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Table 1 ᅟ

From: The bear in Eurasian plant names: motivations and models

AA currently valid nomenclature The taxon indicated in original source Local name Literal translation Language Area Motivation Reference
Acanthus hirsutus Boiss. Acanthus hirsutus Boiss. ayıeli bear hand Turkish Anatolia shape [59]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis ayïpänġäsi bear claw Azeri   Latin calque [171]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis ayïwtabani bear sole Bashkir   Latin calque [171]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis upauri bear foot Chuvash   Latin calque [171]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. medviđa stopa bear foot Croatian   Latin calque [126, 137, 138]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. medvidnja stupa bear foot Croatian   Latin calque [126, 137, 138]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. medvija stupa bear foot Croatian   Latin calque [126, 137, 138]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. medvjeđa stupa bear foot Croatian no location Latin calque [84, 126, 137, 138]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. medvejsko kopito bear hoof Croatian no location ? [126, 138]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. medvedovina bear plant Croatian no location Latin calque [126, 138, 225]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. stopa medvidnja bear foot Croatian   Latin calque [126, 138, 239]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. stopa medvinja bear foot Croatian   Latin calque [126, 138, 239]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. stopa medvjednja bear foot Croatian   Latin calque [126, 138, 239]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. stopa medvjeđa bear foot Croatian   Latin calque [126, 138, 239]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. stopa medvjeska bear foot Croatian   Latin calque [126, 138, 239]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. medvědí pazneht bear hoof Czech   Latin calque [61]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. medvědí paznecht bear hoof Czech   Latin calque [61]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. nedvědí paznot bear hoof Czech   Latin calque [61]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. nedvězí paznot bear hoof Czech   Latin calque [61]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. vlašský nedvědí pazneht Italian bear hoof Czech   Latin calque [61]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. vlašský nedvědí paznecht Italian bear hoof Czech   Latin calque [61]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. patte d’ours bear paw French   Latin calque [2]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. branc ursine bear paw French   Latin calque [2]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. branque ursine bear paw French   Latin calque [2]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. branche ursine bear paw French   Latin calque [2]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis Bärenklau, echte, italienische, welsche bear claw, true, Italian, ? German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis Bärentappe bear paw German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis Bärentatze bear paw German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. branca ursina bear paw Italian, central Tuscany, central Italy ? [74]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis ayuwayaghï bear foot Kazakh   Latin calque [171]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis ayuwtabanï bear sole Kazakh   Latin calque [171]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. мeдвeдзoвa тaлпa bear foot Ruthenian Vojvodina Latin calque? [125]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. мeдвeдoвинa bear plant Serbo-Croat   Latin calque? [84]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. мeдвejcкo кoпитo bear hoof Serbo-Croat   Latin calque? [84]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. мeдвecкa cтoпa bear foot Serbo-Croat   Latin calque? [84]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. мeдвидњa cтупa bear foot Serbo-Croat   Latin calque? [84]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis L. мeдвиja cтупa bear foot Serbo-Croat   Latin calque? [84]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis medvednik bear plant Slovenian   Latin calque? [84]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis medvenik bear plant Slovenian   Latin calque? [84]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis barjaca stopa bear foot Sorbian   Latin calque [186]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis ayuajaghï bear foot Tatar   Latin calque [171]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis ayutabanï bear sole Tatar   Latin calque [171]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis ayıpençesi bear claw Turkish   shape [171]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis ayïpenġesi bear claw Turkmen   Latin calque [171]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis barica she-bear Upper-Sorbian   Latin calque? [63]
Acanthus mollis L. Acanthus mollis ayïqtåwån bear sole Uzbek   Latin calque [171]
Acanthus spinosus L. Acanthus spinosus L. branca ursina salvatica wild bear branch Italian, central Tuscany, central Italy ? [74]
Acanthus spinosus L. Acanthus spinosus L. barica she-bear Upper-Sorbian   Latin calque [121]
Acanthus spp. Acanthus spp. medvedska taca bear paw Croatian   Latin calque [228]
Acanthus spp. Acanthus (various species, including spinosus and mollis) bear's breech bear breech Eng. General England surface [46]
Acanthus spp. Acanthus L. ayıpençesi bear paw Turkish Anatolia shape [131]
Acanthus spp. Acanthus barnica bear plant Upper-Sorbian   Latin calque? [63]
Achillea millefolium L. Achillea millefolium L. karhunkukka bear flower Finnish Perho, Sievi surface [82]
Achillea millefolium L. Achillea millefolium L. karhunruoho bear grass Finnish Perho surface [82]
Achillea nobilis L. Achillea nobilis L. ayıdanası bear calf Turkish W Anatolia folklore [145]
Aconitum napellus L. Aconitum napellus bear's foot bear foot Eng. Midland Nottingham shape [45]
Aconitum napellus L. Aconitum napellus L. karupesa bear nest Estonian Mus size [58]
Aconitum sp. Aconitum sp. ayïwtabani bear sole Bashkir   shape [171]
Aconitum sp. Aconitum sp. ayïqtåwån bear sole Uzbek   shape? [171]
Acorus calamus L. Acorus cal. Bärenmutter-wurzel bear mother root German, non specified not specified folk etymology? [65]
Actaea rubra (Aiton) Willd. Actaea rubra (Aiton) Willd. karhunmarja bear berry Finnish Sort, Konn dangerousness [82]
Actaea spicata L. Actaea spicata L. мeдвeжьи ягoды bear berries Central Russian Nizhni Novgorod inedibility? [57]
Actaea spicata L. Actaea spicata L. meškauogė bear berries Lithuanian Lithuania dangerousness, bear food [87, 191]
Actaea spicata L. Actaea spicata L. мeдвeжья тpaвa bear grass Northern Russian Olonets dangerousness (toxic)? [57]
Actaea spicata L. Actaea spicata L. bjønnbær bear berry Norwegian Northern Odal, Vodal ? [80]
Actaea spicata L. Actaea spicata L. мeдвeжья ягoдa bear berry Russian Middle Ob region dangerousness (toxic) [101]
Actaea spicata L. Actaea spicata björnbär bear berry Swedish Österbotten, Nyland status- [155]
Aegopodium podagraria L. Aegopodium podagraria medvedova taca bear paw Slovenian   ? [84, 144]
Agasyllis latifolia Boiss. Siler latifolium L. medvedovka bear plant Slovenian   ? [144]
Ajuga reptans L. Ajuga reptans L. мeчa cтъпкa bear step Bulgarian   shape, surface [86]
Alchemilla xanthochlora Rothm. Alchemilla vulgaris L. bear's foot bear foot Eng. Southern, Northern Hampshire, Northumberland shape [45]
Alchemilla xanthochlora Rothm. Alchemilla vulg. Barendaumen bear thumb German, non specified not specified shape?, surface? [65]
Allium rotundum L. Allium rotundum L. ayı sarmısağı bear garlic Turkish Kırklareli (European part of Turkey) wild [227]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum L. Hudhër arushe, Hudhrr ariu bear garlic Albanian Albania bear food [210, 211]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum ayï soganï bear onion Azeri   Latin calque [171]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum ayïu huganï bear onion Bashkir   Latin calque [171]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum L. мeчи лук bear onion Bulgarian Kyustendil area Latin calque [86]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum bjørneløg bear onion Danish Denmark Latin calque [187]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum L. karusibul bear onion Estonian Hää Latin calque [58]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum L. karulauk bear leek Estonian   Latin calque ([58, 237, 238]
Allium ursinum L. Allium urs. Bärenknoblauch bear garlic German, non specified not specified bear food [65]
Allium ursinum L. Allium urs. Bärlauch bear leek German, non specified not specified bear food [65]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum medvefokhagyma bear garlic Hungarian Egerszék (Transylvania) wild Frendl and Papp unpublished
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum medvesósdi bear’s sorrel Hungarian Egerszék (Transylvania) wild Frendl and Papp unpublished
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum L. ajë dell'orse; aju dell'orso; ajo dell'ors bear garlic Italian, central Gran Sasso d'Italia and Laga Mt., Abruzzo and little portion of eastern Latium, central Italy wild, status- Cianfaglione unpublished
