- Open Access
Fauna used in popular medicine in Northeast Brazil
© Alves; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
- Received: 12 August 2008
- Accepted: 07 January 2009
- Published: 07 January 2009
Animal-based remedies constitute an integral part of Brazilian Traditional Medicine. Due to its long history, zootherapy has in fact become an integral part of folk medicine both in rural and urban areas of the country. In this paper we summarize current knowledge on zootherapeutic practices in Northeast of Brazil, based on information compiled from ethnobiological scientific literature.
In order to examine the diversity of animals used in traditional medicine in Northeast of Brazil, all available references or reports of folk remedies based on animals sources were examined. 34 sources were analyzed. Only taxa that could be identified to species level were included in assessment of medicinal animal species. Scientific names provided in publications were updated.
The review revealed that at least 250 animal species (178 vertebrates and 72 invertebrates) are used for medicinal purposes in Northeast of Brazil. The inventoried species comprise 10 taxonomic categories and belong to 141 Families. The groups with the greatest number of species were fishes (n = 58), mammals (n = 47) and reptiles (n = 37). The zootherapeutical products are used for the treatment of different illnesses. The most widely treated condition were asthma, rheumatism and sore throat, conditions, which had a wide variety of animals to treat them with. Many animals were used for the treatment of multiple ailments. Beyond the use for treating human diseases, zootherapeutical resources are also used in ethnoveterinary medicine
The number of medicinal species catalogued was quite expressive and demonstrate the importance of zootherapy as alternative therapeutic in Northeast of Brazil. Although widely diffused throughout Brazil, zootherapeutic practices remain virtually unstudied. There is an urgent need to examine the ecological, cultural, social, and public health implications associated with fauna usage, including a full inventory of the animal species used for medicinal purposes and the socio-cultural context associated with their consumption.
- Traditional Medicine
- Medicinal Purpose
- Medicinal Species
- Medicinal Animal
- Wild Fauna
Humans depend on biodiversity and the capacity of ecosystems to provide a multitude of goods and services that underpin a healthy human and natural environment. Biodiversity is essential for human health, for example, in the provision of the raw materials for medicines. Indeed, some 20,000 species are used in traditional medicine, which forms the basis of primary health care for about 80 percent of the 3 billion people in developing countries. More than half of the world's modern drugs are derived from biological resources, which supports the traditional and modern pharmaceutical sectors [1, 2].
Plants and animals have been used as medicinal sources since ancient times [2–5], and even today animal and plant-based pharmacopeias continue to play an essential role in world health care . Although plants and plant-derived materials make up the majority of ingredients used in most traditional medical systems globally, whole animals, animal parts, and animal-derived products (e.g., urine, fat, etc.) also constitute important elements of the materia medica. Indeed, zootherapy, the use of animal products in healing, is an ancient and widespread practice across most cultures [3, 5, 7, 8].
Animals have been broadly used since ancient times in Brazilian traditional medicine , and have played a significant role in healing practices [9–11]. Expressions of traditional medicine in the country, particularly of zootherapy, represent an interaction of native, African and European elements, since the beginning of colonization , resulting in a rich ethnomedicine used by people belonging to different social classes in Brazil . Nevertheless, the use of animal species as remedies, although representing an important component of traditional medicine (sometimes in association with plant species), has been much less studied than medicinal plants in the country [11, 13–15].
Little attention has been paid to the cultural, medical, economic, or ecological significance of zootherapeutic practices, even though the federal government's National Policy of Pharmaceuticals (Política Nacional de Medicamentos, Portaria no. 3916/98) specifies that "the support to research aiming to use the therapeutic potential of the national flora and fauna, with emphasis on certification of their medical properties, should be continued and expanded" . Nevertheless, since the 1980s various publications have shown the importance of zootherapy for traditional communities from distinct socio-cultural-environmental landscapes in Brazil. Most of the available information on the subject is concentrated in the Northeast of the country .
In addition, the edibility of these medicinal resources must be analyzed because there must be complex interactions between diet and the medicinal use. A number of food animals are also used as remedies [11, 13–17]. Yet, our knowledge about the practice of food medicine is limited, particularly with regards to the traditional consumption of animal food-medicines . Although often regarded as supplementary to local peoples' diet, wild food and medicine are essential in times of crisis and play an important nutritional role. The neglect of traditional food and medicines may seriously deteriorate the health and well being of traditional peoples [19, 20]. Furthermore, nature-based traditional food and medicine are generally viewed as interchangeable, diet being highly regarded as the primary basis for sustaining and/or restoring health and well-being. Consequently, foods are considered and often times chosen for their distinctive medicinal or healing values.
