Open Access

Beyond food and medicine, but necessary for life, too: other folk plant uses in several territories of Catalonia and the Balearic Islands

  • Airy Gras1,
  • Teresa Garnatje2Email author,
  • M. Àngels Bonet1,
  • Esperança Carrió1,
  • Marina Mayans1,
  • Montse Parada1,
  • Montse Rigat1 and
  • Joan Vallès1
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201612:23

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-016-0097-8

Received: 6 February 2016

Accepted: 7 June 2016

Published: 17 June 2016

Abstract

Background

Ethnobotanical academic research, particularly in European industrialised countries, has been, and is, mostly focused on folk uses of food and medicinal plants. Nevertheless, other uses, as may well be supposed, account for a significant portion of these folk uses. In the Catalan linguistic domain, a considerable amount of ethnobotanical work has been produced, but to date almost nothing has been published on these other plant uses.

Methods

We basically used the method of semistructured interviews to collect data on names, knowledge and use of plants in the above-mentioned fields from 759 informants in three Catalonian (Alt Empordà, Montseny and Ripollès) and two Balearic (Formentera and Mallorca) areas. We identified the plants quoted by the informants and prepared herbarium vouchers. We analysed and compared the results obtained.

Results

Information has been collected on 401 genera, 552 species, 81 subspecies and four varieties, belonging to 122 families, totalling 4137 use reports for popular non-food and non-medicinal uses (classified in 14 modalities), and designated with 1303 folk Catalan names. The informant consensus factor is 0.87, accounting for a consistent and robust dataset.

Conclusion

Contrarily to what could be thought a priori, and irrespective of the fact that some uses are declining or changing, non-medicinal and non-food folk plant uses strongly persist in the territories considered, are highly considered by their practitioners, and may even imply some economic revenues.

Keywords

Balearic Islands Catalonia Ethnobotany Non-food and non-medicinal plant uses

Background

When coining the term ethnobotany, Harshberger [1] considered as basic points for the newly named science “elucidating the cultural position of tribes who used plants” (where, nowadays, ‘tribes’ is replaced by ‘human groups’, [2]), “clarifying the past distribution of plants”, “determining trade routes” and “suggesting new current production lines” for useful plants. For Portères and Barrau [3, 4], ethnobotany is a discipline located at the crossroad between natural and human sciences studying the behaviour of human societies with regard to plants. Other authors state that ethnobotanical research rescues and updates the history of plants in human societies through time and space [5].

Even if ethnobotany deals with all kinds of plant uses, at least in western European countries, ethnobotanical research focused on food and medicinal plants is by far the most dominant, what can be verified when surveying the articles that have appeared in relevant journals. Such a situation can be explained by two kinds of reasons. On the one hand, food and medicine are the two plant folk applications more directly linked to human health, so that they are maintained at a relatively high rate even in industrialised societies. Conversely, these countries have undergone a rather deep process of acculturation, in the sense of adopting so-called modern habits in detriment of traditional culture [6], which implied that rural communities abandoned a great deal of traditional practices linked to plants, because they are much less necessary (if necessary at all) nowadays than in the first half of 20th century. On the other hand, the above-quoted food and medicinal properties are those which most likely can lead to the development of new commercial sources of welfare products (see e.g., [7]). Some non-food and non-medicinal popular uses are slightly better preserved than most of them, such as basketry [8] and cosmetics [9, 10], the latter being, in fact, very closely linked to medicinal ones. Some specific papers with ethnobotanical focus have been devoted to these other plant uses in European countries (e.g., those quoted for basketry and cosmetics, as well as [1116]). Additionally, some compilation work, rather addressed to folk knowledge vulgarisation, contain information on these plant utilisations; as an example the first volume of the ongoing Spanish Inventory of Traditional Knowledge related to Biodiversity [17] provides information on all kinds of plant uses, including those dealt with in the present paper. In any case, even taking into account the above-quoted contributions, this approach still remains quite scarce.

The research on ethnobotany in the Catalan linguistic domain has been intense in the last 25 years. This research mostly comprises data on food and medicinal (including veterinarian) plant uses, as well as studies linked to agroecosystems (mostly homegardens) and to ethnoecological questions (cf. [10, 18], and references therein). Only very rarely other plant uses have been addressed [19, 20], although, throughout our research, we have maintained the conviction that a robust pool of knowledge on these uses still exists. Taking this into account, the aims of the present paper are: 1) to provide an overview on non-food and non-medicinal popular plant uses in five Catalan language territories, three in Catalonia and two in the Balearic Islands; 2) to evaluate to what extent these uses are persisting and how are they currently considered by their practitioners.

Methods

Study areas

We performed interviews in five territories located in two large areas of the Catalan linguistic domain, three in Catalonia (Alt Empordà, Montseny, Ripollès) and two in the Balearic Islands (Formentera, Mallorca), with the aim of comparing a continental place and an insular one (Fig. 1). The Catalonian areas comprise from plain to high mountains, and the Balearic ones involve two islands.
Fig. 1

Studied areas in the contexts of Europe and the Catalan linguistic domain. AE: Alt Empordà; MO: Montseny; RI: Ripollès; MA: Mallorca; FO: Formentera

Alt Empordà (AE) is a district (comarca in the Catalan language) of 1358 km2 and 140,214 inhabitants [21] living in 68 municipalities. The climate is mainly coastal Mediterranean. The vegetation is distributed in an asymmetrical form in two biogeographical regions, Mediterranean, largely dominant, and Eurosiberian, in certain mountainous areas, reaching 1443 m a.s.l.

Ripollès (RI) is a district occupying an area of 956.6 km2 and having a population of 25,700 inhabitants [21] distributed in 19 municipalities, with a high percentage of the population inhabiting small villages and isolated houses. Located in the eastern Pyrenees, it has a high mountain climate with Mediterranean influence. The flora and vegetation are mostly Eurosiberian, with some Boreoalpine zones in mountain areas reaching 2909.8 m a.s.l. Montseny (MO) is a mountain massif with a maximum altitude of 1706 m a.s.l., with an area of 826 km2 and a population of 105,000 people [22]. The climate is basically Mediterranean (including mountain Mediterranean). The vegetation belongs to the Mediterranean and Eurosiberian regions. Formentera (FO) is the smallest of the four inhabited Balearic Islands, occupying 82 km2, and has 11,545 inhabitants [23] living in nine population centres, all belonging to one municipality. Its maximum altitude is 195 m. The climate is Mediterranean with an arid tendency. The vegetation landscape is basically coastal Mediterranean.

Mallorca (MA) is the biggest island in the Balearic archipelago, and the seventh largest in the Mediterranean sea, with the highest altitude at 1445 m. It has an extension of 3622.54 km2 and population of 858,313 inhabitants [23]. Its climate is typically Mediterranean. The vegetation belongs mostly to the Mediterranean and, to a small part, to the Eurosiberian biogeographic regions.

Informants

Information was obtained from 769 informants, selected on a snowball basis [24] for general ethnobotanical prospections in each of the areas studied. Of them, 510 were from Catalonia and 259 from Balearic Islands, distributed as follows: 160 from RI, born between 1915 and 1988, with an average age of 71.6 years; 178 from AE, with a mean age of 69.44 years, ranging from 23 to 95; 172 from MO, with a mean age of 66, ranging from 31 to 96; 235 from MA, with an average of 76 years, born between 1906 and 1981; and 24 from FO, born between 1920 and 1943. Concerning gender, 445 interviewees were women (57.87 %) and 324 men (42.13 %).

Field work methods

Data were collected with the same method, but in different years in each territory: 1993–2000 (MO), 1995–2007 (AE), 2004–2012 (RI), 2009–2013 (MA) and 2011–2013 (FO). Ethnobotanical interviews were performed with a total of 769 informants (see Results and discussion section for details on distribution, gender and age). Taking into account the Code of Ethics of the International Society of Ethnobiology [25], we asked the interviewees’ informed consent to participate in the survey, to register the interviews, to take pictures and to use their images and information. The method used was basically the semistructured interview [26], with special care taken in not asking direct questions, which could coerce, condition or influence the informant’s answer. In several occasions group interviews were carried out, separating the answers of the different interviewees. Whenever possible, we collected the plants in question together with the informants or we observed with them those they had preserved at home or their preparations or the objects elaborated with them. The interviews, developed in Catalan, the common language of both interviewers and interviewees, were registered, also with the informants’ agreement (which was also solicited for taking pictures).

Plants were identified at specific or infraspecific levels with the aid of the Flora manual dels Països Catalans [27], and for family assignation we followed the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group ([28]; http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/), as currently reflected in The plant list (http://www.theplantlist.org), also devoted to gymnosperms and ferns. Vouchers of every taxon with associated information have been prepared, collected following the legislation and avoiding protected areas, and deposited in the herbaria BCN, of the Centre de Documentació de Biodiversitat Vegetal, Universitat de Barcelona, and BC, of the Institut Botànic de Barcelona.

Databasing

Once in the laboratory, the interviews were transcribed and introduced into our research team’s database (www.etnobotanica.cat, not open to public access, but punctually consultable on request to the corresponding or to the last authors). This database contains all ethnobotanical data (on medicinal, food and other uses) from our group and allows us to manage the results, to perform some calculations and to establish comparisons. Taking Cook’s Economic Botany data standard as a departing point [29], a huge effort to establish and nuance use categories (as well as parts of plants and kinds of preparation and use, the latter not relevant here, but in medicinal and food uses) has been performed, and it is reflected in Table 1.
Table 1

Non-food and non-medicinal folk plant uses in the territories of Alt Empordà, Montseny and Ripollès (Catalonia), and Formentera and Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

Taxon

Catalan vernacular names (a few Spanish, French and Arabic, indicated)

Area

Used part

Uses

Frequency

Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench (Malvaceae) BC131944

Ocra

BI

Seed

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

1

Abies alba Mill.

(Pinaceae) BCN3096

Avet

AE, MO

Aerial part. Stem. Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Timber: boat manufacturing

3

Abies nordmanniana (Steven) Spach (Pinaceae) BC59249

Avet

MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Abies ×masjoanis D.A. Soto, J.I.G. Viñas et E. Bujarrabal

(Pinaceae) BCN35720

Avet de Masjoan, avet del Montseny

MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

3

Acacia dealbata Link (Mimosaceae) BCN29973

Mimosa

AE, MO

Aerial part. Leaf

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

3

Acer campestre L. (Aceraceae) BCN29613

Auró, auró blanc

AE, RI

Stem. Whole plant

Ludic

Timber: furniture manufacturing

2

Acer monspessulanum L. (Aceraceae) BCN29613

Auró negre

AE

Stem

Ludic

1

Acer opalus Mill. subsp. opalus (Aceraceae) BCN29615

Blada, baladre

AE, MO

Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Folk oral literature

Ludic

4

Achillea ageratum L. (Asteraceae)

BCN- E-188

Alè de bou

BI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

3

Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) BCN29616

Centfulles

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Achillea ptarmica L. subsp. pyrenaica (Godr.) Heimerl (Asteraceae) BCN24701

Camamilla, camamilla de muntanya, camamilla de Rojà

RI

Aerial part

Cosmetic

1

Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Pteridiaceae) BCN91889

Falzia

BI

Not reported. Whole plant

Cosmetic

Other informations: excipient or adjuvant in medicinal or food preparations

Other informations: use not remembered

3

Aegilops geniculata Roth (Poaceae) BCN 103555

Blat de perdiu

BI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

2

Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Sapindaceae) BCN29618

Castanyer bord, castanyer d'Índies, castanya agra, castanya borda (fruit), castanya de castanyer d'Índies (fruit), morronyer

AE, BI, MO, RI

Fruit. Seed. Whole plant

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

8

Agapanthus sp. (Amaryllidaceae)

Acapantus

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Agave americana L. (Agavaceae) BCN46860

Ágave, atzavara, donarda, figuerassa, figuerassa de marge, figuerassa grossa, pita, pitera, punta de pita (thorn), punyalera, xeremec (stem)

AE, BI, MO

Flower. Leaf, Not reported. Stem. Thorn

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Textile: fibre or cloth elaboration

Timber: construction materials production

18

Agrimonia eupatoria L. (Rosaceae) BCN24704

Agafallosa

RI

Fruit

Ludic

3

Agrostemma githago L. (Caryophyllaceae) BCN5737

Clavell de blat, niella

MO, RI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

2

Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Simaroubaceae) BCN81396

Cornissa, irlando

MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb. (Lamiaceae) BCN6437

Iva

BI

Whole plant

Folk oral literature

1

Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch (Boraginaceae) BCN24706

Herba del peu de colom, peu de colom, pota de colom

RI

Root

Cosmetic

2

Allium ampeloprasum L. (Amaryllidaceae) BCN3993

All de bruixa, allassa, porrerell

AE, BI

Flower

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

3

Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae) BCN28655

Ceba, ceba forastera, grell

AE, BI, MO

Bulb. Inflorescence

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Domestic: for help at home

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

13

Allium fistulosum L. (Amaryllidaceae) BCN-E248

Cebollí

BI

Inflorescence

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Allium porrum L. (Amaryllidaceae) BCN28791

Porro

AE, BI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

2

Allium roseum L. (Amaryllidaceae) BCN31259

All de bruixa, calabruix

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

2

Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae) BCN29832

All, all de Sant Pau, all pau

AE, BI, MO

Bulb. Inflorescence. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental : gardening

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

18

Allium triquetrum L. (Amaryllidaceae) BCN95566

Vitrac

BI

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

1

Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. (Betulaceae) BCN29620

Vern

AE, MO, RI

Aerial part. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Agrosilvopastoral management: for hunting

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

15

Alocasia odora (Lindl.) K.Koch (Araceae) BCN50215

Marquesa

AE, BI

Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

3

Aloe vera (L.) Burm f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) BCN27242

Aloe vera, àloe vera, cactus, figuerassa

AE, BI

Leaf juice. Not reported. Whole plant

Cosmetic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

6

Althaea rosea (L.) Cav. (Malvaceae) BCN6470

Malva reial, vauma, vauma loca

BI, MO

Flower. Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

3

Alyssum maritimum (L.) Lam. (Brassicaceae) BCN29622

Alíssum, caps blancs, escopinya de Crist, flor de gat, herbamel

AE, BI, RI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tool for agricultural practices

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: use not remembered

Repellent

5

Amelanchier ovalis Medik. (Rosaceae) BCN 16410

Cornier

RI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

2

Ampelodesmos mauritanicus (Poir.) T.Durand & Schinz (Poaceae) BCN95589

Càrritx, càrritx femella, càrritx mascle, carritxera

BI

Aerial part. Leaf. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Artisanal: basketry

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: undesirable actions

Textile: fibre or cloth elaboration

18

Anacyclus clavatus (Desf.) Pers. (Asteraceae) BCN31260

Bòlig

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

1

Anacyclus valentinus L. (Asteraceae) BCN29625

Bòlig

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

2

Anagallis arvensis L. subsp. arvensis (Primulaceae) BCN19974

Borró

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

1

Anagyris foetida L. (Fabaceae) BCN16938

Garrover del dimoni

BI

Aerial part

Other informations: undesirable actions

1

Anastatica hierochuntica L. (Brassicaceae) BCN16949

Rosa de Jericó

BI

Whole plant

Other informations: use not remembered

1

Anemone coronaria L. (Ranunculaceae) BCN17399

Anèmones

BI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Anemone pulsatilla L. (Ranunculaceae) BCN24711

Flor de Sant Pere

RI

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

2

Anethum graveolens L. (Apiaceae) BCN83632

Anet

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Anthemis arvensis L. (Asteraceae) BC840033

Bòlig, sistorna

RI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Anthemis cotula L. (Asteraceae) BCN29835

Camamilla borda

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

1

Anthyllis cytisoides L. (Fabaceae) BCN20700

Aubada, botja de cuques

BI

Aerial part

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

5

Antirrhinum majus L. (Plantaginaceae) BCN46074

Badocs, boques de conill, conillets, gatets, gossets, gossos, gorges de llop, mamaconills, pets de llop

AE, MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower. Whole plant

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

29

Aphyllanthes monspelliensis L. (Asparagaceae) BCN29627

Llonzella

AE

Aerial part

Ludic

1

Apium graveolens L.

