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Table 2 The 78 plant specimens used by five Diadema's migrants (MG1, SP1, PE1, PE2, SE1)*.

From: Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil

Popular(s) name(s)
(migrant)dynamic of use
Specimen (family)
Origin - geographical distribution - cultivated (C) or spontaneous (S) Use (part) Formula and route of administration Pharmacological studies
(SE1, PE1Δ)
Allamanda cathartica L. (Apocynaceae)
Garcia 076
Native - Brazilian territory (C) Toxic (whole plant) Any oral dose is dangerous Healing activity [65]
2-Alecrim (MG1) Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae)
Garcia 060
Exotic - all countries with temperate climate (C) Muscle pain* (leaves) Decoction - massage Antibacterial effects [66], antimicrobial effect [67], anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects [68], cause reduction of reproductive fertility in male rats [69], antinociceptive effect [70], mosquito repellent activity [71], antidiabetic and antioxidant properties [72]
Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae)
Garcia 021
Native - central Brazil (S) Soothing (aerial parts) Smoking - inhalation Bactericidal activity [73], cytotoxic [74], antiulcerogenic [75], antimicrobial and antifungal [76]and anti-inflammatory [77]
Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae)
Garcia 033
Native - northeast to south Brazil (C) Soothing (aerial parts) Infusion - inhalation Mosquito repellent activity [78]
    Bronchitis (leaves) Syrup - ingestion  
Gossypium sp. (Malvaceae)
Garcia 066
No data (C) Anti-inflammatory (leaves) Infusion - inhalation Not consulted
(MG1, PE2)
Asclepias curassavica L. (Apocynaceae)
Garcia 037
Exotic - Brazilian territory (S) Toxic* (whole plant) Any oral dose is dangerous Cancer and warts treatment [79]and poisoning [80]
7-Almeirão-boca-de-leão (SE1)Δ Hypochoeris sp. (Asteraceae)
Garcia 009
No data (S) Liver pain (leaves) In natura - ingestion Not consulted
8-Amendoim-bravo, burra-leiteira (MG1, SP1, SE1, PE1, PE2) Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae)
Garcia 047
Native - Americas (S) Toxic* (whole plant) Any oral dose is dangerous Cytotoxic properties [81]
9-Anador (SE1) Alternanthera sp. (Amaranthaceae)
Garcia 039
No data (C) Soothing, headache, pain in the body (leaves) Infusion - ingestion Not consulted
10-Arnica (PE1) Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. (Asteraceae)
Garcia 075
Native - Brazilian territory (S) Muscle pain* (aerial parts) Decoction - massage Anti-inflammatory [82]
11-Aroeira (MG1) Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae)
Garcia 035
Native - northeast to south Brazil (S) Diuretic (leaves) Infusion - ingestion Antifungal activity [83]and antibacterial [84]
12-Arruda (MG1, PE1, PE2) Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)
Garcia 028
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Earache and conjunctivitis/styl* (leaves) In natura - topic Antifertility [85], fungicide [86], cytotoxic [87], abortive [88], anti-tumour [89], anti-inflammatory [90], antiarrhythmic [91]and antimicrobial [92]
    Muscle pain (leaves) Decoction - massage  
13- Assa-peixe (MG1, SE1) Vernonia sp. (Asteraceae)
Garcia 048
No data (S) Bronchitis (leaves) Infusion - ingestion Not consulted
    Expectorant (leaves) Infusion - inhalation  
    Healing wounds (leaves) infusion - plaster  
14-Avelóz (PE1, PE2) Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae)
Garcia 046
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Toxic* (whole plant) Restricted use (reports of blindness) Anti-tumour activity [93], cause eye injury [94]and effect against arthritis diseases [95]