Given Brazil's significant cultural and biological diversity, the country can be used as a useful case study to increase our knowledge of faunistic resources used as medicines, and to draw attention to the need to protect traditional knowledge and biodiversity . In that context, the aim of this paper is summarize current knowledge on zootherapeutic practices in of Northeast of Brazil, based on information compiled from ethnobiological scientific literature, aiming to establish a regional data base. Contributions is expected in order to increase our knowledge concerning the faunistic resources used in the traditional medicine in the country, alerting for the need of protecting the biodiversity and the traditional knowledge and still emphasize the importance of a therapeutic modality that although widely disseminated at the country, is getting little attention from the scientific community.
As a result of the huge land mass involved, the diverse physio-geography of the region, as well as the conjunction of two major weather systems, provided by the NE and SE trade winds, rainfall patterns in Northeast Brazil are typically diverse and instable. The precipitation within the region varies from being extremely wet, with an annual rainfall of up to around 2,000 mm along the coast, to only 300–500 mm in the semi-arid zone, where the rainfall is usually restricted to a few months during the year. The availability of water determines the type and abundance of vegetation and fauna that exists in the region, as therefore in turn the patterns of human exploitation of natural resources .
The predominant vegetation type in this region is composed of several forms of caatinga biome. The structure of these forests can vary considerably from forests composed of mostly spiny trees, 6 to 10 m tall, often with a ground-layer of small deciduous shrubs and annual herbs, predominantly Leguminosae, to deciduous woodlands of lower stature, with a high proportion of shrubs and subshrubs and the presence of many cacti, bromeliads and Euphorbiaceae .
The Caatinga has been described as harboring relatively few species and having low numbers of endemic species [25–27]. Some recent studies, however, have challenged this and demonstrated the importance of the region for the conservation of a significant component of Brazilian biodiversity . Inventories and assessments have, to date, recorded 932 vascular plant species , 187 bees , 240 fishes , 167 reptiles and amphibians , 62 families and 510 species of birds , and 148 mammal species . Levels of endemism vary from about 7% for mammals [34, 35] to 3% in birds  and 57% in fishes . The Northeast region as a whole holds more types of vegetation than any other region in Brazil. In addition to the Caatinga biome, there are the Atlantic Rainforests, seasonal forests and inland mountain forests, restinga and shore dunes, mangroves, cerrados (savannah-like vegetation) and 'campos rupestres', all of which exhibit rich animal and plant biodiversity.
In order to examine the diversity of animals used in traditional medicine in Northeast of Brazil, all available references or reports of folk remedies based on animals sources were examined [9–15, 36–62]. 34 ethnobiological sources documenting the medicinal use of animals were analyzed. Only taxa that could be identified to species level were included in the data base. Scientific names were updated in accordance with the Integrated Taxonomic Information System's "Catalogue of Life: 2008 Annual Checklist" . The conservation status of the animal species follows IUCN , Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora – CITES , Brazil's official list of endangered species , and the national list of species of aquatic invertebrates and fishes endangered, overexploited, or threatened by exploitation .
Categories of diseases treated with zootherapeutic remedies in Northeast Brazil, according to the Brazilian Centre of Diseases Classification and the number of species used per category.
Categories of diseases
Number of medicinal animals
Some infections and parasitic diseases
External causes of morbidity and mortality
Osteomuscular system and conjunctive tissue
Injuries, poisoning and other consequences of external causes
Skin and subcutaneous tissue
Ear (middle and inner ear) and mastoid apophysis
Blood and haematopoeitic organs, and some disorders of the immune system
Pregnancy, parturition, and puerperium
Symptoms, signs, and abnormal findings from medical and laboratorial examination, not categorized in other part or section
Mental and behavioral perturbations
Diseases of the endocrine glands, metabolism and nutrition
Congenital malformations, deformities and cromossomic abnormalities
The number of medicinal species catalogued was quite expressive and demonstrate the importance of zootherapy as alternative therapeutic in Northeast of Brazil. Ethnobiological studies encompassing information on the medicinal use of biological resources cover 06 states: Paraíba, Piauí, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Maranhão and Bahia, the latter being state with the highest number of studies (Figure. 1). No published accounts were found for the states of Ceará, Sergipe and Rio Grande do Norte. Due to the lack of studies in some states of Northeast Brazil, and to the fact that only taxa that could be identified to the species level were included in the review, is expected the number of medicinal animals to be greater than the 250 species compiled.