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum L. ajë de l'urs bear garlic Italian, central Valle Peligna and Alto Sangro, Abruzzo, central Italy wild, status- Cianfaglione unpublished
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum L. ajë dë jursë bear garlic Italian, southern Valle Subequana, mid Valle dell'Aterno, Altopiano delle Rocche (L'Aquila), Abruzzo, central Italy wild, status- Cianfaglione unpublished
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum ayuw xogon bear onion Kirghiz   Latin calque [171]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum meškinis česnakas bear garlic Lithuanian Lithuania Latin calque, bear food [87]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum L. мeдвeжий лук bear onion Russian Ural Latin calque [181]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum L. мeдвeжий чecнoк bear garlic Russian Ural Latin calque [181]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum L. мeдвeдзoв чecнoк bear garlic Ruthenian Vojvodina Latin calque? [125]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum L. мeдвeђи лук bear onion Serbo-Croat   Latin calque? [84]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum L. мeдвjeђи лук bear onion Serbo-Croat   Latin calque? [84]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum medvedji zheſen bear garlic Slovenian   Latin calque? [209]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum ayısarımsağı bear garlic Turkish Anatolia wild [235]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum ayi sarüsagï bear garlic Turkish   Latin calque [171]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum L. cybula medveža bear onion Ukrainian   Latin calque [130]
Allium ursinum L. Allium ursinum L. łuk medvežyj bear onion Ukrainian   Latin calque [130]
Allium victorialis L. Allium victorialis L.=Allium ursinum L. мeдвeжий лук bear onion Russian Middle Ob region Latin calque [101]
Allium xiphopetalum Aitch. & Baker Allium sylvestre medvjeđi luk bear onion Croatian   Latin calque [228]
Aloe spp. Aloe spp. karusapp bear bile Estonian   status- [58, 64]
Aloe spp. Aloe spp. karusaba bear tail Estonian Rap folk etymology [58]
Amelanchier ovalis Medik. Amelanchier oval. Bärenbirne bear pear German, non specified not specified bear food [65]
Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. Anchusa arvensis (L.) M.Bieb. kahro ohtja bear thistle, bear thorn Estonian   surface [173]
Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. Anchusa arvensis (L.) M.Bieb. karukeel bear tongue Estonian   surface [182]
Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb. Lycopsis arvensis L. karu osjad bear horsetails Estonian   folk etymology [183]
Anchusa officinalis L. Anchusa officinalis L. karukeel bear tongue Estonian Kuu shape and surface [214]
Anchusa officinalis L. Anchusa officinalis L. karuohakas, karuohakad, karuohtjad, kahru-ohtjad bear thistle, bear thorn Estonian Rid, Võn surface [58, 64, 73]
Anchusa officinalis L. Anchusa officinalis L. kahru-ohtja, kahro ohtja, karu-ohtja (ohakad) bear thistle, bear thorn Estonian   surface [73, 236]
Anchusa officinalis L. Anchusa officinalis björntass bear paw Swedish Skåne shape [155]
Anemone alpina L. Anemone alpina Bärenplumpe bear paw German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Anemone alpina L. Anemone alpina Bärentatze bear paw German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Anemone alpina L. Pulsatilla alpina medveje bear plant Slovenian   ? [209]
Anemone alpina L. Anemone alpina medveje bear plant Slovenian   ? [84]
Anemone patens L. Anemone patens L. karumunnid bear balls Estonian Tallinn surface [58]
Anemone patens L. Anemone patens L. karukell, lilla karukell bear bell, lillack bear bell Estonian North Estonia surface [58]
Anemone patens L. Anemone patens L. karusäärepael bear shank's ribbon Estonian Rap surface [58]
Anemone pratensis L. Anemone pratensis L., Pulsatilla Mill. karukell, karukelluke, karu kellad, karukellad bear bell(s) Estonian North Estonia surface [58, 64, 73, 182, 183]
Anemone pratensis L. Anemone pratensis L. karu-kübar bear hat Estonian   surface [236]
Anemone pratensis L. Anemone pratensis L. karumunnid bear balls Estonian Noa surface [58]
Anemone pratensis L. Anemone pratensis L. karukollad bear club moss Estonian Kad surface [58]
Anemone pratensis L. Anemone pratensis L. karulilled, sinine karulill, kahrulill bear flower(s), blue bear flower Estonian Pal, Äks, Har surface [58]
Anemone pratensis L. Anemone pratensis L. karusäärepaelad bear shank's ribbons Estonian Nis surface [58]
Anemone pratensis L. Anemone pratensis L., Pulsatilla Mill. karukäpad, karu kepad, karu-käpad bear paws Estonian North Estonia, Ha surface [58, 73, 183]
Anemone pratensis L. Anemone pratensis bjønneblomme bear flower Norwegian Sigdal ? [80]
Anemone pulsatilla L. Anemone puls. Bärenblume bear flower German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Anemone sylvestris L. Anemone sylvestris L. karukellad bear bells Estonian JJn, Juu surface [58]
Anemone sylvestris L. Anemone sylvestris L. karusilm bear eye Estonian Amb, JMd surface [58]
Angelica archangelica L. Archangelica Hoffm. мeдвeжьи дудки bear pipes Central Russian Novgorod size? [57]
Angelica archangelica L. Angelica archangelica L. karhunputk, karhunputka, karhunputke bear thistle, bear thorn Finnish   folk etymology, size [55]
Angelica archangelica L. Angelica archangelica L. karhun-yrtti bear herb Finnish   folk etymology, size [82]
Angelica archangelica L. Angelica archangelica L. karunputet bear pipe Ingrian   folk etymology, size [56]
Angelica archangelica L. Angelica archangelica L. karhuntruba bear pipe Izhorian   folk etymology, size [56]
Angelica archangelica L. Angelica archangelica L. karupuded bear pipe Izhorian   folk etymology, size [56]
Angelica archangelica L. Angelica archangelica L. karuputki bear pipe Izhorian   folk etymology, size [56]
Angelica archangelica L. Angelica archangelica guovžžarássi bear plant North Saami   ? [212]
Angelica archangelica L. Archangelica Hoffm. мeдвeжьи дудки bear pipes Northern Russian Vologda size? [57]
Angelica archangelica L. Archangelica Hoffm. мeдвeдoк little bear Russian Middle Ural ? [57]
Angelica archangelica L. Archangelica Hoffm. мeдвeжья дудкa bear pipe Russian Ekaterinburg region ? [57]
Angelica archangelica L. Archangelica Hoffm. мeдвeжкa little bear Russian Novosibirsk region ? [57]
Angelica archangelica L. Archangelica Hoffm. мeдвeжкa little bear Russian Ekaterinburg region ? [57]
Angelica archangelica L. Angelica ? björnkål bear cabbage Swedish Dalarna size? [155]
Angelica archangelica L. Angelica archangelica björnstut bear trumpet Swedish Lappland size? [155]
Angelica archangelica L. Angelica silvestris björnflo bear plant Swedish Lappland size? [155]
Angelica archangelica L. Angelica silvestris björnstut bear trumpet Swedish Lappland, Ångermanland, Västerbotten, Lappland size? [155]
Angelica archangelica subsp. litoralis (Wahlenb.) Thell. Angelica archangelica ssp. litoralis björnfloka bear plant Swedish Österbotten size? [155]
Angelica spp. Angelica spp. karhun yrti bear herb Finnish   folk etymology, size [82]
Angelica spp. Angelica spp. karhun putki, carhun putki bear pipe Finnish   folk etymology, size [82]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris L. мeдвeжьи дудки bear pipes Central Russian Novgorod size? [57]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris L. karhun-yrtti bear herb Finnish   folk etymology, size [82]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris L. karhunputki, carhunputki, Karhunputk bear pipe Finnish   folk etymology, size [55, 82]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris L. karhuntruba bear pipe Ingrian   folk etymology, size [56]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris L. karunputet bear pipe Ingrian   folk etymology, size [56]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris L. karuputki bear pipe Izhorian   folk etymology, size [56]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris L. мeдвeжья пучкa bear cow-parsnip Russian Middle Ob region bear food? [101]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris L. мeдвeжьи пучки bear cow-parsnip Russian Ural size? [57]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris björnkumminstrånge rough bear cummin Swedish Dalarna bear food [155]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica syilvestris björnloka bear plant Swedish Gästrikland, Dalarna, Västmanland size? [155]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris björnlop bear plant Swedish Dalarna size? [155]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris björnpipa bear pipe Swedish Västmanland, Dalarna, Västergötland size? [155]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris björngräs bear grass Swedish Dalarna size? [155]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris björnslök bear plant Swedish Värmland size? [155]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris björnflor, björnflo bear plant Swedish Lappland size? [154, 155]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris björnstut bear trumpet Swedish Västerbotten shape? [154]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris L. byönngras bear grass Swedish Älvdalen ? [223]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris L. byönnkumåstraingg bear caraway plant Swedish Älvdalen ? [223]
Angelica sylvestris L. Angelica sylvestris L. byönnkumåstraungg bear caraway plant Swedish Älvdalen ? [223]
Angelica ursina (Rupr.) Maxim. Angelophyllum ursinum мeдвeжий кopeнь bear root Russian   Latin calque [116]
