

      

Prostate disease

Infusion

Oral

41.18

      

Renal disease

Infusion

Oral

17.65

 

Rumex crispus L.

KH5480

S161

Sorijaengi

Root

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

38.89

      

Malaria

Maceration

Oral

27.78

     

Whole part

Leg pain

Brewing

Oral

38.89

      

Lumbago

Brewing

Oral

33.33

Polyporaceae

Coriolus versicolor (L.: Fr.) Quél.

KH5481

S54

Gureumbeoseot

Whole part

Common cold

Boiling, decoction

Oral

100.00

 

Poria cocos Wolf

KH5482

S137

Bokryeong

Whole part

Hoove

Powder

Oral

100.00

Portulacaceae

Portulaca oleracea L.

KH5483

S138

Soebireum

Aerial part

Cancer

Infusion

Oral

83.33

      

Diarrhea

Seasoned cooked vegetables

Oral

16.67

Punicaceae

Punica granatum L.

KH5484

S145

Seokryunamu

Flower

Epistaxis

Dried, infusion

Topical

20.69

     

Fruit

Abdominal pain

Raw

Oral

13.79

      

Common cold

Extraction, infusion, raw

Oral

41.38

      

Cough

Infusion

Oral

24.14

     

Pericarp

Epistaxis

Dried

Topical

20.69

Ramariaceae

Ramaria botrytis (Pers.) Ricken

KH5485

S149

Ssaribeoseot

Whole part

Diarrhea

Infusion

Oral

100.00

Ranunculaceae

Aconitum ciliare DC.

KH5486

S3

Notjeotgaraknamul

Root

Afterpain

Infusion

Oral

1.08

      

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

8.92

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

6.22

      

Carpal tunnel syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, decoction, infusion, simmer

Oral

15.41

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, decoction, infusion

Oral

14.05

      

Lumbago

Infusion

Oral

0.81

      

Malgia

Infusion

Oral

0.27

      

Paralysis

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, decoction, infusion, simmer

Oral

37.84

      

Postpartum myofascial pain syndrome

Infusion

Oral

1.08

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, decoction, infusion, simmer

Oral

14.32

 

Aconitum coreanum (H.Lév.) Rapaics

KH5487

S4

Baekbuja

Stem

Bone diseases

Infusion

Oral

50.00

      

Sinews and joint pain

Infusion

Oral

50.00

 

Pulsatilla koreana (Yabe ex Nakai) Nakai ex Nakai

KH5488

S144

Halmikkot

Leaf

Facial nerve paralysis

Maceration

Topical

2.99

     

Root

Abdominal pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, grain syrup, infusion

Oral

11.19

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing

Oral

2.99

      

Convulsion

Infusion

Oral

2.99

      

Facial nerve paralysis

Maceration

Topical

2.99

      

Gastroenteric disorder

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion, simmer

Oral

8.96

      

Hookworm

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, decoction, dissolution, grain syrup, infusion, juice, maceration

Oral, topical

60.45

      

Hypoacusis

Brewing

Oral

3.73

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing

Oral

2.99

      

Lymphnoditis

Maceration

Topical

3.73

 

Ranunculus sceleratus L.

KH5489

S150

Gaegurijari

Leaf

Callus

Maceration

Topical

12.07

      

Facial nerve paralysis

Maceration, raw

Topical

87.93

     

Root

Facial nerve paralysis

Maceration

Topical

87.93

Rhamnaceae

Hovenia dulcis Thunb.

KH5490

S89

Heotgaenamu

Fruit

Cancer

Decoction

Oral

5.56

      

Liver diseases

Tea

Oral

69.44

     

Stem

Cancer

Decoction

Oral

5.56

      

Glycosuria

Infusion

Oral

13.89

      

Hangover

Brewing, infusion

Oral

11.11

      

Liver diseases

Infusion

Oral

69.44

 

Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder

KH5491

S200

Daechunamu

Fruit

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

Decoction, grain syrup, infusion, pill, simmer

Oral

14.29

      

Anorexia

Pill, simmer

Oral

2.38

      

Common cold

Boiling, decoction, dried, roast

Oral

2.38

      

Cough

Infusion

Oral

8.10

      

Fatigue

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, boiled rice, raw

Oral

10.00

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Infusion

Oral

0.95

      

Lack of energy

Decoction, pill, simmer, tea

Oral

3.33

      

Sterility

Grain syrup, infusion, pill, simmer

Oral

8.10

      

Woman diseases

Infusion

Oral

3.81

     

Leaf

Overheating

Raw

Topical

0.48

     

Root

Sterility

Infusion

Oral

8.10

     

