Open Access

Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Maonan people in China

  • Liya Hong1,
  • Zhiyong Guo1,
  • Kunhui Huang1,
  • Shanjun Wei1,
  • Bo Liu1,
  • Shaowu Meng2 and
  • Chunlin Long1, 3Email author
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201511:32

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-015-0019-1

Received: 29 November 2014

Accepted: 11 April 2015

Published: 30 April 2015

Abstract

Background

This paper is based on an ethnobotanical investigation that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local Maonan people to treat human diseases in Maonan concentration regions. The Maonan people have relied on traditional medicine since ancient times, especially medicinal plants. The aim of this study is to document medicinal plants used by the Maonans and to report the status of medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge.

Methods

Ethnobotanical data were collected from June 2012 to September 2014 in Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County, northern Guangxi, southwest China. In total, 118 knowledgeable informants were interviewed. Following statistically sampling method, eighteen villages from 5 townships were selected to conduct field investigations. Information was collected through the approache of participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and participatory rural appraisals.

Results

A total of 368 medicinal plant species were investigated and documented together with their medicinal uses by the Maonans, most of which were obtained from the wild ecosystems. The plants were used to treat 95 human diseases. Grinding was a widely used method to prepare traditional herbal medicines. There were significant relationships between gender and age, and between gender and informants’ knowledge of medicinal plant use. Deforestation for agricultural purposes was identified as the most destructive factor of medicinal plants, followed by drought and over-harvest.

Conclusions

The species diversity of medicinal plants used by the Maonans in the study area was very rich. Medicinal plants played a significant role in healing various human disorders in the Maonan communities. However, the conflicts between traditional inheriting system and recent socio-economic changes (and other factors) resulted in the reduction or loss of both medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. Thus, conservation efforts and policies, and innovation of inheriting system are necessary for protecting the medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. Awareness is also needed to be raised among local Maonans focusing on sustainable utilization and management of both medicinal plants and traditional knowledge.

Keywords

Medicinal plants Traditional knowledge The Maonans Ethnomedicine Huanjiang county

Background

Traditional medicine is used to maintain people’s health, as well as to prevent, diagnose, improve or treat physical and mental illnesses all over the world [1,2]. Medicinal plants are believed to be with healing powers, and people have used them for many centuries. Aimed to modern drug discovery, traditional medicinal plants have been studied and developed which is followed the ethnobotanical lead of indigenous cures used by traditional medical systems [3-5]. Traditional medicinal knowledge, especially using medicinal plants in the developing countries, has been in existence and use, and has been a part of therapeutic practices [6]. Therefore, the investigation of plants and their uses (especially medicinal purposes) is one of the most primary human concerns and has been practiced in the world [7-12].

The traditional use of medicinal plants in China is widely accepted. The population of 55 minorities is 11.2 millions occupying 8% of China’s population, and these minorities distribute in 65% of the country’s territory. Each minority has its own medicinal characteristic, and has various experiences of medicinal knowledge [13]. Traditional medicinal plants play an important role of protecting people’s lives and health in minority regions, especially in remote and poor area [14,15]. Because of unique natural conditions and customs in the ethnic minority areas, long-term practices of using medicinal plants have formed various systems of treating diseases [16-18]. For example, Tibetan medicine is famous for treating digestive disorders, rheumatic diseases and wounds [19,20]. The Mongolians have a long history of horse riding, and their medicine is effective to deal with bone fracture and brain concussion. Yao medicine has special advantages in cancers and skin problems [21].

North Guangxi has been recognized as a rich biodiversity and world-famous karst area. With the elevation between 700–1500 m, it is obviously affected by plateau terrain and subtropical monsoon climate. Thus, the temperature difference of four seasons is small but the vertical climate changes significantly. There are more than 10 ethnic groups living in north Guangxi and formed colorful ethnic characteristic. As one of the indigenous minorities, Maonan is mainly living in Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southwest China. The exceptional altitudinal range, topography and climatic variability in this region have fostered a center of plant species endemism. Here the majority of Maonan people rely on medicinal plants for self-medication. The Maonan medicine has made a great contribution to protect the health of local people. This is due to free access to medicinal herbs, cultural traditions and high cost of hospital treatments in the town nearby. Local people widely utilize endemic species, and they have developed their own traditional medicinal knowledge. Without writing language, Maonan people pass on their indigenous knowledge from generation to generation orally. Nowadays, the Maonan children spend most of their time in schools, where they are taught in Han language. This decreases their chances to learn about the uses of the medicinal plants from the old people. Therefore, important information about medicinal plants is easily lost in the transfer process of indigenous knowledge. With the impact of increasing modern health facilities and modern civilization in Maonan area, indigenous knowledge is depleting rapidly. Although a number of ethnobotanical documentations about several ethnic groups have been published during the past decades in China, few field ethnobotanical studies have been conducted in Maonan society. It is therefore necessary to carry out a survey to document the medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge in Maonan region.

Thus, the purposes of the present work were as follows: (i) to document and analyze the knowledge and use of medicinal plants by Maonan people at the study area; (ii) to circulate the results within the scientific community in order to open a door for research in other disciplines; (iii) to document the medicinal plants that could be valuable in future’s phytochemical and pharmacological discoveries, and (iv) to contribute to the knowledge and conservational possibilities of plant biodiversity, bearing in mind that biological diversity is also related to the use and applications of natural resources.

Materials and methods

Study area and the people

The study area covered 18 villages of Huanjiang County (the only Maonan autonomous County in China) in the northern part of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southwest China (Figure 1). The villages are located in 5 townships, which were selected based on Maonan traditional settlements, namely: Chengnan, Chengbei, Luoyang, Shuiyuan, Shangnan, Youdong, Mulun, Xia’nan, Pochuan, Fengyi, Zhongnan, Tangba, Xiatang, Yuhuan, Caimen, Guzhou, Xiyuan, and Jingyang villages. Huanjiang County is situated in the subtropical zone, located between 24°83′ and 25°06′ east longitude and between 107°92′ and 108°26′ north latitude, with the annual average temperature of 20°C and annual rain fall of 1500 mm. The vegetation of the county belongs to the subtropical evergreen montane forest. It is humid in summer and relatively dry in winter. The most Maonan villages are seated on the small strips of flat land or slopes in the rocky mountainous area at 500–1000 meters above sea level. The sinkholes and underground caverns in the area have well developed because of karst landform. Despite abundant rainfall, there are no big rivers but only a small number of streams. Water shortage has been a major obstacle to economic and social development in the Maonan areas.
Figure 1

Sketch map of the study area.

The Maonan minority, with a total population of about 107,200, is one of the 55 officially recognized ethnic groups in China. With no written language [22], the Maonans’ stories and traditions are remembered and passed down orally from generation to generation, but these are becoming less and less. The Maonan language belongs to the Dong-Shui branch of the Zhuang-Dong language group in the Chinese-Tibetan language family. The Maonan language is widely spoken in Maonan communities. Almost all of the Maonans know both Han and Zhuang languages, because they need to communicate with the Zhuang and Han people, the majorities in Guangxi. About 60% of the Maonan people live in Huanjiang County, which is the only Maonan autonomous county in China. The Maonans are polytheistic, and they pay homage to dozens of deities or immortals on various occasions. These icons include figures from myths, legends, celebrities of historical events, divinities from Taoism or Buddhism, ancestors of the family and so on [22]. Due to remote mountainous regions and poor economic environment, traditional remedies of medicinal plants are the most important and sometimes the only source of therapeutics in the Maonan villages. The long utilization history and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants had supported their livelihoods. The Maonan healers and farmers have developed their own ethnomedicinal knowledge.

Field works and ethnobotanical data collection

A total of 118 (106 males and 12 females) informants were interviewed in the study area, in which 80 were selected using snowball technique and 38 key informants were selected purposively and systematically based on the recommendations of knowledgeable elders, local authorities and development agents. All of the informants were local inhabitants aged between 21 and 85 years. Local Maonan healers were surely identified as key informants, because they were important custodians and participants of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants. Interestingly, all these traditional healers were males. A few women were also interviewed to examine their medicinal knowledge and opinions.

Ethnobotanical investigations were carried out to collect data on medicinal plants used to treat human ailments following standard methods in Maonan area. The methodological approaches were semi-structured interviews, field observations, group discussions and guided field walks. The data were collected from June 2012 to September 2014. Interviews and discussions were undertaken based on a checklist of questions prepared in Chinese and translated into Maonan language. Information was carefully recorded during interviews with each informant. Field observations were performed with traditional healers guided on the morphological features and habitats of each medicinal plant species. Voucher specimens of cited medicinal plants were collected and their local identity was re-confirmed by other informants. The information obtained was cross-checked with the other informants. The information such as the local name, habit, wild/cultivated, availability of medicinal plants, need of conservation and efforts made by inhabitants, and traditional medicinal uses of plants were recorded. Group discussions were conducted on multipurpose, conservation, threats of the medicinal plants, and transferability of knowledge with the healers and local people in the villages. Also, the key informants were selected for preference ranking exercise.

Specimen collection and identification

The listed medicinal plants were collected from field and gardens, and the habits of these plants were recorded. The voucher specimens were made and deposited in the Herbarium, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing, China, for future references. The botanical identities of collected specimens were confirmed by the authors and other taxonomists at Minzu University of China. Plant names were checked with Flora of China and botanical websites (e.g. http://www.tropicos.org/).

Data analysis

The data were summarized using Microsoft Office Excel sheet. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze and summarize the ethnobotanical data such as frequency and percentage.

Preference ranking exercise [23,24] was conducted by 8 key informants on 7 medicinal plants used to treat traumatic injury in the study area. The highest number of medicinal plants was prescribed by informants to fight traumatic injury. The plants in this exercise were short-listed by the key informants, and then their importance to manage traumatic injury was discussed. The plants were given to the informants and were ranked based on their efficacy. Medicinal plant that was believed to be the most effective was given the highest value 7, and the one with the least effectiveness a value of 1. Rank was determined based on the total score of each species. A total rank of preference exercise was obtained by summing the number of informant given.

The reported ailments were grouped into 21 categories based on the information gathered from the interviewees. Factor of informant consensus (FIC) was calculated for each category to test the agreements of the informants on the reported cures for the group of diseases. The FIC was calculated as follows: number of use citations in each category (Nur) minus the number of species used (Nt), and divided by the numbers of use citations in each category minus one [25,26]. The formula was listed as below:
$$ {\mathrm{F}}_{\mathrm{IC}}=\left({\mathrm{N}}_{\mathrm{ur}}\hbox{-} {\mathrm{N}}_{\mathrm{t}}\right)/\left(\ {\mathrm{N}}_{\mathrm{ur}}\hbox{-} 1\right) $$

Results

Medicinal plants reported

The study recorded 368 medicinal plant species (see Table 1). Ethnomedicinal information for each species, including scientific name, Chinese name, local name, family name, life form, habitat, plant parts used, preparation and uses, was listed in Table 1. The species belonged to 295 genera and 115 families were used by Maonan people to treat various human ailments. Among the families that contributed more medicinal species were Asteraceae, represented by 24 species (6.52%), Fabaceae with 19 (5.16%) species, and Rosaceae with 16 (4.35%), while other 292 families contributed 309 (83.97%) species were mostly represented by 1 or 2 species (Table 2).
Table 1

Inventory of Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used by Maonan People

No.

Scientific name

Chinese name

Maonan name

Family

Life form

Habit

Parts used

Preparation and uses

1

Abelmoschus sagittifolius (Kurz) Merr.

Jianyeqiukui箭叶秋葵

--

Malvaceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for furuncle

2

Abrus cantoniensis Hance

Guangdong xiangsizi广州相思子

rouŋ2ra2təp7

Fabaceae

Shrub

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for acute and chronic hepatitis, stomachache, rheumatism, ostealgia, traumatic injury, liver cirrhosis and common cold

3

Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet

Mopancao磨盘草

ruoŋ2ŋaŋ³luiŋ5

Malvaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Boiled with meat; Taken orally soup, treating for fever due to common cold, bronchitis, epidemic parotitis and tuberculosis

4

Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W. Smith.

Wujia五加

mba³tshi2an2lau4

Araliaceae

Shrub

Both

Root, Bark

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatic arthritis, traumatic injury, carminative, bone fracture and pain of limbs

5

Acanthopanax trifoliatus (L.) Merr.

Baile白簕

mba³tshi6man2ndi5

Araliaceae

Shrub

Both

Stem, Root

Medicinal liquor for treating rheumatic arthritis, traumatic injury, waist and legs pain, ostealgia and sciatica; Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for eczema, ulcer and furuncle

6

Achillea wilsoniana Heimerl ex Hand. -Mazz.

Yunnanshi云南蓍

--

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for ulcer

7

Achyranthes bidentata Blume

Niuxi牛膝

ma6wei5gou2ɣou¹

Amaranthaceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Grinding and drink with wine for traumatic injury, removing blood stasis

8

Aconitum carmichaeli Debx.

Wutou乌头

taŋ5gou²ʔno²

Ranunculaceae

Herb

Both

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for scrofula, perineum ache

9

Acorus calamus L.