Angelica ursina (Rupr.) Maxim. a Kamchatka plant мeдвeжий кopeнь bear root Russian Kamchatka Latin calque? [57]
Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn. Antennaria dioica medvědí tlapičky bear paws Czech Chodov surface [83]
Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn. Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn. karukäpp bear paw Estonian Amb, JMd shape [58]
Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn. Antennaria dioica Bärentatze bear paw German, non specified not specified shape [65]
Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn. Antennaria dioica Bärenpratze bear paw German, non specified not specified shape [65]
Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn. Antennaria dioica medvedove tačice bear little paws Slovenian   shape? [84]
Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn. Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn. byönntasser bear’s paws Swedish Älvdalen shape [223]
Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. karhunputki bear pipe Izhorian   folk etymology [172]
Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. karuputki bear pipe Votic   folk etymology [56]
Anthyllis vulneraria L. Anthyllis vulneraria L. Bärenklee bear clover German, non specified not specified surface?, shape? [65]
Anthyllis vulneraria L. Anthyllis vulneraria L. Bärenpratze bear paw German, non specified not specified surface?, shape? [65]
Anthyllis vulneraria L. Anthyllis vulneraria L. Bärentappe bear paw German, non specified not specified surface?, shape? [65]
Anthyllis vulneraria L. Anthyllis vulneraria L. Bärentatze bear paw German, non specified not specified surface?, shape? [65]
Anthyllis vulneraria L. Anthyllis vulneraria medvetalpa bear’s paw Hungarian Gyimes (Transylvania) surface [161]
Anthyllis vulneraria L. Anthyllis vulneraria L. medvjeka bear plant Slovenian   ? [89, 144]
Anthyllis vulneraria L. Anthyllis vulneraria L. medvejčka bear plant Slovenian   ? [89, 144]
Antirrhinum majus L. Antirrhinum majus medveszája bear’s mouth Hungarian no data (Hungary or Transylvania) shape [176]
Apiaceae Apiaceae, unidentified taxon ursurèdda, sursurèdda little female bear Sardinian Bari Sardo area, Ogliastra, eastern Sardinia ? [142]
Arbutus unedo L. Arbutus unedo L. mbriachelle dë l'ursë intoxicating little bear fruit Italian, central Lower Valle Peligna, upper Val Pescara, Abruzzo, central Italy bear food Cianfaglione unpublished
Arbutus unedo L. Arbutus unedo мeчje гpoжђe bear grapes Serbo-Croat   size? [84]
Arbutus unedo L. Arbutus unedo ayı çileği bear strawberry Turkish Anatolia bear food [169]
Arbutus unedo L. Arbutus unedo ayı çileği bear strawberry Turkish Muğla (SW Anatolia) shape, bear food [169]
Arbutus unedo L. Arbutus unedo ayıyemişi bear fruit Turkish İzmit (NW Anatolia)-Marmara Region bear food [178]
Arbutus unedo L. Arbutus unedo ayı yemişi bear fruit Turkish Anatolia bear food [227]
Arbutus unedo L. Arbutus unedo ayı yemişi bear fruit Turkish Anatolia bear food [227]
Arctium lappa L. Arctium lappa L. medvědí bears Czech   size? [61]
Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. ayı kabağı bear zucchini Turkish Ankara (Inner Anatolia) status - [165]
Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. ayı pıtırağı bear cocklebur Turkish Yalova (NW Anatolia) size [227]
Arctium tomentosum Mill. Arctium tomentosum Mill. kahrutakjas bear burr Estonian Se shape and surface [58]
Arctopus spp. Arctopus L. medvjeđa šapa bear paw Croatian no location shape?, surface?, Latin calque? [126, 138, 244]
Arctostaphylos spp. Arctostaphylos L. мeдвeдильник bear plant Russian Ural Latin calque? [57]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Rrush arushe; Rrush harushe bear grape Albanian North Albania, Kosovo bear food [136]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi ayïġulaγï bear’s ear Azeri   shape [6]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi ayïgäghï bear ear Azeri   shape [171]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos мядзвeджыя вушкi bear little ears Belarussian Grodn. bear food? status-? [79]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos мядзвeджыя вушкi bear little ears Belarussian Minsk. bear food? status-? [79]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Spreng. мeчe гpoздe bear grapes Bulgarian   Latin calque [86]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. medveje grozje bear grapes Croatian Podvežica Latin calque [126, 162]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. medvjedika bear plant Croatian no location Latin calque [126, 217]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. (Arctostaphylos officinalis Wimm. et Grab.) medvjedica she-bear Croatian no location Latin calque [126, 138, 244]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos medvjedica she-bear Croatian no location Latin calque [126, 138, 245]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. medvjetka bear plant Croatian no location Latin calque? [126, 228, 229]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr. nedvědice bear plant Czech   Latin calque? [60, 72]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. medvědík little bear Czech   bear food? status-? [61]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. medvědí hrozen bear grapes Czech   Latin calque [61]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. medvědí hrozny bear grapes Czech   Latin calque [61]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi bjørnebaer bear berry Danish Denmark Latin calque [187]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. karukobar, karukobarad bear cluster(s) Estonian   Latin calque [64]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. karupohlad bear lingonberry Estonian Vig inedibility [64]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. karuviinapuu-marjalehed bear grapetree berries leaves Estonian   Latin calque [64]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. karulehed, kahruliht bear leaves Estonian Vig, Har Latin calque [64]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. karupuhulgalehed bear lingonberry leaves Estonian   Latin calque [64]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. karutee bear tea Estonian   Latin calque [64]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. karukapsas bear cabbage Estonian Rap Latin calque [58]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. karukõrvad bear ears Estonian Nrv Latin calque [58]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. uë ursine bear bilberry Friulian Friuli, north-eatern Italy bear food? [153]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. pirusiel da l'ors bear bilberry Friulian Carnia, Friuli, north-eastern Italy status- [74, 153]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Bären-Chris ? German, non specified not specified Latin calque [65]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylus uva-ursi Bärenkraut bear herb German, non specified not specified Latin calque [65]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Artostaphylus uva-ursi Barentraube bear grape German, non specified not specified Latin calque [65]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Bärenbeere bear berry German, non specified not specified Latin calque [65]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi medvegerezd bear’s slice Hungarian Transylvania wild [150]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. karhumarja bear berry Izhorian   Latin calque [56]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. uva d'urso; uva ursina; uva urzina; evæ orsina; uva mursine; uvæ orsina; uva urzinæ; uvettæ dë l'ursë bear grape Italian, central and southern Abruzzo, central Italy wild, status- ([90], Cianfaglione unpublished)
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. ua orsina bear bilberry Italian, northern Istria, Friuli, northern Italy wild, status- [153]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. ciate d'ors bear feet Italian, northern Arco area, Trentino, north-eatern Italy shape [115]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. brussei de l'orso bear bilberries Italian, northern Primiero area, Trentino, north-eastern Italy status- [115]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. uva dl'ours bear grape Italian, northern Cuneo area, Piedmont, north-western Italy wild, status- [115]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. granteni d'ors; broc da l'ors bear lingonberries Italian, northern Pinè and Val Rendena, Trentino, north-eastern Italy status- [115, 206]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. pan d'ors bear bread Italian, northern Bergamo area, Lombardy, northern Italy bear food [74]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. uga d'ursu bear grape Italian, northern Chiavari area, Liguria, north-western Italy wild, status- [74]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. uga dell'orso bear grape Italian, northern Sondrio area, Lombardy, northern Italy wild, status- [74]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. ova orsèina bear grape Italian, northern Reggio area, Emilia, northern Italy wild, status- [74]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. cerasella d'orso bear hawthorn berry Italian, southern Terra di Lavoro area, southern Italy status-, bear food? [74]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. garnate del óurs; garnéte de órs; granats dl'aurs; granate de l'ours bear bilberries Ladin Val Cordevole, Val di Fassa, Val Badia and Val Gardena, Veneto and Trentino, north-eastern Italy