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Table 6 Wild plant and animal species mentioned in Székely village laws (original quotations)

From: Landscape ethnoecological knowledge base and management of ecosystem services in a Székely-Hungarian pre-capitalistic village system (Transylvania, Romania)

Local and Latin names Records Quotations from Székely village laws
csere (oak, Quercus petraea and Q. robur) 29 “It is prohibited to graze goats during winter in the diminished oak forest of the mentioned village. Otherwise the fine is 6 Forints.” [5: 401]
bükk (beech, Fagus sylvatica) 13 “It is prohibited to ring-bark beech trees. When one fells it, he must carry it away. But it is prohibited to ring-bark and leave the tree on the spot.” [5: 300]
nyár (poplar, mostly Populus tremula) 7 “Birch, poplar and hornbeam trees can be felled under certain conditions for small needs, but only in the established limited amount.” [5: 315]
gyertyán (hornbeam, Carpinus betulus) 2 “All trees we have in Gelye Árnyéka beech, birch, poplar and hornbeam, except oak and alder in the stream, can be felled for the need of community…when one trades trees felled from that place or gives them to foreign villages, price of the trees shall be turned to the benefit of the village.” [14: 114]
nyír (birch, Betula pendula) 10 “Gypsy broom- and spoon-makers caused serious damage to birch and poplar trees and not only pruned the trees but also felled them for brooms. When someone prunes or fells the birch trees of prohibited peaks, his punishment shall be 3 Hungarian Forints.” [14:125]
kőris (ash, Fraxinus excelsior) 1 “Wood for spokes, wheel and hub and ash trees, can be felled to meet the needs of community members.” [Imreh 1983: 328]
éger (alder, Alnus glutinosa and A. incana) 3 “The felling of birch and alder trees in these prohibited peaks carries a fine of 3 Hungarian Forints.” [5: 472]
fűz, csigolya (willow, Salix fragilis and bushy Salix spp.) 4 “When one cuts a willow belonging to other people, he shall be fined 50 Denars.” [Imreh 1983: 342] “Every community member is obliged to plant at least 12 willow trees among fences in order to protect the territory.” [5: 358]
maszlag (mullein, Verbascum spp.) 1 “Nobody should even try to fish with harpoon or Verbascum in the water of River Olt.” [5: 319]
körtvélyfa, körtvény, körtövély (pear tree, Pyrus communis and P. pyraster) 3 “The felling and damaging of fruit-bearing pear, apple and cherry trees grown in free forests and meadows is subject to similar prohibition.” [5: 372]
almafa (apple tree, Malus domestica and M. slyvestris) 3
cseresznyefa (cherry-tree, Cerasus avium) 1
hal (fish, Pisces) 9 “When fishermen, gypsies or vagrants fish here, their catch shall be taken away and they shall be expelled.” [5: 429]
rák (crayfish, Crustacea), mostly freshwater lobster (Astacus sp.) 2 “We decided and prohibited the catching of fish and crayfish in Dimén stream, Uzon loka and Pisztrongos, otherwise the fine is 1 Hungarian Florine” [5: 387]
medve (brown bear, Ursus arctos) 1 “When one shoots wolf or brown bear either in the forests or meadows of the community, he shall recieve 3 Rft for wolf shooting and 6 Rft for bear shooting from the common money of the community.” [5: 477]
farkas (grey wolf, Canis lupus) 1