Shuichangpu水菖蒲

baːŋ5sjɛm2rəm³

Acoraceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Powder; Taken orally for diarrhea

10

Acorus tatarinowii Schott

Shichangpu石菖蒲

ruoŋ2jɛŋ³vu2

Acoraceae

Herb

Wild

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for epilepsy and convulsion

11

Adenophora tetraphylla (Thunb.) Fisch.

Lunyeshashen轮叶沙参

mua²ʨiɔ³gʔai²

Campanulaceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for complications after measles

12

Adiantum capillus-junonis Rupr.

tuanyutiexianjue团羽铁线蕨

ya2bou³

Adiantaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant, Rhizome

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for piles

13

Aeginetia indica L.

Yegu野菰

--

Orobanchaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for swelling, clearing away heat and toxic materials

14

Ageratum conyzoides L.

Huoxiangji藿香蓟

--

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for fever due to common cold, empyrosis and abscess

15

Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.

Longyacao龙芽草

ruoŋ2hiu¹cia³

Rosaceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Boiled with meat or wine and drunk the soup, treating for piles, enteritis, diarrhea, hemafecia, hematuria

16

Ainsliaea bonatii Beauverd

Xinyetu'erfeng心叶兔儿风

ma6ka6ʑai2

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for cough, asthma with throat itching

17

Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Decne.

Mutong木通

--

Lardizabalaceae

Liana

Wild

Stem, Root, Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatism, diuresis, promoting lactation

18

Alangium chinense (Lour.) Harms

Bajiaofeng八角枫

mei4da2

Alangiaceae

Tree

Both

Fibrous root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatic arthritis, lumbar muscle degeneration, asthma and bleeding

19

Allium fistulosum L.

Cong葱

soŋ³xien³nien2

Liliaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for common cold, pains, rheumatic headache, numbness of limbs and replenishing the liver

20

Allium sativum L.

Suan蒜

kɔŋ¹do2

Liliaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Bulb

Grinding, dispersed in water and drunk for pertussis cough, enteritis, tuberculosis, poor appetite, indigestion, diarrhea

21

Allium tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng.

Jiu韭

mba³kən5

Liliaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for toothache, piles, traumatic injury and insect bite

22

Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G. Don

Reyahaiyu热亚海芋

--

Araceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for snake bite and innominate inflanunatory of unknown origin

23

Alpinia katsumadai Hayata

Caodoukou草豆蔻

--

Zingiberaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for indigestion

24

Alpinia oxyphylla Miq.

Yizhi益智

--

Zingiberaceae

Herb

Wild

Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for warming the spleen, kidney deficiency, diarrhea and spermatorrhea

25

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC.

Lianzicao莲子草

--

Amaranthaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for reducing fever and causing diuresis

26

Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemarie

Caoguo草果

--

Zingiberaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for eliminating phlegm, indigestion, diarrhea and malaria

27

Amomum villosum Lour.

Sharen砂仁

--

Zingiberaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for indigestion

28

Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees

Chuanxinlian穿心莲

--

Acanthaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for clearing away heat and toxic materials

29

Androsace umbellata (Lour.) Merr.

Diandimei点地梅

--

Primulaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for inflammation and traumatic injury

30

Anemone hupehensis Lem.

Dapowanhuahua打破碗花花

ma2miŋ55

Ranunculaceae

Herb

Wild

Root, Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for biliary tract ascariasis

31

Aralia chinensis L.

Songmu楤木

--

Araliaceae

Tree

Wild

Seed

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for snake bite

32

Aralia undulata Hand.-Mazz.

Boyuansongmu波缘楤木

mei5ȵun4

Araliaceae

Shrub

Wild

Root

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for cough

33

Arctium lappa L.

Niubang牛蒡

maː6kaː6wei5

Asteraceae

Herb

Homegarden

Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for infantile fever and cough

34

Ardisia gigantifolia Stapf

Zoumatai走马胎

ruoŋ2loŋ2mia4

Myrsinaceae

Shrub

Wild

Rhizome, Whole plant

Medicinal liquor for treating rheumatism, rheumatic arthritis, waist and legs pain, paralysis, hemiplegia and traumatic injury

35

Ardisia japonica (Thunb.) Blume

Zijinniu紫金牛

wa5ʨiɛm²wei³

Myrsinaceae

Shrub

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for jaundiced hepatitis, cough, traumatic injury and preventing phlegm

36

Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott

Yibasannanxing一把伞南星

ma¹gəp8tai5

Araceae

Herb

Wild

Tuber

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for snake bite

37

Arisaema heterophyllum Blume

Tiannanxing天南星

jɛk7khω6dɔŋ2

Araceae

Herb

Wild

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for traumatic injury, cough, hypertension, acute inflammation and abdomen pain

38

Arisaema rhizomatum C. E. C. Fischer

Xuelijian雪里见

kɣou²ŋau4

Araceae

Herb

Wild

Tuber

Medicinal liquor for treating scrofula and perineum ache

39

Aristolochia fangchi Y. C. Wu ex L. D. Chow et S. M. Hwang

Guangfangji广防己

ruoŋ2dak8loŋ²

Aristolochiaceae

Liana

Wild

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for acute nephritis, urinary tract infection, hypertension, rheumatic heart disease, edema

40

Aristolochia kwangsiensis Chun et How ex C. F. Liang

Guangximadouling广西马兜铃

--

Aristolochiaceae

Liana

Wild

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for snake bite, stomachache, diarrhea, strep throat, epidemic parotitis, lymphnoditis

41

Aristolochia versicolor S. M. Hwang

Biansemadouling变色马兜铃

--

Aristolochiaceae

Liana

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for snake bite

42

Armeniaca vulgaris Lam.

Xing杏

dəŋ¹vɔŋ5ʑa2

Rosaceae

Tree

Homegarden

Seed

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for chronic trachitis, cough

43

Artemisia annua L.

Huanghuahao黄花蒿

ruoŋ2nŋai6min³

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for malaria, fever, indigestion, tuberculosis hot flashes and night sweat; washing for scab, pruritus and mosquito bite

44

Artemisia capillaris Thunb.

Yinchenhao茵陈蒿

ma6ʔai³

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for hepatitis and jaundice

45

Artemisia japonica Thunb.

Muhao牡蒿

--

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for clearing away heat and toxic materials, inflammation and blood stasis

46

Asarum longerhizomatosum C. F. Liang et C. S. Yang

Xijingjin'erhuan长茎金耳环

--

Aristolochiaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for headache, toothache, cough, diarrhea, acute enteritis

47

Asarum sieboldii Miq.

Xixin细辛

ruoŋ2ndeŋ5kha³

Aristolochiaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant, Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for cough, relieving pain

48

Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.

Tianmendong天门冬

lak5mən2tuŋ¹

Asparagaceae

Herb

Wild

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for tuberculosis, cough, constipation, diabetes and sore throat after rash

49

Azolla imbricata (Roxb.) Nakai

Manjianghong满江红

--

Azollaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for measles

50

Baphicacanthus cusia (Nees) Bremek.

Banlan板蓝

ruoŋ2wom¹

Acanthaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction drunk for common cold, sore throat, parotitis and epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis

51

Bauhinia brachycarpa Wall.

Anyeyangtijia鞍叶羊蹄甲

yaŋm³gəm³duo5

Fabaceae

Tree

Both

Root, Leaf

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for cough, hemoptysis

52

Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth.

Longxuteng龙须藤

bjeu³in5

Fabaceae

Liana

Both

Stem

Grinding, decoction drunk for rheumatism, traumatic injury, stomachache, waist and legs pain

53

Belamcanda chinensis (L.) Redoute

Shegan射干

mei5van³biɛn²

Iridaceae

Herb

Both

Root

Grinding, decoction drunk for sore throat

54

Berberis julianae Schneid

Haozhuci豪猪刺

taːŋm2mɛn5sem5

Berberidaceae

Shrub

Wild

Root

Grinding, boiled with water and washed the affected area for clearing away heat and toxic materials, inflammation

55

Bidens pilosa L.

Guizhencao鬼针草

wɔk7cut7na5

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for nephritis, jaundice, rheumatism, ostealgia, diarrhea, throat ache, kidney deficiency and waist pain

56

Bischofia javanica Bl.

Qiufeng秋枫

--

Euphorbiaceae

Tree

Both

Stem, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orallyfor removing blood stasis, carminative, improving indigestion

57

Bletilla striata (Thunb. ex A. Murray) Rchb. f.

Baiji白及

kɔŋ¹nat7

Orchidaceae

Herb

Both

Bulb

Powder swallowed for tuberculosis and empyrosis

58

Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC.

Ainaxiang艾纳香

ruoŋ2nŋai6lau4

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for common cold, rheumatic arthritis, traumatic injury, dysmenorrhea and afterpains

59

Boehmeria nivea(L.) Gaudich.

Zhuma苎麻

mba³ŋan³

Urticaceae

Shrub

Wild

Root Bark, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for miscarriage prevention, hematuria, traumatic injury, bone fracture, diuresis, measles, joint sprain

60

Bombax malabaricum DC.

Mumian木棉

wai5mei4

Bombacaceae

Tree

Both

Flower, Root bark, Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally; Flower is treating for enteritis, stomach ulcer; Root bark is treating for rheumatism, traumatic injury; Root is treating for chronic nephritis gastricism, stomach ulcer, tuberculosis of cervical lymph nodes

61

Botrychium ternatum (Thunb.) Sw.

Yindijue阴地蕨

do5gʔom2daːŋ³

Botrychiaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for cough

62

Brucea javanica (L.) Merr.

Yadanzi鸦胆子

--

Simaroubaceae

Shrub

Wild

Seed

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for diarrhea, malaria and chromic diarrhea

63

Bryophyllum pinnatum (L. f.) Oken

Luoyeshenggen落地生根

ruoŋ2ra2pu³

Crassulaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for detumescence by detoxification, promoting blood circulation to arrest pain, draw out pus and toxin

64

Buddleja officinalis Maxim.

Mimenghua密蒙花

wa³kuŋ³ruo²

Loganiaceae

Shrub

Wild

Flower

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for swelling and pain of eye, hyperdacryosis and cloudness of cornea

65

Caesalpinia sappan Linn.

Sumu苏木

mei4sam³mɔk8

Fabaceae

Tree

Wild

Heartwood

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for traumatic injury, rheumatism, ostealgia, bleeding

66

Caesalpinia sepiaria Roxb.

Yunshi云实

ʔŋən5ʔniao2

Fabaceae

Tree

Wild

Root, Seed

Medicinal liquor for treating contraception in the menstrual period

67

Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl

Dayezizhu大叶紫珠

ruoŋ2lak8phau5

Verbenaceae

Shrub

Wild

Root, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for hemafecia and hemoptysis

68

Campanumoea javanica Bl.

Jianqianbao金钱豹

bieu³thωp8jou¹

Campanulaceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Powdered and swallowed for tuberculosis, enteritis, diarrhea, appendicitis, traumatic injury and piles

69

Camptotheca acuminata Decne.

Xishu喜树

--

Nyssaceae

Tree

Both

Fruit, Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for cancer and schistosome

70

Canscora lucidissima (Levl. et Vaniot) Hand.-Mazz

Chuanxincao穿心草

ma6chuan2

Gentianaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for stranguria, snake bite, stomachache, cough and jaundiced hepatitis

71

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

Ji荠

mba³kɔŋ¹pia³

Cruciferae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for catching common cold, fever, nephritis, edema, hypertension, enteritis

72

Cassia tora Linn.

Jueming决明

thou6maŋ³xiзŋ³

Fabaceae

Herb

Both

Seed

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for hyperlipidemia, hepatitis, stomachache, acute conjunctivitis, habitual constipation, dental ulcer

73

Cassytha filiformis L.

Wugenteng无根藤

bieu³chim6cieu¹

Lauraceae

Herb

Wild

Stem

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for vitiligo, jaundice, constipation, waist and knees pain, impotence and spermatorrhea

74

Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep.

Wulianmei乌蔹莓

--

Vitaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant, Root

Medicinal liquor for paralysis

75

Celosia argentea L.

Qingxiang青葙

mba³pωm³pa5

Amaranthaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for trachitis, gastricism

76

Cerastium glomeratum Thuill.

Qiuxujuan'er球序卷耳

maː6ʔan4ʑau2

Caryophyllaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for febrile convulsion

77

Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne

Mugua木瓜

--

Rosaceae

Shrub

Homegarden

Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for smooth the liver and stomach

78

Chirita eburnea Hance

Niu'erduo牛耳朵

ma5ba5

Gesneriaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for bronchitis

79

Chloranthus holostegius (Handel-Mazzetti) Pei & Shan

Quanyuanjinlilan全缘金栗兰

tei³kuai5wa5

Chloranthaceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for weakness

80

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl

Xiangzhang香樟

mei4kau¹

Lauraceae

Tree

Homegarden

Bark

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for acute gastroenteritis, rheumatism, ostealgia, emesis, diarrhea and bone fracture

81

Cinnamomum cassia Presl

Rougui肉桂

--

Lauraceae

Tree

Homegarden

Stem

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for cough, dysmenorrhea and sweating

82

Cinnamomum subavenium Miq.