Of the 250 medicinal animal species which have been recorded, 175 (70%) were also used as food. The high number of animals used both as food and medicine is not surprising given the important role played by wildlife as a source of protein in different parts of the world. In at least 62 countries worldwide, wildlife (including fish) provides significant proteins, calories, and essential fats to rural communities [18, 76–82]. The extensive use of foods as medicinal remedies reported in our study is in line with recent field investigations around the world [16–18]. The degree of overlap between medicinal and nutritional uses of wild animals observed in our study was high, and left no doubt about the importance of wild animals in human diets and healing activities.
Also, this work showed that exists a larger knowledge on medicinal animals in predominantly rural areas, nevertheless, also drew attention to the zootherapeuticals knowledge of the urban poor in cities across the Northeast region [10–12, 15, 40, 41, 48, 55, 60, 81, 82]. The notable use and commercialization of medicinal animals to alleviate and cure health problems and ailments in the cities of Brazil reveals the resilience of that therapeutic alternative, in spite of the influence of the western medicine. In urban areas, the people brought from their villages to the cities much valuable knowledge on animals-based remedies that is rarely studied. The use of similar resources as medicines in more remote and urban areas suggest that zootherapeutic practices may function as a social conduit which, in conjunction with other factors, helps to maintain the connections between rural and peasant people living in cities and their own traditional culture and values. More specifically, it indicates the potential for exchange of materials and information on illnesses and treatments between more remote and urban communities .
Beyond the use for treating human diseases, zootherapeutical resources are also used in ethnoveterinary medicine. Barboza et al.  recorded the utilization of animals (zootherapeutics) as sources of medicines in folk veterinary medicine (ethnoveterinary) in semiarid northeast region and verified that 15 animals are used in the prevention or cure of animals' illnesses in that region.
Distinct preparation and administration manners of the zootherapic resources are reported in the works, but in general, hard parts, such as teeth, nails, shells, rattles from snakes, fish scales, bone, and cartilage, generally are dried in the sun, grated, and crushed to powder, and then administered as tea or taken during meals. Fat, body secretions, and oil are either ingested or used as an ointment. Some animals are utilized in combination with plants and/or other animal species, constituting the ingredients of what the interviewees call "garrafadas" a concoction defined by Camargo  and Ngokwey , as a therapeutic drink composed of various plants soaked in cacha, ca (Brazilian sugar cane liquor) or white wine and contained in a bottle (garrafa in portuguese, hence the name garrafada). The uses of medicinal plants and animals overlap in many cases [11, 13–15, 62], as might be expected, as phytotherapy and zootherapy are well known and widely used therapeutic alternatives in contemporary societies . Considering the fact that the use of medicinal animals and plants is quite common in most areas of Northeast Brazil [11, 91, 92], various overlapping usages might well be expected among traditional remedies [11, 13, 41].
The zootherapeutic resources recorded were used to treat different diseases. The most widely treated condition were asthma, rheumatism and sore throat, conditions, which had a wide variety of animals to treat them with. Many animals were used for the treatment of multiple ailments. The highest numbers of animal species (132, 52.8%) have been reported for the treatment of Respiratory system related problems. Injuries, poisoning and other consequences of external causes are treated with 77 species (30.8%). 71 (28.4%) animal species are reported in uses in Undefined illnesses category (that includes all citations for diseases with unspecific symptoms). Problems of osteomuscular system and conjunctive tissue are reported to be treated with 71 (28.8%) species. Circulatory system related problems are treated with 64 species (25.6%) (Table 1).
Sanitary conditions of the zootherapeutics products generally were poor with obvious contamination risks to these products [11, 13, 15, 93]. These observations point to the need for sanitary measurements to be taken with medicinal animal products and the importance of including considerations about zootherapy into public health programs. Although the need for implementation of sanitary measures to the trade of animal or their parts for medicinal purposes is evident, adoption of regulatory measures faces considerable challenges, among them ensuring adequate participation of all stakeholders involved, monitoring of the activity, and combating illegal, unreported and unregulated trade . Additionally, chemical and pharmacological studies are necessary in order to clarify the eventual therapeutic usefulness of this class of biological remedies . The possibility of using various remedies for the same ailment is popularly valued , as it renders an adaptation to the availability/accessibility of animals possible .
The economic and geographic accessibility of medicinal animals, perceived efficacy and sociocultural factors were main reasons for popularity of zootherapy [11, 13–15]. Because Brazil is highly heterogeneous socially and profoundly unequal in distribution of income, socioeconomic aspects play a role in the perseverance of zootherapeutic practices . For the majority of the population, access to hospital care is available within the public sector, but the organization of the health-care system reflects the schisms within Brazilian society: high-technology private care is available to the rich, but only inadequate public care is available to the poor [94, 95], which makes the use of available, affordable animal and plant remedies an important alternative.