(Apiaceae) BCN46859

Àpit

BI

Leaf. Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

2

Aquilegia vulgaris L. (Ranunculaceae) BCN27253

Campaneta

RI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabaceae) BCN46858

Cacauet

AE, BI

Epicarp. Stem

Domestic: for help at home

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

2

Araucaria heterophylla (Salisb.) Franco (Araucariaceae) BCN67780

Arbre de pisos

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Araujia sericifera Brot. (Apocynaceae) BCN299975

Miraguano

AE

Fruit

Textile: textile padding

3

Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae) BCN100976

Arboç, arboça (fruit), arbocera, cirera d'arboç (fruit), llipota (fruit), llipoter

BI, MO

Aerial part. Flower. Fruit. Not reported. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: forestry

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

Timber

10

Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. (Asteraceae) BCN31262

Enganxadora, llapassa, llapissera, gafarró, poltre, repalassa

AE, MO, RI

Leaf. Inflorescence. Infructescence. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tool for agricultural practices

Ludic

Other informations: ecological information

8

Arisarum vulgare O.Targ.Tozz. (Araceae) BCN95564

Frare llec, rapa, rapa de frare

BI

Inflorescence. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Ludic

Other informations: ecological information

7

Artemisia abrotanum L. (Asteraceae) BCN31263

Absenta, abrótano macho (Spanish), artemisia, donzell, estragó, shiba (Arabic)

BI

Not reported

Cosmetic

1

Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) BCN29837

Absenta, abrótano macho (Spanish), artemisia, encens, donzell, estragó, shiba (Arabic)

AE, BI, RI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Domestic: air freshener

Domestic: for help at home

Repellent

3

Artemisia arborescens L. (Asteraceae) BCN29630

Artemisia, donzell

AE, BI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tool for agricultural practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Repellent

7

Artemisia dracunculus L. (Asteraceae) BCN13326

Estragó

BI

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

1

Artemisia verlotiorum Lamotte (Asteraceae) BCN29633

Artemisa, donzell

AE

Aerial part

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae) BCN24719

Altimiris

RI

Aerial part

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

1

Arum italicum Mill. (Araceae) BCN32356

Xàrria

MO

Spathe

Ludic

1

Arundo donax L. (Poaceae)

BCN29825

Canya, canya de torrent, canya mallorquina, canya verda, canyeta, canyís

AE, BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Leaf. Root. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Agrosilvopastoral management: for hunting

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: basketry

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Artisanal: smoking pipe elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Domestic: for sewing

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

Timber: construction materials production

104

Asparagus acutifolius L. (Asparagaceae) BCN29976

Espàrrec (turion), esparreguera

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Leaf. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

4

Asparagus albus L. (Asparagaceae) BCN56215

Espàrrec (turion), esparreguera

BI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Asparagus horridus L. (Asparagaceae) BCN103541

Espàrrec (turion), esparreguera, esparreguera vera

BI

Flower

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

1

Asparagus sprengeri Regel (Asparagaceae) BCN57323

Esparreguera de jardí

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Asphodelus aestivus Brot. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) BCN52957

Albó, asfodel, aubó, caramutxa, coió de porrassa, moneiato de porrassera, porrassa, porrassa femella, porrassera, porassó

BI

Flower. Leaf. Stem. Tuber. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other information: harvesting and/or selling

Other informations: ecological information

Other information: use not remembered

33

Aspidistra elatior Blume (Asparagaceae) BCN104271

Cossiol de fulla, cossiol de saló, fulla de saló

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll.Arg. (Apocynaceae) BCN52088

Palorosa

AE

Stem

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

1

Asplenium trichomanes L. (Aspleniaceae) BCN24723

Auredelleta, costella de paret

RI

Aerial part

Cosmetics

1

Aster novi-belgii L. (Asteraceae) BCN98570

Setembrina

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

2

Aster pilosus Willd. (Asteraceae)

BCN47723

Octubre

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: gardening

1

Astragalus balearicus Chater (Fabaceae) BCN95554

Coixinet de monja

BI

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

1

Avena barbata Pott ex Link (Poaceae) BCN49867

Cugula, cugula borda, civada borda

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Fruit. Inflorescence. Stem

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Ludic

10

Avena sativa L. (Poaceae) BCN32185

Civada

BI, MO

Fruit. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

9

Avena sterilis L. (Poaceae) BCN52787

Cugula, cugula borda, cugula vertadera

BI, MO

Aerial part. Inflorescence. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Ludic

4

Ballota hirsuta Benth. (Lamiaceae) BCN72714

Sacramentària

BI

Calyx

Domestic: for help at home

1

Begonia sp. (Begoniaceae)

Begònia

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

5

Bellis annua L. (Asteraceae) BCN61139

Confitera

BI

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

1

Bellis perennis L. (Asteraceae) BCN31264

Margarida, margarida borda, margaridoia, margarita

AE, MO, RI

Aerial part. Inflorescence. Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

7

Berberis vulgaris L. (Berberidaceae) BCN27274

Berbèlia

RI

Fruit

Ludic

1

Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang. (Amaranthaceae) BCN103432

Bledera salvatge

BI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Betula pendula Roth (Betulaceae) BCN29647

Beç, bedoll

AE, RI

Aerial part. Leaf. Stem

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

3

Bidens tripartita L. (Asteraceae) BCN50219

Pixallits

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Bignonia sp. (Bignoniaceae)

Coral

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) BCN68582

Borraja (Spanish), borratxa

BI, MO

Aerial part. Flower. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Ludic

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

3

Bougainvillea sp. (Nyctaginaceae)

Boquemvíl·lia

BI

Flower

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Brachypodium retusum (Pers.) P.Beauv. (Poaceae) BCN31265

Llistó

AE

Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Other informations: ecological information

4

Brassica napus L. (Brassicaceae) BCN24727

Nap

BI, RI

Bulb. Root

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

2

Brassica oleracea L. subsp. oleracea (Brassicaceae) BCN32181

Col

BI

Leaf

Folk oral literature

Other informations: use not remembered

2

Briza maxima L. (Poaceae) BCN29648

Arrecades de la Mare de Déu, belluguets, herbe tremblante French, herba tremoluda

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

4

Briza media L. (Poaceae) BCN29650

Arrecadetes de la Mare de Déu, bellugadís, belluguets, bellugues, llagrimetes de la Mare de Déu, puces, sempreviva

AE, MO, RI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

9

Bromus hordeaceus L. (Poaceae) BCN52583

Cua de mula

MO

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Buxus balearica Lam. (Buxaceae) BCN21410

Boix

BI

Flower. Leaf. Stem. Whole plant

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

Other informations: ecological information

Timber

11

Buxus sempervirens L. (Buxaceae) BCN29843

Boix, boix de jardí, boj (Spanish), olleta

AE, BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Cortical parenchyma. Flower. Fruit. Leaf. Stem. Whole plant.

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Artisanal: smoking pipe elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: use not remembered

127

Calendula arvensis M.Bieb. (Asteraceae) BCN29637

Llevamà, goig bord, jaumet

AE, BI

Aerial part. Not reported.Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Cosmetic

Folk oral literature

Other informations: use not remembered

7

Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) BCN29977

Boixac, bojac, calèndula, galdiró, llevamà, llevamà de jardí, jaumet

AE, BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Inlforescence. Not reported. Whole plant

Cosmetic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

14

Calicotome spinosa (L.) Link (Fabaceae) BCN29638

Argelac, argelaga

AE, BI

Aerial part. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Ornamental: gardening

7

Callistephus chinensis (L.) Ness (Asteraceae) BCN-E249

Sol coronat

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull (Ericaceae) BCN29639

Brossa, bruguerola, xerpó

AE, MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

13

Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae) BCN50762

Te

BI

Not reported

Other informations: ecological information

1

Campanula patula L. (Campanulaceae) BCN29640

Campaneta

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Campanula persicifolia L. (Campanulaceae) BCN29641

Campaneta

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) BCN24735

Cànem, cànyem, cànyom, gansalla (elaborated product), maria, marihuana

AE, BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Inflorescence. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: basketry

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Other information: ecological information

Smoking

Textile: fibre or cloth elaboration

Timber: boat manufacturing

17

Capparis spinosa L. subsp. spinosa (Capparaceae) BCN97808

Tàpera (flower bud), taperera

BI

Floral bud. Whole plant.

Folk oral literature

Other informations: ecological information

5

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. (Brassicaceae) BCN46079

Pare i fill

BI

Not reported

Other informations

1

Capsicum annuum L. (Solanaceae) BCN24737

Pebre covent, pebre covent (fruit), pebre, pebrera, nyora, pebre vermell, pebrer, pebre de cirereta, pebresser, cirereta picant (fruit), pebre de banyeta (fruit), pebre (fruit)

BI

Fruit. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

14

Capsicum sp. (Solanaceae)

Pebre bord

BI

Seed

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

1

Carlina acanthifolia All. (Asteraceae) BCN24738

Carlina, carolina

RI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

Other informations: ecological information

14

Carlina acanthifolia All. subsp. cynara (Pourr. ex DC.) Rouy (Asteraceae) BCN46095

Carlina, carlina angèlica, carlinassa, carolina

AE, MO

Aerial part. Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

11

Carlina acaulis L. (Asteraceae) BCN32946

Carlina

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

2

Castanea sativa Mill. (Fagaceae) BCN29844

Castanya (fruit), castanyer

AE, BI, MO, RI

Leaf. Inflorescence. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: basketry

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Ludic

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: use not remembered

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: furniture manufacturing

Timber: construction materials production

24

Catananche caerulea L. (Asteraceae) BCN29645

Cigales, pell de serp, pinya de plata

AE, RI

Aerial part. Inflorescence

Ludic

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

5

Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Manetti ex Carrière (Pinaceae) BCN35722

Cedre

MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Cedrus libani A.Rich. (Pinaceae) BCN29978

Cedre

AE

Stem

Timber: furniture manufacturing

1

Celtis australis L. (Cannabaceae) BCN29845

Lledoner, lledroner, lleroner, lledó (fruit), lledró (fruit), lleró (fruit)

AE, BI, MO

Fruit. Seed. Stem. Whole plant

Tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: use not remembered

Timber

Timber: boat manufacturing

65

Centaurea aspera L. (Asteraceae) BCN42691

Bracera, herba de bracera

BI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Other informations: ecological information

4

Centaurea cyanus L. (Asteraceae) BCN29651

Blauet, blau, caps blaus, clavell de blat, clavell de Sant Isidre, llums

AE, MO, RI

Aerial part. Inflorescence

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

4

Centaurea pectinata L. subsp. pectinata (Asteraceae) BCN43498

Barbassa, travalera, travarada

MO

Aerial part

Ludic

1

Centranthus ruber (L.) DC. subsp. ruber (Caprifoliaceae) BCN31267

Rosa d’Espanya

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Ceratonia siliqua L. (Fabaceae) BCN32177

Garrofer, garrover, garrofa (fruit)

AE, BI, MO

Flower. Fruit. Seed. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Cosmetic

Folk oral literature

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: use not remembered

Textile: dyer

Timber: furniture manufacturing

21

Cercis siliquastrum L. (Fabaceae) BCN51020

Árbol de la pasión (Spanish), árbol del amor (Spanish)

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Ceterach officinarum Willd. (Aspleniaceae) BCN108285

Auradella

MO

Frond

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Chamaerops humilis L. (Arecaceae) BCN23832

Bri (leaflet), clin, garballó, garbeó, llatra (elaborated product), margalló, palma, palmito (fruit) (Spanish), pauma, paumera (group of palms), paumissó (fruit), pomera, pomissó (fruit), punissó (fruit)

AE, BI

Leaf. Leaflet. Not reported. Stem. Whole plant

Artisanal: basketry

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

Textile: fibre or cloth elaboration

Textile: textile padding

49

Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Amaranthaceae) BCN103590

Te mallorquí

BI

Whole plant

Other informations: appreciations on plant or product properties

1

Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques (Asparagaceae) BC617113

Cossiol de cintes

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (Asteraceae) BCN95559

Bòlig, sardonaia

BI

Inflorescence

Ludic

4

Chrysanthemum frutescens L. (Asteraceae) BCN93699

Margalida

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

2

Chrysanthemum segetum L. (Asteraceae) BCN31269

Goit

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

3

Chrysanthemum sinense Sabine (Asteraceae) BCN129085

Estranys

BI

Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Repellent

2

Cicer arietinum L. (Fabaceae) BCN29659

Ciuró (seed)

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

3

Cichorium endivia L. (Asteraceae) BCN46854

Endívia

BI

Leaf

Other informations: ecological information

1

Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae) BCN29660

Cama-rotja, cama-roja, masteguera

AE, BI

Leaf. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Folk oral literature

Other informations: ecological information

13

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl (Lauraceae) BCN50766

Càmfora (elaborated product)

AE, BI

Bark. Not reported

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: purchased in commerce

Repellent

4

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Asteraceae) BCN29853

Calcida

RI, AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

3

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. (Asteraceae) BCN E-63

Card

MO

Inflorescence

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Cistus albidus L. (Cistaceae) BCN36672

Estepa, estepa blanca, estepa d’escurar, estepa rosa

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Flower. Not reported. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Domestic: for help at home

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

24

Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae) BCN36740

Estepa blanca, estepa borda, estepa de fulla llarga, estepa negra, mòdega

AE, MO

Flower. Resin. Stem. Whole plant.

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: toy elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Other informations: ecological information

6

Cistus salviifolius L. (Cistaceae) BCN36767

Estepa, estepa negra, estepa bona, estepa borrera, esteperola,

AE, BI, MO

Flower. Leaf. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Domestic: for help at home

Other informations: ecological information

Smoking

5

Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai (Cucurbitaceae) BCN29662

Síndria (fruit), sindriera

BI

Fruit

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Folk oral literature

2

Citrus ×aurantium L. (Rutaceae) BCN46080

Taronja agra (fruit)

AE

Fruit

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

8

Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) BCN52090

Pomelo (fruit)

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

1

Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) BCN46853

Bergamota (fruit), llimona (fruit), llimoner, llimonera, mandarina (fruit), taronger bord, taronger clementí, taronger mandarí, taronja borda (fruit), taronja de la seca (fruit), taronja de pelar grillons (fruit), taronja de navel (fruit), pomelo (fruit)

AE, BI

Epicarp. Fruit. Fruit juice. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Cosmetic

Domestic: air freshener

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

23

Citrus paradisi Macfad. (Rutaceae) BCN-E250

Pomelo (fruit)

BI

Fruit

Other informations: use not remembered

1

Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) BCN24752

Taronger, taronja (fruit)

BI

Flower. Fruit. Leaf. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Folk oral literature

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: undesirable actions

Timber

14

Cladonia sp. (Cladoniaceae)

Herba de la roca, herba roquera, musgo (Spanish)

BI

Not reported

Domestic: for help at home

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

3

Clematis cirrhosa L. (Ranunculaceae) BCN22034

Vidauba, villauba

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: use not remembered

3

Clematis flammula L. (Ranunculaceae) BCN29856

Didorta, joanillo, ridolta, ridorta, viadella, vidriella, vidauba

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Flower. Stem. Whole plan

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Domestic: for help at home

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

8

Clematis vitalba L. (Ranunculaceae) BCN29857

Didorta, llidorta, ridolta, ridorta, vidiella

AE, MO, RI

Not reported. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Ludic

Other informations: ecological information

Smoking

18

Cneorum tricoccon L. (Rutaceae) BCN95567

Raspall

BI

Aerial part. Not reported

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Folk oral literature

5

Coffea arabica L. (Rubiaceae) BCN-E-65

Cafè (seed)

MO

Seed

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Coix lacryma-jobi L. (Poaceae) BC917450

Llàgrimes de Job, llàgrimes de viu

BI

Fruit

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

2

Colchicum autumnale L. subsp. autumnale (Liliaceae) BCN45283

Cabeça

BI

Tuber

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Colocasia sp. (Araceae)