    Breast cancer* (latex) Macerate - ingestion  
15-Azaléia (PE1)Δ Rhododendron simsii Planch. (Ericaceae)
Garcia 043
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Toxic (whole plant) Any oral dose is dangerous Antioxidative [96]
16-Bálsamo (MG1, SP1, PE1, SE1) Sedum sp. (Crassulaceae)
Garcia 038
No data (C) Earache (leaves) In natura - topic Not consulted
    Laxative (aerial parts) In natura - ingestion  
17-Boldo-do-Chile, figatil (PE1, SE1Δ) Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae)
Garcia 001
Exotic - northeast to southeast Brazil (C) Liver pain* (leaves) Infusion - ingestion Anti-ulcerogenic [97]and analgesic and anti-inflammatory [98]
18-Brinco-de-princesa (SE1)Δ Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L. Burtt & R.M. Sm. (Zingiberaceae)
Garcia 018
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Sedative (flowers) Infusion - ingestion Antihypertensive effects [99], antinociceptive [100], anti-amoebic activity [101]and hepatoprotector [102]
19-Café (MG1) Coffea arabica L. (Rubiaceae)
Garcia 030
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Diabetes (ripe fruits) Infusion Antioxidant [103]
    Sinusitis (powder fruit) Infusion  
20-Cana-do-brejo (SP1, PE2) Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Roscoe (Costaceae)
Garcia 019
Native - northeast and southeast Brazil (S) Laxative and rheumatism (leaves) Infusion or decoction - ingestion Antiurolithiatic [104]
21-Cânfora (MG1, PE1, SE1) Artemisia canphorata Vill. (Asteraceae)
Garcia 045
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Muscle pain (whole plant) Decoction - massage No data found
22-Capim-limão (MG1, SE1,
Cymbopogon citratus DC. - Stapf. (Poaceae)
Garcia 026
Exotic - tropical countries (C) Bronchitis* (leaves) Syrup - ingestion Anxiolytic [105], larvicidal activity [106], antibacterial [107], antimalarial activity [108], insect repellent [109], hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects [110]and antimicrobial activity [92]
    Sedative* (leaves) Infusion - ingestion  
23-Capuchinha (SP1, MG1)Δ Tropaeolum majus L. (Tropaeolaceae)
Garcia 057
Exotic - south and southeast Brazil (C) Ulcer and laxative (aerial parts) Infusion or in natura - ingestion Antitumor activity [111]
24-Carqueja (MG1) Baccharis trimera (Less) DC (Asteraceae)
Garcia 027
Native - south and southeast Brazil (C) Diabetes* (whole plant) Macerate - ingestion Antihepatotoxic properties [112], anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity [113], relaxant effect [114], anti-proteolytic and anti-hemorrhagic properties [115], antioxidant compounds [116], antidiabetic activity [117]and for losing weight [118]
25-Carrapicho (SE1#, MG1) Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze (Asteraceae)
Garcia 052
Native - Brazilian territory (S) Wounds in the body (roots) Medicinal wine - ingestion Antimalarial activity [119]and antifungal activity [120]
26-Cavalinha (MG1) Equisetum arvensis L. (Equisetaceae)
Garcia 051
Exotic (C) Diuretic (leaves) Infusion - ingestion No data found
27-Cipó-cruz (SE1, PE2)Δ Serjania sp. (Sapindaceae)
Garcia 012
No data (S) Reduces cholesterol and diarrhea (leaves) Macerate - ingestion Not consulted
    External allergies, wounds in the body and detoxifying (leaves) Infusion - bath  
28-Comigo-ninguém-pode (PE1) Dieffenbachia sp. (Araceae)
Garcia 071
No data (C) Toxic (whole plant) Any oral dose is dangerous Not consulted
29-Dormideira (SE1) Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae s.l.)