Xianggui香桂

--

Lauraceae

Tree

Both

Bark

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for antiseptic

83

Cirsium japonicum Fisch. ex DC.

Daji大蓟

mba³tin³tsuok7lau4

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Root, Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for jaundice, scabies, hemafecia, muscle swelling and gastroduodenal ulcer

84

Clematis chinensis Osbeck.

Weilingxian威灵仙

ruoŋ2pek7mi6saŋ³

Ranunculaceae

Liana

Wild

Root, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for tonsillitis, jaundice, migraine and rheumatism

85

Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb.

Choumoli臭茉莉

ruoŋ2phuŋ6hi6

Verbenaceae

Shrub

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for rheumatic arthritis, traumatic injury, rheumatism and detumescence

86

Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz.

Daqing大青

--

Verbenaceae

Shrub

Wild

Leaf

Ground, decoction; Taken orally for fever due to common cold, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, parotitis, enteritis and diarrhea

87

Coix lacryma-jobi L.

Yiyi薏苡

ɣhou6gaŋ54

Gramineae

Herb

Both

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for acute nephritis

88

Colocasia antiquorum Schott

Yeyu野芋

phi²niəŋ6

Araceae

Herb

Wild

Tuber

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for bleeding, furuncle, empyrosis and snake bite

89

Commelina communis L.

Yazhicao鸭趾草

mba³ciap7

Commelinaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for diarrhea, influenza, acute tonsillitis, edema, enteritis, urinary tract infection, empyrosis and bleeding

90

Crataegus pinnatifida

Bunge

Shanzha山楂

dɛŋ¹miɛ5²yə2

Rosaceae

Tree

Homegarden

Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for poor appetite, blood stasis

91

Croton tiglium L.

Badou巴豆

ruoŋ2mei4miət7

Euphorbiaceae

Tree

Homegarden

Root Bark, Leaf

Pound fresh leaf applied on the affected area, treating for bleeding, herpes zoster; Pound root bark applied on the affected area, treating for snake bite

92

Cucumis sativus L.

Huanggua黄瓜

--

Cucurbitaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Fruit

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for bleeding and skin whitening

93

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.

Xianmao仙茅

ruoŋ2saŋ³thɔk8

Amaryllidaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for headache due to common cold, rheumatic arthritis, neurasthenia, chronic nephritis, erectile dysfunction and seminal leakage

94

Curcuma aromatica Salisb.

Yujin郁金

--

Zingiberaceae

Herb

Wild

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for bleeding, jaundice and cooling blood

95

Curcuma longa L.

Jianghuang姜黄

ruoŋ2cɛŋ³woŋ²

Zingiberaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for abnormal menstruation, amenorrhea, flatulence and blood stasis

96

Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe

E'zhu莪术

pi6cɛŋ³nəm³

Zingiberaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatism, ostealgia, traumatic injury, abdomen pain

97

Cuscuta chinensis Lam.

Tusizi菟丝子

--

Convolvulaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for hepatitis

98

Cyclea hypoglauca (Schauer) Diels

Fenyelunhuanteng粉叶轮环藤

--

Menispermaceae

Liana

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for toothache, urinary tract infection, rheumatism, diphtheria, ostealgia; Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for carbuncle, snake bite

99

Cynanchum atratum Bunge

Baiwei白薇

lau2ʨiŋ5xi5

Asclepiadaceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Medicinal liquor for treating rheumatic arthritis

100

Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight

Niupixiao牛皮消

gʔɛ2lin5xiao5

Asclepiadaceae

Shrub

Wild

Root

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for infantile dry-sickness and malnutrition

101

Cynanchum officinale (Hemsl.) Tsiang & H.D.Zhang

Zhushateng朱砂藤

--

Asclepiadaceae

Shrub

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for pain killer and weakness

102

Cynanchum paniculatum (Bunge) Kitag.

Xuchangqing徐长卿

ta6ʔnu2

Asclepiadaceae

Herb

Both

Root, Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for enteritis and diarrhea

103

Cyperus rotundus L.

Xiangfuzi香附子

lak8rut8

Cyperaceae

Herb

Wild

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for clearing and activating the channels and collaterals, common cold, abnormal menstruation

104

Cyrtomium fortunei J. Sm.

Guanzhong贯众

rin³tsiɛk7lau4

Dryopteridaceae

--

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for common cold, parotitis, gastrorrhagia, hematuria, postpartum lochiorrhea and body deficiency disease

105

Datura metel L.

Yangjinhua洋金花

--

Solanaceae

Herb

Wild

Flower

Pound and applied on the affected area for ulcer and pains

106

Datura stramonium L.

Mantuoluo曼陀罗

ruoŋ2chou6dun³

Solanaceae

Herb

Wild

Leaf

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for furuncle and traumatic injury

107

Davallia mariesii T. Moore ex Baker

Gusuibu骨碎补

xiŋ5bɔa5

Davalliaceae

--

Wild

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for bone fracture and fructus psoraleae

108

Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC.

Jiadidou假地豆

thou6ti5pa5

Fabaceae

Shrub

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for preventing mumps, epidemic encephalitis B, kidney and vesical stone

109

Dichondra repens J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.

Matijin马蹄金

ruoŋ²tin³mia4

Convolvulaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for bleeding, urinary stone and jaundiced hepatitis

110

Dicliptera chinensis (L.) Juss.

Gougancai狗肝菜

ruoŋ2təp7ma³

Acanthaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for fever due to common cold, epidemic hepatitis B, rheumatic arthritis, conjunctivitis, diuresis and measles

111

Dimocarpus longan Lour.

Longyan龙眼

ruoŋ2kuei4juon²

Sapindaceae

Tree

Homegarden

Aril

Medicinal liquor for cosmetic, insomnia, forgetfulness, replenishing heart, tonic and blood deficiency

112

Dioscorea bulbifera L.

Huangdu黄独

lak8phuo2

Dioscoreaceae

Liana

Homegarden

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for cough, hemoptysis and epistaxis

113

Dioscorea cirrhosa Lour.

Shuliang薯莨

daŋ5gʔui5pɛ²

Dioscoreaceae

Liana

Homegarden

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for gastroduodenal ulcer

114

Dioscorea opposita Thunb.

Shuyu薯蓣

--

Dioscoreaceae

Liana

Homegarden

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for weakness, cough and frequent urination

115

Diospyros kaki Thunb.

Shi柿

den³mian5

Ebenaceae

Tree

Homegarden

Fruit, Persistent calyx

Pound fresh part mixing the rice wine applied on the affected area, treating for lymphadenectasis

116

Dipsacus asperoides C.Y. Cheng & Ai

Chuanxuduan川续断

noŋ²bu²yɛ5

Dipsacaceae

Herb

Wild

Seed, Root

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for leucorrhoea and bone fracture

117

Disporum cantoniense (Lour.) Merr.

Wanshouzhu万寿竹

ma6mei5vɛn³

Liliaceae

Herb

Wild

Root, Rhizome

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for cough

118

Drynaria propinqua (Wall. ex Mett.) J. Sm.

Shilianjianghujue石莲姜槲蕨

--

Drynariaceae

--

Wild

Rhizome

Medicinal liquor for treating rheumatic arthritis, traumatic injury, bone fracture and blood stasis

119

Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Teschem.

Shemei蛇莓

taːŋm²bei²zeŋ¹

Rosaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for empyrosis, snake bite, furuncle

120

Dysosma versipellis (Hance) M. Cheng ex T.S. Ying

Bajiaolian八角莲

va5piat7lim6

Berberidaceae

Herb

Both

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for mumps, traumatic injury, lymphnoditis, snake bite, breast carcinoma

121

Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.

Lichang鳢肠

wɔk7mək8

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for infantile diarrhea, enteritis, hemafecia, hematuria, hemoptysis and bleeding

122

Elephantopus scaber L.

Didancao地胆草

ruoŋ²təp7do6

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for common cold, acute tonsillitis, acute jaundiced hepatitis, ascites due to cirrhosis, chronic gastricism and furuncle

123

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

Niujincao牛筋草

ruoŋ²su5chin6

Gramineae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for traumatic injury, rheumatism, ostealgia, infantile indigestion

124

Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC.

Yidianhong一点红

mba³kha³tu5

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for inflammation, sore throat, cough, fever due to common cold, urticaria, herpes zoster

125

Epimedium brevicornu Maximowicz Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk.

Yinyanghuo淫羊藿

ma5gan²duo³

Berberidaceae

Herb

Both

Stem, Leaf

Medicinal liquor for treating rheumatism, tonic

126

Epimeredi indica (L.) Rothm.

Guangfangfen广防风

ruoŋ²woŋ²

Lamiaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for common cold, acute gastroenteritis; boiled with water and washed the affected area for snake bite, furuncle, eczema

127

Equisetum arvense L.

Wenjing问荆

gɔŋ²dau5

Equisetaceae

--

Wild

Whole plant

Powder swallowed for headache

128

Equisetum hyemale L.

Bitongcao笔筒草

--

Equisetaceae

--

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for bleeding, diuresis

129

Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.

Pipa枇杷

va³bi²ba5

Rosaceae

Tree

Homegarden

Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for pertussis cough

130

Eucalyptus robusta Sm.

An桉

mei4cau5xui4

Myrtaceae

Tree

Homegarden

Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for influenza, diarrhea

131

Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.

Duzhong杜仲

thu6tsuŋ5

Eucommiaceae

Tree

Both

Bark

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for hypertension, kidney deficiency, lumbago

132

Eupatorium chinense L.

Duoxugong多须公

--

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for clearing away heat and toxic materials, blood stasis, traumatic injury

133

Euphorbia antiquorum L.

Huoyangle火殃勒

ruoŋ²ko³loŋ²

Euphorbiaceae

Shrub

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part and fried with wine, applied on the affected area, treating for furuncle, innominate inflanunatory of unknown origin

134

Euphorbia chrysocoma H. Lév. & Vaniot

Shuihuanghua水黄花

maː³nom²ʔan²

Euphorbiaceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for infectious hepatitis

135

Euphorbia hirta L.

Feiyangcao飞扬草

ruoŋ²jɛŋ³thuŋ6thin6

Euphorbiaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for bacillary diarrhea, enteritis, bronchitis, nephritis

136

Euphorbia humifusa Willdenow

Dijin地锦

--

Euphorbiaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for malaria, diuresis

137

Euphorbia milii Des Moul.

Tiehaitang铁海棠

ruoŋ²ndunŋ³waŋ³

Euphorbiaceae

Shrub

Both

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for carbuncle

138

Euphorbia thymifolia L.

Qian'gencao千根草

--

Euphorbiaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for bacillary diarrhea, enteritis, diarrhea, piles, bleeding

139

Evodia lepta (Spreng.) Merr.

Sanyaku三桠苦

ruoŋ²sam³tsha³

Rutaceae

Tree

Wild

Root, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for epidemic meningitis, influenza, fever, epidemic encephalitis B

140

Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth.

Wuzhuyu吴茱萸

tsha6la6

Rutaceae

Shrub

Wild

Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for diarrhea, abnormal menstruation, diseases of liver stasis, emesis

141

Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.

Kuqiao苦荞

--

Polygonaceae

Herb

Wild

Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for stomachache, indigestion

142

Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Haraldson

Heshouwu何首乌

mən6daŋ³yɛ5

Polygonaceae

Herb

Both

Tuber, Stem

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for weakness

143

Fibraurea recisa Pierre

Tianxianteng天仙藤

--

Menispermaceae

Liana

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for headache, fever, acute tonsillitis, strep throat, diarrhea, jaundiced hepatitis, gastricism, enteritis

144

Ficus microcarpa L. f.

Rongshu榕树

ruoŋ²mei4joŋ²

Moraceae

Tree

Homegarden

Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for flu, malaria, bronchitis, acute enteritis, bacillary diarrhea, pertussis cough, tonsillitis

145

Ficus tikoua Bureau

Diguo地果

--

Moraceae

Liana

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for jaundice, diarrhea and internal injury

146

Flemingia prostrata Roxb.

Qianjinba千斤拔

ruoŋ²sωt7khui²

Fabaceae

Shrub

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction or medicinal liquor drunk for lumbar muscle degeneration, traumatic injury, rheumatic arthritis and tonsillitis

147

Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis

Zhizi栀子

lak8kei³

Rubiaceae

Shrub

Both

Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for jaundiced hepatitis, fever, diarrhea, nephritis and edema

148

Gastrodia elata Blume

Tianma天麻

ŋoŋ5bu4noŋ²

Orchidaceae

Herb

Wild

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for headache and stomachache

149

Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis (Franch.) T.Z. Hsu & R.C. Fang

Baiguobaizhu白果白珠

mei5ʔa5

Ericaceae

Shrub

Wild

Whole plant, Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatic arthritis and traumatic injury

150

Gelsemium elegans (Gardner & Champ.) Benth.

Gouwen钩吻

ruoŋ²sai³mu5

Loganiaceae

Liana

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for furuncle, carbuncle

151

Gentiana rhodantha Franch.