Colocàsia

BI

Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: gardening

2

Colutea arborescens L. subsp. gallica Browicz (Fabaceae) BCN56002

Pleps

MO

Stem

Ludic

1

Conium maculatum L. (Apiaceae) BCN32171

Cicuta

AE

Whole plant

Folk oral literature

1

Consolida ajacis (L.) Schur (Ranunculaceae) BCN60924

Espuela (Spanish)

MO

Flower. Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

3

Convallaria majalis L. (Liliaceae) BCN57362

Muguet

MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

2

Convolvulus arvensis L. (Convolvulaceae) BCN109798

Correjola, corretjola, corriola, corritjola

BI, MO

Flower. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: weeds

Ludic

Other informations: excipient or adjuvant in medicinal or food preparations

3

Coriaria myrtifolia L. (Coriariaceae) BCN24754

Rodó, roldor

RI

Leaf

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Coris monspeliensis L. subsp. monspeliensis (Primulaceae) BCN110450

Farigola mascle, farigola de pastor, tomanyí

MO

Flower

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

1

Cornus sanguinea L. (Cornaceae) BCN29979

Sanguinyol

AE

Sap

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Coronilla scorpioides K.Koch (Fabaceae) BCN22206

Herba enamorada

BI

Whole plant

Folk oral literature

1

Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Asch. & Graebn. (Poaceae) BCN81361

Plomalls

MO

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Corylus avellana L. (Betulaceae) BCN29831

Avellana (fruit), avellaner, avellaner bord

AE, BI, MO

Leaf. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Smoking

Timber: construction materials production

12

Crataegus azarolus L. (Rosaceae) BCN14977

Atzerola (fruit), atzerolera

BI

Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Timber

2

Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (Rosaceae) BCN103563

Cirerer de pastor, cireretes de pastor (fruit), espinal, espinaler, garganyer

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Other informations: ecological information

5

Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna (Rosaceae) BCN29858

Arç, arç blanc, arn, arn blanc

AE, MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

9

Crithmum maritimum L. (Apiaceae) BCN104272

Fonoll marí

BI

Aerial part

Folk oral literature

Other informations: ecological information

2

Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) BCN32170

Safà

BI

Perigonium

Folk oral literature

1

Cucumis melo L. (Cucurbitaceae) BCN46851

Meló (fruit), moló (fruit), melonera, molonera,

BI

Epicarp. Fruit. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

5

Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae) BCN46850

Cogombre, pepino (Spanish)

BI, MO

Fruit. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Cosmetic

2

Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae) BCN49858

Carabassera

BI

Flower. Fruit. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

4

Cucurbita pepo L. var. oblonga (Cucurbitaceae) BCN29859

Carabassó (fruit)

AE

Fruit

Ludic

2

Cupressus macrocarpa Hartw. (Cupressaceae) BCN35775

Ciprer

BI

Stem

Fuel obtaining: firewood

1

Cupressus sempervirens L. (Cupressaceae) BCN95563

Xifrer, xifrer baix, xifrer de fer tallavents, xiprer

AE, BI, RI

Fruictification. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Domestic: air freshener

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

7

Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L. (Convolvulaceae) BCN112569

Tinya

RI

Whole plant

Folk oral literature

1

Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Rosaceae) BCN46849

Codony (fruit), codonyer

AE, BI, MO, RI

Fruit

Domestic: air freshener

Other informations: ecological information

4

Cynara cardunculus L. (Asteraceae) BCN56003

Card gros, carxofera, card coler, card calapoter, carxofera borda, herba-col, presonera, presora

BI, MO

Aerial part. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

4

Cynara scolymus L. (Asteraceae) BCN24760

Carxofa (inflorescence), carxofera

BI

Leaf. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tool for agricultural practices

Other informations: ecological information

2

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (Poaceae) BCN24760

Gram, grama, xerpolla

BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: weeds

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

5

Cynoglossum creticum Mill. (Boraginaceae) BCN97779

Llapassa, llapassera, llapissera

BI

Fruit. Leaf. Seed. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Other informations: ecological information

Smoking

4

Cyperus alternifolius L. subsp. flabelliformis (Rottb.) M.R.Almeida (Cyperaceae) BCN 16451

Papiro (Spanish)

BI

Stem

Other informations: ecological information

1

Cyperus eragrostis Lam. (Cyperaceae) BCN61182

Castanyola, jonc, paraigüet, serrana

MO

Aerial part

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

3

Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) BCN39997

Jonc

AE

Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: basketry

2

Cystoseira amentacea Bory var. stricta Mont. (Cystoseiraceae) BCN-Phyc-6232

Herba saupera

BI

Frond

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

1

Cystoseira crinita Duby (Cystoseiraceae) BCN-Phyc-6233

Herba corretgera

BI

Frond

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

1

Cystoseira elegans Sauv. (Cystoseiraceae) BCN-Phyc-6150

Herba borda

BI

Frond

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

1

Cytinus hypocistis (L.) L. subsp. macranthus Wettst. (Rafflesiaceae) BCN2224

Magraneta, magraneta d’esteperol

BI

Not reported

Textile: dyer

4

Dalbergia sp. (Fabaceae) BCN52091

Palissandre

AE

Stem

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

1

Dalhia sp. (Asteraceae)

Dàlia, daliera

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Ornamental: gardening

4

Daphne gnidium L. (Thymelaeaceae) BCN29687

Matapoll, tei, tintorell

AE, BI, MO

Bark. Root. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Artisanal: basketry

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

9

Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae) BCN29688

Castanyer bord, datura borda, estramoni, flor de mort, herba de capseta, herba talpera, herba taupera, matataups, trompetera

AE, BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Leaf. Flower. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

12

Daucus carota L. subsp. carota (Apiaceae) BCN48714

Botxa, caps blancs, carrota borda, fonollassa, julivert bord, julivert de galipau, moixos (inflorescence), pastanaga borda, rosella borda

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Inflorescence. Not reported

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

5

Delphinium ajacis L. (Ranunculaceae) BCN31271

Espuela (Spanish)

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Dianthus caryophyllus L. (Caryophyllaceae) BCN31272

Clavell, clavell blanc, clavell d’hivernacle

AE, MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

12

Dianthus hyssopifolius L. (Caryophyllaceae) BCN27299

Clavell

RI

Flower

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Dianthus seguieri Vill. (Caryophyllaceae) BCN24763

Clavell de muntanya

RI

Flower

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Dianthus seguieri Vill. subsp. requienii (Godr.) M.Bernal, Laínz & Muñoz Garm. (Caryophyllaceae) BCN22276

Clavell de bosc, clavellde pastor_

AE

Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Dianthus sp. (Caryophyllaceae)

Clavell, clavell de Sant Jaume

BI, RI

Aerial part. Flower

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

3

Dianthus pungens L. subsp. pungens (Caryophyllaceae) BCN46087

Coixinet de monja

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

1

Diospyros ebenum J.Koenig ex Retz. (Ebenaceae) BCN52092

Banús

AE

Stem

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

1

Diospyros kaki L.f. (Ebenaceae) BCN52627

Caqui (fruit), caquier, clequier

BI

Fruit. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Other informations: excipient or adjuvant in medicinal or food preparations

3

Diplotaxis erucoides (L.) DC. (Brassicaceae) BCN29861

Cap blanc, ravenissa

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

5

Dipsacus fullonum L. (Caprifoliaceae) BCN27266

Assotacristos, card, cardassa, cristos, escardot, escarpidora, escarpido, escarpín

BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower. Inflorescence

Domestic: for help at home

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

10

Dipsacus fullonum L. subsp. fullonum (Caprifoliaceae) BCN29691

Cardó, cap de burro

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

3

Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop. (Fabaceae) BCN103561

Botxa de cuques, socarrell, tijarell

BI

Aerial part. Leaf

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Fuel obtaining: firewood

2

Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop. subsp. pentaphyllum (Fabaceae) BCN115631

Botxa

MO

Flower

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

1

Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (Dryopteridaceae) BCN29692

Foguera, foguera de jardí

AE, MO

Frond. Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

3

Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich. (Cucurbitaceae) BCF44970

Cobrombo silvestre, cogombre bord

BI, MO

Fruit. Whole plant

Ludic

Other informations: ecological information

2

Echinocactus grusonii Hildm. (Cactaceae) BCN129080

Seient de sa sogra, grossini

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Echinops ritro L. subsp. ritro (Asteraceae) BCN31273

Espines blaves

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

5

Emex spinosa (L.) Campd. (Polygonaceae) BCN13757

Bledera borda, picatalons

BI

Fruit

Other informations: ecological information

1

Epipremnum aureum (Linden & André) G.S.Bunting (Araceae) BCN129081

Potos

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Equisetum arvense L. (Equisetaceae) BCN24767

Cua de cavall, escuraplata

RI

Aerial part

Domestic: for help at home

1

Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. (Equisetaceae) BCN29982

Coa de cavall, cua de cavall, cua de rata

AE, BI

Aerial part. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Other informations: ecological information

2

Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. (Equisetaceae) BCN118778

Coa de cavall, cova de cavall, cua de cavall, sangnua

BI, MO

Aerial part. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Cosmetic

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

5

Erica arborea L. (Ericaceae) BCN46081

Bruc, bruc bouer, bruc femella, bruc de fer escombres, bruc vertader, mascle

AE, MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower. Leaf. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Artisanal: smoking pipe elaboration

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Domestic: for help at home

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

58

Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae) BCN29864

Bruc, bruc de bou, bruc de llei, bruc mascle, cepell, ciprell, ciprelló, petarrell, xiprell

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Flower. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Artisanal: smoking pipe elaboration

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

Timber: construction materials production

33

Erica scoparia L. subsp. scoparia (Ericaceae) BCN46083

Bruc, bruc d’escombra, bruc de fer escombres, bruc de llei, bruc femella, bruga,

AE, MO

Aerial part. Stem

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Artisanal: smoking pipe elaboration

Ludic

Ornamental: gardening

44

Erigeron acer L. (Asteraceae) BCN35105

_

MO

Inflorescence

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

1

Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. (Rosaceae) BCN29695

Nisprero

BI

Leaf

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

2

Erodium moschatum (L.) L’Hér. (Geraniaceae) BCN95590

Rellotges

BI

Fruit

Ludic

3

Eryngium bourgatii Gouan (Apiaceae) BCN24881

Espinacal blau

RI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaborations

1

Eryngium campestre L. (Apiaceae) BCN31274

Card, card girgoler, espinacal, espinacalç, espinacs, galabart, panical

AE, BI MO

Root. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: weeds

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

6

Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Myrtaceae) BCN29696

Calipto, calistro, calistrero, eucaliptus, eucalitus

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Flower. Leaf. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: forestry

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Domestic: air freshener

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

7

Eupatorium cannabinum L. subsp. cannabinum (Asteraceae) BCN35520

Altes i mires

MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Euphorbia characias L. subsp. characias (Euphorbiaceae) BCN29865

Lleteresa

AE

Stem. Whole plant

Repellent

2

Euphorbia lathyris L. (Euphorbiaceae) BCN29866

Cagamuix, herba talpera, herba taupera, herba taupinera

AE, RI

Latex. Leaf. Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Repellent

6

Euphorbia sp. (Euphorbiaceae)

Eufòrbia, lletrada, lletrera

BI

Latex. Not reported

Agrosilvopastoral management: for hunting

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Fuel obtaining: plant oil

3

Fagus sylvatica L. (Fagaceae) BCN46845

Faig

AE, BI, MO, RI

Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: furniture manufacturing

15

Feijoa sellowiana O.Berg (Myrtaceae) BCN92988

Feijoa

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Ferula communis L. (Apiaceae) BCN26849

Canya fèl · lera, canyaferla

BI

Leaf. Stem

Ludic

Other informations: ecological information

3

Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) BCN24887

Figa (infructescence), figa flor (infructescence), figó marinenc (infructescence) figuera, lletrada de figuera (latex), pàmpol de figuera

AE, BI

Bark. Infructescence. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Folk oral literature

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: excipient or adjuvant in medicinal or food preparationsSmoking

Timber

Timber: wheeled vehicles manufacturing

34

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae) BCN95541

Fonoll

BI

Aerial part

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

1

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. piperitum (C.Presl) Ball (Apiaceae) BCN29867

Fonoll

AE

Leaf. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Domestic: for help at home

2

Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Oleaceae) BCN46844

Fleix, fleix femella, fleix mascle, freixa, freixe

AE, BI, MO

Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Ludic

Other informations: ecological information

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: wheeled vehicles manufacturing

Timber: furniture manufacturing

21

Fraxinus excelsior L. (Oleaceae) BCN29698

Freixe

AE, MO, RI

Leaf. Stem. Whole plant

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: wheeled vehicles manufacturing

11

Fuchsia sp. (Onagraceae)

Pendientes de la reina (Spanish)

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Fumaria officinalis L. (Papaveraceae) BCN72725

Fumaterra

BI

Whole plant

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

1

Gaillardia sp. (Asteraceae)

Gallàrdia

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Galanthus nivalis L. (Amaryllidaceae) BCN27249

Flor de neu, herba de cap blanc, herba de neu, llàgrimes de Sant Josep

MO, RI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

5

Galium aparine L. (Rubiaceae) BCN97749

Rèvola

BI

Fruit

Other informations: ecological information

1

Galium verum L. (Rubiaceae) BCN39982

Herba de Sant Joan, santjoan

AE, RI

Aerial part. Not reported

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

2

Genista tricuspidata Desf. subsp. sparsiflora (Ball) Maire (Fabaceae) BCN 95565

Gatova

BI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Folk oral literature

5

Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae) BCN24893

Llenciana

RI

Aerial part. Root

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

2

Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) BCN62881

Ginkgo, ginkgo biloba

BI, MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

2

Gladiolus italicus Mill. (Iridiaceae) BCN56421

Espadelles, espasa, espaseta, gladiol, xupes

BI, RI

Aerial part. Flower. Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

5

Gladiolus sp. (Iridiaceae)

Gladiol

BI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Gleditsia triachanthos L. (Fabaceae) BCN50767

Escàcia

AE

Stem

Domestic: for help at home

1

Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae) BCN29868

Cossiada, herba cossiada

BI

Leaf. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Other informations: ecological information

2

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae) BCN47276

Regalíssia

AE

Root

Smoking

1

Gomphocarpus fruticosus (L.) W.T.Aiton (Asclepiadaceae) BCN29987

Tintorell

AE

Root

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

1

Gossypium sp. (Malvaceae) BCN51688

Cotó

AE, BI

Fruit. Seed hair

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

4

Hedera helix L. (Araliaceae) BCN29869

Heura

AE, BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower. Leaf. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Cosmetic

Domestic: for help at home

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: use not remembered

22

Helianthus tuberosus L. (Asteraceae) BCN46069

Gira-sol de patata, miqueler, nyama, nyàmera, ramon, setembre, trumfa nyama

AE, BI MO, RI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

6

Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench (Asteraceae) BCN29872

Éternelle (French), flor de Corpus, flor de Sant Joan, perpètua, sempreviva

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Inflorescence

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Repellent

38

Helleborus foetidus L. (Ranunculaceae) BCN32163

Margívol, marxívol

MO

Fruit. Leaf

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

9

Helleborus viridis L. (Ranunculaceae) BCN24899

Mengívol, marxívol

RI

Aerial part. Fruit

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

3

Herniaria glabra L. (Caryophyllaceae) BCN32161

Herba de cent en grana, santaengrana

MO

Whole plant

Folk oral literature

2

Herniaria hirsuta L. subsp. cinerea (DC.) Cout. (Caryophyllaceae) BCN45660

Herba de trencapreda, trencapedra

BI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

5

Hibiscus syriacus L. (Malvaceae) BCN47686

Altea

BI

Flower. Root. Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: use not remembered

3

Hippocrepis balearica Jacq. (Fabaceae) BCN21809

Viola de penyal, violeta de penyal

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: gardening

3

Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lagr.-Foss. (Brassicaceae) BCN39984

