Skip to main content

Table 1 Plants used for liquor fermentation starter in Sandu County of Guizhou

From: Ethnobotany of wild plants used for starting fermented beverages in Shui communities of southwest China

No. Chinese name Shui name Scientific name Family name Life form Parts used Frequency Other value
1 Tuniuxi 土牛膝 ma24dian43 Achyranthes aspera L. Amaranthaceae Herb Leaf *** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Diuretics; Cold; Fever; Amygdalitis; Mumps
2 Zhonghua-mihoutao 中华猕猴桃 faŋ43ma24 Actinidia chinensis Planch. Actinidiaceae Shrub Leaf **** The fruit is edible
3 Geyemihoutao 革叶猕猴桃 faŋ43ma24 Actinidia rubricaulis var. coriacea (Finet & Gagnep.) C.F. Liang Actinidiaceae Shrub Leaf, Fruit *** The fruit is edible
4 Longyacao 龙芽草 ɡa31jun35ɡaŋ42 Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Rosaceae Herb Aerial part ***** Stopping bleed
5 Xingxiang-tu’erfeng 杏香兔儿风 ʨyŋ35laŋ31thu31nu24luŋ42 Ainsliaea fragrans Champ. ex Benth. Asteraceae Herb Aerial part ***** Heat-clearing and detoxifying effect; Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Diuretics; Hematemesis; Traumatic injury
6 Sanyemutong 三叶木通 haŋ31wa24mei33thuŋ55 Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz. Lardizabalaceae Liana Leaf *** Diuretics; Promoting lactation; Loosing bones and muscles; Removing dampness; Arthralgia
7 Ersexiangqing 二色香青 ja55sa43laŋ35ʨhu53 Anaphalis bicolor (Franch.) Diels Asteraceae Shrub Whole plant ** Removing dampness; Relieving summer-heat; Cough
8 Jinxiancao 金线草 niaŋ55ha24ɡaŋ43 Antenoron filiforme (Thunb.) Roberty & Vautier Polygonaceae Herb Aerial part **** Dispelling wind and cold; Removing dampness; Relieving pain; Stopping bleed; Eliminating stasis to stop pain
9 Zijinniu 紫金牛 ʨin24niaŋ24kui42 Ardisia japonica (Thunb.) Bl. Myrsinaceae Shrub Aerial part ***** Phthisis; Hemoptysis; Cough; Tracheitis; Removing dampness; Leukorrhea; Amenorrhoea; Diuretics
10 Qihao 奇蒿 ȵi35ai35 Artemisia anomala S. Moore Asteraceae Herb Aerial part *** Removing dampness; Promoting blood circulations; Eliminating stasis to stop pain; Irregular menstruation; Relieving pain
11 Hualianxixin 花脸细辛 nu55na5535na24 Asarum splendens (F. Maekawa) C. Y. Cheng & C. S. Yang Aristolochiaceae Herb Whole plant **** Dispelling wind and cold; Relieving pain; Warming lung for dispelling cold
12 Wulingxixin 五岭细辛 33nu3335na24 Asarum wulingense C.F. Liang Aristolochiaceae Herb Whole plant *** Dispelling wind and cold; Relieving pain; Warming lung for dispelling cold
13 Tiejiaojue 铁角蕨 ɕie24pau4335 Asplenium trichomanes L. Aspleniaceae Herb Whole plant ** Heat-clearing and detoxifying effect; Removing dampness; Stopping bleed; Eliminating stasis to stop pain; Dysentery; Leukorrhea; Irregular menstruation; Backache
14 Ziwan 紫菀 ʨie35yue55 Aster ageratoides Turcz. Asteraceae Herb Aerial part **** Cold; Cough; Asthma; Consumptive disease; Blood vomitting
15 Sanmaiziwan 三脉紫菀 haŋ43mai35 ʨie35jue55 Aster tataricus L. f. Asteraceae Herb Aerial part *** Cold; Cough; Asthma; Consumptive disease; Blood vomitting
16 Xianghua 香桦 laŋ24huaˀ55 Betula insignis Franch. Betulaceae Tree Leaf ***** Cough; Asthma; Eliminating phlegm
17 Baiji 白及 ja43pau43 Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Rchb. f. Orchidaceae Herb Root ***** Stopping bleed; Anti-swelling agent; Promoting tissue regeneration