Latin calque?, status-? [207]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. meškos ausys bear ears Lithuanian Lithuania shape, bear food [87]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr. мeдвeжий винoгpaд bear grapes Northern Russian Vologda Latin calque [57]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. bjørnebær bear berry Norwegian Eidskog, Budal Latin calque [80]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr. mącznica niedzwiedziny bear mealberry Polish   bear food? status-? [116]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr. niedźwiedzie grono bear grapes Polish   shape [72]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. вeдмeжьи ушки bear little ears Russian Middle Ob region bear food? status-? [101]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. мeдвeжьe уxo bear ear Russian Middle Ob region bear food? status-? [101]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. мeдвeжьe ушкo bear little ear Russian Middle Ob region bear food? status-? [101]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. мeдвeжья ягoдa bear berry Russian Middle Ob region Latin calque? [101]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (?) мeдвeдильник bear plant Russian Ural Latin calque? [181]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. мeдвeжьи ушки bear little ears Russian Ural Latin calque? [181]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi L. мeдвeдзoвo уxo bear ear Ruthenian Vojvodina bear food? status-? [125]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. мeдвeђe гpoжђe bear grapes Serbo-Croat   Latin calque? [84]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. мeдвeткa bear plant Serbo-Croat   Latin calque? [84]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. мeдвиjeдицa she-bear Serbo-Croat   Latin calque? [84]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr. мeдвeдoвo уxo bear ear Serbo-Croat   Latin calque? [84]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. мeчиje гpoжђe bear grapes Serbo-Croat   Latin calque? [84]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos medvedica she-bear Slovak Slovakia Latin calque? [62]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos nedvedica she-bear Slovak Slovakia Latin calque? [62]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. medvedovo uho bear ear Slovenian   bear food? status-? [89]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. medvedove črešnje bear sweet cherries Slovenian   Latin calque? [89]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. medvedji grozdič bear grapes Slovenian   Latin calque [84, 89]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr. medvedje uho bear ear Slovenian   Latin calque? [84, 89]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. medvedovo grozdjiče bear grapes Slovenian   Latin calque [84, 89]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos mjedwjedźica she-bear Sorbian   Latin calque? [186]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. holanska mjedwjedźica forest she-bear Sorbian   Latin calque? [186]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi björnbär bear berry Swedish Norrbotten Latin calque [155]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi björnebär bear berry Swedish Sör-Tröndelag Latin calque [155]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi ayı üzümü bear grape Turkish Anatolia bear food [160]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arbutus uva ursi ayı üzümü bear grape Turkish Anatolia shape, bear food [59]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr. вушкo вeдмeжe bear ear Ukrainian   bear food? status-? [180]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr. мeдвeжий винoгpaд bear grapes Ukrainian   Latin calque [130, 219]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr. мeдвeжi ягoди bear berries Ukrainian   Latin calque [130, 219]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr. ушкo мeдвeжe bear ear Ukrainian, Central-Polessian   bear food? status-? [180]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr. мeдвeжинa bear plant Ukrainian, East-Polessian   bear food? status-? [180]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr. мeдвeдячi ягiдки bear berries Ukrainian, Pokutje-Bukovina Bukovina Latin calque? [130, 219]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr. уxo мeдвeжe bear ear Ukrainian, Volhynian   bear food? status-? [180]
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. mjedwjedźica she-bear Upper-Sorbian   Latin calque? [121]
Arctotis spp. Arctotis Bärenohr bear ear German, non specified not specified Latin calque [65]
Arctotis spp. Arctotis sp. ayıkulağı bear ear Turkish   shape [171]
Arctotis spp. Arctotis sp. ayï otu bear’s grass Turkish   ? [171]
Arctotis spp. Arctotis sp. ayıkulaği bear’s ear Turkish   shape [6]
Arctotis spp. Arctotis sp. ayï pencesi bear’s foot Turkmen   shape [171]
Arctotis stoechadifolia P.J. Bergius Arctotis stoechadifolia P.J. Bergius ayı kulağı bear ear Turkish Anatolia shape [226]
Arctotis stoechadifolia P.J. Bergius Arctotis stoechadifolia P.J. Bergius ayı kulağı bear ear Turkish Anatolia shape [226]
Arctous alpina (L.) Nied. Arctostaphylos alpina Bärenbeere bear berry German, non specified not specified Latin calque [65]
Arctous alpina (L.) Nied. Arctostaphylos alpinus (L.) Spreng. uga dell'orso salvatico wild bear grape Italian, northern Sondrio area, Lombardy, northern Italy status- [74]
Arctous alpina (L.) Nied. Arctostaphylos alpinus guovžžalasta bear leaf North Saami   ? [129]
Arctous alpina (L.) Nied. Arctostaphylos alpine guovžžamuorji bear berry North Saami   ? [212]
Arctous alpina (L.) Nied. Arctostaphylos alpina björnebär bear berry Norwegian Vest-Agder Latin calque [155]
Arctous alpina (L.) Nied. Arctostaphylos alpine bjønnbær bear berry Norwegian Ranen, Northern Norway Latin calque [15, 112]
Arctous alpina (L.) Nied. Arctostaphylos alpina hórska mjedwjedźica mountain she-bear Sorbian   Latin calque? [186]
Arctous alpina (L.) Nied. Arctostaphylos alpinus bïernenmuerjie bear berry South Saami   Latin calque [170]
Arctous alpina (L.) Nied. Arctostaphylos alpine björnbär bear berry Swedish North Lapland status- [15]
Arctous alpina (L.) Nied. Arctostaphylos alpina björnbär bear berry Swedish Lappland status- [155]
Arctous spp. Arctous medvedík little bear Slovak Slovakia Latin calque? [62]
Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott Arum triphyllum medvědí kořen bear root Czech   ? [61]
Aristolochia clematitis L. Aristolochia clematitis medvedova grašca bear vetch Slovenian   bear food? [84, 89]
Aristolochia clematitis L. Aristolochia clematitis medvedova grašica bear vetch Slovenian   bear food? [84, 89]
Arum italicum Mill. Arum italicum Mill. мeчe вpeтeнo bear spindle Bulgarian Berkovica area shape, size [86]
Arum maculatum L. Arum maculatum All. мeчкинa пчeнкa bear maize Bulgarian Kozica village, Kichevo area shape [86]
Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald (Spiraea aruncus L.) medvedovina bear plant Croatian Hrvatsko zagorje ? [126, 138]
Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald Aruncus silvester мeдвeдoвинa bear plant Serbo-Croat   ? [84]
Aruncus dioicus var. vulgaris (Maxim.) H. Hara Aruncus sylv. Barenmutter-strauss bear mother bouquet German, non specified not specified folk etymology? [65]
Aruncus dioicus var. vulgaris (Maxim.) H. Hara Aruncus silvester Kostel. = Spiraea aruncus medvejka bear plant Slovenian   ? [89, 144]
Aruncus dioicus var. vulgaris (Maxim.) H. Hara Aruncus silvester Kostel. = Spiraea aruncus medvedovo latje bear stalks Slovenian   ? [89]
Aruncus sylvester Kostel. ex Maxim. Spiraea aruncus medvêjka bear plant Slovenian   ? [149]
Aruncus sylvester Kostel. ex Maxim. Spiraea aruncus medvêjak bear plant Slovenian   ? [149]
Asarum europaeum L. Asarum europaeum L. вeдмeжe вуxo bear ear Ukrainian, Podolian Odessa shape? [180, 215]
Asparagus officinalis L. Asparagus officinalis L. мeдвeдник bear plant Russian Tobolsk area size? [218]
Asparagus officinalis L. Asparagus officinalis L. мeдвeжник bear plant Russian Tobolsk area size? [218]
Asparagus officinalis L. Asparagus officinalis L. мeдвeдкa bear plant Russian Bashkortostan size? wild? [57]
Asparagus spp. Asparagus L. мeдвeжьe дepeвo bear tree Russian Tobolsk area size [57]
Asplenium scolopendrium L. Scolopendrium vulgare мeчjи jeзик bear tongue Serbo-Croat   shape? [84]
Aster amellus L. Aster amellus ayıkulaği bear’s ear Turkish   shape [6]
Astragalus glycyphyllos L. Astragalus glyc. Bärenklee bear clover German, non specified not specified bear food? [65]
Astragalus glycyphyllos L. Astragalus glycyph. Bärenschote bear pod German, non specified not specified bear food? [65]
Astragalus glycyphyllos L. Astragalus glycyphyllus L. koren medvedov bear root Slovenian   German calque [144]
Athamanta cretensis L. Athamanta cret. Bärenwurz bear root German, non specified not specified shape?, surface? [65]
Atropa belladonna L. Atropa belladona L. мeчкини уши bear ears Bulgarian   shape, surface [86]
Atropa belladonna L. Atropa belladonna L. karumustikas bear blueberry Estonian Kan, Kul, Vai folk etymology [56, 58, 64, 214]
Atropa belladonna L. Atropa bell. Bärenmutz ? German, non specified not specified ? [65]
Atropa belladonna L. Atropa bell. Bärenwurz bear root German, non specified not specified ? [65]
Atropa belladonna L. Atropa belladonna L. ayı çileği bear strawberry Turkish Trabzon (NE Anatolia) dangerousness [227]
Atropa belladonna L. Atropa belladonna L. ayı libargası bear blueberry Turkish/Laz language Trabzon (NE Anatolia) dangerousness [227]