Ravenissa

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: use not remembered

1

Hordeum murinum L. subsp. leporinum (Link) Arcang. (Poaceae) BCN79674

Cebada (Spanish), fletxa, malta, maragall, ordi

BI, MO

Inflorescence. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Ludic

8

Hordeum vulgare L. (Poaceae) BCN46843

Ordi

AE, BI, RI

Aerial part. Fruit. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Cosmetic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

12

Howea forsteriana (F.Muell.) Becc. (Arecaceae) BCN129083

Quènsia

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Hoya carnosa (L.f.) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae) BCN104268

Cerera

BI

Flower. Whole plant

Domestic: for help at home

Ornamental: gardening

3

Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. (Hydrangeaceae) BC800370

Hortènsia

MO

Flower

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Hydrangea sp. (Hydrangeaceae)

Hortènsia

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Ornamental: gardening

3

Hyoscyamus albus L. (Solanaceae) BCN 31277

Herba de capceta

BI

Leaf. Whole plant

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

Smoking

2

Hypericum balearicum L. (Clusiaceae) BCN95574

Espeta joana

BI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

3

Hypericum perforatum L. (Clusiaceae) BCN29874

Herba de Sant Joan, herba dels set caps, hipèric, hipèricum, trescalam

AE, MO, RI

Aerial part. Not reported. Whole plant

Cosmetic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

Other informations: purchased in commerce

8

Ilex aquifolium L. (Aquifoliaceae) BCN29876

Boix grèvol, flor de Nadal, grèvol

AE, MO, RI

Aerial part. Bark. Resin. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Agrosilvopastoral management: for hunting

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

25

Inula viscosa (L.) Aiton (Asteraceae) BCN31279

Herba de puces, matavinyes, olivarda

AE, BI

Aerial part. Inflorescence. Leaf. Not reported. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: for hunting

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: use not remembered

Repellent

15

Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae) BCN50213

Monais, moneiato, moniato, moniajo

BI

Tuber. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

4

Iris ×germanica L. (Iridaceae) BCN31278

Lliri, lliri blau, lliri de marge, lliri de Sant Antoni, sords

AE, MO,RI

Aerial part. Flower. Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

8

Iris pseudacorus L. (Iridaceae) BCN31280

Lliri de rec

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Jacaranda sp. (Bignoniaceae)

Xicaranda

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Jasminum azoricum L. (Oleaceae) BCN49864

Jasmí

AE

Whole plant

Repellent

1

Jasminum officinale L. (Oleaceae) BCN100423

Bejamí, gessamí, geramí, llessamí

BI, MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

3

Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae) BCN29877

Anoguer, anou (fruit), noguer, noguera, nou (fruit), nou verda (fruit), nogalina (elaborated product)

AE, BI, MO, RI

Endocarp. Fruit. Leaf. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Cosmetic

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

Textile: dyer

Timber

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: furniture manufacturing

26

Juncus effussus L. (Juncaceae) BCN39991

Jonc, jonc marí

AE, MO

Aerial part. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Artisanal: basketry

Domestic: for help at home

9

Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) BCN24910

Ginebre, ginebró, ginebró de jardí, oli de ginebre (elaborated product)

BI, MO, RI

Fructification. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations

13

Juniperus communis L. subsp. communis (Cupressaceae) BCN29878

Ginebre, ginebró

AE

Aerial part. Fruictification. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

3

Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae) BCN29879

Càdec

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

1

Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus (Cupressaceae) BCN29879

Ginebre, ginebró

BI

Fruictification. Not reported. Root. Stem. Whole plant

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Artisanal: smoking pipe elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

13

Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae) BCN36078

Savina, savinó (cone), sivina

BI

Fruictification. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Ludic

Timber

7

Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. (Sapindaceae) BCN63272

Saboner

BI

Seed

Domestic: for help at home

1

Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. (Cucurbitaceae) BCN50212

Carabassa, catija

AE, BI

Fruit

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

5

Lagurus ovatus L. (Poaceae) BCN31281

_

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

2

Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) BCN 40081

Bandera espanyola

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

2

Lathyrus sativus L. (Fabaceae) BCN 50775

Guixa (fruit)

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

1

Launaea cervicornis (Boiss.) Font Quer & Rothm. (Asteraceae) BCN88711

Gatovell

BI

Aerial part

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

1

Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae) BCN29880

Llaurer, llor, llorer, llort

AE, BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Leaf. Seed. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Cosmetic

Domestic: air freshener

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

Timber: construction materials production

49

Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae) BCN29881

Espígol, lavanda

AE, BI

Aerial part. Flower. Whole plant

Domestic: air freshener

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

4

Lavandula angustifolia Mill. subsp. angustifolia (Lamiaceae) BCN29715

Barballó, bermelló, espígol, lavanda

RI

Aerial part

Domestic: air freshener

2

Lavandula dentata L. (Lamiaceae) BCN24913

Candelero, colònia, lavanda, gal·landa

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Flower. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Cosmetic

Domestic: air freshener

9

Lavandula latifolia Medik. (Lamiaceae) BCN29882

Barballó, bermelló, espígol, lavanda

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Flower. Leaf. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Cosmetic

Domestic: air freshener

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Repellent

Smoking

30

Lavandula stoechas L. (Lamiaceae) BCN126622

Cap d’ase, lavanda, tomanyí

BI, MO

Aerial part. Flower

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Cosmetic

Smoking

7

Lavandula stoechas L. subsp. stoechas (Lamiaceae) BCN29883

Timó

AE

Aerial part. Flower

Domestic: air freshener

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Smoking

4

Lavatera arborea L. (Malvaceae) BCN95546

Malva

AE, BI

Aerial part. Flower

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

2

Lavatera cretica L. (Malvaceae) BCN44944

Vauma

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: weeds

Folk oral literature

Other informations: ecological information

4

Lens culinaris Medik. (Fabaceae) BCN 29990

Llentia

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

1

Leontodon taraxacoides Hoppe & Hornsch. (Asteraceae) BCN48777

Angelets, pixallits

MO

Aerial part

Ludic

1

Leontopodium alpinum Guss. subsp. alpinum (Asteraceae) BCN34286

Herba de neu

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Leucanthemum vulgare (Vaill.) Lam (Asteraceae) BCN29721

Margarida, margarida borda, margarida de camp, margarida de bosc

AE, RI

Aerial part

Ludic

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

4

Leuzea conifera (L.) DC. in Lam. & DC. (Asteraceae) BCN29884

Cigales, nyigo-nyigo, pinya de Sant Joan, polles

AE, MO

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

4

Ligustrum vulgare L. (Oleaceae) BCN24915

Escanyacabres, olivereta

RI

Aerial part

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Lilium candidum L. (Liliaceae) BCN46841

Azucena (Spanish), lliri, lliri blanc, lliri blanc de Sant Joan, lliri de Sant Antoni, lliri de Sant Joan

AE, BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower. Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

10

Lilium martagon L. (Liliaceae) BCN24917

Consolta, macròlic, marcòlic vermell

MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower. Seedling

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

6

Lilium pyrenaicum Gouan (Liliaceae) BCN24918

Consolta, consolta groga, marcòlic groc

RI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

3

Limonium virgatum (Willd.) Fourr. (Plumbaginaceae) BCN39989

Patarres

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

3

Limonium vulgare Mill. subsp. serotinum (Rchb.) Gams (Plumbaginaceae) BCN31282

Patarres

AE

Aerial part

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Linaria cymbalaria (L.) Mill (Plantaginaceae) BCN29885

Picardia, setembrina

AE, BI, MO

Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

3

Linum usitatissimum L. (Linaceae) BCN47281

Lli, llinc, llim, llinosa, oli de llinosa (elaborated product)

AE, BI

Aerial part. Not reported. Seed. Seed oil. Whole plant

Domestic: paint elaboration

Folk oral literature

Textile: fibre or cloth elaboration

9

Linum usitatissimum L. subsp. angustifolia (Huds.) Thell. (Linaceae) BCN107485

Herba feridora

MO

Seed

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Linum usitatissimum L. subsp. usitatissimum (Linaceae) BCN32155

Bri (fibre), lli, llinosa

MO

Aerial part

Cosmetic

1

Lippia triphylla (L’Hér.) O.Kuntze (Verbenaceae) BCN29886

Herba lluïsa, marialluïsa

AE, BI

Aerial part. Leaf. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Domestic: air freshener

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: excipient or adjuvant in medicinal or food preparations

8

Lolium rigidum Gaudin (Poaceae) BCN31283

Margai, margall

BI

Not reported

Folk oral literature

1

Lonicera etrusca Santi (Caprifoliaceae) BCN31285

Xuclamel

AE

Stem

Artisanal: smoking pipe elaboration

2

Lonicera implexa Aiton (Caprifoliaceae) BCN31286

Mistreres, lligabosc, madreselva (Spanish), mataselva, rotaboc, rotaboig, xuclamel

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Flower. Not reported. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: smoking pipe elaboration

Folk oral literature

Ludic

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: use not remembered

Repellent

Smoking

19

Lonicera peryclimenum L. (Caprifoliaceae) BCN26736

Lligabosc, mareselva

MO

Flower

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

2

Lophophora williamsii (Lem. ex Salm-Dyck) J.M. Coult. (Cactaceae) BCN129082

Peyote (Spanish)

BI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

5

Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.Roem. (Cucurbitaceae) BCN-E-78

Carabassera d’esponges, fregall (fruit), fregall de carabassera (endocarp), fregaller

BI, MO

Endocarp. Fruit. Mesocarp + endocarp

Domestic: for help at home

4

Lunaria annua L. (Brassicaceae) BCN56009

Flor de plata

RI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Lunaria annua L. subsp. annua (Brassicaceae) BCN31287

Flor de plata, medallons, moneda del Papa

AE, MO

Aerial part. Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

14

Lupinus albus L. (Fabaceae) BCN-E-79

Llobins, tramusset, tramús

MO

Seed. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Domestic: for help at home

3

Lycopodium clavatum L. (Lycopodiaceae) BCN31748

Musgo (Spanish)

BI

Aerial part

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

1

Lygeum spartum Loefl. ex L. (Poaceae) BCN 27831

Espart

BI

Not reported

Artisanal: basketry

1

Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae) BCN64396

Magnòlia

MO

Flower. Leaf. Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

3

Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae) BCN29889

Malva, malva de prat, vauma

AE, BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower. Leaf. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

6

Mammillaria sp. (Cactaceae)

Mamillària

BI

Not reported. Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: use not remembered

2

Mandragora autumnalis Bertol. (Solanaceae) BCN52434

Mandràgora

BI

Whole plant

Folk oral literature

1

Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. (Asteraceae) BCN24925

Baleges, cabeçuda, granera

RI

Aerial part

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

4

Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) BCN72729

Barrombí, malrobí

BI

Aerial part. Seed

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Domestic: for help at home

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

5

Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) BCN29890

Camamilla, camamilla de l’hort, camamilla dolça, mançanilla

AE, MO, RI

Aerial part. Inflorescence

Cosmetic

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

4

Matthiola sinuata (L.) R.Br. (Brassicaceae) BCN50218

Violer

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

4

Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae) BCN29891

Alfals, aufaus, userda

AE, BI, MO

Flower. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Domestic: for help at home

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

Smoking

11

Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) BCN97016

Amèlia, sabonera

BI

Fruit

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Melilotus sulcatus Desf. (Fabaceae) BCN27973

Trèvol de ramellet

BI

Flower

Other informations: ecological information

1

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) BCN29731

Tarongí

BI

Aerial part. Leaf. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Domestic: air freshener

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

6

Melissa officinalis L. subsp. officinalis (Lamiaceae) BCN29731

Tarongina

AE

Leaf

Cosmetic

1

Mentha aquatica L. (Lamiaceae) BCN103554

Menta d’aigua, menta de cavall

BI

Leaf

Other informations: excipient or adjuvant in medicinal or food preparations

1

Mentha pulegium L. (Lamiaceae) BCN29895

Poliol

AE, BI

Aerial part. Not reported

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: use not remembered

2

Mentha sp. (Lamiaceae)

Herba-sana, hierba buena (Spanish), menta

BI, MO

Aerial part. Not reported. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

5

Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae) BCN29995

Herba-sana, menta

AE, BI

Leaf. Whole plant

Domestic: for help at home

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

Smoking

8

Mentha × piperita L. (Lamiaceae) BCN29997

Menta piperita, pampalei, piperita, pipermint

BI

Leaf. Whole plant

Domestic: for help at home

Other informations: ecological information

3

Mespilus germanica L. (Rosaceae) BCN50768

Nespla (fruit), nespler, nesplera

BI, MO

Fruit. Stem. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Other informations: ecological information

Timber

5

Mirabilis jalapa L. (Nyctaginaceae) BCN126625

Buenas noches (Spanish), dama de nit, diegos de nit, noches (Spanish), Juan de noche (Spanish), sanjoans

MO, RI

 

Ornamental: gardening

3

Morus alba L. (Moraceae) BCN52588

Morer, morera

BI

Leaf. Stem

Other informations: excipient or adjuvant in medicinal or food preparations

Other informations: appreciations on plant or product properties

Timber: furniture manufacturing

3

Muscari comosum (L.) Mill. (Asparagaceae) BCN29738

Calabruix

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

1

Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae) BCN35897

Multra, multrera, murta, murtera, murtó (fruit)

AE, BI

Aerial part. Flower. Leaf. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Artisanal: basketry

Artisanal: tannery

Cosmetic

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

39

Narcissus poeticus L. (Amaryllidaceae) BCN47870

Jonquillo, lliri, lliri blanc, lliri de la Mare de Déu, narcís

MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

7

Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. (Amaryllidaceae) BCN47849

Puigestela

RI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

2

Nepeta cataria L. (Lamiaceae) BCN24935

Herba dels moixos, nepeta, nepta

BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Folk oral literature

4

Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) BCN46840

Adelfa (Spanish), baladre

AE, BI, MO

Leaf. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

Repellent

13

Nicotiana glauca Graham (Solanaceae) BCN81462

Tabac fulla d’espasa

BI

Leaf

Smoking

1

Nicotiana rustica L. (Solanaceae) BCN46839

Tabac de pota, tabac pota

BI

Leaf. Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

Smoking

4

Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanaceae) BCN48711

Caliquenya (elaborated product), tabac, tabac pota, tabaquera

AE, BI, MO

Leaf. Whole plant

Domestic: for help at home

Other informations: purchased in commerce

Repellent

Smoking

17

Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) BCN29897

Alfabaguera, alfàbrega, aufabeguera, albahaca (Spanish), enflàgam

AE, BI, RI

Aerial part. Leaf. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Cosmetic

Domestic: air freshener

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

52

Odontites lutea (L.) Clairv. (Orobanchaceae) BCN73750

Brancadella

MO

Flower

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

1

Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea (Oleaceae) BCN29898

Oli d’oliva (elaborated product), oliva (fruit), olivera

AE, BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Fruit. Fruit juice. Not reported. Seed fruit. Stem. Whole plant

Artisanal: basketry

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Cosmetic

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Fuel obtaining: plant oil

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: excipient or adjuvant in medicinal or food preparations

Timber

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: furniture manufacturing

82

Olea europaea L. subsp. sylvestris (Mill.). Lehr. (Oleaceae) BCN46838

Engís, olivera, olivera borda, ullastre

AE, BI

Aerial part. Leaf. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Agrosilvopastoral management: for hunting

Artisanal: basketry

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: appreciations on plant or product properties

Timber

Timber: wheeled vehicles manufacturing

Timber: furniture manufacturing

44

Onobrychis supina (Vill.) DC. (Fabaceae) BCN52589

Trepadella, trepadella borda

MO

Flower

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

1

Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (Fabaceae) BCN26745

Esparceta, trepadella

MO

Flower

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

1

Ononis spinosa L. (Fabaceae) BCN50770

Gavó

AE

Stem

Fuel obtaining: firewood

1

Ononis spinosa L. subsp. antiquorum (L.) Briq. (Fabaceae) BCN62318

Augó, ugó

BI

Fruit

Other informations: undesirable actions

1

Ophrys speculum Link (Orchidaceae) BCN533

Orquídia, sabateta de bon Jesús

BI

Aerial part

Ludic

Ornamental: bouquet elaborations

2

Opuntia maxima Mill. (Cactaceae) BCN46078

Fulla de figa de moro (cladode), fulla de moro, fulla de moro (cladode), fulla de figuera de moro (cladode), figa de moro (fruit), figuera de moro, figuera de pic

BI

Cladode. Fruit. Leaf. Leaf juice. Whole plant,

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Cosmetic

Domestic: for help at home

Ludic

Other informations: excipient or adjuvant in medicinal or food preparations

19

Origanum majorana L. (Lamiaceae) BCN95545

Marduix, morduix, morduixera

BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Leaf. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Cosmetic

Folk oral literature

Other informations: ecological information

8

Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) BCN24938

Orenga, clements

AE, BI, RI

Aerial part. Flower. Whole plant

Domestic: air freshener

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

Repellent

16

Orobanche crenata Forsk. (Orobanchaceae) BCN29743

Frare

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

1

Oryza sativa L. (Poaceae) BCN30000

Arròs

AE, BI, MO

Bran. Not reported. fruit. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Domestic: for help at home

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: excipient or adjuvant in medicinal or food preparations

4

Oryzopsis miliacea (L.) Asch. & Graebn. (Poaceae) BCN52590

Fenal no vertader, herba prima

MO

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

2

Osyris alba L. (Santalaceae) BCN100425

Assot, ginestra

BI

Aerial part

Other informations: ecological information

1

Oxalis articulata Savigny (Oxalidaceae) BCN31290

Trèvol

AE

Leaf. Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

5

Oxalis pes-caprae L. (Oxalidaceae) BCN95553

Vinagrella, trèvol de jardí

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: weeds

Folk oral literature

Other informations: ecological information

5

Paeonia mascula (L.) Mill. subsp. cambessedesii (Willk.) O.Bolòs & Vigo (Paeoniaceae) BCN64801

Paloni de boca, peònia

BI

Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: gardening

3

Paliurus spina-christi Mill. (Rhamnaceae) BCN29902

Espinavessa

AE

Root. Stem

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

6

Pancratium maritimum L. (Amaryllidaceae) BCN13292

Lliri

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

2

Papaver rhoeas L. (Papaveraceae) BCN29903

Coquelicot (French), gall, gall-gallaret, gallaret, gallito (Spanish), quiquiriquic, roella, rogella, rosella, rosella de camp, rovella

AE, BI, MO, RI

Corolla. Floral bud. Flower. Fruit. Whole plant.