18 Laijiangteng 来江藤 daŋ42kui33jau43 Brandisia hancei Hook. f. Scrophulariaceae Shrub Stem, Leaf ***** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Bone fracture; Hepatitis
19 Jinqianbao 金钱豹 niaŋ24ɕie33me43 Campanumoea javanica Bl. Campanulaceae Liana Aerial part *** Warming spleen and stomach for dispelling cold; Moistening lung to arrest cough; Inducing saliva and slakes thirst; Spleen tonic
20 Yanguantoucao 烟管头草 je31tau24ku33kaŋ43 Carpesium cernuum L. Asteraceae Herb Aerial part **** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Anti-swelling agent; Anti-inflammation; Relieving pain; Cold; Fever; Toothache; Dysentery; Diuretics
21 Diaodenghua 吊灯花 tiau35phau33nuˀ55 Ceropegia trichantha Hemsl. Asclepiadaceae Liana Whole plant ** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Bone fracture; Hepatitis; Ornamental
22 Rougui 肉桂 nai55kui55 Cinnamomum cassia (L.) D. Don Lauraceae Tree Bark ***** Relieving pain; Waist and knee pain; Stomachache; Dyspepsia; Amenorrhea; Spice
23 Ganju 柑橘 kaːŋ55 Citrus reticulata Blanco Rutaceae Tree Leaf ***** Regulating qi-flowing for eliminating phlegm; Promoting blood circulations; Anti-swelling agent; The fruit is edible
24 Dangshen 党参 taŋ24ʂen24 Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. Campanulaceae Liana Aerial part ***** Invigorating the blood; Spleen and stomach tonic; Weakness; The root is cooking for edible
25 Fanbaocao 饭包草 ma33kai43kei33 Commelina bengalensis L. Commelinaceae Herb Aerial part *** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Diuretics; Anti-swelling agent; The leaves and stems are cooking as vegetables
26 Xianggang-sizhaohua 香港四照花 ɕi24ʦau43nuˀ55 Cornus hongkongensis Hemsl. Cornaceae Tree Leaf, Fruit ** Ornamental, The fruit is edible
27 Shamu 杉木 mei35faːi24 Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. Taxodiaceae Tree Young leaf *** Construction
28 Qinggang 青冈 mei35khei24 Cyclobalanopsis glauca (Thunb.) Oerst. Fagaceae Tree Fruits, Barks **** Clearing away heat and toxic materials
29 Yuyancao 鱼眼草 mei35la31kaŋ43 Dichrocephala integrifolia (L. f.) Kuntze Asteraceae Herb Leaf ** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Rremoving dampness
30 Yeshi 野柿 mei35 Diospyros kaki var. silvestris Makino Ebenaceae Tree Leaf *** The fruit is edible
31 Hutuizi 胡颓子 nuei35liuˀ55la33 Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. Elaeagnaceae Shrub Leaf, Fruit ***** Dispelling wind and cold; Removing dampness; Removing blood stasis; Stopping bleed; Traumatic injury
32 Xiangru 香薷 laŋ35ʐu43 Elsholtzia ciliata (Thunb.) Hyl. Lamiaceae Herb Stem, Leaf *** Relieving exterior and sweating; Removing dampness; Warming spleen and stomach for dispelling cold; Diuretics; Anti-swelling agent
33 Jianyerong 尖叶榕 ɕie43wa24ʐuŋ24 Ficus henryi Warb. Moraceae Tree Leaf, Fruit **** Cough; Toothache; Removing dampness; The fruit is edible
34 Bili 薜荔 ɕue35li43 Ficus pumila L. Moraceae Shrub Leaf ***** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Expelling damp; Diuretics; The achene is washed for cooking bean jelly
35 Diguo 地果 laŋ4335 Ficus tikoua Bureau Moraceae Herb Stem, Leaf, Fruit *** Heat-clearing and detoxifying effect; Removing dampness; Promoting blood circulations; Clearing away heat and toxic materials; The fruit is edible
36 Qianjinba 千斤拔 ɕie35ʨie43jun33 Flemingia prostrata Roxb. Fabaceae Shrub Leaf **** Dispelling wind and cold; Removing dampness; Removing blood stasis; Clearing away heat and toxic materials
