Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Folk uses of wild food plants recorded in the study area

From: Folk knowledge of wild food plants among the tribal communities of Thakht-e-Sulaiman Hills, North-West Pakistan

Botanical taxon, voucher specimen code and botanical family Folk name Used part(s) Gathering period Gathering area(s) Collectors Folk food uses Citation frequency Previously reported from Pakistan as WFPs
Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schult. (127216) Sparokai Leaves April-July Waste land Women Young fresh leaves are boiled in water for ½ hour. The extra water is poured out, and the leaves are moved to another container containing ghee with fried onions & red chilies. Kept on the fire until water is evaporated & ghee appears on top. This is then eaten with bread. 0.16 Yes
Amaranthaceae
Allium carolinianum DC. (127194) Khokhai Whole plant June-September Ridges Men The leaves and bulbs are eaten with bread. 0.37 Yes
Amaryllidaceae
Allium sp. Linn. (127217) Cook Whole plant June-September Slopes and ridges Men The leaves and bulbs are eaten with bread and are also used as spice in curry. 0.50 Yes
Amaryllidaceae
Amaranthus spinosus L. (127219) Sarmay Leaves April-July Waste land Women Young fresh leaves are boiled in water for ½ hour. The extra water is poured out, and then the leaves are moved to another container containing ghee with fried onions & red chilies. Kept on the fire until water is evaporated & ghee appears on top. This is then eaten with bread. 0.93 Yes
Amaranthaceae
Berberis calliobotrys Bien. ex Koehne (127222) Sarmay Fruits October Pine forests Men Directly consumed. 0.11 No
Berberidaceae
Caragana ambigua Stocks (127205) Zaray Flowers June Valleys Kids Directly consumed. 0.02 No
Fabaceae
Caralluma tuberculata N.E.Br. (127133) Pamanai Stems March-April Moist shady places Women, men, kids Extensive salt is rubbed on the cut pieces and left for half an hour. They are then washed with water. Now, they are fried in hot boiling ghee containing fried onions. This is then eaten with bread. 0.22 Yes
Apocynaceae
Celtis australis L. (127176) Thaghah Fruits May Near human settlements Men, kids Directly consumed. 0.05 Yes
Cannabaceae
Cicer nuristanicum Kitam. (127183) Chenrah Fruit July High mountain valleys Kids Directly consumed. 0.06 No
Fabaceae
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (127231) Da khwarak azghai Stems May-August Waste land Men, kids The ectoderm of the semi-mature stem is removed. The remaining white fleshy part is eaten raw. 0.06 No
Asteraceae
Cotoneaster microphyllus Wall. Ex Lindl. (127234) Manray Fruit May Bushy vegetation Men, kids Directly consumed. 0.30 Yes
Rosaceae
Cotoneaster minutus Klotz (127125) Sharavo Fruit September Shrubby mountain vegetation Men, kids Directly consumed. 0.59 Yes
Rosaceae
Cotoneaster pruinosus Klotz (127206) Pushthawergai Fruit August Beside pedestrian passes Kids Directly consumed. 0.22 No
Rosaceae
Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. (127212) Jezgai Leaves April-July Waste land Women Young fresh leaves are boiled in water for ½ hour. The extra water is poured out and then the leaves are moved to another container containing ghee with fried onions & red chilies. Kept on the fire until water is evaporated & ghee appears on top. This is then eaten with bread. 0.01 No
Boraginaceae
Debregeasia saeneb (Forssk.) Hepper & J.R.I.Wood (127143) Mermandai Fruit May High mountain valleys Men, kids Directly consumed. 0.19 Yes
Urticaceae
Ficus palmata Forssk. (127240) Injar Leaves, Fruit April (Leaves), July (Fruit) Near human settlements Women, men, kids The fruits are directly consumed. The young fresh leaves are boiled in water for 2 hours to soften completely. This is then eaten directly or sometimes with bread. 0.69 Yes
Moraceae
Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori (127126) Pasthawnai Fruit August Hedgerows Kids Directly consumed. 0.01 Yes
Malvaceae
Grewia villosa Willd. (127243) Injarai Fruit July Marshy & bushy vegetation Kids Directly consumed. 0.08 Yes
Malvaceae
Lactuca dissecta D.Don (127184) Paywerka Leaves April-August Hedgerows Kids Directly consumed. 0.05 No
Asteraceae
Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Ramayya & Rajagopal (127180) Sondrashi Leaves April-August Waste land Men, Kids Directly consumed. 0.12 Yes
Asteraceae
Limonium cabulicum (Boiss.) Kuntze (127170) Botyarai Leaves June-August Rocky barren land Men The fresh leaves are boiled in water containing sugar. This is then taken as tea. 0.05 No
Plumbaginaceae
Malva sylvestris L. (127123) Methrai Leaves April-July Waste land Women Young fresh leaves are boiled in water for ½ hour. The extra water is poured out, and then the leaves are moved to another container containing ghee with fried onions & red chilies. Kept on the fire until water is evaporated & ghee appears on top. This is then eaten with bread. 0.08 Yes