Cosmetic

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

29

Papaver somniferum L. (Papaveraceae) BCN24941

Cascall, dormidera (Spanish)

BI, RI

Aerial part. Flower. Fruit. Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: appreciations on plant or product properties

6

Papaver somniferum L. subsp. setigerum (DC.) Arcang. (Papaveraceae) BCN46071

Cascall, cascai, dormidera (Spanish), roella

AE, BI

Aerial part. Flower. Fruit. Latex. Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

8

Papaver somniferum L. subsp. somniferum (Papaveraceae) BCN126627

Cascall, dormidera (Spanish), herba queixalera

MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

5

Paradisea liliastrum (L.) Bertol. (Liliaceae) BCN27270

Lliri blanc

RI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Parietaria officinalis L. subsp. judaica (L.) Bég. (Urticaceae) BCN29745

Cama-roja, herba mollera, molla roquera, mollera, mollera roquera, mollerusa, morella, morella roquera, morera roquera, roca mollera, parietària

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Leaf. Not reported. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: weeds

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: use not remembered

16

Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) BCN29747

Claus de l’infern, passiflora

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Pelargonium capitatum (L.) L’Hér. (Geraninaceae) BCN72719

Gerani d’olor, vauma rosa

BI

Aerial part. Flower. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

8

Pelargonium sp. (Geraniaceae).

Gerani

BI

Aerial part

Domestic: air freshener

Other informations: ecological information

2

Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (Apiaceae) BCN29905

Julivert

AE, BI RI

Aerial part. Leaf. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Cosmetic

Folk oral literature

Other informations: ecological information

7

Phagnalon saxatile (L.) Cass. (Asteraceae) BCN95555

Herba de capxerigany

BI

Whole plant

Other informations

1

Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) BCN46837

Mongeta, mongeta seca

AE, BI

Seed. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Ludic

2

Philadelphus coronarius L. (Hydrangeaceae) BCN27261

Xeringuilla, xeringuillo

BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower. Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Timber: construction materials production

12

Phillyrea angustifolia L. (Oleaceae) BCN126631

Mat, mata

MO

Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

1

Phlomis italica L. (Lamiaceae) BCN64879

Estepa blenera

BI

Leaf. Not reported

Cosmetic

Domestic: for help at home

2

Phoenix canariensis Chabaud (Arecaceae) BCN23835

Fasser, dàtil (fruit), palmera, paumera

BI

Leaf. Whole plant

Artisanal: basketry

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

6

Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae) BCN51783

Fasser, dàtil (fruit), palmera, pauma, paumera

BI, MO

Aerial part. Leaf, Thorn. Whole plant

Artisanal: basketry

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

9

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (Poaceae) BCN88033

Canyet, canyisso

BI

Not reported

Textile: fibre or cloth elaboration

1

Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman (Aspleniaceae) BCN29906

Herba melsera, melsera

MO

Frond

Ornamental: gardening

1

Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C.Rivière (Poaceae) BCN30002

Canya americana, canya de bambú, canya forastera, bambú

AE, BI

Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

14

Phyllostachys flexuosa Rivière & C.Rivière (Poaceae) BCN30001

Canya americana negra

AE

Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

1

Physalis alkekengi L. (Solanaceae) BCN31293

Alquequengi, bossa, bossa vermella, fanalet, pebrot

AE, RI, MO

Aerial part. Fruit. Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

3

Phytolacca americana L. (Phytolaccaceae) BCN81961

Fitolaca

MO

Fruit

Ludic

1

Picea abies (L.) H.Karst. (Pinaceae) BCN36717

Avet, pivet

MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

2

Picris hieracioides Sibth. & Sm. (Asteraceae) BCN49161

Gafallosa, pedaç

MO

Leaf

Ludic

2

Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae) BCN47278

Matafaluga

AE

Fruit

Domestic: air freshener

1

Pinus halepensis Mill. (Pinaceae) BCN29826

Pi, pi bord, pinya (cone), reïna (resin)

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Bark. Leaf. Not reported. Resin. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: forestry

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Artisanal: instrument elaboration

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Artisanal: tannery

Domestic: air freshener

Domestic: for help at home

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

Other informations: use not remembered

Textile: dyer

Timber

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: wheeled vehicles manufacturing

Timber: furniture manufacturing

Timber: construction materials production

51

Pinus pinaster Aiton (Pinaceae) BCN36559

Pi, pi bord, pi gallec, pinastre

AE, MO

Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Other informations: use not remembered

Timber: boat manufacturing

3

Pinus pinea L. (Pinaceae) BCN26751

Pi, pi de llei, pi pinyer, pi pinyoner, pinyó (seed)

AE, BI, MO

Bark. Leaf. Seed. Stem. Whole plant

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Folk oral literature

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Textile: dyer

Timber

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: wheeled vehicles manufacturing

Timber: construction materials production

18

Pinus sp. (Pinaceae)

Pi, pinya (cone), reïna, trementina (elaborated product)

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Bark, Flower. Leaf. Resin. Stem. Whole plant. Cortical parenchyma

Agrosilvopastoral management: forestry

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Cosmetic

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

Repellent

Smoking

Textile: dyer

26

Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae) BCN46070

Pi, pi bord, pi rajolet, pi roig, trementina (elaborated product), pega (elaborated product), pega negra (elaborated product)

AE, MO, RI

Cone. Stem. Whole plant

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Other informations: ecological information

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: construction materials production

12

Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) BCN47277

Prebe bo, prebe bo blanc, prebe negre

BI

Seed

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

1

Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae) BCN29907

Llentriscle, llentrisca, mat, mata, triquell

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Fruit juice. Leaf. Not reported. Resin. Stem.

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: basketry

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Domestic: air freshener

Domestic: for help at home

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: use not remembered

Repellent

Timber

33

Pistacia terebinthus L. (Anacardiaceae) BCN30004

Noguerola

AE

Resin

Domestic: paint elaboration

1

Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae) BCN-E-87

Pistatxo

MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum (Fabaceae) BCN32140

Estiragassó, pèsol, xítxero

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Other informations: ecological information

3

Plantago afra L. (Plantaginaceae) BCN 95568

Herba de puça

BI

Aerial part. Seed

Cosmetic

3

Plantago coronopus L. subsp. coronopus (Plantaginaceae) BCN29908

Cua de rata

AE

Leaf

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

2

Plantago lagopus L. (Plantaginaceae) BCN98975

Herba de cinc venes

BI

Not reported

Other informations: ecological information

1

Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae) BCN24949

Herba de cinc venes, llantén (Spanish), plantatge, plantatge de fulla estreta, plantatge estret, plantatge llarg, plantago

BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Leaf. Whole plant

Domestic: for help at home

Ludic

Other informations: ecological information

6

Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae) BCN24950

Llantén (Spanish), plantatge, plantatge ample, plantatge rodó

BI, RI

Leaf

Ludic

Other informations: ecological information

2

Platanus ×hispanica Mill. ex Münchh. (Platanaceae) BCN31294

Plàtan, plataner, platero

AE, BI, MO

Bark. Leaf. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Domestic: for help at home

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Timber

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: furniture manufacturing

10

Plectanthus sp. (Lamiaceae)

Encens, planta dels doblers

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

2

Poinsettia pulcherrima (Wild.) Graham (Euphorbiaceae) BCN48713

Nadala

AE

Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce (Liliaceae) BCN56044

Arracadetes

MO

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Polygonum aviculare L. (Polygonaceae) BCN32136

Estiravelles, triavella, traspassacamins

MO

Whole plant

Folk oral literature

1

Polypodium vulgare L. (Polypodiaceae) BCN32134

Falzia, foguera borda, herba de les gallines, herba felera

MO, RI

Frond. Not reported

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

2

Polystichum setiferum (Forssk.) Moore ex Woyn. (Dryopteridaceae) BCN126634

Foguera, foguera de jardí, foguera mosquera

MO

Frond

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

20

Populus alba L. (Salicaceae) BCN29751

Arbre, arbre poll de fusta blanca, alba, arbre blanc

AE, MO

Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Ludic

Timber

8

Populus nigra L. (Salicaceae) BCN29753

Arbre canadà, arbre poll de fulla fosca, arbre poll, poll, polla, pollancre, pollangre

AE, BI, MO, RI

Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Ludic

Other informations

Timber

Timber: furniture manufacturing

15

Populus sp. (Salicaceae)

Poll, pollancre

BI, RI

Stem

Other informations: use not remembered

Timber: furniture manufacturing

3

Populus tremula L. (Salicaceae) BCN46836

Trèmol

AE, MO

Stem

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Timber

6

Populus × canadensis Moench (Salicaceae) BCN126637

Poll, polla, pollancre bordil

BI, MO

Stem. Whole plant

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Timber

Timber: construction materials production

4

Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae) BCN46835

Enciam de patena, verdelaga, verdolaga

AE, BI

Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

3

Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile (Posidoniaceae) BCN103134

Alga, bolla de la mar (decomposed stem and leaf), posidònia

BI

Aerial part. Leaf. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

Textile: textile padding

18

Potentilla reptans L. (Rosaceae) BCN29754

Gram corquim

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

1

Primula veris L. (Primulaceae) BCN27280

Cucuts

MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

6

Primula veris L. subsp. columnae (Ten.) Maire & Petitm. (Primulaceae) BCN29755

Puput

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Prunella grandiflora (L.) Scholler (Lamiaceae) BCN24956

Herba del traïdor, xuclaabella

RI

Aerial part

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

1

Prunella grandiflora (L.) Scholler subsp. pyrenaica (Gren. & Godr.) A. & O.Bolòs (Lamiaceae) BCN29757

Herba de la mel, xuclamel

AE, MO

Inflorescence. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

9

Prunella vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) BCN29759

Herba del traïdor

AE

Flower

Smoking

1

Prunus armeniaca L. (Rosaceae) BCN48712

Albercoc (fruit), albercoquer

BI

Endocarp. Fruit. Stem

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Folk oral literature

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Ludic

Other informations: appreciations on plant or product properties

Timber: furniture manufacturing

7

Prunus avium (L.) L. (Rosaceae) BCN29827

Cirera (fruit), cirerer

AE, BI, MO

Fruit. Resin. Seed. Stem. Whole plant

Artisanal: basketry

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Ludic

Other informations: appreciations on plant or product properties

Timber

Timber: furniture manufacturing

17

Prunus avium (L.) L. var. sylvestris Dierb. (Rosaceae) BCN60586

Cirerer

MO

Flower. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

3

Prunus domestica L. (Rosaceae) BCN46834

Pruna (fruit), prunera

BI

Aerial part. Fruit. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Folk oral literature

Ludic

Other informations: ecological information

4

Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb. (Rosaceae) BCN46833

Ametla (fruit), ametler, ametller

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Endocarp. Epicarp. Flower. Fruit. Fruit juice. Mesocarp. Resin. Seed. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Cosmetic

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: use not remembered

Timber

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: furniture manufacturing

43

Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) BCN52783

Melicotó (fruit), melicotoner, préssec (fruit), presseguer

BI, MO

Flower. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Other informations: ecological information

2

Prunus spinosa L. (Rosaceae) BCN126640

Aranyoner, arç negre, prunyoner

BI, MO

Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Other informations: ecological information

Timber

4

Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Pinaceae) BCN36632

Douglas, pi Douglas

MO

Leaf. Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Timber

4

Psoralea bituminosa L. (Fabaceae) BCN32133

Cabrulla, calabrunya

MO

Flower

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn (Dennstaedtiaceae) BCN46068

Falguera, falguera de Lluc, helecho (Spanish), mata falguera

AE, BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Frond. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: use not remembered

34

Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae) BCN29764

Magrana (fruit), magraner

AE, BI, MO

Flower. Fruit. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

Textile: dyer

16

Pyracantha coccinea M.Roem. (Rosaceae) BCN52591

Cartegus

MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Pyrus communis L. subsp. communis (Rosaceae) BCN46831

Pera (fruit), perera

AE, BI, MO

Flower. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

3

Pyrus malus L. subsp. malus (Rosaceae) BCN24961

Pomera borda

RI

Aerial part

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

1

Pyrus malus L. subsp. mitis (Wallr.) O.Bolòs & J.Vigo (Rosaceae) BCN46830

Poma (fruit), poma bellesa de Roma (fruit), poma de bosc (fruit), poma del ciri (fruit), poma estarqui (fruit), poma fadrineta (fruit), poma goldén (fruit), poma manyaga (fruit), poma reneta (fruit), pomera, pomera borda, vinagre de poma (elaborated product)

AE, BI, MO

Fruit. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Domestic: air freshener

Other informations: ecological information

8

Quercus alba L. (Fagaceae) BCN60896

Roure americà

AE

Stem

Domestic: for help at home

1

Quercus coccifera L. subsp. coccifera (Fagaceae) BCN29765

Garric, garriga, garrolla

AE

Stem. Whole plant

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

2

Quercus humilis Mill. (Fagaceae) BCN32132

Roure

MO

Gall. Stem. Whole plant

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Ludic

Timber

4

Quercus ilex L. (Fagaceae) BCN24963

Aglà (fruit), alzina, aulina

BI, RI

Bark. Flower. Leaf. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal

Artisanal: tannery

Cosmetic

Folk oral literature

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: use not remembered

Textile: dyer

Timber

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: furniture manufacturing

31

Quercus ilex L. subsp. ilex (Fagaceae) BCN29932

Aglà (fruit), alzina, roure

AE, BI, MO

Bark. Leaf. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: wheeled vehicles manufacturing