Honghualongdan红花龙胆

ya5ma²mənp8

Gentianaceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for furuncle

152

Geranium nepalense Sweet

Nibo'er'laoguancao尼泊尔老鹳草

ma6ʑaŋ5nan5

Geraniaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for pertussis cough

153

Gerbera piloselloides (L.) Cass.

Maodadingcao毛大丁草

ruoŋ²təp7thi6

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for clearing away heat and toxic materials, fever due to common cold, cough, diarrhea, infantile indigestion

154

Geum aleppicum Jacq.

Lubianqing路边青

mba³men²

Rosaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for deficiency of dizziness

155

Ginkgo biloba L.

Yinxing银杏

--

Ginkgoaceae Engler

Tree

Homegarden

Fruit, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for moistening lung, cough

156

Gleditsia sinensis Lam.

Zaojia皂荚

--

Fabaceae

Tree

Both

Pod

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for apocenosis, detumescence

157

Glochidion puberum (Linnaeus) Hutchinson

Suanpanzi算盘子

mei4thω6teŋ5

Euphorbiaceae

Shrub

Wild

Root, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for bacillary diarrhea, infantile indigestion, diarrhea, abdomen pain, proctoptosis, migraine , lymphnoditis

158

Gomphrena globosa L.

Qianrihong千日红

xien³vən³lan¹

Amaranthaceae

Herb

Wild

Flower

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for asthma, bronchitis, pertussis cough, tuberculosis, diarrhea and hemoptysis

159

Gonostegia hirta (Blume ex Hassk.) Miq.

Nuomituan糯米团

--

Urticaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant, Root

Grinding, decoction or boiled with meat and drunk for clearing away heat and removing dampness, innominate inflanunatory of unknown origin

160

Gymnotheca chinensis Decne.

Luoshuo裸蒴

maŋ5wɛŋ³bɔa5

Saururaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Whole plant

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for weakness and cough

161

Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino

Jiaogulan绞股蓝

--

Cucurbitaceae

Liana

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatism, bronchitis and stomachache

162

Hedyotis diffusa Willd.

Baihuasheshecao白花蛇舌草

ruoŋ²ma²rui²sɛ5

Rubiaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for hepatitis, cough, bronchitis, tonsillitis

163

Hemsleya sphaerocarpa Kuang & A. M. Lu

Shelian蛇莲

tei5ʔŋaːn²

Cucurbitaceae

Liana

Wild

Tuber

Powdered; Taken orally for appendicitis

164

Homalomena occulta (Lour.) Schott

Qiannianjian千年健

ma6moŋ³ʨɛ5

Araceae

Herb

Wild

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatism, numbness of limbs, traumatic injury, bone fracture

165

Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

Yuxingcao鱼腥草

mba³wət8

Saururaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for edema, bronchopneumonia, nephritis, enteritis, diarrhea, cough

166

Hydrocotyle nepalensis Hook

Hongmaticao红马蹄草

--

Umbelliferae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part mixing with hot liquor and applied on the affected area, treating for traumatic injury

167

Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam.

Tianhusui天胡荽

na5ʨiao²nɛm³

Umbelliferae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for headache due to common cold

168

Hypericum japonicum Thunb.

Tianjihuang田基黄

ruoŋ²kha³kai5

Guttiferae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for hepatitis, acute conjunctivitis, tonsillitis and forepart hepatocirrhosis

169

Hypericum sampsonii Hance

Yuanbaocao元宝草

wa³ciɛn³

Guttiferae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for traumatic injury, pain, indigestion, chest congestion

170

Illicium difengpi B.N. Chang

Difengpi地枫皮

--

Magnoliaceae

Shrub

Wild

Stem, Bark

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatism, rheumatic arthralgia and lumbar muscle degeneration

171

Impatiens balsamina L.

Fengxianhua凤仙花

wa³dip7sim¹

Balsaminaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Whole plant, Seed

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for furuncle, carbuncle

172

Impatiens pinfanensis Hook. f.

Kuaijiefengxianhua块节凤仙花

fan45ma²

Balsaminaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Tuber

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for scrofula

173

Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.

Baimao白茅

taŋ5ya³guaŋ4

Gramineae

Herb

Wild

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for nephritis, edema, bleeding

174

Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet

Wuzhaojinlong五爪金龙

ruoŋ²lak85

Convolvulaceae

Herb

Both

Leaf, Tuber

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for carbuncle, clearing away heat and toxic materials

175

Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq.

Qizhualong七爪龙

miau²ren³sen5

Convolvulaceae

Liana

Both

Tuber, Leaf

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for nephritis

176

Ipomoea pescaprae (L.) R. Br.

Houteng厚藤

ruoŋ²an³mia4

Convolvulaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatic lumbocrural pain and lumbar muscle degeneration

177

Iris tectorum Maxim

Yuanwei鸢尾

ʑo5waːŋ¹

Iridaceae

Herb

Both

Rhizome

Pound fresh part with water is taken as a drink for improving indigestion

178

Juglans regia L.

Hutao胡桃

den³van5kɔŋ²

Juglandaceae

Tree

Both

Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for tonic, back pain

179

Juncus effusus L.

Dengxincao灯心草

ȵan6daːŋ5

Juncaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for jaundiced hepatitis

180

Justicia gendarussa Burm. f.

Xiaobogu小驳骨

ruoŋ²tiək7dak85

Acanthaceae

Shrub

Wild

Stem, Leaf

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for bone fracture, traumatic injury, 2rheumatic arthritis, ulcer

181

Justicia ventricosa Wall. ex Hook. f.

Heiyexiaobogu黑叶小驳骨

--

Acanthaceae

Shrub

Wild

Stem, Leaf

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for bone fracture, traumatic injury, rheumatic arthritis, waist pain, bleeding

182

Kadsura heteroclita (Roxb.) Craib

Yixingnanwuweizi异形南五味子

ruoŋ²li5rωp8

Magnoliaceae

Liana

Wild

Stem

Grinding, decoction or infusion with wine drunk for bone fracture, ostealgia, chronic gastricism, acute gastroenteritis

183

Kadsura longipedunculata Finet & Gagnep.

Nanwuweizi南五味子

--

Magnoliaceae

Liana

Wild

Fruit

Decoctionn; Taken orally for cough, insomnia

184

Kalimeris indica (L.) Sch. Bip.

Malan马兰

ruoŋ²xien³sɔk7

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for pneumonia, bronchitis

185

Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb.

Duanyeshuiwugong短叶水蜈蚣

--

Cyperaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for infantile malnutrition, helminth

186

Laggera alata (D. Don) Sch. Bip. ex Oliv.

Liulengju六棱菊

ruoŋ²jɛn³nəm¹

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatic arthritis, nephritis, edema

187

Laportea cuspidata (Wedd.) Friis

Aima艾麻

tuɔm²rɛn5

Urticaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant, Root

Medicinal liquor for rheumatic arthritis

188

Leonurus artemisia (Lour.) S.Y. Hu

Yimucao益母草

ra²loŋ²cit7vən6

Lamiaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for edema, nephritis, abnormal menstruation, promoting blood circulation due to menstruation

189

Ligusticum chuanxiong S.H. Qiu, Y.Q. Zeng, K.Y. Pan, Y.C. Tang & J.M. Xu

Chuanxiong川芎

ta5chuan²wɔŋ5

Umbelliferae

Herb

Both

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for carminative, activate blood for acesodyne

190

Ligusticum sinense Oliv.

Gaoben藁本

--

Umbelliferae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Medicinal liquor for waist pain, kidney deficiency

191

Ligustrum lucidum W.T. Aiton

Nüzhen女贞

--

Oleaceae

Tree

Homegarden

Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for tonifying kieney and liver

192

Ligustrum robustum subsp. chinense P.S. Green

Cuzhuangnüzhen粗壮女贞

va³zhɛ5gaŋm²

Oleaceae

Tree

Homegarden

Leaf

Drink like the tea for dizziness

193

Lilium brownii F.E. Brown ex Miellez

Yebaihe野百合

kɔŋ¹dɔ²pa5

Liliaceae

Herb

Both

Bulb

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for tuberculosis, edema, insomnia, neurasthenia and palpitation

194

Lindera aggregata (Sims) Kosterm.

Wuyao乌药

--

Lauraceae

Shrub

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for stomachache, abdomon pain

195

Litchi chinensis Sonn.

Lizhi荔枝

--

Sapindaceae

Tree

Homegarden

Stone fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatism, pain and removing moping

196

Lithospermum erythrorhizon Siebold & Zucc.

Zicao紫草

gaŋ5pat8

Boraginaceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for measles

197

Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.

Shanjijiao山鸡椒

--

Lauraceae

Shrub

Both

Fruit

Pound fresh/dry fruit, decoction; Taken orally for cough, diarrhea, stomachache, toothache, bleeding

198

Litsea pungens Hemsl.

Mujiangzi木姜子

ruoŋ²mei4saŋ¹

Lauraceae

Tree

Both

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for gastricism

199

Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) R. Br. ex Mart.

Pukui蒲葵

ruoŋ²xien5phu²

Palmae

Tree

Homegarden

Seed

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for cancer

200

Lobelia chinensis Lour.

Banbianlian半边莲

nun³mua²ʔnɛm4

Campanulaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, boiled with water and washed the affected area for snake bite

201

Lobelia sequinii Levl. et Vant.

Xi'nanshan'gengcai西南山梗菜

ruoŋ²thai6tsɛŋ¹cuωn³

Campanulaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, boiled with water and washed the affected area for rheumatic arthritis, traumatic injury, ulcer

202

Lonicera japonica Thunb.

Rendong忍冬

wa³cim³mən²

Caprifoliaceae

Liana

Both

Stem, Flower

Grinding and decoction; Taken orally; Stem is for jaundice, clearing away heat and toxic materials, headache and fever; flower is for enteritis, diarrhea, pneumonia, influenza

203

Lophatherum gracile Brongn.

Danzhuye淡竹叶

mei4tim¹sɛ5

Gramineae

Herb

Both

Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for urinary tract infection, aphthous stomatitis, swelling, aching of gum

204

Loropetalum chinense (R. Br.) Oliv.

Jimu檵木

ruoŋ²mei4ci5

Hamamelidaceae

Shrub

Wild

Leaf, Flower, Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally; Leaf is for abdomen pain, metrorrhagia; Flower is for bleeding; Root is for traumatic injury, chronic arthritis, amenorrhea, bleeding

205

Lycopodium japonicum Thunb.

Shisong石松

mʔau²muan4

Lycopodiaceae

--

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatic arthritis, arthralgia, leg cramp, hand and foot numbness

206

Lycopus lucidus Turcz. ex Benth.

Disun地笋

--

Lamiaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for abnormal menstruation, amenorrhea, traumatic injury, bone fracture

207

Lygodium japonicum (Thunb.) Sw.

Haijinsha海金沙

ma²goŋ²bou³

Lygodiaceae

--

Wild

Whole plant, Sporangium

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for chronic ulcer, skin infection, furuncle, foot rot

208

Lysimachia christinae Hance

Guoluhuang过路黄

ma6gʔou²ʔan²

Primulaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for urinary tract infection, jaundice, hepatitis

209

Lysimachia paridiformis Franch.

Luodimei落地梅

--

Primulaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for infantile convulsions

210

Lysionotus pauciflorus Maxim.

Diaoshijutai吊石苣苔

ba5dau³ma4

Gesneriaceae

Shrub

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for bronchitis, asthma

211

Magnolia officinalis Rehder & E.H. Wilson

Houpo厚朴

--

Magnoliaceae

Tree

Both

Bark

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for emesis, diarrhea

212

Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Carrière

Kuoyeshidagonglao阔叶十大功劳

ruoŋ²waŋ6lien4

Berberidaceae

Shrub

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for pneumonia, tuberculosis, infectious hepatitis, acute gastroenteritis, bronchitis

213

Mallotus apelta (Lour.) Müll. Arg.

Baibeiye白背叶

mei4phiau6sei¹

Euphorbiaceae

Shrub

Wild

Root, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally; Root is for chronic hepatitis, hepatosplenomegaly, gestational edema, enteritis, diarrhea; Leaf is for traumatic injury, otitis media, furuncle, bleeding, thrush

214

Mallotus barbatus Müll. Arg.

Maotong毛桐

--

Euphorbiaceae

Shrub

Wild

Leaf

Pound fresh part and applied on the affected area, treating for clearing away heat and toxic materials, bed ulcer, eczema

215

Marsilea quadrifolia L.

Ping苹

phuŋ6phieu²lau4

Marsileaceae

--

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for jaundiced hepatitis, asthma, edema, hepatic ascites, fever due to common cold

216

Melastoma candidum D. Don

Yemudan野牡丹

ruoŋ²lak8ma5ndi5

Melastomataceae

Shrub

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for hemafecia, watery diarrhea

217

Melastoma dodecandrum Lour.

Dinie地菍

lak8nin¹

Melastomataceae

Shrub

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for removing blood stasis, traumatic injury, diarrhea, lithangiuria, urinary obstruction

218

Melia azedarach L.

Lian楝

ruoŋ²ku¹lien4

Meliaceae

Tree

Both

Fruit, Leaf

Grinding, boiled with water and washed the affected area for scabies, tinea capitis and rice paddies dermatitis

219

Mimosa pudica L.