37 Zhizi 栀子 mei3543 Gardenia jasminoides J. Ellis Rubiaceae Shrub Leaf, Fruit ***** Heat-clearing and detoxifying effect; Purging intense heat; Herbal tea; Ornamental
38 Weiyebaizhu 尾叶白珠 hen55wa24pa33lei43 Gaultheria griffithiana Wight Ericaceae Shrub Lef *** Removing dampness; Ornamental
39 Baiguobaizhu 白果白珠 pa33lei43 pa33lei43 Gaultheria leucocarpa Bl. Ericaceae Shrub Leaf *** Removing dampness; Ornamental
40 Maodadingcao 毛大丁草 ȵi55mo33ɕie43 Gerbera piloselloides (L.) Cass. Asteraceae Herb Whole plant ***** Clearing internal heat; Anti-inflammatory effects; Cold; Fever; Postpartum dysphoria
41 Dadingcao 大丁草 mo33ɕie43 Gerbera anandria (L.) Sch.-Bip. Asteraceae Herb Whole plant **** Heat-clearing and detoxifying effect; Removing dampness; Anti-swelling agent; Bleeding
42 Lubianqing 路边青 ʨia35khun43jy43 Geum aleppicum Jacq. Rosaceae Herb Aerial part ***** Irregular menstruation; Dispelling wind and cold; Removing dampness; Relieving pain
43 Suanpanzi 算盘子 mei24la33li43 Glochidion puberum (L.) Hutch. Euphorbiaceae Shrub Stem, Leaf, Fruit ***** Heat-clearing and detoxifying effect; Removing dampness; Dispelling wind and cold; Loosing bones and muscles; Leukorrhea; Dysmenorrhea
44 Shanxiaoju 山小橘 nu5533ʨiu55 Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC. Rutaceae Tree Leaf **** Eliminating stasis to stop pain; Anti-swelling agent; The fruit is edible
45 Nuomituan 糯米团 nu55man33kaŋ43 Gonostegia hirta (Bl. ex Hassk.) Miq. Urticaceae Herb Whole plant ***** Spleen tonic; Digestion; Heat-clearing and detoxifying effect; Removing dampness; Anti-swelling agent
46 Xiao’erxiancao 小二仙草 33ka33ɕie43kaŋ43 Haloragis micrantha Thunb. Haloragidaceae Herb Whole plant *** Diuretics; Expelling damp; Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Antidysmenorrhea; Promoting blood circulations
47 Changchunteng 常春藤 ma43lian35man33 Hedera nepalensis K. Koch Araliaceae Shrub Whole plant * Dispelling wind and cold; Removing dampness; Promoting blood circulations; Anti-swelling agent; Ornamental
48 Ercao 耳草 khan43kaŋ43 Hedyotis auricularia L. Rubiaceae Tree Leaf *** Heat-clearing and detoxifying effect; Removing dampness; Anti-swelling agent
49 Zhiju 枳椇 ɕiu43 Hovenia acerba Lindl. Rhamnaceae Tree Leaf, Fruit **** Promoting blood circulations; Eliminating stasis to stop pain; Clearing heat and expelling damp; Asthma; Ornamental; Fence
50 Kuanluanye-changbing-shanmahuang 宽卵叶长柄山蚂蝗 sɿ33mi43 Hylodesmum podocarpum subsp. fallax (Schindl.) H. Ohashi & R.R. Mill Fabaceae Herb Leaf *** Dispelling wind and cold; Loosing bones and muscles; Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Anti-swelling agent; Traumatic injury; Removing dampness; Backache
51 Jianyechangbing-shanmahuang 尖叶长柄山蚂蝗 sɿ33mi43 Hylodesmum podocarpum subsp. oxyphyllum (DC.) H. Ohashi & R.R. Mill Fabaceae Herb Leaf *** Dispelling wind and cold; Loosing bones and muscles; Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Anti-swelling agent; Traumatic injury; Removing dampness
52 Tianjihuang 田基黄 khui33wan33tin43 Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Clusiaceae Herb Aerial part **** Heat-clearing and detoxifying effect; Removing dampness; Promoting blood circulations; Anti-swelling agent