52

Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. (Fagaceae) BCN29829

Aglà (fruit), alzina, roure, roure francès, roure hongarès

AE, MO, RI

Fruit. Gall. Stem. Whole plant. Cortical parenchyma

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Ludic

Other informations: ecological information

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: furniture manufacturing

Timber: construction materials production

16

Quercus pubescens Willd. (Fagaceae) BCN30007

Roure

AE

Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

1

Quercus suber L. (Fagaceae) BCN46829

Alzina surera, suro

AE, MO

Bark

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Ludic

Other informations: use not remembered

Textile: dyer

Textile: textile padding

9

Ranunculus asiaticus L. (Ranunculaceae) BCN65283

Francesilla

BI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

3

Raphanus raphanistrum L. (Brassicaceae) BCN30042

Ravenissa

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

1

Raphia sp. (Arecaceae)

Ràfia

BI

Leaf

Artisanal: basketry

1

Rhamnus alaternus L. (Rhamnaceae) BCN29769

Aladern, llampúdol, llampudoler, mata

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Stem. Whole plant

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Artisanal: smoking pipe elaboration

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Timber

Timber: furniture manufacturing

12

Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris Chodat (Rhamnaceae) BCN30057

Aladern, llampúdol

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Rhododendron ferrugineum L. (Ericaceae) BCN24969

Gafet, neret

RI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

3

Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae) BCN46089

Cagamutxo, oli de ricí (elaborated product), recino (Spanish), resiner, ricino (Spanish)

AE, BI

Seed. Seed oil

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: purchased in commerce

13

Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae) BCN31298

Acàcia, escàcia

AE, BI, MO, RI

Flower. Not reported. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Domestic: for help at home

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: wheeled vehicles manufacturing

Timber: furniture manufacturing

Timber: construction materials production

11

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hyek (Brassicaceae) BCN29771

Créixec, creixen, créixol, créssec

BI

Aerial part

Other informations: appreciations on plant or product properties

2

Rosa alba L. (Rosaceae) BCN400041

Roser blanc

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae) BCN29772

Gavarrera, roser bord, roser de bosc, roser de pastor, roser silvestre

AE, MO

Aerial part. Fruit. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: smoking pipe elaboration

Ludic

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

6

Rosa gallica L. (Rosaceae) BCN24972

Roser, roser de marge

MO, RI

Flower. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

7

Rosa sp. (Rosaceae)

Roser, roser de jardí

AE, BI, MO, RI

Corolla. Flower. Leaf. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Cosmetic

Domestic: air freshener

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological informations

24

Rosa tomentosa Sm. (Rosaceae) BCN24973

Grataculs, roser, roser bord, roser de bosc

RI

Fruit. Whole plant

Ludic

Ornamental: gardening

2

Rosa centifolia L. (Rosaceae) BCN126648

Roser, roser de marge

MO

Flower

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations

2

Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) BCN29937

Romaní

AE, BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: weeds

Cosmetic

Domestic: air freshener

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

43

Rubus ulmifolius Schott (Rosaceae) BCN32130

Barder, batzer, móra (fruit), romeguer, romeguera

BI, MO

Flower. Whole plant. Young shoot

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Folk oral literature

Other informations: ecological information

10

Rumex acetosa L. subsp. acetosa (Polygonaceae) BCN29775

Llengua de bou

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Rumex crispus L. (Polygonaceae) BCN126650

Cama-roja, paradella, Santa Maria, vinagrella

MO

Fruit

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

3

Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae)

Llengua de bou

RI

Leaf

Ludic

1

Ruscus aculeatus L. (Asparagaceae) BCN29939

Bolleta del bon pastor, bolleta de Nadal, boix marí, cirerer de Betlem, gallaranc, galzeran

AE, BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: use not remembered

20

Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) BCN29940

Abrecaminos (Spanish), ruda

AE, BI, RI

Aerial part. Not reported. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Cosmetic

Domestic: air freshener

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: appreciations on plant or product properties

Repellent

37

Ruta chalepensis L. subsp. chalepensis (Rutaceae) BCN32128

Ruda

MO

Whole plant

Folk oral literature

6

Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) BCN29776

Ruda

BI

Aerial part

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

5

Saccharum officinarum L. (Poaceae) BCN50771

Canya de sucre, canyamel, melassa (elaborated product)

BI

Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

1

Salix alba L. (Salicaceae) BCN29777

Saula, saule

AE, RI

Stem

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

6

Salix alba L. subsp. alba (Salicaceae) BCN56012

Saula, saule, sàlic

MO, RI

Flower. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Timber: wheeled vehicles manufacturing

8

Salix atrocinerea Brot. (Salicaceae) BCN39996

Gatell

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

1

Salix babylonica L. (Salicaceae) BCN50772

Desmai

AE, MO

Stem. Whole plant

Artisanal: basketry

Ornamental: gardening

4

Salix caprea L. (Salicaceae) BCN46073

Gat saule, gatells, salze, saule

AE, RI

Aerial part. Stem

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

6

Salix cinerea L. subsp. oleifolia Macreight (Salicaceae) BCN126656

Gatell

MO

Aerial part. Stem

Artisanal: basketry

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Timber

11

Salix elaeagnos Scop. subsp. angustifolia (Cariot) Rech.f. (Salicaceae) BCN31304

Salits, salitres, sàlix, sarga, vergatera

AE, MO

Stem

Artisanal: basketry

7

Salix ×fragilis L. (Salicaceae) BCN31305

Saula, saule, salze dels vims, saula vimera, vim, vimenera, vímet

AE, MO

Stem

Artisanal: basketry

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Ludic

31

Salsola kali L. subsp. ruthenica (Iljin) Soó (Amaranthaceae) BCN42985

Saleret, sosa

BI

Not reported

Cosmetic

Domestic: paint elaboration

2

Salsola soda L. (Amaranthaceae) BCN42984

Saleret

BI

Not reported

Domestic: paint elaboration

1

Salsola vermiculata L. (Amaranthaceae) BCN83712

Barrilla, barrillera

BI

Not reported

Other informations: ecological information

1

Salvia microphylla Kunth (Lamiaceae) BCN126657

Gessamí, menta, menta de la reina, menta piperita, menta romana, menta trapassera, ormí, senyorida

BI, MO

Flower. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Ludic

Ornamental: gardening

7

Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) BCN95591

Salvi, sàlvia

BI

Aerial part. Leaf. Not reported. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Cosmetic

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: appreciations on plant or product properties

17

Salvia officinalis L. subsp. lavandulifolia (Vahl) Gams (Lamiaceae) BCN1674

Sàlvia, sàlvia femella, sàlvia mascle

MO

Whole plant

Folk oral literature

1

Salvia sp. (Lamiaceae)

Sàlvia

BI

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological informations

1

Salvia verbenaca L. (Lamiaceae) BCN29942

Tàrrec, tàrrega

BI, RI

Leaf. Not reported

Smoking

5

Sambucus nigra L. (Adoxaceae) BCN29943

Sabuc, sabuquer, saüc, saüquer

AE, BI, RI

Flower. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Domestic: air freshener

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

9

Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (Asteraceae) BCN31526

Camamilla de botó, camamilla de botó groc, camamilla de l’hort, espernallac

MO, RI

Aerial part. Inflorescence

Cosmetic

Domestic: air freshener

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

4

Santolina chamaecyparissus L. subsp. chamaecyparissus (Asteraceae) BCN29782

Camamilla, camamilla de muntanya

AE

Aerial part. Inflorescence

Cosmetic

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

3

Santolina chamaecyparissus L. subsp. magonica O.Bolòs & al. (Asteraceae) BCN-E-186

Camamil · la

BI

Aerial part. Inflorescence. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Cosmetic

Domestic: air freshener

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

20

Saponaria officinalis L. (Caryophyllaceae) BCN29783

Herba del sabó, herba ensabonera, herba sabonera, sabó, sabó de gitana

AE, MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower

Cosmetic

Domestic: for help at home

11

Sarothamnus arboreus (Desf.) Webb subsp. catalaunicus (Webb) C.Vic (Fabaceae) BCN29784

Ginesta borda, ginestell, ginestó

AE

Aerial part. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

3

Sarothamnus scoparius (L.) Wimm. ex Koch (Fabaceae) BCN24988

Ginesta, ginesta prima, ginestell, gódua, lliroia

MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

22

Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele (Lamiaceae) BCN109263

Menta borda, rementerola

MO

Flower. Leaf

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Domestic: for help at home

2

Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele subsp. glandulosa (Req.) Gams (Lamiaceae) BCN29785

Clements

AE

Stem

Domestic: for help at home

1

Satureja hortensis L. (Lamiaceae) BCN29945

Senyorida

BI

Whole plant

Other informations: use not remembered

1

Saxifraga longifolia Lapeyr. (Saxifragaceae) BCN54656

Corona de rei

RI

Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Saxifraga vayredana Luizet (Saxifragaceae) BCN95599

Herba de Sant Segimon

MO

Aerial part. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Other informations: ecological information

Smoking

11

Scabiosa atropurpurea L. (Dipsacaceae) BCN29947

Escabiosa, escabriosa, escapiosa, herba escapriosa

AE, BI

Not reported. Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

3

Schefflera arborea (L.) M.Gómez (Araliaceae) BCN129084

Xeflera

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae) BCN46086

Pebre verd

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Scirpus holoschoenus L. (Cyperaceae) BCN29789

Jonc

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Agrosilvopastoral management: for hunting

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Artisanal: basketry

Domestic: for help at home

Other informations: ecological information

Textile: fibre or cloth elaboration

42

Scolymus hispanicus L. (Asteraceae) BCN30008

Card cadalina, card catalina, card de carxofa, card de cadernina, card cadernina, card verd

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Folk oral literature

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: use not remembered

4

Scrophularia nodosa L. (Scrophulariaceae) BCN3762

Setge

RI

Whole plant

Folk oral literature

1

Secale cereale L. (Poaceae) BCN27243

Secle, sègol

MO, RI

Fruit. Stem. Whole plant

Domestic: for help at home

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

3

Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) BC114504

Tayote (Spanish)

BI

Whole plant

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

1

Sedum dasyphyllum L. (Crassulaceae) BCN24994

Arròs de paret

RI

Aerial part. Leaf. Whole plant

Ludic

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

3

Sedum rupestre L. (Crassulaceae) BCN29791

Mort-i-viu

AE

Aerial part

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Sedum sediforme (Jacq.) Pau (Crassulaceae) BCN29792

Arròs, crespinell, mort-i-viu, pinet, raïm de galàpet, raïm de llop

AE, MO

Aerial part

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

4

Sedum telephium L. (Crassulaceae) BCN24995

Matafoc

RI

Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaborations

1

Sedum telephium L. subsp. maximum (Crassulaceae) BCN32123

Bàlsam, bàlsam de fulla, bàlsam de jardí, fava de jardí, fava grassa

MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

2

Sempervirum arachnoideum L. (Crassulaceae) BCN26422

Vel de núvia

RI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Sempervirum tectorum L. (Crassulaceae) BCN24997

Apagafoc, consolva, herba de les cremades, matafoc, pinya de foc, sempervívum

MO, RI

Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

4

Senecio inaequidens DC. (Asteraceae) BCN31309

Seneci del Cap

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

2

Sequoiadenderon giganteum (Lindl.) J.Buchholz (Taxodiaceae) BCN27276

Sequoia

RI

Bark

Ludic

1

Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae) BCN52592

Cua de mula, panissola, pèl de boc, xerreix, xerreix bord

MO

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Sideritis cf. sventenii (Kunkel) Mend.-Heu (Lamiaceae) BCN29957

_

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke (Caryophyllaceae) BCN29948

Colís, colitx, colleja (Spanish), culivells, esclafidor, petapetó

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Flower. Leaf. Whole plant

Ludic

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: use not remembered

22

Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke subsp. vulgaris (Caryophyllaceae) BCN25001

Corretjola, esclafidor, pet

RI

Aerial part. Flower

Ludic

2

Sinapis alba L. (Brassicaceae) BCN50358

Mostassa

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Repellent

2

Smilax aspera L. (Smilacaceae) BCN21151

Aríjol, aritja, sarsaparrilla

AE, BI

Aerial part. Root. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Domestic: for help at home

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: use not remembered

Textile: textile padding

10

Smyrnium olusatrum L. (Apiaceae) BNC95551

Aleixandre, aleixandri

BI

Aerial part. Stem

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

3

Solanum linnaeanum Hepper & P.-M.L.Jaeger (Solanaceae) BCN2553

Metzinera, poma del desert

BI

Whole plant

Other informations: use not remembered

1

Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae) BCN29952

Domàtiga (fruit), domatiguera, tomata (fruit), tomatera, tomàtiga (fruit), tomatiguera,

AE, BI

Fruit. Leaf. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Domestic: for help at home

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

Repellent

Smoking

9

Solanum melongena L. (Solanaceae) BCN25004

Albergínia (fruit), alberginiera

BI

Fruit. Leaf. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Smoking

3

Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae) BCN29797

Patata (tuber), patatera

AE, BI, MO

Leaf. Stem. Tuber. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Domestic: for help at home

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Smoking

7

Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. (Asteraceae) BCN29953

Allitsó, allitsó vertader, alitxó, aritsó, lletsó, lletxó, llitsó, llitxó

BI

Latex. Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

2

Sonchus tenerrimus L. (Asteraceae) BCN29954

Aletxó, llitsó bord

BI

Leaf

Other informations: ecological information

1

Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae) BCN25009

Moixera

RI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Sorbus domestica L. (Rosaceae) BCN46827

Serva (fruit), server, servera

AE, BI, MO

Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Other informations: ecological information

Timber

7

Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poaceae) BCN31310

Melca

AE

Stem

Artisanal: broom elaboration

13

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. (Poaceae) BCN44695

Canyota

MO

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

2

Spartium junceum L. (Fabaceae) BCN29956

Ginesta, ginesta de llei, ginesta vera, ginestera

AE, BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations

27

Spinacia oleracea L. (Amaranthaceae) BCN46077

Espinac

BI

Leaf

Other informations: appreciations on plant or product properties

1

Stachys byzantina K.Koch (Lamiaceae) BCN126667

Bàlsam, bàlsam de tall, bàlsam pelut, herba peluda, orella de conill

MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

2

Stipa tenacissima L. (Poaceae) BCN46091

Clin, espart

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Agrosilvopastoral management: for hunting

Artisanal: basketry

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Domestic: for help at home

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: use not remembered

Textile: textile padding

Timber: boat manufacturing

11

Syringa vulgaris L. (Oleaceae) BCN29959

Lilà

AE, MO, RI

Aerial part. Flower. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

17

Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry (Myrtaceae) BCN47279

Clau, clau d’olor

BI

Floral bud

Domestic: air freshener

Repellent

2

Tamarix canariensis Willd. (Tamariaceae) BCN43378

Tamariu

AE

Whole plant

Folk oral literature

1

Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Sch.Bip. (Asteraceae) BCN31918

_

MO

Whole plant

Other informations: use not remembered

1

Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip. (Asteraceae) BCN25014

Camamilla amargant, camamiglla borda, camamilla de Sòria, camamilla purgant, camamil · la de jardí, botonets

BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

3

Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae) BCN29803

Danarida, tanaceto (Spanish), tanarida

BI, RI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Repellent

4

Taraxacum officinale Weber in Wiggers (Asteraceae) BCN25015

Angelets, dent de lleó, herba queixalera, lleones, llums, màstecs bords, paraigües, pixacà, pixaconills, pixallits, puputs, queixal de llop, xicoina

BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Inflorescence. Fruit. Whole plant

Cosmetic

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

8

Taxus baccata L. (Taxaceae) BCN25017

Teix, quiner

BI, MO, RI

Aril. Cortical parenchyma. Stem. Whole plant

Cosmetic

Folk oral literature

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

Timber: furniture manufacturing

6

Teucrium capitatum L. (Lamiaceae) BCN43441

Herba de Sant Ponç, mançanella

BI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: use not remembered

2

Teucrium chamaedrys L. (Lamiaceae) BC806359

Auladella, betera

BI

Whole plant

Other informations

1

Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. pinnatifidum (Sennen) Rech.f. (Lamiaceae) BCN126671

Brutònica

MO

Flower

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Other informations: ecological information

1

Teucrium marum L. subsp. subspinosum (Pourr. ex Willd.) O.Bolòs, Molin. & P.Monts. (Lamiaceae) BCN66404