Atropa belladonna L. Atropa belladonna L. ayı liforu bear blueberry Turkish/Laz language Trabzon (NE Anatolia) dangerousness [227]
Avena fatua L. Avena fatua L. karu-kaerad bear oats Estonian   inedibility [73]
Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drejer Deschampsia flexuosa björnjägal bear’s grass Swedish Northern Sweden ? [224]
Avenula pubescens (Huds.) Dumort. Helictotrichon pubescens (Huds.) Schult. & Schult.f. karukaer, karu-kaer, kahrukaer bear oat Estonian   folk etymology [73]
Begonia metallica W.G.Sm. Begonia metallica G. Smith. мeдвeжьe уxo bear ear Russian Middle Ob region surface [101]
Bidens tripartita L. Bidens tripartita L. вeдмeжи ушки bear little ears Ukrainian Zhitomir shape? [215]
Blechnum spicant (L.) Sm. Blechnum spicant (L.) Sm. bjørnekam bear comb Norwegian   ? [80]
Boletus edulis Bull. Boletus edulis мeдвeдки bear plant Central Russian Novgorod status + [57]
Boletus edulis Bull. Boletus edulis мeдвeжaник bear plant Central Russian Tver status + [57]
Boletus edulis Bull. old Boletus ed. мeдвeжaник bear plant Central Russian Tver status + [57]
Boletus edulis Bull. old Boletus ed. мeдвeжник bear plant Central Russian Novgorod status + [57]
Boletus edulis Bull. Boletus edulis and other Boletus spp. medvegomba bear’s mushroom Hungarian Tatrang, Csík, Sepsiszentgyörgy, Csinód, Gyimesfelsőlok (Transylvania) surface ([99, 100, 204], Molnár and Babai unpublished, Frendl, Papp unpublished)
Boletus edulis Bull. old Boletus ed. мeдвeдoвик bear plant Northern Russian Vologda size? status +? [57]
Boletus edulis Bull. Boletus edulis мeдвeжины bear plant Northern Russian Vologda status +? [57]
Boletus edulis Bull. Boletus edulis мeдвeжник bear plant Northern Russian Olonets, North status+? [57]
Boletus edulis Bull. Boletus edulis Bull. мeдвeдapa bear plant Serbo-Croat   ? [84]
Boletus edulis Bull. Boletus edulis Bull. ayıköşkü mantarı bear pavilion mushroom Turkish Anatolia shape, size [146]
Boletus satanas Lenz Boletus satanas Lenz мeдвeдapa bear plant Serbo-Croat   dangerousness (toxic)? [84]
Boletus spp. Boletus Fr. ayı mantarı bear mushroom Turkish Anatolia shape, size [146]
Borago officinalis L. Borago officinalis L. karurohi bear grass Estonian Trm surface [58]
Bovista plumbea Pers. Bovista plumbea Pers. sloffa d'ors bear puffball Italian, northern Trento area, Trentino, northern Italy size [74]
Briza media L. Briza media L. karukaer bear oats Estonian   inedibility Kalle and Sõukand unpublished
Bromus arvensis L. Bromus arvensis L. kahrukaar bear oat Estonian Ote inedibility [58]
Bromus hordeaceus L. Bromus hordeaceus L. karukaer bear oats Estonian Kuu inedibility [58]
Bromus secalinus L. Bromus secalinus L. karukaer, karukaur, karukaar, karukaeras, karukael, karukaerad, kahrukaar bear oats Estonian general inedibility [58, 73, 174]
Bromus secalinus L. Bromus secalinus L. karhunkaatar bear oat Izhorian   inedibility [56]
Bryophyta moss мeдвeдяник bear plant Central Russian Tver surface? [57]
Bryophyta moss мeдвeжaтник bear plant Northern Russian Karelia, Novgorod region surface? [141]
Bryophyta moss мeдвeжий мox bear moss Northern Russian Karelia surface? [141]
Bryophyta moss мeдвeжник bear plant Northern Russian Karelia surface? [57]
Bryum spp. Bryum ssp karusammal bear moss Estonian   folk etymology [56]
Cactaceae spp. cactus мeдвeжья лaпa bear paw Russian Novosibirsk shape (thorny) [57]
Calla palustris L. Calla palustris мeдвeжья лaпкa bear little paw Belarussian Smol. shape [157]
Calla palustris L. Calla palustris L. мeдвeжьи лaпы bear paws Northern Russian Kostroma shape? [57]
Calla palustris L. Calla palustris bjønnblekker bear leaves Norwegian southern Norway shape? [80]
Caltha palustris L. Caltha palustris L. мядзвeжaя лaпкa bear little paw Belarussian Smol., Gomel. shape [79]
Caltha palustris L. Caltha palustris L. karukoll bear ogre Estonian Hlj folk etymology [58]
Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. Calystegia sepium L. bearbind bearbind Eng. Southern Kent, Surrey, Middlesex, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Herefordshire folk etymology [45]
Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. Calystegia sepium (L.) R.Br. karhunköynnös bear garland Finnish Hiit ? [82]
Campanula glomerata L. Campanula glomerata L. karukübar bear hat Estonian Ksi, Pal folk etymology [58]
Campanula glomerata L. Campanula glomerata L. karukatel bear kettle Estonian Pal folk etymology [58]
Campanula patula L. Campanula patula L. karukellad bear bells Estonian Mar folk etymology [58]
Campanula persicifolia L. Campanula persicifolia L. karukell bear bell Estonian Pal folk etymology [58]
Campanula persicifolia L. Campanula persicifolia L. karukatlad bear kettle Estonian Jõe folk etymology [58]
Campanula rotundifolia L. Campanula rotundifolia L. karukell bear bell Estonian Pal folk etymology [58]
Campanula spp. Campanula spp karukellad bear bells Estonian Lai folk etymology [58]
Campanula spp. Campanula spp karukatlad bear kettle Estonian Plt folk etymology [58]
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Capsella bursa pastoris Moench мeчкaнa дупкa bear hole Bulgarian Goce Delchev ? [85]
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Capsella bursa pastoris L. мeчкинa дупкa bear hole Macedonian Nevrokop region ? [179]
Carduus crispus L. Carduus crispus L. karuohakas, karuuhakas, karuohtja bear thistle, bear thorn Estonian general size, shape [58]
Carduus personata (L.) Jacq. Carduus personatus medvesaláta bear’s lattice Hungarian Gyimes (Transylvania) bear food [97, 213]
Carduus spp. Carduus ssp. karuohakad, karuohtjad bear thistle, bear thorn Estonian   size, shape [64]
Carex davalliana Sm. Carex davalliana Sm. karulakk bear mane Estonian Mih, Lih, Kse, Han, Var, Tõs shape [58, 174]
Carlina acanthifolia All. Carlina acanthifolia All. (incl. subsp. utzka (Hacq.) Meusel & Kästner) rapa d'orse bear turnip Italian, southern Scanno area (L'Aquila), Abruzzo, central Italy bear food? [90]
Carlina vulgaris L. Carlina vulgaris L. karune ohak beary (hairy) thistle Estonian Phl shape [58]
Caucalis platycarpos L. Caucalis lappula medvetalp bear’s paw Hungarian Moldva (East-Romania) ? [78]
Centaurea jacea L. Centaurea jacea L. karukellad bear bells Estonian Lüg surface [58]
Centaurea phrygia L. Centaurea phrygia L. мeдвeдник bear plant Central Russian Nizhni Novgorod. shape? [57]
Centaurea scabiosa L. Centaurea scabiosa L. мeдвeжья лaпa bear paw Central Russian Pskov shape [57]
Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. karusammal bear moss Estonian   folk etymology [64]
Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. Cetraria isl. Bärengeist bear brandy German, non specified not specified ? [65]
Chaerophyllum aromaticum L. Chärophyllum arom. Bärengiersch bear ground elder German, non specified not specified bear food? [65]
Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub Epilobium angustifolium L. karukanep bear cannabis Estonian Vil folk etymology [58]
Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub Epilobium angustifolium boelt’aajjankraesie bear grass South Saami   ? [148]
Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W.P.C. Barton Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W.P.C.Barton karhunkukka bear flower Finnish Holl ? [82]
Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W.P.C. Barton Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Nutt. мeдвeжьи ушки bear little ears Russian Middle Ob region shape? [101]
Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr. Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr. radicio de l'urs bear chicory Italian, northern Trentino and Friuli regions, north-eastern Italy bear food Pieroni unpublished
Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr. Lactuca alpina björnkål bear cabbage Swedish Lappland, Ångermanland bear food [155]
Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr. Lactuca alpina = Cicerbita alpina björntorta bear plant Swedish Dalarna bear food [155]
Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr. Cicerbita alpina björnkål bear cabbage Swedish Lappland, Ångermanland bear food? [155]
Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr. Cicerbita alpina björngräs bear grass Swedish Lappland, Västerbotten+H295 bear food? [154, 155]
Cirsium acaule (L.) A.A.Weber ex Wigg. Cirsium acaule (L.) A.A.Weber ex Wigg. karuohakas bear thistle, bear thorn Estonian Mih shape [58]
Cirsium acaule (L.) A.A.Weber ex Wigg. Cirsium acaule (L.) A.A.Weber ex Wigg. karuuhakad bear thistle, bear thorn Estonian Hag, Jür, Kos, Mar shape [58]
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Cirsium spp. arvense (L.) Scop. karuohakad, karused uhakad, karuuhak, karuohtjas, karuõhakas bear thistle, bear thorn Estonian general shape [58, 173]
Cirsium erisithales (Jacq.) Scop. Cirsium erisithales (Jacq.) Scop. talpe d'ors salvadie wild bear poplar Friulian Friuli, north-eastern Italy bear food? [74]
Cirsium erisithales (Jacq.) Scop. Cirsium erisithales medvesaláta bear’s lattice Hungarian Gyimes (Transylvania) bear food [97, 213]
Cirsium helenioides (L.) Hill Cirsium heterophyllum L. bjønnetunge bear tongue Norwegian Oppland ? [80]
Cirsium helenioides (L.) Hill Cirsium heterophyllum L. bjønnskor bear shoes Norwegian Fitjar ? [80]
Cirsium helenioides (L.) Hill Cirsium heterophyllum L. bjønnehatt bear hat Norwegian   ? [80]
Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. Cirsium oleraceum Scop. мeдвeжник бoлoтный swamp bear plant Central Russian Pskov shape, surface [57]
Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. karukapsad bear cabbage Estonian   shape [201]
Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. karuohakas, karuuhak, karuohtja, karuohass, kahruohass bear thistle, bear thorn Estonian general shape [58]
Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. talpe d'ors bear poplar Friulian Friuli, north-eastern Italy bear food? [74]
Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. Cirsium oleraceum medvesaláta bear’s lattice Hungarian Gyimes (Transylvania) bear food [97, 213]
Cirsium palustre (L.) Scop. Cirsium palustre (L.) Coss. ex Scop. karuuhak, karuohakas, karuohtjas, niidu-karuohtja, kahruohtja, etc bear thistle, bear thorn Estonian general shape [58]
Cirsium rivulare (Jacq.) All. Cirsium rivulare medvesaláta bear’s lattice Hungarian Gyimes (Transylvania) bear food [97, 213]
Cirsium spp. Cirsium sp. ayïwbastiken bear’s head Kazakh Xinjiang shape? [6]
Cirsium spp. Cirsium björnborst bear bristle Swedish Jämtland shape [155]
Cirsium spp. Cirsium björntistel bear thistle Swedish Nyland shape [155]
Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. karuohakas, karuuhal, karuohtjas, karuuhtke, karuohe, karuuhakas, karuokas, kahro ohhak, kahru-uhak, etc bear thistle, bear thorn Estonian general shape [58, 173]
Cladina stellaris (Opiz) Brodo Cladina stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vězda, 1971 karusammal bear moss Estonian   folk etymology [56]
Clavaria arbuscula Scop. Clavaria arbuscula medvedove grive bear mane Slovenian   shape? [84]
Clavaria botrytis Pers. Clavaria botrytis medvedje šapke bear little paws Slovenian   shape? [84]
Clavaria coralloides L. Clavaria coralloides L. мeчa cтъпкa bear step Bulgarian Omurtag shape, size [85]
Clavaria flava Schaeff. Clavaria flava мeчja шaпa bear paw Serbo-Croat   shape? [84]
Clavaria spp. Clavaria Bärenpfote bear paw German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Clavaria spp. Clavaria roggene Bärenpratze ? German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Clavaria spp. Clavaria Bärentatze bear paw German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Claviceps purpurea мeдвeжий нoгoть bear fingernail Northern Russian Karelia colour, shape [141]
Clematis spp. Clematis spp. ? aussara, autsàra, auttsàra, aursàra, attsara; ussarèddha little female bear Sardinian Ogliastra, eastern Sardinia ? [142]
Clematis vitalba L. Clematis vitalba L. bearbind bearbind Eng. Southern Kent folk etymology [46]
Colchicum autumnale L. Colchicum aut. Bärenklachel ? German, non specified not specified ? [65]
Colchicum cilicicum (Boiss.) Dammer Colchicum cilicicum (Boiss.) Dammer ayı çiğdemi bear colchicum Turkish S Anatolia size [146]
Colchicum cilicicum (Boiss.) Dammer Colchicum cilicicum (Boiss.) Dammer ayı çiğdemi bear colchicum Turkish Gaziantep (SE Anatolia) size [242]
Comarum palustre L. Potentilla palustris (L.) Scop. karhunkämmen bear palm Finnish Pielav ? [82]
Comarum palustre L. Potentilla palustris (L.) Scop. karhunmansikka bear strawberry Finnish Keit inedibility [82]
Comarum palustre L. Comarum palustre björnklo bear claw Swedish Jämtland shape [155]
Conium maculatum L. Conium maculatum мeдвeжья дудкa bear pipe Russian Ural wild, size [181]
Consolida regalis Gray Delphinium consolida L. мeчини oчи bear eys Bulgarian Bosilegrad (Serb.) fruit shape and surface [86]
Convallaria spp. Convallaria L. мeдвeжьe уxo bear ear Northern Russian Olonets shape? [57]
Convolvulus arvensis L. Convolvulus arvensis L. bearbind bearbind Eng. Northern Yorkshire folk etymology [46]
Cornus alba L. Svida alba (L.) Opiz. мeдвeжья ягoдa bear berry Russian Middle Ob region inedibility [101]
Cornus suecica L. Cornus suecica L. karhunmarja bear berry Finnish Pielav folk etymology [82]
Cornus suecica L. Cornus suecica L. karhunpuola bear lingonberry Finnish Palt folk etymology [82]
Cornus suecica L. Cornus suecica björnebär bear berry Norwegian Östfold, Akershus, Hedmark, Telemark, Sogn Og Fjordane, Möre Og Romsdal, Sör-Tröndelag ? [155]
Cornus suecica L. Cornus suecica L. bjørnebær bear berry Norwegian Askim, Southern Høland, Southern Odal; Hjartadal, Aurland, Ytterøy ? [80]
Corylus colurna L. Coryllus colurna L. Lejthi arushe bear hazelnut Albanian Kosovo inedibility [95]
Corylus colurna L. Corylus colurna L. мeчa лecкa bear hazelnut tree Bulgarian   shape [86]
Corylus colurna L. Corylus colurna мeдвjeђa лиjecкa bear hazel Serbo-Croat   size? [84]
Corylus colurna L. Corylus colurna мeчja лecкa bear hazel Serbo-Croat   size? [84]
Corylus colurna L. Corylus colurna L. ayı fındığı bear hazelnut Turkish Anatolia size [93]
Cota tinctoria (L.) J. Gay Anthemis tinctoria L. kahro karri kakra, karro karri kakra bear daisy Estonian   surface [173, 174]
Cota tinctoria (L.) J. Gay Anthemis tinctoria L. päiväkarud day's bears Estonian Jõh surface [58]
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. мeчи ябълки bear apples Bulgarian   bear food [86]
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Crataegus oxyac. Bärenbrot bear bread German, non specified not specified bear food [65]
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Crataegus oxyacantha L. pomatoi d'ors bear fruit Italian, northern Giudicarie area, Trentino, north-eatern Italy bear food? [115]
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Crataegus oxyacantha L. pomele de ors bear fruit Italian, northern Lavis, Trentino, north-eastern Italy bear food? [115]
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Crataegus oxyacantha L. spin d'ors bear thorn Italian, northern Belluno area, Veneto, northern Italy wild [74]
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Crataegus oxyacantha L. pan d'orsèr; pan d'ors bear bread Italian, northern Belluno area, Veneto and Trentino, northern Italy bear food [74, 115]
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Crataegus oxyacantha medvêdnik bear plant Slovenian   status-? [149]
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Crataegus oxyacantha medvednek bear plant Slovenian   status-? [84, 89]
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Crataegus oxyacantha medvedova hrušca bear pear Slovenian   status-? [84, 89]
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Crataegus oxyacantha medvedova hrušica bear pear Slovenian   status-? [84, 89]
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Crataegus oxyacantha medvedove hruške bear pears Slovenian   status-? [84, 89]
Crataegus spp. Crataegus spp. pirigli de li ursi little bear pear Italian, southern Lucoli and Marsica souroundings (L'Aquila), Abruzzo, central Italy bear food? ([90], Cianfaglione unpublished)
Cyclamen cilicium Boiss. & Heldr. Cyclamen cilicium Boiss. & Heldr. ayı pancarı bear beet Turkish Karaman (S Anatolia) size, status- (tuber) [92]
Cyclamen hederifolium Aiton Cyclamen hederifolium Aiton orecchia d'orso bear ear Italian, central Tuscany, central Italy shape [74]
Cynoglossum creticum Mill. Cynoglossum creticum Mill. ayı kulağı bear ear Turkish Anatolia shape [92]
Cynoglossum officinale L. Cynoglossum officinale L. мeдвeжe вушкo bear little ear Ukrainian, Volhynian Vinnitsa shape? [180, 203]
Cypripedium calceolus L. Cypripedium calceolus L. karu-ummisking bear shoe with closed toe Estonian Mih folk etymology [58]
Dactylis glomerata L. Dactylis glom. Bärentappe bear paw German, non specified not specified shape and surface? [65]
Dactylorhiza maculata (L.) Soó Orchis maculata L. scrinfe dl'óurs bear feet Ladin Livinallongo, Veneto, north-eastern Italy ? [115]
Daphne mezereum L. Daphne mezereum meškalunkis bear meadow Lithuanian Lithuania dangerousness, bear food [192]
Daphne mezereum L. Daphne mezereum мeдвeжья ягoдa bear berry Northern Russian Karelia dangerousness (toxic) [141]
Daphne mezereum L. Daphne mezereum мeдвeжник bear plant Northern Russian Karelia dangerousness (toxic) [141]
Daphne mezereum L. Daphne mezereum мeчja ликa bear bast Serbo-Croat   dangerousness (toxic)? [84]
Dasypyrum villosum (L.) P. Candargy Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Borbás granë dell'urse bear wheat Italian, southern Rocca Pia (L'Aquila), Abruzzo, central Italy bear food? [90]
Delphinium spp. Delphinium мeдвиje уxo bear ear Serbo-Croat   shape? [84]
Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv. Deschampsia cespitosa björngägal bear grass Swedish Västerbotten ? [154]
Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv. Aira caespito björnjägal bear’s grass Swedish Northern Sweden ? [224]
Digitalis ferruginea L. Digitalis ferruginea ssp. schischkinii ayı mısırı bear corn Turkish Trabzon (NE Anatolia) shape [227]
Digitalis grandiflora Mill. Digitalis grandiflora (= Digitalis ambigua) meškos taurė bear cup Lithuanian Lithuania dangerousness, bear food [87, 96, 191]
Digitalis purpurea L. Digitalis purpurea björneblomst bear flower Norwegian Rogaland ? [155]
Digitalis purpurea L. Digitalis purpurea bjørneblomst bear flower Norwegian Sauda ? [80]
Digitalis purpurea L. Digitalis purpurea bjønnehanskje bear glove Norwegian Sunnfjord ? [80]
Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin ayı baklası bear vetch Turkish Bartın (NW Anatolia) shape [227]
Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn ayı soğanı bear bulb Turkish Muğla (SW Anatolia) size [147]
Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn Urginea maritima ayıkulağı bear ear Turkish S Anatolia shape [226]
Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott Aspidium fil.-mas Bärenkraut bear herb German, non specified not specified ? [65]
Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott Aspidium fil.-mas Bärenwurz bear root German, non specified not specified ? [65]
Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott ayıdöşeği bear mattress Turkish Hasanbeyli-Adana (S. Anatolia) shape [198]
Dryopteris spp. Dryopteris spp. karukaatet bear cover or isolation? Ingrian   ? [56]
Dryopteris spp. Dryopteris spp. karukaattet bear cover or isolation? Ingrian   ? [56]
Dryopteris spp. Dryopteris spp karhunkaaded bear cover or isolation? Izhorian   ? [56]
Echium italicum L. Echium italicum ayı kulağı bear ear Turkish Muğla (SW Anatolia) shape [227]
Echium vulgare L. Echium vulgare L. karukellad bear bells Estonian Ksi shape [58]
Echium vulgare L. Echium vulgare L. karulill bear flower Estonian PJg shape [58]
Echium vulgare L. Echium vulgare L. karukäpp bear paw Estonian Kaa, Vil shape [58]
Echium vulgare L. Echium vulgare L. karuhänd bear tail Estonian Aud, Mih, Pär, Tõs shape [58]
Echium vulgare L. Echium vulgare L. karuohakas bear thistle Estonian Kei shape [58]
Echium vulgare L. Echium vulgare medvedov rep bear tail Slovenian   shape? [4, 84]
Empetrum nigrum L. Empetrum nigrum L. karuleisik bear bearberry Estonian Vig folk etymology [58]
Empetrum nigrum L. Empetrum nigrum L. karumarjad, kahro marja bears's berry Estonian Kam folk etymology [58, 173]
Empetrum nigrum L. Empetrum nigrum L. karumustikad, karumustikas bear blackberry Estonian Vig folk etymology ([58], Sõukand and Kalle unpublished)
Empetrum nigrum L. Empetrum nigrum L. karhunmarja, karhunmarjoja bear berry Finnish Räis, Sakk folk etymology [55, 82]
Empetrum nigrum L. Empetrum nigrum L. karhun mustikka bear blackberry Finnish Sakk folk etymology [55, 82]
Empetrum nigrum L. Empetrum nigrum meškuogė bear berries Lithuanian Lithuania bear food [87, 96, 191]
Empetrum nigrum L. Empetrum nigrum L. bjønnebær bear berry Norwegian southern Norway bear food? [80]
Empetrum nigrum L. Empetrum nigrum L. мeдвeжьи ягoды bear berries Russian Tobolsk area wild? status-? [218]
Empetrum nigrum L. Empetrum nigrum björnbär bear berry Swedish Dalarna bear food? [155]
Empetrum nigrum L. Empetrum hermafroditum Hagerup björnbär bear berries Swedish northern Sweden status- [54]
Enkianthus spp. Enxyanthus medvjedica she-bear Croatian no location ?, surface? [126, 216]
Epilobium hirsutum L. Epilobium hirsutum L. kahruliht bear leaves Estonian Har surface [58]
Equisetum arvense L. Equisetum arvense L. мeчe вpeтeнo bear spindle Bulgarian   shape of spike [86]
Equisetum arvense L. Equisetum arvense L. kahrutilk bear drop Estonian Se folk etymology [58]
Equisetum arvense L. Equisetum arvense medvebajusz bear’s moustache Hungarian Csinód (Transylvania) shape Frendl and Papp unpublished
Equisetum arvense L. Equisetum arvense medveszakála, medveszakálla bear’s beard Hungarian Moldva (East-Romania) shape [78]
Equisetum arvense L. Equisetum arvense medvefarka bear’s tail Hungarian Moldva (East-Romania) shape [78]
Equisetum arvense L. Equisetum arvense L. meškabarzdė bear beard Lithuanian Lithuania shape, bear food [177]
Equisetum arvense L. Equisetum arvense bjornbar bear berry Swedish Ångermanland ? [220]
Equisetum spp. Equisetum L. мeчe вpeтeнo bear spindle Bulgarian   shape of spike [86]
Erica herbacea L. Erica herbacea L. Bar i ariut bear grass Albanian Albania-Kolonjë ? [136]
Eryngium planum L. Eryngium planum L. вeдмeдиця she-bear Ukrainian, Slobozhanian   shape? [180, 219]
Euonymus verrucosus Scop. Evonymus verrucosa Scop. мeдвeжник bear plant Central Russian Nizhni Novgorod ? [57]
Euphorbia cyparissias L. Euphorbia cyp. Bärenmutter-gras bear mother grass German, non specified not specified folk etymology? [65]
Euphorbia myrsinites L. Euphorbia myrsinites L. мeчe pунo bear fleece Bulgarian Stara Zagora area surface, shape [86]
Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á.Löve Polygonum convolvulus L. bearbind bearbind Eng. Midlands Staffordshire folk etymology [45]
Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Filipendula ulm. Barenmutter-strauss bear mother bouquet German, non specified not specified folk etymology? [65]
Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Spiraea (= Filipendula) ulmaria medvejno latje bear stalks Slovenian   bear food? [89]
Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Spiraea filipendula medvejka bear plant Slovenian   bear food? [89]
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Foenicullum vulgare Miller. meškakrapis bear dill Lithuanian Lithuania surface, bear food [66, 87, 199]
Fragaria vesca L. Fragaria vesca L. мeчи ягoди bear strawberries Bulgarian Ihtiman area bear food [86]
Galium aparine L. Galium aparine L. karune virn, karuvirn, karune virnirohi, karuvirn bear pile Estonian western Estonia and Isles surface [58]
Galium aparine L. Galium aparine L. karuserohud beary grass Estonian Mih surface [58]
Galium boreale L. Galium boreale L. karukaer bear oats Estonian Äks folk etymology [58]
Galium verum L. Galium verum Bärenkraut bear herb German, non specified not specified ? [65]
Galium verum L. Galium verum мeчje увo bear ear Serbo-Croat   ? [84]
Gentiana pneumonanthe L. Gentiana pneumonanthe björnblomma bear flower Swedish Småland status- [155]
Geranium phaeum L. Gaillardia, Geranium phaeum Bärenäugelchen little bear eyes German, non specified not specified shape [65]
Geranium pratense L. Geranium pratense L. мeдвeжья лaпa bear paw Central Russian Vladimir shape? [57]
Geranium robertianum L. Geranium robertianum bjødnablomster bear flower Norwegian Balestrand ? [80]
Geum rivale L. Geum rivale L. karulilled bear flowers Estonian Kei surface [58]
Geum rivale L. Geum rivale L. karusukapaelad, karusäärepaelad bear garters, bear shank's ribbon Estonian JMd, Rap, Tür surface [58]
Geum rivale L. Geum rivale L. karukäpp bear paw Estonian North Estonia surface [58]
Geum rivale L. Geum rivale L. karumaasikad, karumarjad, karumulukas bear strawberries, bear berries Estonian LNg surface [58]
Geum rivale L. Geum rivale L. karukolluksed bears's bells Estonian Kei surface [58]
Geum rivale L. Geum rivale L. karukuljused bears's bells Estonian Pal surface [58]
Geum rivale L. Geum rivale L. karukell, pruun karukell bear bell, brown bear bell Estonian North Estonia, Hää, Khk, Saa surface ([73, 58], Sõukand and Kalle unpublished)
Geum rivale L. Geum rivale L. karhunkukka, karunkukka bear flower Ingrian   surface [56]
Geum rivale L. Geum rivale L. karhunkukka bear flower Izhorian   surface [56]
Geum rivale L. Geum rivale björntobak bear tobacco Swedish Jämtland status- [155]
Geum urbanum L. Geum urbanum мeчиja cтoпa bear foot Serbo-Croat   shape? [84]
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Glycyrrhiza glabra ayı kulağı bear ear Turkish Anatolia shape [226]
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Glycyrrhiza glabra ayıkulaği bear’s ear Turkish   shape [6]
GRASSES grass straws left after mowing grass björnhår bear hair Swedish Western Finland shape [139]
Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br. Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R.Br. karukäpp bear paw Estonian LNg ? [58]
Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newman Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newman мeчa пaпpaт bear fern Bulgarian   shape, size [86]
Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.) Fr. Gyromitra esculenta (Pers. ex Pers.) Fr. okš-šõrməz bear septum Livonian   shape? [81]
Helleborus foetidus L. Helleborus foetidus L. he-barfoot he-bear foot Eng. Midland Warwickshire shape [45]
Helleborus foetidus L. Helleborus foetidus L. bear's foot bear foot Eng. Southern, Western, Midland, Northern Dorset, Somerset, Wiltshire, Warwickshire, Worcestershire, Yorkshire shape [45]
Helleborus foetidus L. Helleborus foet Bärenklau, echte, italienische, Welsche bear claw, true, Italian, ? German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Helleborus foetidus L. Helleborus foet. Bärenfuss bear foot German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Helleborus viridis L. Helleborus vir. Bärenwurz bear root German, non specified not specified bear food? [65]
Helleborus viridis subsp. occidentalis (Reut.) Schiffn. Helleborus viridis L. ssp. occidentalis she-barfoot she-bear foot Eng. Midland Warwickshire shape [45]
Helleborus viridis subsp. occidentalis (Reut.) Schiffn. Helleborus viridis L. ssp. occidentalis bear's foot bear foot Eng. Western Gloucestershire shape [45]
Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier Heracleum mantegazzianum Som. et Levier karuputk bear pipe Estonian general folk etymology Kalle and Sõukand unpublished
Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. karuputk bear pipe Estonian general folk etymology Sõukand and Kalle unpublished