53 Yuanbaocao 元宝草 juan24pin33 kaŋ43 Hypericum sampsonii Hance Clusiaceae Herb Whole plant *** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Restoring menstrual flow; Loosing bones and muscles; Stopping bleed; Fever; Dysentery; Irregular menstruation,Leukorrhea
54 Baimao 白茅 hai33pa43 Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv. Poaceae herb Root, Stem ***** Stopping bleed; Heat-clearing and detoxifying effect; Diuretics
55 Jianyemulan 尖叶木蓝 wa24ɕie43mei35ʨhu43 Indigofera zollingeriana Miq. Fabaceae Shrub Young stem, Leaf *** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Removing blood stasis; Stopping bleed
56 Yang’erju 羊耳菊 ma35hai55 Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) DC. Asteraceae Shrub Aerial part **** Dispelling wind and cold; Anti-swelling agent; Relieving pain
57 Yuanwei 鸢尾 wa24liu43 Iris tectorum Maxim. Iridaceae Herb Root, Stem **** Promoting blood circulations; Removing blood stasis; Dispelling wind and cold; Removing dampness; Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Digestion; Ornamental
58 Nanwuweizi 南五味子 nai43wo24wei24la43 Kadsura longipedunculata Finet & Gagnep. Schisandraceae Liana Whole plant **** Astringent; Inducing saliva and slakes thirst; Notifying kidney and spleen; The fruit is edible
59 Huorongcao 火绒草 jy33mau43kaŋ43 Leontopodium leontopodioides (Willd. ) Beauv. Asteraceae Herb Whole plant *** Clearing away heat and toxic materials
60 Yimucao 益母草 mai33kaŋ43 Leonurus japonicus Houtt. Lamiaceae Herb Young stem, Leaf ***** Promoting blood circulations; Removing blood stasis; Diuretics; Anti-dysmenorrhea
61 Yebaihe 野百合 nu33pa43 Lilium brownii F.E. Brown ex Miell. Liliaceae Herb Bulb **** Moistening lung to arrest cough; Heat-clearing and detoxifying effect; Tranquilizing the mind; Diuretics; The bulb is edible
62 Shanjijiao 山鸡椒 ɕiu43 Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. Lauraceae Shrub Leaf ***** Warming spleen and stomach for dispelling cold; Dispelling wind and cold; Anti-swelling agent; Spice
63 Liuyerendong 柳叶忍冬 ha33tiau33ʨi33tin4333 Lonicera lanceolata Wall. Caprifoliaceae Tree Stem, Leaf, flower **** None
64 Danzhuye 淡竹叶 wa33fan55 Lophatherum gracile Brongn. Poaceae Herb Whole plant ***** Reducing pathogenic fire; Fever; Diuretics; Herbal tea
65 Haijinsha 海金沙 miau33nu33ka55 Lygodium japonicum (Thunb.) Sw. Lygodiaceae Herb Aerial part ***** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Removing dampness; Relieving pain Urinary tract infections; Hepatitis; Nephritis edema; Diarrhea
66 Xiaoguo-shidagonglao 小果十大功劳 laŋ3333suŋ33ta33kuŋ33lau24 Mahonia bodinieri Gagnep. Berberidaceae Shrub Whole plant ***** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Anti-swelling agent; Antidiarrheic; Dysentery; Hepatitis; Ornamental
67 Diren 地菍 lai33ʐ24 Melastoma dodecandrum Lour. Melastomaceae Shrub Aerial part ***** Removing toxicity; The fruit is edible
68 Shiqizhu 石荠苎 tin43ʨi33han24 Mosla scabra (Thunb.) C.Y. Wu & H.W. Li Lamiaceae Herb Aerial part ***** Cold; Malaria; Constipation; Hemafecia; Bleeding; Traumatic injury
69 Yangmei 杨梅 hai24 Myrica rubra (Lour.) Sieb. & Zucc. Myricaceae Tree Leaf, Fruit ***** Inducing saliva and slakes thirst; Digestion; The fruit is edible
70 Shenjue 肾蕨 ȵi33ʨian43 Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott Davalliaceae Herb Whole plant ***** Cold; Fever; Cough; Tuberculosis; Dysentery; Enteritis; The tuber is edible