The high number of species registered evidenciates that the animals are therapeutic resources culturally important. Nevertheless, the lack of zootherapeutic studies in Brazil (and in the world in general) has contributed to an underestimation of the importance of zootherapeutic resources in this country. Alves and Rosa , suggest that one of the factors that certainly contribute to the information scarcity on the subject is the semi-clandestine or clandestine nature of the trade and use of medicinal animals, generally result in usuaries and traders being more resistant to provide information. The most of medicinal animals are wild and protected by law. Nevertheless, although Brazilian legislation forbids commercial use of wild fauna (Article 1 Law 5,197 January 3, 1967 and Article 29 of Law 9,605 February 12, 1998), medicinal products and derivatives made from animals are commonly traded in many Brazilian cities [10–12, 15, 41, 41, 48, 55, 60–62].
Most of the species used (n = 230; 92%) are wild caught. In most cases remedies were prepared from dead specimens. Many of the medicinal animals are of conservation concern. Many of the recorded species (52 out of 250) are on either the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species,  CITES list (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora , Brazil's official list of endangered species , or the National List of species of aquatic invertebrates and fishes endangered, overexploited or threatened by exploitation . These results demonstrate the need to assess the implications of the use and trade of animal used in traditional medicines on their wild populations.
As pointed out by Alves et al , there is a need to increase our understanding of the biology and ecology of species commonly used as remedies to better assess the impacts of harvesting them (for medicinal or other purposes) on their wild populations. Medicinal species whose conservation status is in question should receive urgent attention, and aspects such as habitat loss and alteration should be discussed in connection with present and future medicinal uses. As Anyinam  remarked, environmental degradation affects users of traditional medicine both by limiting their access to the resources traditionally used and by diminishing the knowledge base in their community upon which traditional medicine is constructed. Studies on traditional uses of faunistic resources should be carried out with other links to conservation biology, public health policies, sustainable management of natural resources and biological prospection is of great importance .
A total of 250 animals are used for medicinal purposes in the Northeast of Brazil, evidencing that the zootherapy represents a traditional practice in the region. The high number of animal species registered reveals the cultural importance of that practice as therapeutic alternative, being occasionally used in association with medicinal plants. In a country like Brazil, where the majority of the population has no access modern allopathic medicines, local medicinal animals and plant knowledge systems is of significance. The population uses traditional medicine due to the relatively low cost of traditional medicine and difficult access to modern health facilities. Nevertheless, the interest in and intrinsic value of zootherapy not be only be attributed to the lack of access to modern medicinal services. Even in cities where modern health services are more accessible and specialized; many people continue to go to traditional healers showing the cultural acceptability of such practices. Besides the biological aspects, the economical and sociocultural factors influence the relationship of the local gathered people and the zootherapic resources usage. The need of new studies is evidenced which approach the medicinal fauna of Brazil, seeking for a better understanding of this therapy form, not only in its ecological aspects, but also cultural and pharmacological.
- WEHAB 2002: A Framework for Action on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Management. The WEHAB Working Group, August 2002.[http://www.iisd.ca/wssd/download%20files/wehab_biodiversity.pdf]
- Alves RRN, Rosa IL: Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet? Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2007, 3: 1-9. 10.1186/1746-4269-3-14View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lev E: Traditional healing with animals (zootherapy): medieval to present-day Levantine practice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2003, 85: 107-118. 10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00377-XView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Anyinam C: Ecology and Ethnomedicine: Exploring Links Between Current Environmental Crisis and Indigenous Medical Practices. Soc Sci Med 1995,40(3):321-329. 10.1016/0277-9536(94)E0098-DView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alves RRN, Rosa IL: Why study the use of animal products in traditional medicines? Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2005, 1: 1-5. 10.1186/1746-4269-1-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chivian E: Global environmental degradation and biodiversity loss: implications for human health. In Biodiversity and human health. 1st edition. Edited by: Grifo F, Rosenthal J. Washington DC: Island Press; 1997:7-38.Google Scholar