Stem

Arm pain

Infusion

Oral

0.95

      

Facial nerve paralysis

Raw

Topical

44.29

      

Leg pain

Infusion

Oral

0.95

Rosaceae

Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne

KH5492

S42

Mogwanamu

Fruit

Common cold

Boiling, brewing, decoction, extraction, infusion

Oral

45.36

      

Cough

Boiling, brewing, decoction, dissolution, extraction, infusion, steamed

Oral

54.64

 

Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke

KH5493

S64

Baemddalgi

Fruit

Dental pain

Infusion

Oral

46.15

      

Snakebite

Maceration

Topical

38.46

     

Whole part

Dental pain

Infusion

Topical

46.15

      

Measles

Infusion

Oral

15.38

 

Potentilla chinensis Ser.

KH5494

S139

Ttakjikkoch

Root

Gastroenteric disorder

Infusion, raw

Oral

100.00

 

Prunus armeniaca var. ansu Maxim.

KH5495

S140

Salgunamu

Seed

Indigestion

Maceration

Oral

100.00

 

Prunus davidiana (Carrière) Franch.

KH5496

S141

Sanboksanamu

Fruit

Abdominal pain

Extraction

Oral

6.15

      

Arm pain

Brewing, extraction

Oral

21.54

      

Hypertension

Brewing

Oral

4.62

      

Leg pain

Brewing, extraction

Oral

44.62

      

Lumbago

Brewing

Oral

9.23

      

Osteoporosis

Extraction

Oral

1.54

     

Root

Leg pain

Brewing

Oral

44.62

      

Lumbago

Brewing

Oral

9.23

     

Stem

Asthma

Grain syrup

Oral

4.62

      

Bone diseases

Infusion

Oral

7.69

      

Leg pain

Infusion

Oral

44.62

 

Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc.

KH5497

S142

Maesilnamu

Fruit

Abdominal pain

Extraction

Oral

46.00

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Extraction

Oral

10.00

      

Indigestion

Brewing, extraction

Oral

44.00

 

Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.f.) Nakai

KH5498

S146

Dolbaenamu

Fruit

Asthma

Fermentation

Oral

40.00

      

Cough

Fermentation

Oral

40.00

      

Leg pain

Brewing, raw

Oral

20.00

 

Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Makino) Nakai

KH5499

S147

Baenamu

Fruit

Bronchitis

Extraction, infusion

Oral

5.88

      

Common cold

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, decoction, fermentation, infusion, raw, roast

Oral

56.86

      

Cough

Infusion, raw, roast, steamed

Oral

33.33

      

Indigestion

Infusion

Oral

3.92

 

Rosa multiflora Thunb.

KH5500

S158

Jjilrekkot

Root

Osteoporosis

Infusion

Oral

100.00

 

Rubus coreanus Miq.

KH5501

S159

Bokbunjaddalgi

Fruit

Sexual enhancement

Extraction, raw

Oral

100.00

 

Sanguisorba officinalis L.

KH5502

S165

Oipul

Leaf

Cattle disease

Juice

Oral

7.69

      

Hoove

Juice

Oral

7.69

     

Root

Cattle disease

Juice

Oral

7.69

      

Finger pain

Infusion

Topical

3.85

      

Hoove

Juice

Oral

7.69

      

Hypofunction

Decoction, simmer

Oral, topical

7.69

      

Leg pain

Infusion

Topical

23.08

      

Pus

Infusion

Topical

3.85

      

Sprain

Infusion

Topical

19.23

      

Toe pain

Infusion

Topical

3.85

     

Whole part

Dysentery

Infusion

Oral

23.08

 

Sorbus commixta Hedl.

KH5503

S181

Magamok

Stem

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

25.00

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

25.00

      

Shoulder pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

50.00

 

Spiraea prunifolia f. simpliciflora Nakai

KH5504

S182

Jopapnamu

Root

Indigestion

Infusion

Oral

94.12

     

Stem

Indigestion

Infusion

Oral

94.12

      

Leg pain

Infusion

Oral

5.88

Rubiaceae

Gardenia jasminoides J.Ellis

KH5505

S78

Chijanamu

Fruit

Bone diseases

Dough

Topical

1.43

      

Bruising

Dough, infusion

Topical

61.43

      

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Infusion

Topical

2.86

      

Chronic myofascial pain

Infusion

Topical

4.29

      

Extravasated blood

Dough

Topical

1.43

      

Pus

Brewing

Oral

5.71

      

Sprain

Dough, infusion

Topical

20.00

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Infusion

Topical

2.86

Rutaceae

Citrus unshiu S.Marcov.