Hanxiucao含羞草

ruoŋ²ra²nŋei³

Fabaceae

Herb

Both

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for insomnia

220

Mirabilis jalapa L.

Zimoli紫茉莉

ruoŋ²jɛn³wa³

Nyctaginaceae

Herb

Both

Root

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for leucorrhoea, abnormal menstruation, prostatitis, metrorrhagia

221

Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng.

Mubiezi木鳖子

tiŋ5ndiŋ5ka³

Cucurbitaceae

Liana

Wild

Seed, Leaf, Stem

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for innominate inflanunatory of unknown origin, carbuncle, lymphnoditis

222

Morus alba L.

Sang桑

ruoŋ²tshaŋ¹

Moraceae

Tree

Both

Leaf, Bark

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for lung heat panting and cough, hypertension, edema

223

Munronia henryi Harms

Aituotuo矮陀陀

--

Meliaceae

Shrub

Wild

Whole plant

Medicinal liquor for traumatic injury

224

Murraya exotica L.

Jiulixiang九里香

ruoŋ²mei4ndaŋ³

Rutaceae

Tree

Both

Root, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatism, ostealgia, traumatic injury, toothache and stomachache

225

Mussaenda pubescens W.T. Aiton

Yuyejinhua玉叶金花

ruoŋ²phiɛ³va5phuok8

Rubiaceae

Shrub

Both

Stem, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for hyperthermia, influenza, tonsillitis, enteritis, diarrhea and sphagitis

226

Myrica rubra (Lour.) Siebold & Zucc.

Yangmei杨梅

lak8se5

Myricaceae

Tree

Homegarden

Root Bark

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for traumatic injury, bone fracture, diarrhea, stomach and duodenal ulcer

227

Nandina domestica Thunb.

Nantianzhu南天竹

waŋ6liɛn45

Berberidaceae

Shrub

Wild

Root, Stem, Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally; Root and stem are for cough, fever, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, jaundice, hepatitis, traumatic injury. Fruit is for cough, asthma, pertussis

228

Nepeta cataria L.

Jingjie荆芥

--

Lamiaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for common cold

229

Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl

Shenjue肾蕨

lak8ȵən4

Davalliaceae

--

Wild

Rhizome, Leaf, Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for fever due to common cold, cough, diarrhea, acute enteritis, jaundiced hepatitis

230

Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC.

Shuiqin水芹

maː6ʨip7ʑam5

Umbelliferae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for hypertension

231

Ophioglossum reticulatum L.

Xinyeping'erxiaocao心叶瓶尔小草

ruoŋ²ma²rui²

Ophioglossaceae

--

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for furuncle, snake bite and acute conjunctivitis

232

Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker Gawl.

Maidong麦冬

ruoŋ²lak8ju³

Liliaceae

Herb

Both

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for chronic bronchitis, cough

233

Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw. var. dillenii (Ker-Gawl.) Benson

Xianrenzhang仙人掌

ma²mωm4

Cactaceae

Shrub

Both

Stem

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for parotitis, carbuncle, empyrosis

234

Oroxylum indicum (L. ) Kurz

Muhudie木蝴蝶

mei4ən³eu5

Bignoniaceae

Tree

Homegarden

Bark, Seed

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for acute bronchitis, tuberculosis, jaundiced hepatitis, sore throat

235

Osbeckia opipara C.Y. Wu & C. Chen

Chaotianguan朝天罐

--

Melastomataceae

Shrub

Wild

Root

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for tonic, bleeding, diarrhea

236

Oxalis corniculata L.

Cujiangcao酢浆草

mba³thωm6sou¹

Oxalidaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for febrile convulsion, enteritis, diarrhea, parotitis

237

Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr.

Jishiteng鸡矢藤

bieu³tωt7ma³

Rubiaceae

Liana

Wild

Whole plant, Root

Medicinal liquor for treating flu, cough, pertussis cough, diarrhea, stomachache, chest stuffiness

238

Paeonia lactiflora Pall.

Shaoyao芍药

--

Ranunculaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Root

Powder tied for pain and blood stasis

239

Paeonia suffruticosa Andrew

Mudan牡丹

ma5muan4

Ranunculaceae

Shrub

Homegarden

Root Bark

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for lobar pneumonia

240

Palhinhaea cernua (L.) Vasc. & Franco

Chuisuishisong垂穗石松

--

Lycopodiaceae

--

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for relaxing tendons and activating collaterals, carminative, blood stasis, bleeding

241

Paris polyphylla Sm.

Qiyeyizhihua七叶一枝花

wa6ten5va¹

Trilliaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for traumatic injury and snake bite

242

Pentasacme championii Benth.

Shiluomo石萝藦

ruoŋ²saŋ³nut8

Asclepiadaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatism, ostealgia, traumatic injury and ascites due to cirrhosis; Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for snake bite, herpes zosters

243

Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton

Zisu紫苏

mba³ha5lan¹

Lamiaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for common cold, cough, asthma, emesis

244

Periploca forrestii Schltr.

Heilonggu黑龙骨

mei5ʑa²nam5

Asclepiadaceae

Shrub

Wild

Whole plant

Medicinal liquor for treating rheumatic arthritis

245

Phellodendron amurense Rupr.

Huangbo黄檗

mei5bɛ²ʔan³

Rutaceae

Tree

Wild

Bark

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for diabetes insipidus

246

Pholidota chinensis Lindl.

Shixiantao石仙桃

ruoŋ²xien³thui²

Orchidaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for cough, tuberculosis, scrofula, diuresis, infantile malnutrition

247

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.

Luwei芦苇

gaŋ5diɛ²nau5

Gramineae

Herb

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for infantile whitish aphthae

248

Phyllanthus urinaria L.

Yexiazhu叶下珠

thuŋ6thin6sei¹

Euphorbiaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for jaundiced hepatitis, diarrhea, enteritis, nephritis, edema and lithangiuria

249

Phyllodium pulchellum (L.) Desv.

Paiqianshu排钱树

ruoŋ²vak8rjen²

Fabaceae

Shrub

Wild

Leaf, Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for fever, diarrhea, malaria, hepatitis, rheumatic ostealgia, traumatic injury, schistosome

250

Physalis angulata L.

Kuzhi苦蘵

--

Solanaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for epidemic parotitis, cough, jaundice, hepatitis, diarrhea

251

Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.

Shanglu商陆

lak8phək8doŋ²

Phytolaccaceae

Herb

Both

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for cervical erosion, digestibility ulcer, liver ascites, constipation, diuresis

252

Pilea cavaleriei H. Lév.

Shiyoucai石油菜

bma³ju²thui²

Urticaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for lung heat panting, cough, tuberculosis, traumatic injury, empyrosis, furuncle

253

Piper hancei Maxim.

Shanju山蒟

tshuon5pi6fuŋ¹

Piperaceae

Liana

Wild

Stem, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for lumbar muscle degeneration, chronic gastricism, cough, ostealgia, rheumatic arthritis, heatstroke, numbness of limbs

254

Pistia stratiotes Linnaeus Sp.

Dapiao大漂

--

Araceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for removing blood stasis

255

Plantago asiatica L.

Cheqian车前

mba³bɔk8

Plantaginaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for urinary tract infection, urinary stone, fever and cough due to common cold, nephritis, edema, bronchitis, hypertension

256

Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A. DC.

Jiegeng桔梗

--

Campanulaceae

Herb

Both

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for inflammation, cough

257

Plumbago zeylanica L.

Baihuadan白花丹

ruoŋ²ra²vɔk7

Plumbaginaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for traumatic injury

258

Pogonia japonica Rchb. f.

Zhulan朱兰

ma6ʑa4zao²

Orchidaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for enuresis

259

Polygala japonica Houtt.

Guazijin瓜子金

ya¹yiŋ4ʑɛm²

Polygalaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for neurasthenia

260

Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua

Duohuahuangjing多花黄精

xiŋ²ʑa²

Liliaceae

Herb

Wild

Rhizome

Pound fresh part mixed with rice wine, applied on the affected area, treating for lymphadenectasis

261

Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce

Yuzhu玉竹

--

Liliaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for moistening lung for rresting cough

262

Polygonatum sibiricum Redouté

Huangjing黄精

ruoŋ²siŋ³mωmŋ4

Liliaceae

Herb

Both

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for tuberculosis, diabetes, hypertension, weakness after ill, invigorating spleen, reinforcing stomach

263

Polygonum aviculare L.

Shegan射干

laŋ5lu5kun²

Polygonaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for stranguria due to hematuria

264

Polygonum chinense L.

Huotanmu火炭母

va5mba³sωm¹

Polygonaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant, Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for diarrhea, enteritis, indigestion, hepatitis, pharyngitis. Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for traumatic injury, furuncle, eczema, dermatitis, pruritus

265

Polygonum hydropiper L.

Shuiliao辣蓼

mba³we5

Polygonaceae

Herb

Both

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for diarrhea, acute ulcer, common cold, typhoid, rheumatism, ostealgia, traumatic injury. Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for eczema, centipede bite

266

Polygonum perfoliatum (L.) L.

gangban'gui杠板归

ruoŋ²tin³diək8

Polygonaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for jaundice, diarrhea, malaria, nephritis, edema. Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for furuncle, eczema, carbuncle

267

Portulaca oleracea L.

Machixian马齿苋

ruoŋ²mba³nəm¹

Portulacaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for acute cystitis, diarrhea, hypertension

268

Potentilla chinensis Ser.

Weilingcai委陵菜

ma6ʔgou²dui³

Rosaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for clearing away heat and toxic materials, diarrhea

269

Potentilla reyniana Bornm.

Sanyeweilingcai三叶委陵菜

--

Rosaceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for preventing rabies

270

Potentilla kleiniana Wight & Arn.

Shehanweilingcai蛇含委陵菜

ɣo6bei6rɛnm4

Rosaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding the fresh part, decoction drunk for infantile fever

271

Prunella vulgaris L.

Xiakucao夏枯草

--

Lamiaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for clearing away heat and toxic materials

272

Psoralea corylifolia L.

Buguzhi补骨脂

--

Fabaceae

Herb

Wild

Seed

Medicinal liquor for treating rheumatism and kidney deficiency

273

Pteris multifida Poir.

Jinglanbiancao井栏边草

ruoŋ²sωt7kai5

Pteridaceae

--

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for diarrhea, jaundiced hepatitis, hemafecia, hematuria

274

Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi

Ge葛

bieu³chai5

Fabaceae

Liana

Wild

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for fever, hypertension, protecting the liver, promoting salivation

275

Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel

Baitouweng白头翁

wɔk7fian³puok8

Ranunculaceae

Herb

Wild

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for diarrhea, malaria, dysmenorrhea, uterine bleeding

276

Punica granatum L.

Shiliu石榴

lak8liu²

Punicaceae

Shrub

Homegarden

Pericarp

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for diarrhea, acute enteritis, piles, proctoptosis

277

Pyrola calliantha Andres

Luticao鹿蹄草

--

Pyrolaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for cough, weakness

278

Pyrrosia lingua (Thunb.) Farw.

Shiwei石韦

mba³mei4ri²

Polypodiaceae

--

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for senile chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, nephritis, edema, urinary tract infection

279

Quisqualis indica L.

Shijunzi使君子

lak6rəm²

Combretaceae

Liana

Wild

Seed

Chewed for infantile malnutrition product, depriving ascarid

280

Rabdosia ternifolia (D. Don) H. Hara

Niuweicao牛尾草

5vɛn³ŋoŋ²

Lamiaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for hepatitis, enteritis, common cold

281

Raphanus sativus L.

Luobo萝卜

vɛ³loŋ5bu³

Cruciferae

Herb

Homegarden

Seed

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for senile chronic bronchitis

282

Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill.

Luofumu萝芙木

--

Apocynaceae

Shrub

Both

Root

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for bleeding, pain killer, hypertension, dispersing blood stasis

283

Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) Libosch. ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.

Dihuang地黄

ma6liao²lip7

Scrophulariaceae

Herb

Wild

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for removing heat to promote salivation

284

Reineckia carnea (Andr.) Kunth.

Jixiangcao吉祥草

taŋ6kəp8

Liliaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for bronchitis

285

Reynoutria japonica Houtt.

Huzhang虎杖

ruoŋ²waŋ6chin6

Polygonaceae

Herb

Wild

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for cough, blood stasis, rheumatism, traumatic injury, jaundice, amenorrhea

286

Rhoeo discolor (L'Hér.) Hance ex Walp.

Zibeiwannianqing紫背万年青

ruoŋ²phuoŋ²wa³

Commelinaceae

Herb

Wild

Flower

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for cough, pertussis cough, diarrhea, hemoptysis, sore throat, scrofula

287

Rhus chinensis Mill.

Yanfumu盐麸木

mei4wωt7

Anacardiaceae

Shrub

Both

Cecidium

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for bleeding, arrest sweating, piles, pharyngitis, inflammation

288

Ricinus communis L.

Bima蓖麻

thuŋ6ju6

Euphorbiaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Seed

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for scabies

289

Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern

Hancai蔊菜

ma²you55

Cruciferae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part and mixed with rapeseed oil, applied on the affected area, treating for dermatitis

290

Rosa chinensis Jacq.