Garcia 069
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Healing wounds (aerial parts) In natura - plaster Antidepressant activity [121], antitoxin of the snake Naja kaouthia[122], anticonvulsant [123]and for reproductive problems [124]
30-Embaúba (MG1, SE1) Cecropia pachystachya Tréc. (Cecropiaceae)
Garcia 068
Native - south to northeast Brazil (S) Bronchitis* (powder fruit) Syrup - ingestion Antioxidative activity [125], cardiotonic and sedative effects [126]and anti-inflammatory [127]
    Toxic (sap) Any oral dose is dangerous  
31-Erva-cidreira (MG1, SE1, PE2) Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Br. (Verbenaceae)
Garcia 005
Native - almost all Brazilian territory (S) Expectorant* (aerial parts) Infusion - inhalation Treatment of respiratory diseases [128], antiulcerogenic activity [129], sedative and anticonvulsant effects [130], antiviral and antiherpes [131]
    Sedative* (aerial parts) Infusion or decoction - ingestion  
32-Erva-de-bicho (SE1) Ludwigia sp. (Onagraceae)
Garcia 078
No data (S) Hemorrhoid (whole plant) Decoction - bath Not consulted
33-Erva-doce, funcho (MG1, SP1, PE1, PE2) Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae)
Garcia 064
Exotic -Brazilian territory (C) Sedative (whole plant) Infusion - ingestion Antimicrobial activity [132], anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities [133], acaricidal activity [134], antifungal effect [135], antithrombotic activity [136]and larvicidal activity of the mosquito Aedes aegypti[137]
    Bronchitis* (whole plant) Infusion - inhalation  
    Laxative (whole plant) Infusion or macerate - ingestion  
34-Eucalipto, vick (MG1, PE1Δ, PE2Δ, SE1) Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Myrtaceae)
Garcia 055
Exotic (C) Sinusitis* (leaves) Infusion - inhalation Antihyperglycemic actions [138], analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects [139], antimicrobial activity [140]and antibacterial effects [141]
35-Fedegoso (MG1) Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae s.l.)
Garcia 034
Native - Brazilian territory (S) Osteoporosis
prevention (roots)
Medicinal wine - ingestion No data found
36-Feijão-guandu (SP1) Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. (Fabaceae s.l.)
Garcia 003
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Bronchitis (leaves) Infusion - ingestion or inhalation Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis [142], antileishmanial and antifungal activity [143]and hypocholesterolemic effect [144]
37-Folha-santa, folha-da-fortuna (MG1, SP1, PE1) Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken (Crassulaceae)
Garcia 040
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Lumbar pain* (leaves) In natura - plaster Antibacterial activity [145], anti-ulcer [146], antimicrobial [147], antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic [148]and neurosedative and muscle relaxant activities [149]
    Sedative* (leaves) In natura - plaster  
38-Gervão (MG1) Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl (Verbenaceae)
Garcia 054
Native - Brazilian territory (S) Laxative (aerial parts) Infusion or decoction - ingestion Anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic properties [150]and hypoglycaemic constituents [151]
39-Goiaba (SE1) Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae)
Garcia 058
Native - Mexico to Brazil (S) Heartburn (leaves) Infusion or in natura - ingestion Antibacterial activity [152154]and hepatoprotective activity [155]
    Diarrhea (fruit) In natura - ingestion  
40-Guaco (PE1, PE2, SE1Δ) Mikania glomerata Spreng. (Asteraceae)
Garcia 032
Native - northeast to southeast Brazil (S) Bronchitis* (leaves) Syrup - ingestion Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities [156], bronchodilator activity [157]and antiophidian properties [158]
41-Guanxuma (SE1)Δ Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae)
Garcia 067
Exotic - Brazilian territory (S) Sedative (aerial parts) Infusion - ingestion or inhalation Cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity [159]and antioxidant [160]
42-Guiné (SE1)Δ Petiveria alliaceae L. (Phytolaccaceae)
Garcia 004
Native - north Brazil (S) Sedative (aerial parts) Environment purifier - inhalation Antimicrobial substance [161], antimitotic action [162], anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects [163], antibacterial and antifungal activity [164]and antioxidant [165]
    Muscle pain* (leaves) Decoction - massage  
43-Hortelã (MG1, PE1) Mentha arvensis L. (Lamiaceae)
Garcia 031