- WHO/IUCN/WWF: Guidelines on Conservation of MedicinalPlants. Gland, Switzerland: Castel Cary Press/LP and TS; 1993.Google Scholar
- Phillipson JD, Anderson LA: Ethnopharmacology and western medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 1989,25(1):61-72. 10.1016/0378-8741(89)90045-7View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Almeida AV: Prescricões zooterápicas indígenas brasileiras nas obras de Guilherme Piso (1611–1679). In Atualidades em Etnobiologia e Etnoecologia. Sociedade Brasileira de Etnobiologia e Etnoecologia. 1st edition. Edited by: Alves AGC, Lucena RFP, Albuquerque UP. Recife, Brazil: Nuppea; 2005:47-60.Google Scholar
- Silva MLV, Alves ÂGC, Almeida AV: A zooterapia no Recife (Pernambuco): uma articulação entre as práticas e a história. Biotemas 2004, 17: 95-116.Google Scholar
- Alves RRN, Rosa IL, Santana GG: The Role of Animal-derived Remedies as Complementary Medicine in Brazil. BioScience 2007,57(11):949-955. 10.1641/B571107View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Costa-Neto EM: Healing with animals in Feira de Santana City, Bahia, Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1999, 65: 225-230. 10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00158-5View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alves RRN, Rosa IL: From cnidarians to mammals: The use of animals as remedies in fishing communities in NE Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2006, 107: 259-276. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.007View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alves RRN, Rosa IL: Zootherapeutic practices among fishing communities in North and Northeast Brazil: A comparison. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2007, 111: 82-103. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.10.033View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alves RRN, Rosa IL: Zootherapy goes to town: The use of animal-based remedies in urban areas of NE and N Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2007, 113: 541-555. 10.1016/j.jep.2007.07.015View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pieroni A, Grazzini A: Alimenti-medicina di origine animale. In Herbs, Humans and Animals/Erbe, uomini e bestie (England/Italy). Edited by: Pieroni A. Köln, Germany: Experiences Verlag; 1999:155-171.Google Scholar
- Pieroni A, Giusti ME, Grazzini A: Animal remedies in the folk medicinal practices of the Lucca and Pistoia Provinces, Central Italy. In Des sources du savoir aux médicaments du futur/from the sources of knowledge to the medicines of the future. Edited by: Fleurentin J, Pelt JM, Mazars G. Proceedings of the fourth European Colloquium of Ethnopharmacology. Paris, France: IRD Editions; 2002:371-375.Google Scholar
- Begossi A: Food taboos – a scientific reason? In Plants for Food and Medicine. Edited by: Pendergast HDV, Etkin N, Harris DR, Houghton PJ. Royal Botanic Gardens. Kew, UK; 1998:41-461.Google Scholar
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): Forests, Trees and Food. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome; 1992.Google Scholar
- International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED): Whose Eden? An Overview of Community Approaches to Wildlife Management. Report published for the Overseas Development Administration, United Kingdom; 1994.Google Scholar
- Agra MF, Freitas PF, Barbosa Filho JM: Synopsis of the plants known as medicinal and poisonous in Northeast of Brazil. Rev Bras Farmacog 2007, 17: 116-155.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Northeast Region, Brazil[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northeast_Region,_Brazil]
- Giulietti AM, Harley RM, Queiroz LP, Rapini A: To set the scene. In Towards Greater Knowledge of the Brazilian Semi-arid Biodiversity. Edited by: Queiroz LP, Rapini A, Giulietti AM. Ministério de Ciências e Tecnologia, Brasília; 2006:15-19.Google Scholar
- Giulietti AM, Harley RM, Queiroz LP, Barbosa MRV, Figueiredo MA: Espécies endêmicas da caatinga. In Vegetação e flora da caatinga. Edited by: Sampaio EVSB, Giulietti AM, Virginio J, Gamarra-Rojas CFL. Recife: Associação Plantas do Nordeste and Centro Nordestino de Informação sobre Plantas; 2002:103-115.Google Scholar
- Vanzolini PE, Ramos-Costa AMM, Vitt LJ: Répteis das Caatingas. Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro; 1980.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Andrade-Lima D: Present-day forest refuges in northeastern Brazil. In Biological diversification in the tropics. Edited by: Prance GT. Columbia University Press, New York; 1982:245-251.Google Scholar