Auladella, beteta, coixinet de monja, eixorba-rates, herba beteta, herba de Sant Ponç, poniol

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: weeds

Folk oral literature

2

Teucrium polium L. subsp. capitatum (L.) Arcang. (Lamiaceae) BCN103557

Auladella, beteta, coixinet de monja, eixorba-rates, herba beteta, herba de Sant Ponç, poniol

BI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Teucrium polium L. subsp. polium (Lamiaceae) BCN32116

Timó, timolet, timonet

MO

Flower

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

1

Thapsia villosa L. subsp. villosa (Apiaceae) BCN39998

Julivert de cavall

AE

Whole plant

Other informations: ecological information

1

Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. (Lamiaceae) BCN72716

Frígola

BI

Leaf

Domestic: for help at home

1

Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) BCN29961

Farigola, frigola, tem, tomillo (Spanish)

AE, BI, RI

Aerial part. Flower

Cosmetic

Domestic: air freshener

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: excipient or adjuvant in medicinal or food preparations

8

Thymus vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris (Lamiaceae) BCN44665

Farigola

MO

Aerial part

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Folk oral literature

6

Tilia cordata Mill. (Malvaceae) BCN26784

Til · lo

BI

Bract with flower

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

2

Tilia platyphyllos Scop. (Malvaceae) BCN25024

Flor de tei, tell, til · la

AE, RI

Inflorescence. Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

3

Tilia sp. (Malvaceae)

Til · la

BI

Whole plant

Other informations: use not remembered

1

Tillandsia sp. (Bromeliaceae)

Clavell de l’aire

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Tradescantia albiflora Kunth. (Commelinaceae) BCN49624

_

MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) BCN45017

Picatalons

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: weeds

1

Trichocereus pachanoi Britton & Rose (Cactaceae) BCN129086

Dompedro (Spanish), sampedro (Spanish)

BI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: appreciations on plant or product properties

4

Trifolium sp. (Fabaceae)

Trèvol

BI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Fuel obtaining: charcoal

Other informations: ecological information

4

Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae) BCN29963

Blat, segó

AE, BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Bran. Not reported. Fruit. Spike. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Agrosilvopastoral management: for fishing

Artisanal: footwear elaboration

Cosmetic

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

Other informations: collections and/or selling

Other informations: use not rememberd

24

Trollius europaeus L. (Ranunculaceae) BCN27267

Cloclou, flor de Sant Pere, rovell d’ou

RI

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

2

Tropaeolum majus L. (Tropaeolaceae) BCN46429

Canari, caputxina

BI, MO

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Ornamental: gardening

2

Tulbaghia sp. (Amaryllidaceae)

Tulbàgia

BI

Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Repellent

2

Tulipa sp. (Liliaceae)

Tulipán (Spanish)

BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Typha angustifolia L. (Typhaceae) BCN23969

Boga, bova

BI, MO

Aerial part. Leaf. Stem

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Textile: fibre or cloth elaboration

12

Typha angustifolia L. subsp. australis (Schumach.) Kronf. (Typhaceae) BCN51627

Bova

BI

Stem

Artisanal: basketry

Other informations: ecological information

Textile

3

Typha latifolia L. (Typhaceae) BCN31314

Balca, boga, bova

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Flower. Leaf. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: basketry

Folk oral literature

Ludic

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

Textile: fibre or cloth elaboration

Timber: furniture manufacturing

23

Ulex parviflorus Pourr. subsp. parviflorus (Fabaceae) BCN30011

Argelac, argentina

AE

Stem. Whole plant

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Other informations: ecological information

2

Ulmus minor Mill. (Ulmaceae) BCN29813

Om

AE, BI, MO, RI

Bark. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Artisanal: cookware elaboration

Folk oral literature

Textile: fibre or cloth elaboration

Timber

Timber: boat manufacturing

Timber: wheeled vehicles manufacturing

Timber: furniture manufacturing

Timber: construction materials production

20

Urginea maritima (L.) Baker (Asparagaceae) BCN58049

Ceba marina, ceba marinera

BI

Bulb. Leaf. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: ecological information

Repellent

16

Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) BCN25030

Ortiga

MO, RI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

2

Urtica membranacea Poir. ex Savigny (Urticaceae) BCN95578

Ortiga

BI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Cosmetic

Other informations

5

Urtica sp. (Urticaceae)

Ortiga

BI

Aerial part. Leaf. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: undesirable actions

Repellent

6

Urtica urens L. (Urticaceae) BCN29966

Estrígol, ortiga

AE, BI

Aerial part. Leaf. Not reported. Stem. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Cosmetic

Other informations: undesirable actions

Repellent

7

Valeriana officinalis L. (Caprifoliaceae) BCN29816

Valedriana, valeriana

AE, MO, RI

Root

Folk oral literature

6

Verbascum pulverulentum Vill. (Scrophulariaceae) BCN25035

Herba ploranera, torpa

RI

Aerial part

Agrosilvopastoral management: weeds

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

2

Verbascum sinuatum L. (Scrophulariaceae) BCN29967

Trepó, tripó

AE, BI

Root. Stem. Whole plant

Artisanal: broom elaboration

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

4

Verbascum sp. (Scrophulariaceae)

Croca, cua de guilla, trepó

BI, RI,

Aerial part. Leaf. Not reported. Whole plant

Domestic: for help at home

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

7

Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) BCN63299

Porpra, trepó

MO

Flower

Cosmetic

1

Verbascum thapsus L. subsp. montanum (Schard.) Bon (Scrophulariaceae) BCN39651

Candeler, trepó

BI

Flower. Leaf

Folk oral literature

Other informations: ecological information

2

Viburnum lantana L. (Adoxaceae) BCN27281

Cartellatge, tortellatge

AE, MO, RI

Aerial part. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Artisanal: cane elaboration

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

8

Viburnum opulus L. (Adoxaceae) BCN126683

Bola de neu, mató, pompa

MO, RI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

2

Viburnum opulus L. var. roseum Aiton (Adoxaceae) BCN27254

Mató

RI

Aerial part

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Viburnum tinus L. subsp. tinus (Adoxaceae) BCN126681

Marfull

MO

Aerial part. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Ornamental: gardening

3

Vicia cracca L. subsp. gerardii (W.D.J. Koch) Briq. (Fabaceae) BCN126685

Llegum, veça

MO

Aerial part

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae) BCN49339

Fava (fruit/seed), favera, favó (seed), llegum

BI, RI

Fruit. Seed. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Agrosilvopastoral management: honey obtaining

Folk oral literature

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: harvesting and/or selling

13

Vicia sativa L. (Fabaceae) BCN95569

Veça

BI

Young shoot

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

2

Vicia sativa L. subsp. sativa (Fabaceae) BCN-E-93

Veça

MO

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

1

Vicia villosa Roth (Fabaceae) BCF46443

Veça

MO

Whole plant

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

1

Vinca difformis Pourr. (Apocynaceae) BCN52597

Blincaperblinca, proenga, pruenga, vinca, vincapervinca

BI, MO, RI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Folk oral literature

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Other informations: ecological information

5

Vinca major L. (Apocynaceae) BCN25039

Flor de Pasqua, vinca, vincapervinca

AE, RI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

4

Viola alba Besser (Violaceae) BCN27286

Violetes

RI

Flower

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Viola alba Besser. subsp. dehnhardtii (Ten.) W.Becker (Violaceae) BCN31316

Viola, viola petita

AE

Aerial part

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

1

Viscum album L. (Santalaceae) BCN46085

Gui (French), muérdago (Spanish), ramillo de la suerte (Spanish), vesc

AE, MO

Aerial part. Resin. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: for hunting

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

7

Vitex agnus-castus L. (Lamiaceae) BCN29820

Alís d’olor, aloc, barda, ximbla

AE, BI

Flower. Latex. Stem

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: use not remembered

Repellent

5

Vitis vinifera L. (Vitacaeae) BCN29972

Cep, pansa (dried fruit), tòria (branch), parra, raïm (fruit), raïmera, rem (fruit), vi (elaborated product), vinagre (elaborated product)

AE, BI, RI

Fruit juice. Leaf. Fruit peduncle Stem. Whole plant.

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Agrosilvopastoral management: for pig slaughter

Cosmetic

Domestic: for help at home

Folk oral literature

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: gardening

Other informations: excipient or adjuvant in medicinal or food preparations

Repellent

Smoking

35

Wisteria sinensis (Sims) Sweet (Fabaceae) BCN30014

Glicina

AE, BI

Whole plant

Ornamental: gardening

2

Zantedeschia aethiopica (L.) Spreng. (Araceae) BCN104895

Lliri

BI

Aerial part. Whole plant

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

3

Zea mays L. (Poaceae) BCN29830

Blat de les Índies, blat de moro, cabellet (style and stigma), maís

AE, BI, MO, RI

Bract, Epicarp, Fruit. Infructescence. Not reported. Fruit. Stem. Spike. Styles and stigmas. Whole plant. Rachis

Agrosilvopastoral management: agricultural/horticultural

Fuel obtaining: firewood

Ludic

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Smoking

Textile: dyer

Textile: fibre or cloth elaboration

Textile: textile padding

Other informations

27

Zinnia elegans L. (Asteraceae) BCN69604

Rascamoño (Spanish), rosa mística

BI

Inflorescence. Whole plant

Agrosilvopastoral management: tools for agricultural practices

Ornamental: bouquet elaboration

Ornamental: gardening

3

Ziziphus jujuba L. (Rhamnaceae) BCN29822

Gíjol (fruit), ginjoler

AE, BI, MO

Aerial part. Fruit. Stem. Whole plant

Artisanal: musical instrument elaboration

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Other informations: ecological information

Timber: boat manufacturing

11

Statistical methods

All calculations were carried out using Excel (Microsoft Excel 2007) and the program XLSTAT (v. 2007.5, Addinsoft SARL) was used to carry out the Chi-square test in order to check the statistical differences in the use categories among the four studied territories.

Results and discussion

General data

The 769 informants reported 401 genera (34 of the taxa reported have only been determined to the generic level), 552 species, 81 subspecies and four varieties, belonging to 122 families. The taxa collected, their folk names and uses, the territories where they are recorded, the parts of plants employed and their use frequency are presented in Table 1, placed as an appendix. The number of taxa with such information is high. Just to compare with the same geographical areas, 334 species are reported in a paper on medicinal plants (AE, [30]), which is representative of other territories, a figure higher than in other areas and not simply additive, since a high number of taxa are repeated in different areas, and 97 species were recorded in a work on ethnoveterinary in four out of the five territories here considered [31]. This supports the argument to consider the non-food and non-medicinal folk plant uses as not secondary or residual at all. The number of use reports (hereinafter UR) confirms this, being also elevated (4137 in total, cf. Table 2 for their distribution in the geographical areas and Table 3 for its repartition for use categories).
Table 2

Use reports in the studied areas

Area

Use reports

Use reports/inhabitant

Use reports/informant

Catalonia (CA)a

2335

0.0086

4.58

Alt Empordà (AE)

1014

0.0072

5.70

Montseny (MO)

942

0.0090

5.48

Ripollès (RI)

379

0.0147

2.37

Balearic Islands (BI)a

1802

0.0021

6.96

Formentera (FO)

87

0.0075

3.63

Mallorca (MA)

1715

0.0020

7.30

TOTAL

4137

0.0036

5.38

aCatalonia includes Alt Empordà, Montseny and Ripollès and Balearic Islands include Formentera and Mallorca

Table 3

Use categories considered and number of reports of each one in the territories studied

Use categories

AE

BI

MO

RI

Agrosilvopastoral management

135

284

159

24

Artisanal

250

157

96

31

Cosmetic

26

78

9

12

Domestic

77

113

63

23

Folk oral literature

16

106

64

10

Fuel obtaining

16

58

27

9

Ludic

40

64

117

26

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

128

116

105

72

Ornamental

135

193

201

117

Other informations

79

383

13

33

Repellents

20

95

3

11

Smoking plant

24

18

19

3

Textile

25

58

1

4

Timber

43

79

65

4

TOTAL

1014

1802

942

379

AE Alt Empordà, BI Balearic Islands (comprising here Formentera and Mallorca), MO Montseny, RI Ripollès

To name the specific and infraspecific taxa the informants provided 1303 Catalan popular names, including whole plants and parts of plant, especially fruits and seeds, and elaborated products. This figure would be the equivalent to a mean of more than two names per plant, and roughly approaches the 5 % of the ca. 35,000 Catalan plant names (of folk and other provenances) recently collected [32], the quantity and diversity of names accounting too for the vitality of the knowledge of plants with these other uses. Additionally, the informants indicated 37 Spanish, four French and one Arabic names to refer to the plants reported.

Use categories

Table 3 presents the 14 categories (which are equally present for all territories in our database to avoid comparison) of non-food and non-medicinal uses in which we have classified all data collected. Some examples and comments on specific uses are provided in this and in other epigraphs of this paper (e.g., most reported taxa or persistence of uses), and the detail of all uses collected can be found in Table 1.

The category “other informations” is a miscellaneous one to hold sparse knowledge not attributable to the established categories. This big group of information comprises 509 use reports from a total 4137, meaning ca. 12 % of all reports, but includes a very numerous and diverse cases, for which we have established the following subgrouping: ecological information, undesirable actions, purchased in commerce, harvesting and/or selling, excipient or adjuvant in medicinal or food preparations, product appreciations. We also attributed the category of other information to the cases in which the informants declared that they knew that a plant was useful, but they did not remember for what (use not remembered); we maintain this category (related, as the whole paper, to non-food and non-medicinal uses) as an evocation of knowledge that used to be solid, but has declined and is almost forgotten now.

Some big categories comprise several activities. Agrosilvopastoral: agricultural/horticultural, for pig slaughter, honey obtaining, for fishing, for hunting, forestry tools for agricultural practices, weeds. Artisanal: elaboration of canes, shoes, brooms, kitchen implements, musical instruments, baskets and similar objects, fibres, smoking paper, tobacco pipes and other instruments, as well as hide tanning. Domestic: household help, air fresheners, paint elaboration, help in sewing. Textile: fibre or cloth elaboration, textile padding, dyer. Timber: elaboration of furniture, boats and wheeled vehicles, obtention of building material.

With this, and irrespective of our grouping, made for the sake of concision, thus, the number of subcategories (including categories with no subcategories) would reach 46, showing a big coverage of different fields. The most common large use categories, in terms of number of use reports, are ornamental (646 use reports), agrosilvopastoral management (600), artisanal (534), and magic and religious beliefs and practices (421). For statistical purposes we used the main or big categories, since for many of the subcategories there are not enough use reports to allow a statistical treatment.