KH5506

S47

Gyul

Pericarp

Common cold

Infusion

Oral

100.00

 

Phellodendron amurense Rupr.

KH5507

S125

Hwangbyeoknamu

Bark

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

4.12

      

Bone diseases

Brewing

Oral

61.42

      

Hyperthermia

Brewing

Oral

0.37

      

Indigestion

Infusion

Oral

3.75

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

18.35

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

11.24

     

Endodermis

Indigestion

Steep

Oral

3.75

      

Lumbago

Brewing

Oral

11.24

     

Stem

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

4.12

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral

61.42

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

18.35

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

11.24

      

Neuralgia

Infusion

Oral

0.75

 

Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.

KH5508

S135

Taengjanamu

Fruit

Cough

Dried, infusion

Oral

14.00

      

Lacquer poisoning

Infusion

Topical

12.00

      

Urticaria

Infusion

Oral, topical

66.00

     

Leaf

Snakebite

Maceration

Topical

8.00

 

Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC.

KH5509

S196

Chopinamu

Fruit

Asthma

Oil

Oral

0.32

      

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Brewing, infusion

Oral

4.05

      

Dental pain

Infusion, raw

Topical

1.78

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Oil

Oral

0.32

      

Leg pain

Brewing

Oral

14.08

      

Paralysis

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion, oil, simmer

Oral

25.24

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Brewing, infusion

Oral

4.05

     

Pericarp

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Infusion

Oral

4.05

      

Eye disease

Infusion

Oral

0.32

      

Facial nerve paralysis

Infusion

Oral

1.62

      

Headache

Infusion

Oral

0.65

      

Hypertension

Powder

Oral

1.29

      

Lumbago

Infusion

Oral

7.93

      

Paralysis

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion, oil, pan fried, simmer

Oral

25.24

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Infusion

Oral

4.05

     

Root

Paralysis

Infusion

Oral

25.24

     

Stem

Arm pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing

Oral

6.31

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, decoction, infusion

Oral

31.23

      

Carpal tunnel syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

4.05

      

Common cold

Infusion

Oral

0.32

      

Facial nerve paralysis

Infusion

Oral

1.62

      

Hyperthermia

Brewing

Oral

0.16

      

Leg pain

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral

14.08

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing, infusion

Oral

7.93

      

Neuralgia

Infusion

Oral

0.32

      

Paralysis

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion, oil, pan fried, simmer

Oral

25.24

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

4.05

 

Zanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold & Zucc.

KH5510

S197

Sanchonamu

Fruit

Abdominal pain

Oil

Oral

2.13

      

Arthritis

Infusion

Oral

1.42

      

Asthma

Oil, roast

Oral

8.87

      

Boils

Oil

Oral, topical

9.22

      

Bronchitis

Oil, pan fried

Oral

3.55

      

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Brewing

Oral

0.35

      

Cattle disease

Oil

Oral

12.41

      

Cattle ringworm

Oil

Topical

1.42

      

Common cold

Oil

Oral

0.35

      

Constipation

Oil

Oral

1.42

      

Convulsion

Oil

Oral

3.55

      

Cough

Extraction, oil, pan fried, roast

Oral

20.92

      

Dental pain

Raw

Topical

1.77

      

Diarrhea

Roast

Oral

1.77

      

Edema

Oil

Oral, topical

2.84

      

Erysipelas

Oil, pan fried

Oral, topical

4.96

      

Hoove

Oil

Oral

1.42

      

Hypofunction

Oil

Oral

2.48

      

Indigestion

Oil

Oral

0.71

      

Measles

Oil

Oral

1.06

      

Paralysis

Oil

Oral

3.19

      

Pig disease

Oil

Oral

2.84

      

Pus

Oil

Topical

1.77

      

Stomatitis

Oil

Topical

1.77

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Brewing

Oral

1.06

      

Whooping cough

Oil, pan fried

Oral

1.42

     

Leaf

Snakebite

Rubbing

Topical

3.90

     

Pine resin

Cattle disease

Dried, powder

Topical

12.41

     

Stem

Bone diseases

Brewing

Oral

1.42

      

Snakebite

Fumigation

Topical

3.90

Salicaceae

Populus maximowiczii A.Henry

KH5511

S136

Hwangcheolnamu

Endodermis

Gastroenteric disorder

Infusion

Oral

50.00

      

Leg pain

Infusion

Oral

50.00

 

Salix gracilistyla Miq.