- Prance GT: Vegetation. In Biogeography and Quaternary history in tropical America. Edited by: Whitmore TC, Prance GT. Oxford Science Publications, Oxford, United Kingdom; 1987:28-45.Google Scholar
- Leal IR, Silva JMC, Tabarelli M, Lacher TE: Changing the course of biodiversity conservation in the Caatinga of Northeastern Brazil. Conservation Biology 2005,19(3):701-706. 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00703.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Giulietti AM, Bocage Neta AL, Castro AAJ, Rojas CFLG, Sampaio EVSB, Virgínio J, Queiroz LP, Figueiredo MA, Rodal MJN, Barbosa MRV, Harley RM: Diagnóstico da vegetação nativa do bioma caatinga. In Biodiversidade da Caatinga: áreas e ações prioritárias para a conservação. Edited by: Silva JMC, Tabarelli M, Fonseca MT, Lins LV. Brasilia: MMA. – UFPE – Conservation International – Biodiversitas – Embrapa Semi-árido; 2004:45-90.Google Scholar
- Zanella FCV, Martins CF: Abelhas da Caatinga: biogeografia, ecologia e conservação. In Ecologia e conservação da Caatinga. Edited by: Leal IR, Tabarelli M, Silva JMC. Editora Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil (in Portuguese); 2003:75-134.Google Scholar
- Rosa RS, Menezes NA, Britski HA, Costa WJEM, Groth F: Diversidade, padrões de distribuição e conservação dos peixes da Caatinga. In Ecologia e conservação da Caatinga. Edited by: Leal IR, Tabarelli M, Silva JMC. Editora Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil; 2003:135-180.Google Scholar
- Rodrigues MT: Herpetofauna da Caatinga. In Ecologia e conservação da Caatinga. Edited by: Leal IR, Tabarelli M, Silva JMC. Editora Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil; 2003:181-236.Google Scholar
- Silva JMC, Souza MA, Bieber AGD, Carlos CJ: Aves da Caatinga: status, uso do habitat e sensitividade. In Ecologia e conservação da Caatinga. Edited by: Leal IR, Tabarelli M, Silva JMC. Editora Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil; 2003:237-273.Google Scholar
- Oliveira JA, Gonçalves PR, Bonvicino CR: Mamíferos da Caatinga. In Ecologia e conservação da Caatinga. Edited by: Leal IR, Tabarelli M, Silva JMC. Editora Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil; 2003:275-333.Google Scholar
- Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Conservation International do Brasil, Fundação Biodiversitas, Semi-Árido, Fundação de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco: Avaliação e ações prioritárias para a conservação da biodiversidade a Caatinga. Secretaria de Biodiversidade e Florestas, Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasília; 2002.Google Scholar
- Costa-Neto EM: Faunistc Resources used as medicines by an Afro-brazilian community from Chapada Diamantina National Park, State of Bahia-Brazil. Sitientibus 1996, (15):211-219.Google Scholar
- Costa-Neto EM, Marques JGW: Faunistic resources used as medicines by artisanal fishermen from Siribinha Beach, State of Bahia, Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology 2000,20(1):93-109.Google Scholar
- Alves RRN: Use of marine turtles in zootherapy in Northeast Brazil. Marine Turtle Newsletter 2006, 112: 16-17.Google Scholar
- Alves RRN, Pereira Filho GA, Lima YCC: Snakes used in ethnomedicine in Northeast Brazil. Environment, Development and Sustainability 2007, 9: 455-464. 10.1007/s10668-006-9031-xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alves RRN, Pereira-Filho GA: Commercialization and use of snakes in North and Northeastern Brazil: implications for conservation and management. Biodiversity and Conservation 2007, 16: 969-985. 10.1007/s10531-006-9036-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Almeida CFCBR, Albuquerque UP: Uso e conservação de plantas e animais medicinais no Estado de Pernambuco (Nordeste do Brasil): Um estudo de caso. Interciencia 2002, 27: 276-285.Google Scholar
- Andrade JN, Costa-Neto EM: Primeiro registro da utilização medicinal de recursos pesqueiros na cidade de São Félix, Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 2005,27(2):177-183.Google Scholar
- Costa-Neto EM, Dias CV, Melo MN: O conhecimento ictiológico tradicional dos pescadores da cidade de Barra, região do médio rio São Francisco, estado da Bahia, Brasil. Acta Scientiarum 2002,24(2):561-572.Google Scholar
- Costa-Neto EM, Oliveira MVM: Cockroach is Good for Asthma: Zootherapeutic Practices in Northeastern Brazil. Human Ecology Review 2000,7(2):41-51.Google Scholar
- Costa-Neto EM, Pacheco JM: Utilização medicinal de insetos no povoado de Pedra Branca, Santa Terezinha, Bahia, Brasil. Biotemas 2005,18(1):113-133.Google Scholar
- Costa-Neto EM: Barata é um santo remédio: introdução a zooterapia popular no Estado da Bahia. Feira de Santana: Feira de Santana, Brasil: Editora Universitária da UEFS; 1999.Google Scholar
- Costa-Neto EM: Recursos animais utilizados na medicina tradicional dos índios Pankararés, que habitam no Nordeste do Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Actualidades Biologicas 1999, 21: 69-79.Google Scholar