The first two of these categories have direct links with the rural society, which has been prevalent in all the studied territories until recent times and is still important, irrespective of the intervening socioeconomic changes. Plants used in agricultural and livestock raising tasks have been and many of them continue to be utilised (see the subheading on persistence of uses). Many local handicrafts and objects for domestic uses were and are elaborated. Many kinds of baskets (Fig. 2), spoons and other kitchen implements, often made with Buxus sempervirens L. wood, or broom (Fig. 2; made with species such as Buxus sempervirens, Erica scoparia L., Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. et Cavill. and Sarothamnus scoparius (L.) W.D.J.Koch -two of them with the specific epithet alluding to this object, suggesting the antiquity and relevance of this tradition-) were mentioned. The uses comprised in these two categories are also among the commonest in other European areas [11, 13, 14]. Moreover, handicraft elaboration has been reported as one of the most relevant uses in distant areas as well, e.g., [33]. Indeed, some uses belonging to other categories are also linked with rural activities. This is the case, among others, of using Datura stramonium L. as a repellent for moles, which can damage plant cultures.
Fig. 2

Examples of basketry and broom elaboration in the territories considered: a. Formentera, Lygeum spartum; b. Mallorca, Chamaerops humilis; c. Formentera, Juniperus phoenicea, Pinus halepensis; d. Montseny, Erica scoparia

The third group of uses is very common as well, since all human groups have influences of religious and/or magic beliefs. Protective plants (see the subheading on persistence of uses), or ritual ones (e.g., Laurus nobilis L., Olea europaea L. and Phoenix dactylifera L., which are blessed in Christian Easter feasts, Fig. 3) exemplify this group of uses.
Fig. 3

Examples of artisanal, domestic and magicoreligous uses in the territories considered: a. Mallorca, Olea europaea; b. Alt Empordà, Laurus nobilis, Phoenix dactylifera; c. Alt Empordà, Arundo donax; d. Mallorca, Chamaerops humilis; e. Ripollès, Lunaria annua

Finally, the category of ornamental plants is also universal, both in rural and urban areas, both with living or cut plants, and both for indoor and outdoor spaces. This group of uses involves classical, large-scale cultivated plants (such as Rosa sp. cultivars), but a large number of wild plants as well, such as, among many others (see Table 1), Lunaria annua L. (Fig. 3), with the aerial parts with fruiting septa of which bouquets are prepared. Many ornamental plants also have other uses; amongst them, medicinal is not rare, and in some cases the medicinal application used to be important and has decreased, but the ornamental use persists (such as, for example, in Lilium candidum L.). Decorative uses are very dynamic. The ancient traditions in this field coexist with recently adopted ones, such as using Poinsettia pulcherrima (Willd.) Graham toghether with the classical Ruscus aculeatus L. for home ornamentation at Christmas (Fig. 4).
Fig. 4

Examples of artisanal, domestic and magicoreligous uses in the territories considered: a. Alt Empordà, Pinus pinea; b. Alt Empordà, several species, among which Dianthus caryophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Rosa sp., Spartium junceum and Phoenix dactylifera; c. Alt Empordà, Ziziphus jujuba; d. Montseny, Ruscus aculeatus; e. Montseny, Poinsettia pulcherrima; f. Ripollès, Carlina acanthifolia subsp. cynara

Most reported taxa

The five most reported families in the whole studied area are Poaceae (301 UR; 7.28 %), Lamiaceae (293 UR; 7.08 %), Asteraceae (290 UR; 7.01 %), Rosaceae (186 UR; 4.50 %) and Oleaceae (181 UR; 4.38 %). All these families, except the last one, are big in terms of number of taxa and are importantly represented worldwide and, in particular, in the Mediterranean region, to which the territories considered belong. This would agree with the assessment that plant taxa common or well-represented in one area are more accessible to its inhabitants and, so, most likely used there [34]. Three of these families, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae, are almost always dominant in ethnobotanical works conducted in the Catalan cultural area and in other western Mediterranean countries (see, for instance, [35] for a Catalan territory and [36, 37] for non-Catalan areas, and references contained in these papers) even if those works are focused on food and medicinal plants and the present one on other uses. The coincidence is also important (four out of the five main families of the present paper) even with work conducted in several eastern Mediterranean areas [14]. In contrast, the family Oleaceae is not very numerous in taxa, but it reached a very high number of UR mostly due to the relevance and versatility of uses of Olea europaea (including, but not only, olive oil, utilised for many different purposes) in all Mediterranean territories. The family Poaceae is not included among the most reported in the above-quoted ethnobotanical works on food and medicinal plants, but is, again, a very large one and with some prominent plants in the kind of uses here studied. Arundo donax L. is particularly significant in this sense. This allochthonous plant, acclimated from ancient times in the areas studied, has many uses, mostly linked to agricultural practices (Fig. 3), in three of the territories (AE in Catalonia and both from BI), which account for many UR.

The five most cited species in the different regions studied are presented in Table 4. Again, Olea europaea is present in the top plants list, being the most reported one in the Balearic areas considered and in one of the Catalonian territories (altogether, and logically, in the most strict Mediterranean areas among those studied) for the reasons stated in the last paragraph. The coincidence of Buxus sempervirens as highly quoted in the three Catalonian territories responds, apart from its popularity due to the high quality of its wood, to the existence of Eurosiberian zones in these continental areas, and to its practical or total absence from Balearic ones. Conversely, Chamaerops humilis (Figs. 2 and 3), much more present in the Balearic areas considered, and scarce or inexistent in the Catalonian ones, is, not surprisingly, highly reported in the former. Most quoted taxa are quite different from those leading the lists of top plants for medicinal or food uses in the areas considered ([28, 38] and references therein), with the exception of Olea europaea, which also plays a relevant role in the mentioned fields.
Table 4

Data on use reports of the most quoted plants in the territories studied

Territory/Plant species

Number of use reports in each territory

Percentage of use reports in each territory

Alt Empordà

  

Olea europaea L. (including both subsp. europaea and subsp. sylvestris (Mill.) Hegi)

44

4.34

Arundo donax L.

40

3.94

Erica arborea L.

39

3.85

Celtis australis L.

29

2.86

Buxus sempervirens L.

28

2.76

Ripollès

  

Buxus sempervirens

28

7.39

Carlina acanthifolia (Pourr. ex DC.) Rouy

14

3.69

 Sarothamnus scoparius L.

13

3.43

 Syringa vulgaris L.

12

3.17

 Pinus sylvestris L.

9

2.37

Montseny

  

 Buxus sempervirens

69

7.11

 Erica scoparia L.

30

3.18

 Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench.

29

3.08

 Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn

24

2.55

Quercus ilex L. and Scirpus holoschoenus L., ex aequo

20

2.12

Balearic Islands (Mallorca and Formentera)

  

Olea europaea L. (including both subsp. europaea and subsp. sylvestris)

80

4.44

 Arundo donax

57

3.16

 Ocimum basilicum L.

47

2.61

 Chamaerops humilis L.

46

2.55

Pinus halepensis Mill. and Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb., ex aequo

41

2.28

Parts of plants

The use categories object of the present paper being very diverse, almost all plant parts (and the whole plants as well) are used.

Stem (1156 UR; 27.94 %), aerial part -constituted either by all the aboveground part of the plant or by leaves and flowers together, with the stem or branch portions sustaining them- (785 UR; 18.98 %), flower (including inflorescence and flower, 337 UR; 8.15 %) and leaf (295 UR; 7.13 %) have been the most reported plant parts. Frequently, the whole plant is also used (869 UR; 21.01 %). Sometimes, the aerial part and the whole plant have constituted indistinguishable categories. The high number of use reports attributed to the stem is due to large and diverse kinds of artisanal uses, wood products and fuel.

Comparison between the territories studied

As stated when addressing the most recorded taxa, the territories studied share a language and culture, but differ in ecogeographical characteristics. For these comparative purposes we have put together both Balearic territories, since Formentera’s dataset is not big enough to be taken into consideration.

Chi-square test showed there was an association between use categories and territories (χ2 = 846.306, d.f. = 39, P < 0.0001). Particularly, the presence of continental and insular areas leads us to suppose some differences in ethnoflora applications, possibly due to differences both in flora and in traditions. Indeed, there is also a significant difference in the use categories between continental and insular territories (χ2 = 485.037, d.f. = 13, P < 0.0001), confirming this geographical effect.

We present in Fig. 5 the degree of coincidence in plants used in the five regions considered. Whereas the number of coincident species among three territories ranges from 43 (Balearic Islands, Montseny and Ripollès) to 76 (Alt Empordà, Balearic Islands and Montseny), this decreases to 34 when we analyse the intersection of the four areas included in this study. In any case, we believe that the amount of plants used for non-medicinal and non-food aims in all areas is rather high. These plants with a larger geographical reach are usually cosmopolitan species used in daily life in the territories of Catalan culture, such as Fagus sylvatica L., Laurus nobilis, Malva sylvestris L., Olea europaea, Papaver rhoeas L., Ruscus aculeatus, and Spartium junceum L. (Table 1).
Fig. 5

Venn’s diagram showing the number of uses in each territory considered and the coincidences among them. AE: Alt Empordà; BI: Balearic Isands; Mo: Montseny; RI: Ripollès

Reliability of uses recorded

As already stated, the uses here reported are divided in a large number of categories. Irrespective of this dispersion, which is logical, since we consider here all traditional plant uses apart from food and medicinal ones, we think it is necessary to evaluate the degree of reliability of the information provided by the interviewees on these uses. A first, simple approach to this is considering the frequency of uses (see Table 1 for plants and Table 3 for use categories). According to several authors [33, 39], a use could be considered reliable if it is quoted by at least three independent informants. In most cases both the plants and the uses have been quoted by more (usually many more) than three informants.

A finer approach is provided by the informant consensus factor (FIC; [40]), defined as the number of UR minus the number of taxa divided by the number on UR minus 1. This index reflects the reliability of ethnobotanical information considering the coincidence of the informants in the same uses to be attributed to the same plants. The closer FIC is to its maximum value, 1, the more consistent -thus, the more reliable- are the folk plant uses considered in the area studied. The general FIC value in this study is 0.87 and those for the two big geographical areas concerned (Catalonia and Balearic Islands) are coincidental, 0.82. To our knowledge, this is the first, or one of the very rare times, that FIC is calculated for uses other than medicinal and food ones. The absolute values can be considered rather high. Comparatively, they are higher than those calculated for medicinal uses in two Mexican and one Indian areas (ranging from 0.75 to 0.79; [4143]). This means that other uses in the territories here studied are slightly more coincidental than medicinal uses in places where folk use of medicinal plants is highly practiced and considered, suggesting a high consistency and reliability of the information collected. The FIC values here presented are very close (although in a few cases slightly lower) to those obtained for food and medicinal plant uses in the areas object of study ([31, 35], and references therein). This testifies for the robustness of the dataset collected, confirming the relevance of these other uses of plants for the human populations practicing them.

Persistence and consideration of non-food and non-medicinal folk plant uses

If indices such as FIC permit a quantitative assessment of the non-food and non-medicinal popular plant uses, the interviews performed with a big number of informants in the five studied areas allow us to qualitatively evaluate their current situation as well. Our aprioristic idea was that, in an industrialised society, these uses, most of them not directly linked to wellness and hardly related to rural life, would be residual and not much considered, at least in part due to the processes of acculturation and erosion of traditional knowledge. Nevertheless, once considered in detail the definitely high amount of information collected, we believe that these uses are (at least still) not so marginal. We contribute here some reflections on this subject with different possibilities for the uses considered, illustrated with a few examples, and more similar conclusions may be deduced by considering the information of Table 1.

Undoubtedly, some of these uses have declined, in some cases nearly or completely until extinction. We can note in this category some artisanal works and most traditions linked to religious and/or magic beliefs. For instance galoshes (Fig. 4), for which the wood of several trees was employed, are no longer in use in agropastoral tasks (so, they are no longer fabricated), but the informants who used to employ them and those who used to elaborate them (one of our informants was one of the last artisans who elaborated galoshes in Catalonia, until 1980) precisely remember the details of their use and had often brought into the house some pieces as decorative elements with an added value. In the Catalan society, the same degree as in the Netherlands -where galoshes have become an identitary element, with, additionally, a big implication in merchandising and trade- has not been reached, but nowadays the few people who know how to fabricate them are often required in popular feasts to show off their former trade. Indeed, courses or workshops on these and other subjects related with traditional plant uses (e.g., dyeing) are frequently organised. Similarly, carpets elaborated with vegetal elements are no longer used in religious processions (simply because these processions do not exist currently), but in some localities in two of the areas studied (Alt Empordà, Montseny) the carpets continue to be prepared every year in the context of a popular feast (Fig. 4). In other cases, such as the elaboration of matrasses with Zea mays L. inflorescence bracts or that of sheets with Cannabis sativa L. fibres, the uses have been completely abandoned.

Even in some trades that are declining, a certain degree of vitality persists: the elaboration of musical instruments for the orchestra (named cobla) that plays typical Catalan dances (called sardana) and for other kind of traditional musical events, importantly involving Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Fig. 4) continues to be alive, even if their artisans must have another profession to make a living.

Apart from these declining uses, some other persist almost to the same extent as always. These are uses linked to everyday life mostly in rural areas, such as those related to agricultural practices (in homegardens or elsewhere), e.g., tutoring some cultivated plants (Fig. 3). Another kind of folk plant knowledge to persist is that related to ludic aspects, including oral literature. People continue to play with plants and to use sayings and proverbs involving the vegetal world (even to inventing new ones). Additionally, some plant uses directly linked to commercial issues have also a high degree of persistence, such as those related to basketry (Fig. 1) or Christmas/New Year decoration (Fig. 4).

Finally, some popular traditions linked to plants are still in use, but have changed in some senses. As an example, some plants are hung in or near the doors of many rural houses (especially in mountain areas), as was commonly done since time immemorial, such as Carlina acanthifolia (Fig. 4). Nevertheless, no one believes nowadays (even if many people did a few decades ago) that these plants are protective for people and animals in the house. In this case, these plants now play a decorative role, with the associated interest that people know that this current use derives from a quite different ancient one. The basket elaboration mentioned in the last paragraph and similar activities, such as some related to textile, dyeing and handicraft issues, have also experienced, at least to some extent, this change. In past times, baskets, carpets, blankets, forks, spoons and other objects were elaborated with plant material simply for their use within the house, but now most such pieces produced are addressed to decorative and touristic purposes, comporting some commercial revenues.

Conclusions

The important number of species claimed to be used (552, with 4137 use reports) by the 769 informants interviewed in the territories studied for the purposes comprised in this paper show that popular knowledge on plants goes far beyond food and medicinal applications, which had been the most traditionally studied in ethnobotanical surveys, probably because they are the most apparent and the most preserved plant utilisations. This means that a large and diverse panoply of traditional uses, which are apparently secondary in our industrialised societies, such as examples as different as basket elaboration and oral literature, remains active and, when this is not so, appreciated and remembered by people.

To summarize, we believe that the data in this study show that a robust set of knowledge and practices in the field of non-food and non-medicinal plant uses persists in the European industrialised area studied, indicating that these utilisations of plants, which to date have been the object of scarce attention in ethnobotanical research, are relevant -we would say fully necessary- for a complete life, even in a modern society and even if they are not directly related to health issues. Additionally, and not forcibly negatively, although this means a reorientation in the tradition, some changes in popular uses (mostly those related to handicrafts) currently imply a certain complementary income for some people and may represent a potential for future commercial activities with economic significance in rural communities.

Further ethnobotanical studies in this currently still rather neglected field are encouraged in order to compile an important part of natural and cultural heritage not sufficiently considered up to now, and to assess what actions are needed to preserve this knowledge, particularly in cases of dangerously declining real current practice.

Abbreviations

AE, Alt Empordà district; BC, Herbarium of Botanical Institute of Barcelona; BCN, Herbarium of the Centre de Documentació de Biodiversitat Vegetal, Universitat de Barcelona; BI, Balearic Islands; CA, Catalonia; FIC, Informant consensus factor; FO, Formentera island; MA, Mallorca island; MO, Montseny massif; RI, Ripollès district; UR, Use reports

Declarations

Acknowledgements

We thank all the informants for having shared with us their time and their in-depth knowledge on biodiversity use and management. We are grateful to Samuel Pyke (Jardí Botànic de Barcelona) for his improvement of the English language, to Rosa Trigell (Blommor Floristes) for plant material supply and to Josep Vicens (Universitat de Barcelona) for his help in herbarium material management. EC and AG benefited from predoctoral contracts of the Spanish ministries in charge of education. This research has been partially funded by the municipal council of Figueres (IX Beca de recerca “Ciutat de Figueres”), the Catalan government (projects 2009SGR439, 2009ACOM00012, 2009ACOM00013 and 2014SGR514) and the Spanish government (project CSO2014-59704-P).

Funding

See acknowledgements

Availability of data and materials

Not applicable

Authors’ contributions

All authors participated in the design of the research and in data collection. AG and TG carried out the statistical analyses. TG and JV coordinated the study and wrote the first draft of the manuscript, to which the other authors then contributed. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Consent for publication

The authors give their consent for publication of this manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

All the authors agree with the manuscript and consent to participate in it. Concerning the informants, they gave the informed consent (see Methods section).

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Laboratori de Botànica - Unitat associada CSIC, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona
(2)
Institut Botànic de Barcelona (IBB–CSIC–ICUB)

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