Yuejihua月季花

ŋɛŋ4ŋɛŋ4ʑən5

Rosaceae

Shrub

Homegarden

Flower

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for abnormal menstruation

291

Rosa laevigata Michx.

Jinyingzi金樱子

lak8man4

Rosaceae

Shrub

Both

Root, Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for bone fracture, traumatic injury, appendicitis, diarrhea, enteritis, stomachache

292

Rosa multiflora Thunb.

Yeqiangwei野蔷薇

--

Rosaceae

Shrub

Wild

Root, Seed

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for clearing and activating the channels and collaterals, diuresis

293

Rosa roxburghii Tratt.

Saosihua缫丝花

taŋ5dɛnm³gaŋ4

Rosaceae

Shrub

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for indigestion, stomachache

294

Rubus parvifolius L.

Maomei茅莓

lak8thωm6pha³

Rosaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding the fresh part, decoction; Taken orally for jaundice, toothache, chronic hepatitis, stomachache, diarrhea, sphagitis

295

Rumex nepalensis Spreng.

Nibo'er'suanmo尼泊尔酸模

maː6ʔan6lou5

Polygonaceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for nephritis

296

Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

Danshen丹参

dan5sen5

Lamiaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for afterpains, removing blood stasis

297

Sambucus chinensis Lindl.

Jiegucao接骨草

--

Caprifoliaceae

Herb

Wild

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatic arthritis, tonsillitis, rheumatoid arthritis, urinary tract infection

298

Sambucus williamsii Hance

Jiegumu接骨木

ruoŋ²ra²liem²

Caprifoliaceae

Shrub

Both

Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for traumatic injury, rheumatic arthritis, waist and legs pain, bone fracture, scapulohumeral periarthritis

299

Sanguisorba officinalis L.

Diyu地榆

gaŋ5gu²va³

Rosaceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Grinding the fresh part, decoction; Taken orally for diarrhea

300

Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.

Wuhuanzi无患子

ruoŋ²lak8rək7

Sapindaceae

Tree

Wild

Seed

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for tuberculosis, pertussis cough

301

Sapium discolor (Champ. ex Benth.) Müll. Arg.

Shanwujiu山乌桕

ruoŋ²mei4ək7

Euphorbiaceae

Tree

Both

Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for traumatic injury, snake bite, constipation, carbuncle

302

Sargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv.) Rehder & E.H. Wilson

Daxueteng大血藤

bieu³phiat7

Lardizabalaceae

Liana

Wild

Root, Stem

Medicinal liquor for treating rheumatic arthritis, traumatic injury, ostealgia

303

Saurauia tristyla DC.

Shuidongge水东哥

--

Actinidiaceae

Shrub

Homegarden

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for carbuncle, cough, bronchitis, toothache

304

Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill.

Sanbaicao三白草

ruoŋ²sωt7mbei¹

Saururaceae

Herb

Both

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for nephritis, edema, lithangiuria, eczema, furuncle, carbuncle

305

Saxifraga stolonifera Curtis

Hu'er'cao虎耳草

ruoŋ²kha³mωm4

Saxifragaceae

Herb

Wild

Leaf

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for traumatic hemorrhage, furuncle, parotitis, empyrosis

306

Schefflera heptaphylla (L.) Frodin

E'zhangchai鹅掌柴

mei5dian²ʔɛp8

Araliaceae

Tree

Both

Root Bark, Stem Bark, Leaf

Grinding and decoction; Taken orally; Root and Stem bark are for fever, rheumatism, ostealgia, traumatic injury, sore throat; Leaf is for eczema, allergic dermatitis

307

Schizocapsa plantaginea Hance

Lieguoshu裂果薯

suei¹lo6pu4

Taccaceae

Herb

Wild

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for cough, traumatic injury, pharyngitis, heart and stomach pain

308

Scutellaria barbata D. Don

Banzhilian半枝莲

ruoŋ²wɔk7lim65

Lamiaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for cancer, appendicitis, hepatitis and hepatic ascites

309

Selaginella moellendorffii Hieron.

Jiangnanjuanbai江南卷柏

ʔguit7miɛ²bua5

Selaginellaceae

--

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for hematoma after contusion

310

Selaginella tamariscina (P. Beauv.) Spring

Juanbai卷柏

ruoŋ²sai³thui²

Selaginellaceae

--

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for hemafecia, epistaxis, metrorrhagia, traumatic injury, chronic hepatitis, proctoptosis

311

Semiaquilegia adoxoides (DC.) Makino

Tiankui天葵

ma³ɣe5ŋɔ²

Ranunculaceae

Herb

Wild

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for stomachache

312

Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Qianliguang千里光

wa³nuk8so5

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for fever, jaundiced hepatitis, throat ache, mumps, bleeding, eczema

313

Senna occidentalis (L.) Link

Wangjiangnan望江南

--

Fabaceae

Shrub

Both

Seed

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for habitual constipation, hypertension, headache, indigestion, epifolliculitis, oral mucosa ulcer

314

Serissa japonica (Thunb.) Thunb.

Liuyuexue六月雪

taŋ5ʔnui5wai³

Rubiaceae

Shrub

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for infantile convulsions

315

Setcreasea purpurea Boom

Zizhumei紫竹梅

--

Commelinaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for bleeding, snake bite, activating blood and herpes

316

Sida szechuensis Matsuda

Badusan拔毒散

--

Malvaceae

Shrub

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for traumatic injury and inflammation

317

Sigesbeckia orientalis L.

Xixian豨莶

wɔk7cut7btio¹

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for insomnia, hypertension, acute jaundiced hepatitis, diarrhea, malaria, numbness of limbs

318

Smilax glabra Roxb.

Tufuling土茯苓

lak8dəm4sei¹

Smilacaceae

Herb

Homegarden

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for nephritis, diarrhea, detoxication, arthralgia

319

Solanum capsicoides All.

Niuqiezi牛茄子

--

Solanaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for fever due to common cold, headache, cough, abscess, chest stuffiness

320

Solanum violaceum L.

Citianqie刺天茄

lak8khat8se5

Solanaceae

Shrub

Wild

Leaf, Fruit

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for yellow-water ulcer, fingers ulcer and ringworm

321

Solidago decurrens Lour.

Yizhihuanghua一枝黄花

wɔk7wa³man¹

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for fever, headache, jaundice, bronchitis, acute gastricism, upper respiratory infection, swelling, throat ache

322

Sophora flavescens Aiton

Kushen苦参

ruoŋ²ŋau³in5

Fabaceae

Herb

Wild

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for piles, cutaneous pruritus

323

Sophora tonkinensis Gagnep.

Yuenanhuai越南槐

--

Fabaceae

Shrub

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for acute pharyngitis, tonsillitis, swelling and aching of gum, cough, constipation

324

Sparganium stoloniferum (Buch.-Ham. ex Graebn.) Buch.-Ham. ex Juz.

Heisanleng黑三棱

--

Sparganiaceae

Herb

Wild

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for blood stasis, pain killer

325

Spatholobus sinensis Chun & T.C. Chen

Hongxueteng红血藤

ruoŋ²pu¹phiat7

Fabaceae

Liana

Wild

Stem

Medicinal liquor for treating traumatic injury

326

Spatholobus suberectus Dunn

Mihuadou密花豆

--

Fabaceae

Liana

Wild

Stem

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for stomachache, enriching blood, waist and knees pain

327

Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames

Shoucao绶草

ruoŋ²thou6neŋ4

Orchidaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant, Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for diabetes, leucorrhoea, weakness, sore throat, neurasthenia and erectile dysfunction

328

Stahlianthus involucratus (King ex Baker) Craib

Tutianqi土田七

ruoŋ²iŋ³doŋ²

Zingiberaceae

Herb

Both

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for traumatic injury, rheumatism, ostealgia

329

Stemona tuberosa Lour.

Dabaibu大百部

lak8ru³khui²

Stemonaceae

Liana

Wild

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for pertussis cough, tuberculosis, bronchitis

330

Stephania cepharantha Hayata

Jinxiandiaowugui金线吊乌龟

mɛi5miu²

Menispermaceae

Liana

Wild

Tuber

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for carbuncle, snake bite

331

Streptocaulon juventas (Lour.) Merr.

Anxiaoteng暗消藤

--

Asclepiadaceae

Liana

Wild

Root, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally; Root is for diarrhea, piles, pneumonia, vitiligo and arrhythmia; Pound fresh leaf applied on the affected area, treating for snake bite, eczema and vaginitis

332

Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze

Dujiaojin独脚金

ruoŋ²ra²mei³

Scrophulariaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for infantile malnutrition, dampness-heat constitution, diarrhea, jaundiced hepatitis

333

Strophanthus divaricatus (Lour.) Hook. & Arn.

Yangjiaoniu羊角拗

--

Apocynaceae

Shrub

Wild

Stem, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatic arthritis, traumatic injury, snake bite, sprain

334

Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) H. Ohashi

Hulucha葫芦茶

tsha²ja¹

Fabaceae

Shrub

Both

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for nephritis, enteritis, diarrhea, hepatitis

335

Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn.

Turenshen土人参

kau5li6sωn¹

Portulacaceae

Herb

Wild

Root

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for moistening lung, health tonic

336

Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.

Pugongying蒲公英

mba³kat7sei¹

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for conjunctivitis, epidemic parotitis, enteritis, gastricism, hepatitis, diarrhea, acute mastitis, sphagitis

337

Taxillus chinensis (DC.) Danser

Guangjisheng广寄生

--

Loranthaceae

Shrub

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for numbness of limbs, rheumatism, ostealgia, arthritis, lumbar muscle degeneration

338

Tetrapanax papyrifer (Hook.) K. Koch

Tongtuomu通脱木

tai5poŋ²

Araliaceae

Shrub

Homegarden

Stem pith

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for promoting lactation

339

Tetrastigma planicaule (Hook. f.) Gagnep.

Biandanteng扁担藤

mʔau5biɛn²

Vitaceae

Liana

Both

Root, Stem

Fried the root or stem, fumigation for pinkeye

340

Tinospora sagittata (Oliv.) Gagnep.

Qingniudan青牛胆

kɔŋ¹piɛŋ5vi³

Menispermaceae

Liana

Wild

Tuber

Powder, dispersed in water and drunk for acute gastroenteritis, acute pharyngitis, bacillary diarrhea, appendicitis

341

Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr.

Zhonghuaqingniudan中华青牛胆

yuoŋ²soŋ³jin³

Menispermaceae

Liana

Wild

Stem

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for rheumatism, traumatic injury, lumbar muscle degeneration, sciatica

342

Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.

Feilongzhangxue飞龙掌血

cim³ce³vin¹

Rutaceae

Liana

Wild

Root Bark

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for traumatic injury, skin disease, relieving pain, detumescence

343

Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem.

Luoshi络石

--

Apocynaceae

Liana

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for bleeding, rheumatism, waist pain, dispersing blood stasis

344

Trachycarpus fortunei (Hook.) H. Wendl.

Zonglü棕榈

wei5

Palmae

Tree

Homegarden

Leaf, Fruit

Boiled with meat and drunk the soup, treating for epilepsy

345

Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim.

Gualou栝楼

--

Cucurbitaceae

Liana

Wild

Root

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for removing heat to promote salivation, expel pus and disperse swelling

346

Trichosanthes rosthornii Harms

Zhonghuagualou中华栝楼

gua5ʔe5ma²

Cucurbitaceae

Liana

Wild

Shuck, Seed

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for edema

347

Typhonium blumei Nicolson & Sivad.

Litoujian犁头尖

lak8chieu4dɔŋ²

Araceae

Herb

Wild

Tuber

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for snake bite, scrofula, traumatic injury, hemangioma and furuncle

348

Typhonium giganteum Engl.

Dujiaolian独角莲

--

Araceae

Herb

Both

Tuber

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for gastroduodenal ulcer

349

Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil.

Gouteng钩藤

mei5gʔau²dau³

Rubiaceae

Liana

Wild

Hooked stem

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for jaundiced hepatitis, dizziness, headach, calming the liver

350

Urena lobata L.

Ditaohua地桃花

ruoŋ²wɔk7cut7

Malvaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for fever, diarrhea, enteritis, malaria; Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for traumatic injury, bone fracture, snake bite, mastitis

351

Valeriana jatamansi Jones

Zhizhuxiang蜘蛛香

ma²va³

Valerianaceae

Herb

Wild

Rhizome

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for furuncle

352

Ventilago leiocarpa Benth.

Yiheguo翼核果

--

Rhamnaceae

Shrub

Wild

Root

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for traumatic injury, rheumatism, numbness of limbs, edema and menorrhagia

353

Verbena officinalis L.

Mabiancao马鞭草

ruoŋ²pien³mia4

Verbenaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for hypertension, diarrhea, malaria, nephritis, fever due to common cold, urinary tract infection

354

Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.

Yexiangniu夜香牛

ruoŋ²məm5ndaŋ³

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Pound fresh part applied on the affected area, treating for snake bite, swelling, furuncle

355

Viola inconspicua Blume

Chang'e'jincai长萼堇菜

va5mba³kuei³

Violaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for pharyngitis, jaundice, diarrhea, swelling, pain of eye

356

Viola philippica Cav.