- Costa-Neto EM: Traditional use and sale of animals as medicines in Feira de Santana city, Bahia, Brazil. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 1999, 7: 6-9.Google Scholar
- Costa-Neto EM: Conhecimento e usos tradicionais de recursos faunísticos por uma comunidade Afro-Brasileira. Resultados preliminares. Interciencia 2000,25(9):423-431.Google Scholar
- Costa-Neto EM: Zootherapy based medicinal traditions in Brazil. Honeybee 2000,11(2):2-4.Google Scholar
- Costa-Neto EM: Introdução a etnoentomologia: considerações metodológicas e estudo de casos. Feira de Santana, Brazil: Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana; 2000.Google Scholar
- Costa-Neto EM: A cultura pesqueira do litoral Norte da Bahia. Salvador/Macéio, Brazil: EDUFBA/EDUFAL; 2001.Google Scholar
- Costa-Neto EM: The use of insects in folk medicine in the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, with notes on insects reported elsewhere in Brazilian folk medicine. Human Ecology 2002,30(2):245-263. 10.1023/A:1015696830997View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Costa-Neto EM: O caranguejo-de-água-doce, Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae), na concepção dos moradores do povoado de Pedra Branca, Bahia, Brasil. Biotemas 2007,20(1):59-68.Google Scholar
- Freire FCJ: Répteis utilizados na medicina popular no Estado de Alagoas. In Thesis of specialization course. Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Departamento de Biologia; 1996.Google Scholar
- Mallmann MLW: A farmacopéia do mar: invertebrados marinhos de interesse médico e a etnomedicina alagoana. In Thesis of specialization course. Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Departamento de Biologia; 1996.Google Scholar
- Marques JGW: Pescando Pescadores: Etnoecologia abrangente no baixo São Francisco Alagoano. São Paulo: NUPAUB/USP; 1995.Google Scholar
- Moura FBP, Marques JGW: Zooterapia popular na Chapada Diamantina: uma Medicina incidental? Ciência & Saúde Coletiva 2008, 13: 2179-2188. 10.1590/S1413-81232008000900023View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Barboza RRD, Souto WMS, Mourão JS: The use of zootherapeutics in folk veterinary medicine in the district of Cubati, Paraíba State, Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2007, 3: 14. 10.1186/1746-4269-3-32View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alves RRN, Lima HN, Tavares MC, Souto WMS, Barboza RRD, Vasconcellos A: Animal-based remedies as complementary medicines in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Brazil. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2008,8(44):1-9.Google Scholar
- Souto FJB, Silva CS, Souza AF: Uma Abordagem Etnoecológica Sobre a Medicina Popular em Andaraí, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil. In Anais do I Simpósio Estadual de Etnobiologia e Etnoecologia. Feira de Santana, Brazil. Edited by Editora da Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana; 2000.Google Scholar
- Alves RRN, Soares TC, Mourão JS: Uso de animais medicinais na comunidade de Bom Sucesso, Soledade, Paraíba. Sitientibus Série Ciências Biológicas 2008,8(2):142-147.Google Scholar
- Catalogue of Life: 2008 Annual Checklist[http://www.catalogueoflife.org/search.php]
- The IUCN 2008nRed List of Threatened Species[http://www.iucnredlist.org/#nogo1]
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) CITES-listed species database[http://www.cites.org/eng/resources/species.html]
- Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA): Lista das Espécies da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçadas de Extinção. Anexo à Instrução Normativa no. 3, de 27 de maio de 2003. Do Ministério do Meio Ambiente 2003.Google Scholar
- Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA): Lista Nacional das espécies de invertebrados aquáticos e peixes sobreexplotadas ou ameaçadas de sobreexplotação. Instrução normativa no. 5, de 21 de maio de 2004. Diário Oficial da União 2004, 102: 136-142.Google Scholar
- Centro Brasileiro de Classificação de Doenças (CBCD): Classificação Estatística Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados à Saúde. Décima Revisão, Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde – OPAS 1993., I: [http://www.datasus.gov.br/cid10/v2008/cid10.htm]Google Scholar
- Sodeinde OA, Soewu DA: Pilot study of the traditional medicine trade in Nigeria. Traffic Bulletin 1999,18(1):35-40.Google Scholar
- El-Kamali HH: Folk medicinal use of some animal products in Central Sudan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2000, 72: 279-282. 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00209-9View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kakati LN, Ao B, Doulo V: Indigenous Knowledge of Zootherapeutic Use of Vertebrate Origin by the Ao Tribe of Nagaland. Human Ecology 2006, 19: 163-167.Google Scholar