KH5512

S162

Gaetbeodeul

Stem

Allergic contact dermatitis

Fumigation

Topical

33.33

      

Lacquer poisoning

Fumigation

Topical

33.33

      

Pruritus

Fumigation

Topical

33.33

 

Salix koreensis Andersson

KH5513

S163

Beodeunamu

Bark

Fracture

Raw

Topical

60.00

     

Fruit

Lacquer poisoning

Fumigation

Topical

33.33

     

Stem

Facial nerve paralysis

Raw

Topical

6.67

      

Fracture

Raw

Topical

60.00

Schisandraceae

Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.

KH5514

S169

Omija

Fruit

Arm pain

Decoction, dissolution, extraction

, Oral

4.86

      

Bronchitis

Extraction, infusion

Oral

5.56

      

Poor circulation

Decoction

Oral

0.69

      

Common cold

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, boiling, brewing, decoction, dissolution, dried, extraction, raw, tea

Oral

45.83

      

Cough

Brewing, decoction, dissolution, extraction

Oral

15.97

      

Eye disease

Boiling, dried, extraction

Oral

6.25

      

Headache

Boiling, dried

Oral

3.47

      

Heart disease

Dried, extraction, tea

Oral

5.56

      

Lack of energy

Extraction

Oral

2.78

      

Leg pain

Decoction, dissolution, extraction

Oral

4.86

     

Stem

Abdominal pain

Infusion

Oral

2.08

      

Anorexia

Infusion

Oral

2.08

Scrophulariaceae

Paulownia coreana Uyeki

KH5515

S120

Odongnamu

Fruit

Edema

Infusion

Oral

36.36

     

Stem

Indigestion

Infusion

Oral

63.64

 

Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) Libosch. ex Steud.

KH5516

S152

Jihwang

Root

Abdominal cold hypersentivity

Pill

Oral

1.21

      

Arm pain

Maceration

Topical

3.64

      

Bruising

Brewing, juice, maceration, mixed in liquor, raw

Oral, topical

29.70

      

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Maceration

Topical

1.21

      

Chronic myofascial pain

Dissolution, maceration

Oral, topical

6.06

      

Edema

Maceration, raw

Oral

1.21

      

Fracture

Juice, maceration

Oral, topical

15.15

      

Lack of energy

Boiling, decoction

Oral

3.03

      

Leg pain

Maceration

Topical

3.64

      

Lumbago

Brewing, juice, maceration

Oral, topical

14.55

      

Luxation

Maceration

Topical

4.24

      

Sprain

Juice, maceration

Oral, topical

12.73

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Maceration

Topical

1.21

      

Wound

Maceration

Topical

2.42

Selaginellaceae

Selaginella tamariscina (P.Beauv.) Spring

KH5517

S172

Bucheoson

Whole part

Bruising

Maceration

Topical

26.32

      

Edema

Maceration

Topical

26.32

      

Luxation

Maceration

Topical

26.32

      

Sterility

Infusion

Oral

21.05

Simaroubaceae

Picrasma quassioides (D.Don) Benn.

KH5518

S129

Sotaenamu

Bark

Deprived of mother's milk

Maceration

Topical

32.88

      

Lumbago

Infusion

Oral

10.96

     

Leaf

Cattle disease

Infusion

Oral

19.18

     

Stem

Arthritis

Simmer

Oral

9.59

      

Boils

Oil

Topical

5.48

      

Cattle disease

Infusion

Oral

19.18

      

Chronic myofascial pain

Brewing

Oral

5.48

      

Deprived of mother's milk

Infusion, juice, maceration

Topical

32.88

      

Hoove

Infusion

Oral

6.85

      

Lumbago

Infusion

Oral

10.96

      

Pruritus

Infusion

Topical

9.59

Smilacaceae

Smilax china L.

KH5519

S176

Cheongmiraedeonggul

Rhizome

Hypofunction

Infusion

Topical

15.00

      

Leg pain

Infusion

Oral

30.00

      

Osteoporosis

Infusion

Oral

15.00

      

Pollakiuria

Infusion

Oral

25.00

      

Wound

Infusion

Topical

15.00

Solanaceae

Capsicum annuum L.

KH5520

S35

Gochu

Fruit

Chronic myofascial pain

Dissolution

Oral

100.00

 

Lycium chinense Mill.

KH5521

S105

Gugijanamu

Fruit

Common cold

Boiling, brewing, decoction, infusion

Oral

41.46

      

Eye disease

Boiling

Oral

12.20

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Dried, tea

Oral

14.63

      

Lack of energy

Infusion, tea

Oral

21.95

      

Liver diseases

Infusion

Oral

9.76

 

Nicotiana tabacum L.

KH5522

S110

Dambae

Leaf

Snakebite

Infusion

Topical

100.00

 

Physalis alkekengi var. francheti (Mast.) Hort

KH5523

S127

Ggwari

Fruit

Tonsillitis

Infusion

Oral

100.00

 

Solanum melongena L.