71 Xiaohuaihua 小槐花 nu33mei33suŋ43 Ohwia caudata (Thunb.) H. Ohashi Fabaceae Shrub Leaf ***** Hepatoprotective
72 Yezhiwei-jinfenjue 野雉尾金粉蕨 ȵin24ja33to24 Onychium japonicum (Thunb.) Kze. Pteridaceae Herb Aerial part *** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Removing dampness; Stopping bleed; The leaves are cooked as vegetables
73 Jishiteng 鸡矢藤 jau33kai24 Paederia foetida L. Rubiaceae Liana Aerial part ***** Dispelling wind and cold; Removing dampness; Digestion; Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Anti-swelling agent; Promoting blood circulations; Relieving pain
74 Jinxiangcao 锦香草 laŋ24kaŋ43 Phyllagathis cavaleriei (Levl. et Van.) Guillaum. Melastomaceae Shrub Whole plant ***** Reducing pathogenic fire; Tonic
75 Changmang-jinxiangcao 长芒锦香草 kai24laŋ24kaŋ43 Phyllagathis longiradiosa C. Chen Melastomaceae Shrub Leaf *** Clearing away heat and toxic materials
76 Shanju 山蒟 man33luŋ24 Piper hancei Maxim. Piperaceae Liana Aerial part ***** Dispelling wind and cold; Removing dampness; Activating collaterals
77 Pingcheqian 平车前 ma43ma35 Plantago depressa Willd. Plantaginaceae Herb Aerial part ***** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Diuretics; The whole plants is cooked as vegetables
78 Jiegeng 桔梗 haŋ33tie24 Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A. DC. Campanulaceae Herb Root ***** Cough;Eliminating phlegm; Ornamental
79 Guazijin 瓜子金 ha33ɣə33ti33 Polygala japonica Houtt. Polygalaceae Herb Aerial part ***** Promoting blood circulations; Eliminating stasis to stop pain; Eliminating phlegm and relieve cough; Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Relieving pain
80 Laliao 辣蓼 lie24liauˀ55 Polygonum hydropiper L. Polygonaceae Herb Aerial part ***** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Eliminating stasis to stop pain;stopping bleed; Dysentery; Traumatic injury; Spice
81 Machixian 马齿苋 ma33jun33ȵie24 Portulaca oleracea L. Portulacaceae Herb Aerial part ***** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Promoting circulation and removing stasis; Anti-swelling agent; The aerial part is cooked as vegetabl
82 Shiganzi 石柑子 tin33kai33la55 Pothos chinensis (Raf.) Merr. Araceae Liana Stems, Leaf **** Dispelling wind and cold; Removing dampness; Promoting blood circulations; Eliminating stasis to stop pain; Digestion; Cough
83 Ge pei33hai55 Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. Fabaceae Liana Leaf ***** Fever; Inducing saliva and slakes thirst; Inducing saliva and slakes thirst; Antidiarrheic; Kudzu powder is edible
84 Wannianqing 万年青 ɕin33pe31ʨhiu55 Rohdea japonica (Thunb.) Roth Liliaceae Herb Leaf **** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Eliminating stasis to stop pain; Relieving pain
85 Cili 刺梨 nei24 Rosa roxburghii Tratt. Rosaceae Shrub Fruit ***** Heat-clearing and detoxifying effect; Inducing saliva and slakes thirst; Digestion; The fruit is edible
86 Jinyingzi 金樱子 ȵy33məŋ33ja43 Rosa laevigata Michx. Rosaceae Shrub Leaf, Fruit ***** Promoting blood circulations; Eliminating stasis to stop pain; Dispelling wind and cold; Removing dampness; Clearing away heat and toxic; The fruit is ediblematerials
87 Cuyexuangouzi 粗叶悬钩子 luei31wa24lauˀ55 Rubus alceaefolius Poir. Rosaceae Shrub Root, Leaf *** Promoting blood circulations; Removing blood stasis; Heat-clearing and detoxifying effect; Stopping bleed; The fruit is edible