- Mahawar MM, Jaroli DP: Animals and their products utilized as medicines by the inhabitants surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park, India. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006,2(46):1-5.Google Scholar
- Mahawar MM, Jaroli DP: Traditional zootherapeutic studies in India: A review. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2008, 4: 17. 10.1186/1746-4269-4-17PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vázquez PE, Méndez RM, Guiascón ÓGR, Piñera EJN: Uso medicinal de la fauna silvestre en los Altos de Chiapas, México. Interciencia 2006,31(7):491-499.Google Scholar
- Alves RRN, Vieira WLS, Santana GG: Reptiles used in traditional folk medicine: conservation implications. Biodiversity and Conservation 2008,17(1):2037-2049. 10.1007/s10531-007-9305-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Anstey S: Wildlife utilization in Liberia. Wildlife survey report. World Wildlife Fund and Liberian Forestry Development, Authority, Gland, Switzerland; 1991.Google Scholar
- Klemens MW, Thorbjarnarson JB: Reptiles as a food resource. Biodiversity and Conservation 1995, 4: 281-298. 10.1007/BF00055974View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bennett EL, Robinson JG: Hunting of Wildlife in Tropical Forests: Implications for Biodiversity and Forest Peoples. World Bank, Washington DC; 2000.Google Scholar
- Begossi A, Hanazaki N, Ramos R: Food chain and the reasons for food taboos in the Amazon and in the Atlantic Forest coast. Ecological Applications 2004,14(5):1334-1343. 10.1890/03-5072View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Begossi A, Braga FMS: Food taboos and folk medicine among fishermen from the Tocantins River. Amazoniana 1992, 12: 101-118.Google Scholar
- Alves RRN, Rosa IML: Use of tucuxi dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis for medicinal and magic religious purposes in North of Brazil. Human Ecology 2008, 37: 443-447. 10.1007/s10745-008-9174-5View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alves RR, Santana GG: Use and commercialization of Podocnemis expansa (Schweiger 1812) (Testudines: Podocnemididae) for medicinal purposes in two communities in North of Brazil. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2008, 4: 3. 10.1186/1746-4269-4-3PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Branch L, Silva MF: Folk medicine in Alter do Chão, Pará, Brasil. Acta Amazônica 1983, 13: 737-797.Google Scholar
- Figueiredo N: Os 'bichos' que curam: os animais e a medicina 'folk' em Belém do Pará. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Göeldi 1994,10(1):75-91.Google Scholar
- Pinto AAC, Maduro CB: Produtos e subprodutos da medicina popular comercializados na cidade de Boa Vista, Roraima. Acta Amazônica 2003,33(2):281-290.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rodrigues E: Plants and animals utilized as medicines in the Jau National Park (JNP), Brazilian Amazon. Phytotherapy Research 2006,20(5):378-391. 10.1002/ptr.1866View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Apaza L, Godoy R, Wilkie D, Byron E, Huanca O, Leonard WL, Peréz E, Reyes-García V, Vádez V: Markets and the use of wild animals for traditional medicine: a case study among the Tsimane' Amerindians of the Bolivian rain Forest. Journal of Ethnobiology 2003, 23: 47-64.Google Scholar
- Alves RRN, Rosa IL: Medicinal animals for the treatment of asthma in Brazil. J Altern Complem Med 2008,14(4):350-351. 10.1089/acm.2008.0032View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Camargo M: Garrafada. Rio de Janeiro: Ministério da Educação e Cultura; 1975.Google Scholar
- Ngokwey N: Home remedies and doctors' remedies in Feira (Brazil). Social Science and Medicine 1995, 40: 1141-1153. 10.1016/0277-9536(94)00241-KView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Agra MF, Freitas PF, Barbosa Filho JM: Synopsis of the plants known as medicinal and poisonous in Northeast of Brazil. Rev Bras Farmacog 2007, 17: 116-155.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Agra MF, Baracho GS, Nurit K, Basílio IJLD, Coelho VPM: Medicinal and poisonous diversity of the flora of "Cariri Paraibano", Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2007,111(2):383-395. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.12.007View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alves RRN, Silva CC, Alves HN: Aspectos sócio-econômicos do comércio de plantas e animais medicinais em área metropolitanas do Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Revista de Biologia e Ciências da Terra 2008, 8: 181-189.Google Scholar
- Haines A: Health care in Brazil. British Medical Journal 1993, 306: 503-506.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barros E, Porto S:Health Care in Brazil: Equity as Challenge. 2002. (13 September 2008) [http://www.gdnet.org/pdf2/gdn_library/global_research_projects/MERCK_health/Brazil_study.pdf]Google Scholar
- Alves RRN: Animal-Based Remedies as Complementary Medicine in Brazil. Research in Complementary Medicine 2008, 4-4.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.