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Bronchitis* (leaves) Syrup - ingestion Antifungal property [166], vasodilatory actions [167], antioxidative activity [168], antibacterial properties [107]and insect repellents and fumigants [109]
    Laxative (leaves) Infusion - ingestion  
44-Hortelã-grande (PE1) Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae)
Garcia 073
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) For digestion and urine with blood (leaves) Infusion - ingestion Scorpion venon antidote [169]and antimicrobial activity [92]
    Cough (leaves) Syrup - ingestion  
45-Impatiens (PE1)Δ Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull. (Balsaminaceae)
Garcia 044
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Toxic (whole plant) In closed environment causes tearing, allergy and headache No data found
46-Jarnaúba (PE1)Δ Synadenium grantii Hook. F. (Euphorbiaceae)
Garcia 074
Exotic - southeast to northeast Brazil (C) Toxic (whole plant) Restricted use Healing action and anti-hemorrhagic [170]
    Stomach cancer (latex) Macerate - ingestion  
47-Jurubeba (MG1, SE1, PE2) Solanum variabile Mart. (Solanaceae)
Garcia 056
Native - southeast and south Brazil (S) Sedative (leaves) Infusion - ingestion Antiulcerogenic activity [171]
    Laxative (powder fruit) In natura - ingestion  
48-Limão (MG1) Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae)
Garcia 063
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Fever (leaves) Infusion - ingestion Mosquito repellent activity [172]
49-Losna (SP1, SE1, PE2) Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae)
Garcia 049
Exotic - Brazilian territory (S) Laxative (aerial parts) Infusion - ingestion Acaricidal properties [173], antifungal and antibacterial [174]and antioxidant activities [175]
50-Malva-branca (SE1) Waltheria indica L. (Sterculiaceae)
Garcia 077
Native - Brazilian territory (S) Gingivitis* (leaves) Infusion - gargling Anti-inflammatory activities [176]
    Inflammation in the mouth and/or throat* (leaves)   
51-Malva-de-cheiro (MG1) Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae)
Garcia 059
Exotic - south and southeast Brazil (S) Wounds in the body (roots) Medicinal wine - ingestion Skin anti-aging property [177]
52-Mamão-papaia (PE1) Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae)
Garcia 062
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Bronchitis* (powder fruit) Syrup - ingestion Abortive [178], antibacterial activity [179], diuretic [180]and healing and abortive effects [181]
53-Mandioca (SE1) Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae)
Garcia 050
Native - Brazilian territory (C) conjunctivitis/sty* (dew on the leaves) In natura - topic Analgesics and anti-inflammatory effects [182]
54-Manjericão (MG1) Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae)
Garcia 061
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Bronchitis* (leaves) Syrup - ingestion Antibacterial [183], mosquito repellent activity [184], antimicrobial activity [185], antigiardial activity [186]and decreases cholesterol [187]
55-Maravilha (SP1, PE2) Mirabilis jalapa L. (Nyctaginaceae)
Garcia 065
Native - Brazilian territory (C) Healing wounds* (aerial parts) Infusion - plaster Antibacterial effect [188]and antimicrobial [189]
56-Maria-pretinha (MG1) Solanum americanum L. (Solanaceae)
Garcia 070
Native - Americas (S) Sore throat* (aerial parts) Infusion - gargle Treatment of protozoal infections ( American trypanosomes ) [190]and moderate antioxidant activity [191]
57-Mentrasto (PE1) Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae)
Garcia 010
Native - southeast to northeast Brazil
Bronchitis* (leaves) Infusion - ingestion Anti-inflammatory [192], toxic [193], antibacterial [194]and insecticidal activity [195]
    Rheumatism* (whole plant) Infusion - bath  
58-Mentruz, erva-de-santa-maria (PE1#, SE1) Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae)
Garcia 006
Native - south and southeast Brazil (S) Muscle pain (aerial parts) Decoction - massage Insecticidal properties [196], antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity [197]and mosquito repellent activity [71]
    Lesions in bone (aerial parts) In natura - plaster  
    Worm* (aerial parts) Infusion - ingestion  
    Bronchitis (aerial parts) Syrup - ingestion  
59-Milho (SE1) Zea mays L. (Poaceae)
Garcia 023
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Bronchitis (flowers) Syrup - ingestion No data found
    Blood purifier and diuretic (flowers) Infusion - ingestion  
60-Novalgina (MG1, SE1) Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae)
Garcia 015