Zihuadiding紫花地丁

ya5mɛp8li²

Violaceae

Herb

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for appendicitis, piles

357

Viscum liquidambaricolum Hayata

Fengxianghujisheng枫香槲寄生

sap7mei4hu³

Loranthaceae

Shrub

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for lumbar muscle degeneration, cough, traumatic injury, rheumatic arthritis

358

Vitex negundo L.

Huangjing黄荆

mei4ciŋ³

Verbenaceae

Shrub

Wild

Stem, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for diarrhea, malaria, enteritis, common cold, heatstroke

359

Vitex trifolia L.

Manjing蔓荆

mei5ʨiɛ²ʑa²

Verbenaceae

Shrub

Wild

Fruit

Powder, swallowed for headache

360

Wikstroemia indica (L.) C.A. Mey.

Liaogewang了哥王

ruoŋ²ljɛŋljeu4

Thymelaeaceae

Shrub

Wild

Stem, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for clearing away heat and toxic materials, traumatic injury, hepatitis, parotitis

361

Woodwardia japonica (L. f.) Sm.

Gouji狗脊

waŋ6cin5kou¹

Blechnaceae

Herb

Wild

Rhizome

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for neurasthenia, rheumatic arthralgia, diuresis, waist and knees pain

362

Wrightia laevis Hook. f.

Lanshu蓝树

--

Apocynaceae

Tree

Homegarden

Root, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for bleeding, traumatic injury, mumps

363

Xanthium sibiricum Patrin ex Widder

Cang'er苍耳

wɔk7cut7lau4

Asteraceae

Herb

Wild

Fruit

Pound after fried and drunk with yellow wine for enteritis, rheumatic arthralgia, headache

364

Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

Zhuyehuajiao竹叶花椒

lak8xieu³na4

Rutaceae

Tree

Both

Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for traumatic injury, chronic gastricism, cough, depriving ascarid

365

Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC.

Liangmianzhen两面针

lak8xieu³doŋ²

Rutaceae

Liana

Wild

Root, Stem, Leaf

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for duodenal ulcer, traumatic injury, rheumatism, diarrhea, malaria, chronic gastricism

366

Zea mays L.

Yumi玉米

nui5wei5die³

Gramineae

Herb

Homegarden

Column

Powder swallowed for diabetes

367

Zehneria indica (Lour.) Keraudren

Laoshuladonggua老鼠拉冬瓜

lak8kua³no¹

Cucurbitaceae

Liana

Wild

Whole plant

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for urinary tract infection, tonsillitis, acute conjunctivitis, carbuncle

368

Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

Zao枣

zaːo³ziː²

Rhamnaceae

Tree

Homegarden

Fruit

Grinding, decoction; Taken orally for infantile diarrhea

The distribution of informants in age, gender and education class was shown in Table 3. The majority of informants interviewed were above 40 years old in this investigation. The male informants were 89.8% and less educated. There was a significant correlation between the informant age and phytomedicinal knowledge.
Table 2

Taxonomic diversity of medicinal plants in the study area

Family

Number of genera

Percentage (%)

Number of species

Percentage of species (%)

Asteraceae

22

7.46

24

6.52

Fabaceae

15

5.08

19

5.16

Rosaceae

11

3.73

16

4.35

Euphorbiaceae

8

2.71

14

3.80

Liliaceae

9

3.05

13

3.53

Araceae

7

2.37

11

2.99

Lamiaceae

9

3.05

9

2.45

Polygonaceae

4

1.36

8

2.17

Zingiberaceae

4

1.36

8

2.17

Lauraceae

4

1.36

7

1.90

Ranunculaceae

6

2.03

7

1.90

Rutaceae

5

1.69

7

1.90

Asclepiadaceae

4

1.36

7

1.90

Cucurbitaceae

6

2.03

7

1.90

Gramineae

6

2.03

6

1.63

Araliaceae

4

1.36

6

1.63

Rubiaceae

6

2.03

6

1.63

Verbenaceae

4

1.36

6

1.63

Other families

162

54.92

188

51.09

Total

295

100

368

100

Table 3

Demographic profile of informants

Indicator

Description

Frequency (%)

Age

20-29

7 (5.9)

 

30-39

23 (19.5)

 

40-49

38 (32.2)

 

50-59

29 (24.6)

 

60-69

12 (10.2)

 

70-79

5 (4.2)

 

≥80

4 (3.4)

Gender

Male

106 (89.8)

 

Female

12 (10.2)

Education

None

27 (22.9)

 

Primary

72 (61.0)

 

Secondary

13 (11.0)

 

Tertiary

6 (5.1)

Life forms, plant parts used, method of collection and administration

The result of life form analysis of medicinal plants showed that herbaceous plants constituted the highest proportion represented by 203 (55.16%) species, while there were 67 (18.21%) shrubs species, 43 (11.68%) lianas and 41 (11.14%) tree species (Figure 2).
Figure 2

Life forms of medicinal plants in the study area.

Informants of the study area used different plant parts for preparation of traditional drugs (e.g. leaves, roots, seeds, barks and fruits). The informants reported that more species (153) of medicinal plants were harvested for their whole plants, and these were followed by roots (83), leaves (45), stems (30), fruits (29), tubers (29), rhizomes (27) and 51 other parts (seed, bark, flower and so on) (Figure 3). The majority of remedies were prepared from fresh materials, and some were prepared from either dried or fresh materials while a few were only used from dried materials.
Figure 3

Plant parts used for the treatment of human ailments.

Of these 368 species of medicinal plants collected from the study area, most of them (256, 67.72%) were obtained from the wild habitats whereas 54 (14.67%) were from home gardens, and only 58 (15.76%) species were from both home gardens and wild habitats (see Table 1). The majority of plants used as medicine were freely harvested by healers from natural environment, while some exotic or difficult-accessed species were bought from medicinal materials suppliers. Generally fresh parts were wild harvest. Most medicinal plants were not available from local market, only some species were found to be sold but mainly for their uses as spice or food, such as Zanthoxylum armatum, Nepeta cataria and Houttuynia cordata.

Diseases treated in the study area

The medicinal plants were used to treat 95 human ailments in the study area. With regard to human diseases, traumatic injury was the one against which a high number of medicinal plants (67 species) were prescribed, followed by diarrhea (65 species), cough (44 species), hepatitis (37 species), enteritis (35 species), rheumatism (30 species), arthritis (27 species), bleeding (26 species), snake bite (24 species), furuncle (22 species) and nephritis (22 species).

The highest number of species (139, 37.57%) was used for the treatment of internal organs like liver (hepatitis, cirrhosis, jaundice, hepatic ascites, hepatosplenomegaly and so on), stomach (stomachache, stomach ulcer, gastroduodenal ulcer, flatulence, gastricism, indigestion and poor appetite), enteron (enteritis, proctoptosis, appendicitis and so on), spleen and diarrhea, with 251 (20.69%) of all conditions (Table 4 Rheumatic problems (83 species used, 22.4%) were mentioned as 140 (11.54%) of all uses; 83 species (22.4%) were used to treat respiratory problems, with 112 applications (9.23%). Bone problems were treated with 72 species (19.46%), with 85 conditions (7.01%). Skin problems were mentioned in 87 uses (7.17%), with 65 species (17.57%) used for treatment. Inflammation was treated with 48 species (12.97%), and comprised 67 (5.52%) of all conditions (Table 4).
Table 4

Informant consensus factor by categories of diseases in the study area

Category

Number of spp.

Total of spp. (%)

Number of use citation

Total of use citations (%)

F IC

Stomach, intestine and liver diseases (Internal Organ)

139

37.57

236

10.69

0.41

Respiratory system

83

22.43

153

6.93

0.46

Rheumatic problems

83

22.43

217

9.83

0.62

Traumatic injury and sprain

72

19.46

275

12.46

0.74

Skin diseases, skin cut and wound

65

17.57

152

6.89

0.58

Urinary system

47

12.70

105

4.76

0.56

Inflammation

48

12.97

143

6.48

0.67

Infectious diseases

40

10.81

78

3.53

0.49

Fever and malaria

36

9.73

132

5.98

0.73

Bleeding and hemorrhages

36

9.73

95

4.30

0.63

Pain

30

8.11

64

2.90

0.54

Animal bite (snake, centipede, mosquito and bat)

30

8.11

86

3.90

0.66

Gynecological problems

29

7.84

54

2. 45

0.47

Infantile diseases

28

7.57

110

4.98

0.75

Heart and circulatory system

25

6.76

42

1.90

0.41

Male problems

25

6.76

76

3.44

0.68

Nerves and psychosomatic problems

12

3.24

14

0.63

0.15

Hyperlipidemia and diabetes

6

1.62

13

0.59

0.58

Brain diseases

5

1.35

7

0.32

0.33

Cancer and tumors

4

1.08

6

0.27

0.40

Other Uses (edema, swelling and so on)

87

23.51

149

6.75

0.42

Ranking, informant consensus factor and multipurpose of medicinal plants

Among all ailments in the villages surveyed, traumatic injury was the most commonly disease against which a high number of medicinal plants (67 species) were prescribed. Seven medicinal plant species were used effectively for treating traumatic injury according to key informants. The results revealed Gaultheria leucocarpa was the most preferred medicinal plant, followed by Acanthopanax trifoliatus, and Sargentodoxa cuneata (Table 5).

Table 4 gave an overview of the main illness categories. The diseases that were prevalent in the study area had relatively higher FIC values. Medicinal plants to treat certain disease effectively and with reputation in Maonan communities also have higher FIC: traumatic injury and sprain (0.74), fever and malaria (0.73) and infantile diseases (0.75). Moreover, informants indicated the effectiveness of traditional medicines to get relief from certain diseases including traumatic injury, bone fracture, health problems associated with the liver disorder, snake bite, and spider poisoning.
Table 5

Preference ranking to medicinal plants used to treat traumatic injury

List of medicinal plants

Informants

Total

Rank

R 1

R 2

R 3

R 4

R 5

R 6

R 7

R 8

  

Acanthopanax trifoliatus

4

7

5

5

7

5

4

5

42

2

Bauhinia championii

3

4

6

7

1

3

1

2

27

5

Gaultheria leucocarpa

5

5

7

6

5

6

6

3

43

1

Justicia ventricosa

2

6

3

1

4

4

2

4

26

6

Polygonum chinense

6

1

1

2

2

1

3

1

17

7

Sargentodoxa cuneata

7

3

4

4

3

7

5

7

40

3

Sambucus williamsii

1

2

2

3

6

2

7

6

29

4

Key--R represented respondents; Scores in the table indicated ranks given to medicinal plants based on their scarcity. Highest number (7) is for the medicinal plants which informants thought most preferred in the area and the lowest number (1) for the least preferred medicinal plant.

The Maonans naturally relied on plants for multipurpose. Table 6 showed the most frequently inventoried medicinal plants had more functions used by the Maonans in local societies. In addition to medicinal value, most of medicinal plants were also valued for their economic, edible and ornamental values which were considered to serve an ecological role in the study sites. These plants included Acanthopanax trifoliatus, Litsea pungens, Platycodon grandiflorus, Rubus parvifolius, and Talinum paniculatum. Besides their medicinal purpose, these plants were sold in the local markets for the purposes of foods, spices and herbal teas, such as Allium fistulosum, Allium tuberosum, Cinnamomum cassia, Perilla frutescens, Oenanthe javanica, Gardenia jasminoides, Houttuynia cordata, and Juglans regia.
Table 6

Most frequently inventoried medicinal plants

Species name

Medicinal value

Edible value

Economic value

Ornamental value

Acanthopanax trifoliatus

Buddleja officinalis

 

Houttuynia cordata

 

Litsea pungens

Murraya exotica

 

Nephrolepis cordifolia

 

 

Paederia scandens

  

Platycodon grandiflorus

Rauvolfia verticillata

 

Rubus parvifolius

Sargentodoxa cuneata

 

 

Talinum paniculatum

Tetrapanax papyrifer

 

 

Mode of preparation, condition, dosage of application

Various plant species were collected and used immediately. Most of the medicinal formulations were administrated orally in ailment categories other than dermatological problems. In dermatological ailments, plants were administrated externally. Water and some additives were often used in the preparation of remedies, such as alcohol, oil, honey, salt, sugar, eggs, chicken, duck and meat. The additives were claimed to either increase nutrition or improve flavor. Most informants used measuring units such as cup, bowl, spoon, fingers and scale but still differed in the doses they administered. The various ways of measuring dosage were generally categorized under three major classes. One dosage was used for those medicinal plants which were expected to be highly toxic. For such medicines the measurement was undertaken by number or weight. The second was the dosage used for medicinal plants which have side effect. The dosage was measured by their hand and taken by container. The third case referred to the medicinal plants without any observable side effects. Medicines prepared were taken according to patients’ personal preference.