KH5524

S177

Gaji

Stem

Carpal tunnel syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, dried, infusion

Oral

50.00

      

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, dried, infusion

Oral

50.00

 

Solanum nigrum L.

KH5525

S178

Ggamajung

Aerial part

Abdominal pain

Infusion

Oral

4.55

      

Anorexia

Infusion

Oral

4.55

      

Indigestion

Infusion

Oral

31.82

     

Fruit

Cough

Extraction

Oral

15.15

      

Indigestion

Maceration

Oral

31.82

     

Leaf

Indigestion

Maceration

Oral

31.82

      

Urinary incontinence

Infusion

Oral

6.06

     

Root

Indigestion

Maceration

Oral

31.82

     

Stem

Pollakiuria

Infusion

Oral

6.06

      

Urinary incontinence

Infusion

Oral

6.06

     

Whole part

Cough

Infusion

Oral

15.15

      

Excited delirium

Dried, infusion

Oral

10.61

      

Herpes zoster

Infusion

Oral, topical

21.21

 

Solanum tuberosum L.

KH5526

S179

Gamja

Tuber

Burn

Maceration, powder, rubbing

Topical

100.00

Staphyleaceae

Staphylea bumalda DC.

KH5527

S183

Gochunamu

Leaf

Facial nerve paralysis

Maceration

Topical

100.00

     

Root

Facial nerve paralysis

Maceration

Topical

100.00

     

Stem

Facial nerve paralysis

Maceration, raw

Topical

100.00

Sterculiaceae

Firmiana simplex (L.) W.F.Wight

KH5528

S75

Byeokodong

Leaf

Leukorrhea

Infusion

Oral

63.64

     

Stem

Leukorrhea

Infusion

Oral

63.64

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

18.18

      

Pollakiuria

Infusion

Oral

18.18

Thelephoraceae

Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. lto

KH5529

S166

Neungi

Whole part

Afterpain

Infusion

Oral

100.00

Tricholomataceae

Armillariella mellea (Vahl & Fr.) Karst.

KH5530

S20

Bbongnamubeoseot

Whole part

Glycosuria

Infusion

Oral

100.00

 

Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito. et Imai) Sing.

KH5531

S185

Songi

Whole part

Afterpain

Decoction, infusion

Oral

57.89

      

Common cold

Decoction

Oral

21.05

      

Tonsillitis

Infusion

Oral

21.05

Ulmaceae

Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (Rehder) Nakai

KH5532

S188

Neureupnamu

Bark

Boils

Dough, dried, maceration, powder

Topical

15.67

      

Cancer

Infusion, maceration

Oral, topical

3.00

      

Gastric ulcer

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion, tea

Oral

2.07

      

Gastritis

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

0.23

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Dried, infusion, powder, tea

Oral

11.29

      

Hemorrhaging

Powder

Topical

0.23

      

Hemorrhoids

Infusion

Topical

2.76

      

Indigestion

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, infusion

Oral

1.61

      

Milk fever

Maceration

Oral, topical

3.92

      

Pus

Dried, infusion, maceration, powder

Oral, topical

52.07

      

Skin diseases

Maceration, powder

Topical

1.38

      

Wound

Maceration, powder, raw

Topical

3.23

     

Endodermis

Boils

Maceration

Topical

15.67

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Infusion

Oral

11.29

      

Pus

Maceration

Topical

52.07

     

Rhizodermis

Boils

Dried, maceration, powder

Topical

15.67

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Infusion

Oral

11.29

      

Pus

Maceration

Topical

52.07

      

Wound

Maceration, powder

Topical

3.23

     

Root

Boils

Maceration

Topical

15.67

      

Bruising

Maceration

Topical

0.46

      

Cancer

Maceration

Topical

3.00

      

Gastroenteric disorder

Dried, infusion

Oral

11.29

      

Inflammation

Maceration

Topical

0.69

      

Pus

Maceration

Topical

52.07

     

Stem

Boils

Maceration

Topical

15.67

      

Bone diseases

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, brewing

Oral

1.38

      

Gastroenteric disorder

A sweet drink made from fermented rice, boiling, infusion

Oral

11.29

      

Milk fever

Maceration

Topical

3.92

      

Pus

Dried, maceration, powder

Topical

52.07

 

Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.

KH5533

S189

Chamneureupnamu

Bark

Boils

Dough, maceration, powder, raw

Topical

100.00

Valerianaceae

Patrinia villosa (Thunb.) Juss.