Exotic - south and southeast Brazil (C) Sedative (leaves) In natura - ingestion Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity [198]
61-Pariparoba (MG1) Piper umbellatum L. (Piperaceae)
Garcia 072
Native - Tropical America (S) Belly ache and liver pain (leaves) Infusion - ingestion Antioxidant [199]and antifungal activity [200]
62-Picão (MG1) Calea sp. (Asteraceae)
Garcia 036
No data (S) Diuretic (leaves) Infusion - ingestion Not consulted
63-Picão-preto (MG1, PE1), Picão-branco (SP1) Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae)
Garcia 020
Native - tropical America (S) Blood purifier (whole plant) Infusion - ingestion Hypotensive effects [201], anti-inflammatory activity [202], anticancer and antipyretic activity [203], antimicrobial [204]and antitumor potential [205]
    Healing wounds* (whole plant) In natura - plaster  
    Wounds in the body* (roots) Medicinal wine - ingestion  
64-Pinhão-roxo (SP1) Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae)
Garcia 017
Native - southeast to northeast Brazil (S) Laxative (powder fruit) In natura - ingestion Antimalarial effects [206], hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects [207]
65-Poejo (MG1, PE2) Mentha pulegium L. (Lamiaceae)
Garcia 029
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Bronchitis (leaves) Syrup - ingestion Larvicidal activity [208], acaricidal effects [209]and insecticidal properties [210]
66-Pucunã (SE1) Fevillea passiflora Vell. (Cucurbitaceae)
Garcia 022
Native - North and southeast Brazil (S) Toxic - abortive (seeds) In natura - ingestion No data found
67-Quebra-pedra (SP1, PE1, PE2, SE1) Phyllanthus caroliniensis Walter (Euphorbiaceae)
Garcia 024
Native - USA to Brazil (S) Kidney stone* (aerial parts) Infusion or decoction - ingestion Antinociceptive action [211]
68-Quitoco (SE1) Pluchea sagittalis (Lam.) Cabrera (Asteraceae)
Garcia 042
Native - south and southeast Brazil (S) Diuretic (aerial parts) Infusion - ingestion Anti-inflammatory activity [212]
69-Rubim (MG1, SP1) Leonurus sibiricus L. (Lamiaceae)
Garcia 002
Exotic - Brazilian territory (C) Healing wounds* (aerial parts) In natura - plaster Stimulating action on the uterus [213], analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity [214]and antibacterial activity [215]
70-Sabugueiro (MG1) Sambucus canadensis L. (Caprifoliaceae)
Garcia 025
Native - Brazilian territory (S) Bronchitis* (flowers) Syrup - ingestion Infectious diseases and antioxidant activity [216]
71-Salsa-parreira (SE1) Jacaranda sp.
Garcia 011
No data (S) External allergies, wounds in the body and purifier (leaves) Decoction - bath Not consulted
72-Samba-caitá (SE1) Hyptis sp. (Lamiaceae)
Garcia 041
No data (S) Belly ache (leaves) In natura - ingestion Not consulted
73-Serralha (PE1) Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae)
Garcia 016
Exotic - Brazilian territory (S) Diabetes (leaves) In natura - ingestion Larvicidal potential [217]
74-Sete-sangria (MG1, SP1, SE1Δ) Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J. F. Macbr. (Lythraceae)
Garcia 007
Native - Brazilian territory (S) Intestinal infections and heart problems* (aerial parts) Infusion - ingestion Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive activities [218], vasorelaxant properties [219], treat high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides [220]
75-Sofre-do-rim-quem-qué (MG1)# Cissus sp. (Vitaceae)
Garcia 053
No data (S) Kidney stone (leaves) Infusion - ingestion Not consulted
76-Tanchagem (SP1, PE2) Plantago sp. (Plantaginaceae)
Garcia 008
No data (S) Anti-inflammatory - mouth and throat (leaves) Decoction - gargling Not consulted
77-Vassourinha (SE1, PE2) Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae)
Garcia 014
Native - Brazilian territory (S) Hip pain/kidneys (leaves) Decoction - bath Antitumor-promoting activity [221], antioxidant [222], antimicrobial and antifungal activities [223]
78-Velando (SE1) Croton fuscescens Spreng (Euphorbiaceae)
Garcia 013
Native - Brazilian territory (S) Inhibits the growth of skin stains/wounds in the body (resin) In natura - topic No data found
  1. * their popular and scientific names, geographical origin and distribution, if cultivated or spontaneous, uses, parts utilized, formula, route of administration and pharmacological studies. Marked by () the 68 plants whose use had been maintained by the respective migrant, while 14, marked by (Δ) are those whose applications have been incorporated by migrants, finally, 3 (#) are replacements. The matches between the uses proclaimed by the interviewees and pharmacological data have been posted by (*).