Most of the medicinal plant preparations involved the use of single plant species or a single plant part while those mixing different plants or plant parts were less encountered in the study area excluding those for treating bone fracture, rheumatism and other difficult diseases. Suffering from common diseases (common cold, indigestion, mosquito bite and so on), the Maonans usually picked up some medicinal plants for treatments by themselves. Otherwise, they should turn to the Maonan healers for help, and the local healers usually prepared remedies by mixing various plants or plant parts. Lack of consistency regarding amount of medicines was observed among informants. There was no concise standard in measurement or unit used among the informants.

Threats to medicinal plants and conservation practices

Various factors that were considered as main threats for medicinal plants were recorded by discussion with the informants in the study area. The principal threats of medicinal plants were reported to include drought, deforestation, medicinal purpose, and firewood collection in this area. Informants ranked that the major factors were deforestation for the purpose of agricultural expansion (75%), drought (10%), collection of medicinal plant material (10%) and fire wood (5%). The Maonan people knew the benefits of conserving medicinal plants. However, the effort of conserving medicinal plants was very limited, because most medicinal plants were collected from wild. Even the local healers who frequently made use of medicinal plants for livelihood did not conserve medicinal plants very well, and they preferred to collect them from wild when using for patients.

Discussion

Medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge

On the basis of field investigation and literature studies, 368 species of medicinal plants belonged to 295 genera and 115 families were cataloged. Chinese name, scientific name, local name, family name, used parts and the treatment of diseases were listed. Asteraceae (with 24 species) occupied the highest proportion (6.52%), followed by Fabaceae, Rosaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Moerman also found that species of plants in the sunflower family (Asteraceae) tended to be represented in ethnobotanical usage in excess of what would be expected by their occurrence in local environments [27-29]. In contrast, Moerman identified the greater number of families across North America in general. The most widely used plant remedies by the Maonans were obtained from herbaceous species which constituted the highest category of 203 species (55.16%). Similar findings were reported by other studies throughout the world, and the authors reported that people derived their medicine from herbs partly because of the fact that forests had been degraded, and it took less time and effort to harvest plant material from medicinal herbs [6,30-32].

The special geographical environment results in the rich biodiversity of medicinal plants in the study area. The Maonans have learnt to use local medicinal plants for treatment and prevention in the course of struggling with the ailments. The number of reported medicinal plants and their uses by the Maonans indicate the depth of indigenous knowledge on the medicinal plants and their applications. The Maonans have collected their indigenous knowledge and experience of medicinal plants. Without written language, the knowledge of medicinal plants is still taught orally in the Maonan communities. There is not data record or any illustrated identification which guides for the medicinal plants of Maonan people and their uses.

The Maonans have the traditional customs of disease prevention and emphasize on the function of medicinal food in ordinary life. They usually add medicinal plants into food for the purpose of enhancing the body’s immunity and disease resistance, such as Talinum paniculatum, Gymnotheca chinensis, Osbeckia opipara and so on. The Maonans have the custom of collecting the medicinal plants for cooking and bathing in dragon-boat festival, such as Acorus calamus, Curcuma longa, Paederia scandens and Leonurus artemisia. They believe that it would be beneficial for their health. This is because many plants matured in the season of dragon-boat festival [33].

Preparation, dosage and route of administration of medicinal plants

The most widely harvested part was the whole plant, followed by the roots, leaves, stems and others. The Maonan people used a lot of roots, stems, rhizomes and bark for medicinal purpose. They believed these parts were the most effective. However, such collection of the medicinal plants might kill or damage plants when harvesting. Utilization of leaves might not cause detrimental effect on the plants compared with plant species that root was utilized. Most of medicinal plants were claimed to be prepared from a single species or plant part in the present study, and the different parts of medicinal plant were used to treat disparate diseases. Although Maonan people preferred to treat illnesses with single species, it was observed that the healers mostly used multiple species or plant parts in order to increase the function and efficacy of the drug as they reported during the interviews. Representatively, the Maonan healers mostly used more than one plant species to prepare remedy for treating bone fracture and traumatic injury.

Grinding was the most widely used method of preparation for remedy in the study area. Pounding and powdering fresh plant materials were the other methods of preparation in the study area. Due to the efficiency and richness of the fresh medicinal plants in the study area, preference of application of fresh plant parts was observed. Moreover, internal and skin diseases were more prevalent in the study area. The fresh material use might be an attempt not to lose volatile oils, the concentration of which could decrease on drying. Moa et al. reported that the disadvantage was that utilization of fresh plant parts may threaten the plants through frequent collection including in dry seasons since local people made minimal efforts in storing dried plant material for later use [6].

The Maonans usually use the processing methods such as decoction, medicinal liquor, external application and medicated bath. The way of using herbs was benefit for the popularity in a simple and easy method. They used different additives like alcohol, oil, honey, salt, sugar, eggs, chicken, duck and meat in order to increase the flavor, taste and general acceptability of certain orally administered remedies. Because of poverty, eating animal meat and eggs could increase proteins and might be helpful for body recovery when the Maonans were ill. The Maonan healers considered that alcohol could promote the blood circulation and accelerate the absorption of exudates. In addition, the Maonan healers used different procedures to administer the medicinal plants and alcohol combinations. The medicinal plants were soaked in alcohol for nearly one month and then the patients could drink or applied externally on the affected parts. For example, Acanthopanax gracilistylus, Achyranthes bidentata, Ardisia gigantifolia, Ardisia japonica, Arisaema heterophyllum, Davallia mariesii, Dipsacus asperoides, Drynaria propinqua, Homalomena occulta, Sambucus williamsii, Bauhinia championii, Murraya exotica, and Paris polyphylla were usually soaked in alcohol for treating traumatic injury and bone fracture.

Effectiveness and popularity of medicinal plants

Due to the influence of geography, climate and food culture in Maonan areas, the Maonan healers understood the varieties of diseases, such as traumatic injury, snake bite, hepatitis, respiratory disease, digestive system disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and skin problems. The local people expressed they preferred to use traditional medicines rather than western drugs to get relief from some diseases including bone fracture, health problems associated with the liver, snake bite and those caused by hepatitis. The Maonan healers treated ailments based on the patients’ physical conditions, lack of consistency regarding amount of medicines to be used was observed among informants during the interviews. The healers usually did not know which ingredients were important for the therapeutic effect in the multiple prescriptions. The lack of precise dosage was one shortage of traditional medicinal plant uses.

Most of Maonan people knew how to use several medicinal plants for treating ailments and health protection. Traditional medicine knowledge was not only in the hands of the Maonan healers and herbalists in the study area. Moreover, Maonan people grew medicinal plants in their home gardens. Plant species maintained by Maonan healers was found to be significantly distinct from plant species managed by farmers. The Maonan healers knew more than 30 medicinal plant species, while most of the non-healers reported less than 15 species. Ethnomedicinal usage of plants managed by healers was remarkably distinct from usage categories managed by farmers. The Maonan healers were reported to use a combination of multiple medicinal plants to treat an illness, but the farmers always used single plant species or a single plant part.

Medicinal plant cultivation and trade

The Maonan people in the study area knew the benefits of conserving medicinal plants. However, the effort of conserving medicinal plants was very limited. For example, only 20.75% of medicinal plants were collected from home gardens, and most of the plants from home gardens were used for foods, spices and substitutes for tea. The majority of medicinal plants were harvested from wild habitats. Even Maonan healers who made use of medicinal plants for a livelihood did not conserve the important medicinal plants in their home gardens, and they preferred to collect them from wild or hidden places when patients visited them. It was explained by informants that local healers did not let the other villagers know the identity of the medicinal plants they were using. Informants further explained that if healers planted the species in their home gardens, they worried that somebody else might recognize them when they were preparing the medicine from the plants. Thus the healers’ income would be decreased.

Because of complex terrain and language barrier, the Maonans have been in the traditional self-sufficient agricultural economy in the karst areas. There is a seasonal medicinal market which opens 3 times each month. The sites of purchase and sale of local medicinal plants are located in the town. The medicinal plants grown by farmers were used for household healthcare and little was sold in herbal markets, while medicinal plants were cultivated by healers rarely for trading, either. Not many medicinal plants were solely cultivated for their medicinal purpose, except that the plants were multipurpose (Table 6). Lack of water and land, most Maonan people would prefer to cultivate foods or cash crops rather than medicinal plants. The other reason was that most medicinal plants were not sold at reasonable prices and therefore not profitable, providing very little incentives for their cultivation. The local medicinal markets were small-scaled and were not paid enough attention. The markets provided convenience for the exchange of local medicinal plants, but not providing a good place for indigenous knowledge. This trend might not be beneficial for maintaining traditional practices and giving traditional knowledge the respect it deserves.

Threats to medicinal plants and conservation practices in the study area

According to informants, nowadays it would take a lot of time and travel long distances to search for some medicinal plants, especially trees and some shrubs. The principal threats of medicinal plants were reported in the study area, including deforestation for agricultural purposes, urbanization, drought, over-harvesting of known medicinal species and firewood collection. Also, informants ranked deforestation for agricultural purposes as the most serious threat to medicinal plants followed by drought, collection of other different factors and firewood. The conservation of medicinal plants was less realized in the study area.

Medicinal plants knowledge secrecy, mode of transfer, gender issue and threats between different social groups within the Maonan area

This study highlighted the rich biodiversity of medicinal plants and ethnomedicinal practice in Maonan area to maintain wellbeing and support livelihoods. This study revealed that, most of the knowledge on herbal remedies was handled down to the younger members of the community by elders orally, who were over 40 years old and less-educated. The Maonan herbalists and healers were male, and only men had the opportunities to study knowledge of traditional medicinal plants in the family. The conservative concept of Maonan healers made a systematic indigenous knowledge of Maonan traditional medicine, which had always been in the hands of a few people. The age structure and knowledge transmission system had the negative influence on the inheritance and development of indigenous knowledge. It dramatically exposed the vulnerability of traditional medicinal knowledge if its transmission was limited by acculturation or inter-ethnic exchange from generation to generation [15,34,35].

Nowadays, the fact is that inheritance of indigenous knowledge is difficulty from the elders to the young generation. Most young people do not believe that studying indigenous knowledge is beneficial for their life because it is less profited compared to working in the urban area. Furthermore, some young people think traditional medicine is anti-science. While male Maonan people work outside, women take responsibility to take care of their families and educate children. If women know how to use medicinal plants, it will be beneficial for training children. According to our interviews, the Maonan women are eager to learn the traditional herbal medicinal knowledge. They may become potential and effective inheritors in the Maonan area, if customary inheriting system allows them.

Conclusions

The paper is an ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Maonan people. We documented 368 species (belonging to 295 genera and 115 families) of medicinal plants used by the Maonans in Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County, northern Guangxi, southwest China. These plants were used to treat 95 human diseases, such as traumatic injury, bone fracture, health problems associated with the liver disorder, snake bite, and spider poisoning etc. Traditional knowledge about the use, preparation, and application of these medicinal plants is usually passed verbally from generation to generation. The valuable information about medicinal plants could be preserved while recording in the written form. Moreover, the documentation of medicinal plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of new medicinal resources.

Among the medicinal plant species, the whole plants of herbaceous species are harvested from field and constituted the highest proportion of medicinal plants to be utilized. More roots and barks are used than other plant parts, which imply that traditional medical culture in the Maonan area does threaten some species. Although high numbers of medicinal plant species have been reported to be used for human health problems, many wild species are being threatened by various anthropogenic factors while conservation efforts are less practiced in the study area. Deforestation for agricultural purposes is the major threat factor. To save and protect medicinal plants, the external help is necessary, by providing the Maonan people with both seedlings or seeds and cultivation techniques of medicinal plants.

The Maonan men are the only inheritors to transmit traditional medicinal knowledge to the next generations. Unfortunately, the knowledge on herbal remedies is held by elders, who are less educated and above 40 years old. Most young men prefer to look for jobs in urban areas instead of studying the Maonan’s medicinal knowledge. It is urgent to find solution of conserving and transmitting the traditional medicinal knowledge in the study area.

Thus, government agencies should encourage the Maonan people to maintain the biodiversity and the ethnomedicinal knowledge by providing the local people with planting materials of the most threatened and preferred medicinal and multipurpose species so that they can grow these plants in their home gardens or farmlands. Public awareness is needed to encourage the local Maonan people to sustainably utilize and manage the medicinal plant resources. Ex situ and in situ conservation measures should be taken to protect the medicinal plants in the study areas from further loss.

Consent

Permissions were provided by all participants in this study, including the local Maonan people. Consent was obtained from the local communities prior to the field investigations. The authors have all copyrights.

Declarations

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the administrative agencies of Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County for their help while carrying out this study. We fully acknowledged the local informants and healers for participating the surveys and sharing their knowledge on the use of medicinal plants with us. Without their contribution, this study would have been impossible. We would like to thank Qingqing Bi from the Department of Minority Languages and Literatures at Minzu University of China for correcting and typing the Maonan names of medicinal plants. This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31161140345, 31070288), Minzu University of China (10301-01404031-84, YLDX01013), Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2012FY110300), Ministry of Education of China and State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs of China (B08044).

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China
(2)
Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
(3)
Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences

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