88 Shanmei 山莓 tuŋ33kaˀ55 Rubus corchorifolius L. f. Rosaceae Shrub Stem, Leaf, Fruit **** Promoting blood circulations; Stopping bleed; Dispelling wind and cold; Removing dampness; The fruit is edible
89 Tuoyuan-xuangouzi 椭圆悬钩子 lun33laŋ24ku33lu33 Rubus ellipticus Sm. Rosaceae Shrub Young stem, Leaf *** Anti-swelling agent; Relieving pain; Antidiarrheic; The fruit is edible
90 Huangguo-xuangouzi 黄果悬钩子 lun33laŋ24man33 Rubus xanthocarpus Bureau & Franch. Rosaceae Shrub Leaf *** Anti-inflammatory effects; Relieving pain; The fruit is edible
91 Hongpaociteng 红泡刺藤 jau43lun33han33 Rubus niveus Thunb. Rosaceae Shrub Leaf, Fruit **** Dispelling wind and cold; Removing dampness; Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Dysentery; The fruit is edible
92 Daxueteng 大血藤 ma31len24ʨieˀ55 Sargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv.) Rehder & E.H. Wilson Lardizabalaceae Liana Stem, Leaf **** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Promoting blood circulations; Dredging collaterals; Dispelling wind and cold; Convulsive disease
93 Xiaoxueteng 小血藤 ma31jiu43 ʨieˀ55 Schisandra propinqua (Wall.) Baillon Schisandraceae Liana Aerial part **** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Anti-swelling agent; Eliminating stasis to stop pain; Stopping bleed
94 Tiegusan 铁箍散 ɕin33nuei33ku33san33 Schisandra propinqua subsp. sinensis (Oliv.) R.M.K. Saunders Schisandraceae Liana Stem, Leaf, Fruit **** Dispelling wind and cold; Promoting blood circulations; Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Anti-swelling agent; Relieving pain; Irregular menstruation
95 Sanmaibaqia 三脉菝葜 fa2433en24 Smilax trinervula Miqual Liliaceae Shrub Leaf **** None
96 Citianqie 刺天茄 suŋ31wən24ʨia24 Solanum violaceum Ortega Solanaceae Shrub Leaf *** Anti-inflammatory effects; Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Relieving pain
97 Baitan 白檀 pa33than24 Symplocos paniculata Miq. Symplocaceae Shrub Leaf ***** Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Removing blood stasis; Dispelling wind and cold
98 Hongdoushan 红豆杉 mei24nu33 Taxus wallichiana Zucc. var. chinensis (Pilg.) Florin Taxaceae Tree Young leaf ***** Digestion; Ascariasis; Ornamental
99 Qinglichai 青篱柴 ʨhiu24li33lin24 Tirpitzia sinensis (Hemsl.) Hallier f. Linaceae Shrub Stem, leaf *** Anti-swelling agent; Relieving pain; Bone fracture; Ornamental
100 Xiangchun 香椿 mei24ȵiu43 Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) M. Roem. Meliaceae Tree Leaf ***** Cold; Removing dampness; Stomachache; Dysentery; The leaves is cooked as vegetable
101 Mabiancao 马鞭草 ma24pian33kaŋ43 Verbena officinalis L. Verbenaceae Herb Aerial part ***** Promoting blood circulations; Eliminating stasis to stop pain; Malaria; Clearing away heat and toxic materials; Diuretics; Anti-swelling agent
102 Lanshu 蓝树 mei24ʨhiu24 Wrightia laevis Hook. f. Apocynaceae Tree Leaf ***** Traumatic injury; Stopping bleed; Dye plant
103 Huajiao 花椒 ɕiu24 Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. Rutaceae Tree Leaf ***** Digestion; Relieving pain; Insecticidal; Anti-itch; Spice
  1. Frequency: ***** > 75% of respondents; **** > 50% of respondents; *** > 25% of respondents; ** > 12.5% of respondents; * < 12.5% of respondents, but at least 5 respondents
  2. (Ranked by scientific names alphabetically, followed by generic and species names)