Malvaceae
Notholirion thomsonianum (Royle) Stapf (127166) Shyajey Leaves April-May Sandy fertile places Women, men Young fresh leaves are boiled in water for ½ hour. The extra water is poured out, and then the leaves are moved to another container containing ghee with fried onions & red chilies. Kept on the fire until water is evaporated & ghee appears on top. This is then eaten with bread. 0.31 No
Liliaceae
Olea ferruginea Wall. ex Aitch. (127151) Shwawan Fruit, Leaves September Forests Women, men, kids The fruits are directly consumed while the fresh leaves are used as tea. 1.0 Yes
Oleaceae
Oxalis corniculata L. (127198) Therwashka Leaves May Waste land Kids Directly consumed. 0.06 Yes
Oxalidaceae
Periploca aphylla Decne. (127156) Barrarr Fruit and young stems May Waste land Kids The fresh green fruits and young stems are chewed and the sweet tasting sap is swallowed. 0.06 Yes
Apocynaceae
Periploca hydaspidis Falc. (127128) Khwaza waley Fruit May Barren land Kids Directly consumed. 0.01 Yes
Apocynaceae
Physalis divaricata D. Don (127181) Band malkhovj Fruit August Waste land Kids Directly consumed. 0.01 No
Solanaceae
Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex D.Don (127203) Zanghozai Fruit October Pine forests Men, kids Directly consumed. 0.59 Yes
Pinaceae
Pinus wallichiana A.B.Jacks. (127213) Nashtar Fruit October Pine forests Men, kids Directly consumed. 0.29 Yes
Pinaceae
Pistacia chinensis Bunge (127191) Shrawan Fruit October Forests Women, men, kids Directly consumed. 0.30 Yes
Anacardiaceae
Pistacia khinjuk Stocks (127259) Saho shrawan Fruit October Forests Men, kids Directly consumed. 0.01 Yes
Anacardiaceae
Portulaca quadrifida L. (127257) Pakharai Aerial parts May-July Waste land Women Young fresh leaves including young shoots are boiled in water for ½ hour. The extra water is poured out, and then the leaves are moved to another container containing ghee with fried onions & red chilies. Kept on the fire until water is evaporated & ghee appears on top. This is then eaten with bread. 0.04 Yes
Portulacaceae
Punica granatum L. (127208) Nargos Fruit September Mountains & home gardens Women, men, kids Directly consumed. 0.55 Yes
Lythraceae
Pyracantha M. Roam (127127) Khra sharavo Fruit September Mountain forests Men, kids Directly consumed. 0.01 Yes
Rosaceae
Ribes alpestre Wall. ex Decne. (127193) Sheen korai Fruit July Bushy vegetation Kids Directly consumed. 0.01 Yes
Grossulariaceae
Rosa moschata Herrm. (127134) Khorach Fruit August High mountain valleys Men, kids Directly consumed. 0.33 Yes
Rosaceae
Rubus ulmifolius Schott (127197) Gharangavo Fruit August Fertile mountain valleys Men, kids Directly consumed. 0.26 Yes
Rosaceae
Salvia moorcroftiana Wall. ex Benth. (127131) Dersai Stem May-June Waste land Women, men, kids The external green part of the semi-matured stem is removed and the remaining white juicy part is eaten raw. 0.47 No
Lamiaceae
Sideroxylon mascatense (A.DC.) T.D.Penn. (127185) Guargur Fruit June Low land forests Women, men, kids Directly consumed. 0.55 Yes
Sapotaceae
Solanum americanum Mill. (127158) Malkhovj Fruit June Waste land Kids Directly consumed. 0.09 Yes
Solanaceae
Spiraea canescens D.Don (127265) Sra wany Fruit, stem, bark May Sloppy &shrubby vegetation Men, kids The fruits are directly consumed. The green stem cortex is boiled in water with sugar which is then taken as tea 0.12 Yes (fruit), No (tea)
Rosaceae
Thymus linearis Benth. (127211) Marveiy Leaves June-September Waste land Women, men, kids The leaves are used as herbal tea. 0.09 Yes
Lamiaceae
Tragopogon gracilis D.Don (127167) Shabey Aerial parts July Fertile valley bottoms Kids Directly consumed. 0.12 No
Asteraceae
Tulipa lehmanniana Merckl. (127148) Sondai Bulb April-June Mountain plateaus Men, kids Directly consumed. 0.27 Yes
Liliaceae
Viburnum cotinifolium D. Don (127210) Thorayi Fruit August Mountain forests Women, men, kids Directly consumed. 0.56 Yes
Adoxaceae
Viscum cruciatum Sieber ex Boiss. (127269) Da shwawna lewanai Leaves May Parasite of olive trees Women, men The leaves are used as tea. 0.11 No
Santalaceae
Vitis flexuosa Thunb. (127270) Malavo Fruit June Hedgerows Women, men, kids Directly consumed. 0.02 Yes
Vitaceae
Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (127153) Bera Fruit July Low land plains Men, kids Directly consumed. 0.13 Yes
Rhamnaceae
Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Wight & Arn. (127271) Karkanr Fruit July Low land plains Kids Directly consumed. 0.01 Yes
Rhamnaceae
Ziziphus oxyphylla Edgew. (127199) Heilaneiy Fruit July Forests Women, men, kids Directly consumed. 0.28 Yes
Rhamnaceae