KH5534

S119

Ttukgal

Leaf

Snakebite

Maceration

Topical

100.00

Violaceae

Viola mandshurica W.Becker

KH5535

S191

Jebikkot

Aerial part

Bruising

Maceration

Topical

16.13

      

Hemorrhage

Rubbing

Topical

16.13

     

Leaf

Snakebite

Maceration

Topical

16.13

     

Whole part

Facial nerve paralysis

Maceration

Topical

22.58

      

Sprain

Maceration

Topical

29.03

 

Viola verecunda A.Gray

KH5536

S192

Kongjebikkot

Leaf

Dysentery

Seasoned cooked vegetables

Oral

100.00

Vitaceae

Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch.

KH5537

S118

Damjaengideonggul

Stem

Chronic myofascial pain

Infusion

Oral

10.00

      

Glycosuria

Infusion

Oral

40.00

      

Lumbago

A sweet drink made from fermented rice

Oral

40.00

      

Neuralgia

Decoction

Oral

10.00

 

Vitis coignetiae Pulliat ex Planch.

KH5538

S194

Meoru

Fruit

Asthma

Extraction

Oral

33.33

      

Bronchitis

Extraction

Oral

33.33

     

Stem

Afterpain

Infusion

Oral

33.33

Zingiberaceae

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

KH5539

S199

Saenggang

Rhizoma

Arm pain

Decoction, dissolution, extraction

Oral

4.83

      

Common cold

Boiling, decoction, dissolution, extraction, honey, infusion, tea

Oral

67.59

      

Cough

Decoction, dissolution, extraction, infusion

Oral

22.76

      

Leg pain

Decoction, dissolution, extraction

Oral

4.83

*Abbreviation for Figure 2.

At present, these veterinary species do not affect the natural plant ecosystem of a national park anymore, as residents use a modern system of veterinary medicine to treat the diseases of domestic animals.

Quantitative analysis

ICF

The ICF ranges from 0 to 1, where increasing values of this factor indicate a higher rate of informant consensus among the illness category.

The category with the highest degree of consensus from the informants was muscular-skeletal disorders (0.98). The ranking followed with remarks from informants related to concerns of pain (0.97), respiratory system disorders (0.97), liver complaints (0.97), and cuts and wounds (0.96). The lowest degree of consensus was birth-related disorders (Table 3). These results expose the fact that the residents living in a national park work in dry-field farming and laboriously gather products from the forests as they live in the mountainous region.
Table 3

Category of ailments and their informant consensus factor (ICF) according to Heinrich et al.[24]

Symptom and ailment categories

Taxons

Use citations

ICF

Muscular-skeletal disorders

49

2142

0.98

Pains

87

2942

0.97

Respiratory system disorders

46

1513

0.97

Liver complaints

15

447

0.97

Cuts and wounds

20

473

0.96

Inflammation

28

587

0.95

Genitourinary system disorders

52

1062

0.95

Circulatory system disorders

65

1250

0.95

Skin diseases and disorders

25

464

0.95

Gastrointestinal disorders

68

1257

0.95

Diabetes

10

165

0.95

Nervous system disorders

34

545

0.94

Veterinary ailments

22

300

0.93

Poisonings

26

321

0.92

Others

36

431

0.92

Birth-related disorders

14

138

0.91

Medicinal plants for treating disease with a higher degree of consensus can easily be harvested for treating medical ailments. As a result, the natural plant ecosystem of a national park may be partly destroyed in the near future. Therefore, through further study, proper steps to determine a wise alternative to protect them need to be considered.

FL

The FL is useful for identifying the key informants’ most preferred species in use for treating certain ailments. The FL values in this study varied from 1.0% to 100%. Generally, the FL of 100% for a specific plant indicates that all of the use-reports mentioned the same plant for specific treatment [33].

This study classified 57 species of plants with a FL of 100%, even without considering plants that were mentioned only once for better accuracy (Table 3). This information reveals that the informants had a tendency to rely on one specific plant species for treating one specific ailment than for several different ailments. These species possess a much higher potential for being gathered in Gayasan National Park.

Special attention for species conservation within the national park was given to important species (N, Np) with a FL above 100%, regarding the viewpoint of the number of times mentioned and the consensus level for the specific ailment, like Solanum nigram L. (68, 68) in being used for burns, Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) RonseDecr. for pollakiuria (60, 60), Colocassia esculenta (L.) Schott (15, 15) for sterility, Euonymus sachalinensis (F. Schmidt) Maxim. (13, 13) for hemorrhoids, and Staphylea bumalda DC. (13, 13) for facial nerve paralysis (Table 2).

INA between categories of ailments and medicinal plants

INA has originally analyzed social phenomenon and its trends through the network of components [34]. Our research has attempted to analyze the interrelationship between aliments and medicinal plants recorded within these communities.In relation to the network of ailments and medicinal plants, the position of the ailments is distributed into four main groups, where each circle represents four different groups of ailments (Figure 2).Accordingly, the first group is positioned in the upper section of Figure 2 and consists of poisonings, respiratory system disorders, others, inflammation and so on.
Figure 2

The network relationship of ailments and plant species.

The second group is located in the bottom left section and consists of nervous system disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, cuts and wounds, and pains. This group of disorders will require a deeper analysis in order to determine the overlapping use of medicinal species for these ailments.

The third group is positioned on the left side and consists of birth-related disorders and genitourinary system disorders. These results depict that the same medicinal plants used for treating birth related disorders and genitourinary system disorders have a close relationship.

Finally, the circulatory system disorders are the fourth group and are positioned in the bottom section.

Conclusion

These days, the natural conservation of a national park has focused strongly to preserve bio-resources, which are regarded as vital to its environment. However, the natural conservation of a national park is practically determined by the interrelationship between the bio-resources and its utilization by residents.

In relation to this point, this study contains a major focus to obtain the basic data regarding the natural conservation of a plant ecosystem, through the analysis and investigation of traditional knowledge for medicinal plants being used by residents of Gayasan National Park.

Conclusions regarding the preservation of a sustainable natural plant ecosystem within a national park obtained the following results:

First, the high percentage of medicinal plants among flora means that the total amount of medicinal plants gathered by residents may negatively affect the conservation of a natural plant ecosystem within a national park. In order to conserve the plant ecosystem, residents need an adaptable health care system for treating their ailments, instead of relying solely on ethnomedicinal therapies.

Second, residents mentioned quite often that they used medicinal plants to treat their own medical conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare a plan of action for conserving the popular medicinal plants.

Third, medicinal plants for treating the category of disease with a higher degree of consensus can be actively harvested for treating medical problems. The over collecting of these medicinal plants will disrupt the plant ecosystem of Gayasan National Park in the near future.

Fourth, 57 species of plants with a FL of 100% possess a much higher potential for being gathered in the region and it is vital to protect the overuse of these medicinal plants.

Fifth, the results of INA will provide an appropriate plan for the sustainable preservation of a national park through continued study.

Therefore, these particular species need to be conserved for a balanced plant ecosystem within the park.

Consequently, through further study using these results, proper steps need to be established for preparing a wise alternative to create a sustainable natural plant ecosystem for Gayasan National Park and other national parks.

Declarations

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR No. 2012-02-028). The authors are very grateful to all the informants for sharing their orally transmitted traditional knowledge during the fieldwork surveys.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Integrated Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Jeonju University
(2)
School of Alternative Medicine and Health Science, Jeonju University
(3)
Department of Biological Resources, National Institute of Biological Resources
(4)
School of Liberal Arts, Jeonju University

References

  1. Parrotta JA, Trosper RL: Traditional Forest Related Knowledge: Sustaining Communities, Ecosystems, and Biocultural Diversity. 2012, New York: SpringerView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Menzies CR: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Natural Resource Management. 2006, Lincoln: University of Mebraska PressGoogle Scholar
  3. Unnikrishnan PM, Fadeeva Z: Innovation in Local and Global Learning Systems for Sustainability: Traditional Knowledge and Biodiversity – Learning Contributions of the Regional Centres of Expertise on Education for Sustainable Development. 2013, Yokohama: United Nations University Institute of Advanced StudiesGoogle Scholar
  4. Unnikrishnan PM, Suneetha MS: Biodiversity, Traditional Knowledge and Community Health: Strengthening Linkages. 2012, Singapore: Xpress Pte Ltd.Google Scholar
  5. Di Sanzo P, De Martino L, Mancini E, De Feo V: Medicinal and useful in the tradition of Rotonda, Pollino National Park, Southern Italy. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013, 9: 19-10.1186/1746-4269-9-19. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-9-19PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Idolo M, Motti R, Mazzoleni S: Ethnobotanical and phytomedicinal knowledge in a long-history protected area, the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park (Italian Apennines). J Ethnopharmacol. 2010, 127: 379-395. 10.1016/j.jep.2009.10.027.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Asase A, Hesse DN, Simmonds MS: Uses of multiple plants prescriptions for treatment of malaria by some communities in southern Ghana. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012, 144: 448-452. 10.1016/j.jep.2012.09.028.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Namukobe J, Kasenene JM, Kiremire BT, Byamukama R, Kamatenesi-Mugisha M, Krief S, Dumontet V, Kabasa JD: Traditional plants used for medicinal purposes by local communities around the Northern sector of Kibale National Park, Uganda. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011, 136: 236-245. 10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.044.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hoang VS, Pieter B, Paul JAK: Traditional medicinal plants in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. Blumea. 2008, 2008 (53): 569-601.Google Scholar
  10. Sharma J, Gairola S, Gaur RD, Painuli RM: The treatment of jaundice with medicinal plants in indigenous communities of the Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhanh, India. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012, 143: 262-291. 10.1016/j.jep.2012.06.034.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Estrada E, Villarreal JA, Cantú C, Cabral I, Scott L, Yen C: Ethnobotany in the Cumbrea de Minterrey National Park, Nuevo León, México. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007, 3: 8-10.1186/1746-4269-3-8. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-3-8PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Thomas E, Semo L, Morales M, Noza Z, Nuñez H, Cayuba A, Noza M, Humaday N, Vaya J, Damme PV: Ethnomedicinal practices and medicinal plant knowledge of the Yuracarés and Trinitarios from Indigenous Territory and National Park Isiboro-Sécure, Bolivian Amazon. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011, 133: 153-163. 10.1016/j.jep.2010.09.017.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Song MJ, Kim H, Heldenbrand B, Jeon JW, Lee SH: Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Jeju Island, Korea. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013, 9: 48-10.1186/1746-4269-9-48. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-9-48PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Korea National Park Service. [http://english.knps.or.kr]
  15. You JH, Jeon SK, Seol JW: Flora and conservation plan of Gayasan National Park. J Korean Env Res Tech. 2013, 16: 109-130.Google Scholar
  16. Kim H, Song MJ: Analysis and recordings of orally transmitted knowledge about medicinal plants in the southern mountainous region of Korea. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011, 134: 676-696. 10.1016/j.jep.2011.01.024.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kim H, Song MJ: Oral traditional knowledge for the treatment of digestive system diseases investigated in North Jeolla Province, Korea. J Med Plant Res. 2011, 5: 5730-5740.Google Scholar
  18. Martin GJ: Ethnobotany: A Conservation Manual. 1996, London: Champman & HallGoogle Scholar
  19. Song M, Kim H: Ethnomedicinal application of plants in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province in Korea. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011, 137: 167-175. 10.1016/j.jep.2011.05.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kim H, Song MJ: Ethnobotany. 2008, Seoul: World Science PublisherGoogle Scholar
  21. Lee TB: Illustrated Flora of Korea. 1979, Seoul: HyangmunsaGoogle Scholar
  22. Lee YN: Flora of Korea. 2002, Seoul: Kyohak Publishing CoGoogle Scholar
  23. National Knowledge and Information System for Biological Species (NKISBS). [http://www.nature.go.kr:9001/index.do]
  24. Heinrich M, Ankli A, Frei B, Weimann C, Sticher O: Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers’ consensus and cultural importance. Soc Sci Med. 1998, 47: 1859-1871. 10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00181-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Heinrich M, Edwards S, Moerman DE, Leonti M: Ethnopharmacological field studies: a critical assessment of their conceptual basis and methods. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009, 124: 1-17. 10.1016/j.jep.2009.03.043.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Alexiades MN: Selected Guidelines for Ethnobotanical Research-a Field Manual. Advances in Economic Botany, Volume 10. 1996, Bronx: The New York Botanical GardenGoogle Scholar
  27. Douglas RW, Johansen UC: Network Analysis and Ethnographic Problems: Process Models of a Turkish Nomad Clan. 2006, Idaho: Lexington BooksGoogle Scholar
  28. Christakis NA, Fowler JH: The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. N Engl J Med. 2007, 357: 370-379. 10.1056/NEJMsa066082.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Christakis NA, Fowler JH: Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior. Stat Med. 2013, 32: 556-577. 10.1002/sim.5408.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Christakis NA, Fowler JH: Rejoinder to commentaries on social contagion theory. Stat Med. 2013, 32: 597-599. 10.1002/sim.5698.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  31. Borgatti SP: NetDraw Software for Network Visualization. 2002, Lexington: Analytic TechnologiesGoogle Scholar
  32. Borgatti SP, Everett MG, Freeman LC: Ucinet for Windows: Software for Social Network Analysis. 2002, Harvard: Analytic TechnologiesGoogle Scholar
  33. Srithi K, Balslev H, Wangpakapattanawong P, Srisanga P, Trisonthi C: Medicinal plant knowledge and its erosion among the Mien (Yao) in northern Thailand. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009, 123: 335-342. 10.1016/j.jep.2009.02.035.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kim YH: Social Inter-Network Analysis. 2013, Seoul: ParkyongsaGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Song et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.