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium ayïpänġäsi bear claw Azeri   Latin calque [171]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium ayïwtabanï bear sole Bashkir   Latin calque [171]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum ternatum Velen. мeчa cтъпкa bear step Bulgarian Teteven area shape, surface [86]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. мeчи уши bear ears Bulgarian   shape, surface [86]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum ternatum Velen. мeчи уши bear ears Bulgarian   shape, surface [86]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium upauri bear foot Chuvash   shape [171]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. medvidovina bear plant Croatian Devčićim near Krasna Latin calque [126]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. medviđa šapa bear paw Croatian Krasna, Lica Latin calque [126]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. taca medvedova bear paw Croatian   Latin calque [126, 138]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. medvjeđi dlan bear palm Croatian no location Latin calque [126, 230, 231, 228]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. stopa medvidnja bear foot Croatian   Latin calque [126, 138, 239]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. stopa medviđa bear foot Croatian   Latin calque [126, 138, 239]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. stopa medvinja bear foot Croatian   Latin calque [126, 138, 239]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. stopa medvjednja bear foot Croatian   Latin calque [126, 138, 239]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. stopa medvjeđa bear foot Croatian   Latin calque [126, 138, 239]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. stopa medvjeska bear foot Croatian   Latin calque [126, 138, 239]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. medvědí pazneht bear hoof Czech   Latin calque [61]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. nedvědí paznecht bear hoof Czech   Latin calque [61]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium bjørnelab bear claw Danish Denmark Latin calque [128]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium bjørneklo bear claw Danish Denmark Latin calque [187]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. bear's breech bear breech Eng. Western Somerset surface [45]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium karhunkämmen, karhunkämmen, carhuncämmen bear palm Finnish   size and surface [82]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. talpe di ors bear poplar Friulian Friuli, north-eastern Italy status- [74]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärenpfote bear paw German, non specified not specified ? [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärentalpe ? German, non specified not specified ? [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärentrappen ? German, non specified not specified ? [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärentrasche ? German, non specified not specified ? [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärenkraut bear herb German, non specified not specified bear food [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärenkümmel bear caraway German, non specified not specified bear food [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärenbletsche ? German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärenfuss bear foot German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärenklau, deutsche, unechte bear claw, true, Italian, ? German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärenlatsche bear mountain pine German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärenplampe ? German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärenpratze bear paw German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärentappe bear paw German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärentatze bear paw German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärenbrand bear brandy German, non specified not specified ? [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärlapp bear club moss German, non specified not specified ? [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphond. Bärenwurz bear root German, non specified not specified bear food? [65]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium medvetalp bear’s paw Hungarian Pusztina; Szigetköz; Felsőtárkány; Csíkszereda; Bácska-Bánát shape [78, 166168]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium medveköröm bear’s nail Hungarian no data (Hungary or Transylvania) ? [176]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium medvelapu bear’s leaf Hungarian no data (Hungary or Transylvania) size [176]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium guovzzasámil bear angelica North Saami   ? [129]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. nedvězie noha bear leg old-Czech   Latin calque [72]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. nedvězí pazneht bear hoof old-Czech   Latin calque [72]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. nedvězí paznoht bear hoof old-Czech   Latin calque [72]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. nedvědí pazúr bear claw old-Czech   Latin calque [72]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. nedvěnóžka bear leg old-Czech   Latin calque [196]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium s.l. łapa niedźwiedzia bear paw Polish archival name shape [68, 123, 124]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium s.l. niedźwiedzia noga bear leg Polish archival name shape [122, 196, 222]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. niedźwiedzia stopa bear foot Polish   shape, Latin calque [232]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. мeдвeжья лaпa bear paw Russian   Latin calque [116]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. мeдвeжья cтoпa тpaвa bear foot grass Russian   Latin calque [116]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. мeдвeдзoвa длaнь bear palm Ruthenian Vojvodina Latin calque? [125]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. лaбa мeдвeдзoвa bear paw Ruthenian Vojvodina Latin calque? [125]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium мeдвeђи длaн bear palm Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium мeдвидњa cтoпa bear foot Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium мeдвидњa cтупa bear foot Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium мeдвиђa cтoпa bear foot Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium мeдвиђa cтупa bear foot Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium мeдвињa cтoпa bear foot Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium мeдвињa cтупa bear foot Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium мeдвjeдњa cтoпa bear foot Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium мeдвjeдњa cтупa bear foot Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium мeдвjeђa cтoпa bear foot Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium мeдвjeђa cтупa bear foot Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium мeдвjeђи длaн bear palm Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium мeдвjecкa cтoпa bear foot Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium мeдвjecкa cтупa bear foot Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium мeчja шaпa bear paw Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. medvedi noha bear leg Slovak Slovakia Latin calque [62]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. nedvědínoga bear leg Slovak Slovakia Latin calque [62]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. medvedova taca bear paw Slovenian   Latin calque [89, 144]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. medvedove tace bear paws Slovenian   Latin calque [89]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. medvedova dlan bear palm Slovenian   Latin calque [84, 89]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. barowa pazora bear claw Sorbian   German calque? [76]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium björnkummin bear cummin Swedish Jämtland ? [155]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium björnloka bear plant Swedish   ? [54]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium ayaghï bear foot Tatar   Latin calque [171]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium ayïwtabanï bear sole Tatar   Latin calque [171]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. barjaca stopa bear foot Upper-Sorbian   Latin calque [63]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. barjaca paca bear paw Upper-Sorbian   Latin calque [63]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. barjace palcy bear fingers Upper-Sorbian   Latin calque [63]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. barjace pacy bear paws Upper-Sorbian Bautzen Latin calque [63, 121]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium L. barjace pazory bear claws Upper-Sorbian Bautzen Latin calque [63, 120, 121]
Heracleum sphondylium L. Heracleum sphondylium karuputkõ bear plant Votic   size and surface [113]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum L. karukapsalehed bear cabbage leaves Estonian Vig surface [58]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum L. karupill bear pill Estonian Vll surface [58]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum L. karuvile bear whistle Estonian Käi surface [58]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum L. karulik like a bear Estonian Trt surface [58]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum L., Branca ursi karuputk, karuputked, karuputke, karuputkes, karroputk bear pipe Estonian North Estonia surface [58, 73, 173, 183]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum L. karhunkämmen, karhun kämmen, carhun cämmen bear palm Finnish Turku size, surface [82]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum L. karhunurtti bear herb Finnish   surface [82]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum L. karhunputki bear pipe Finnish many written records surface [82]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum L. karunputki, karunputet bear pipe(s) Ingrian   surface [56]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum L. karhunputki, karuputki, karupuded bear pipe Izhorian   surface [56]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum L. мeдвeжья лaпa bear paw Russian   Latin calque [116]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum мeчja шaпa вeликa big bear paw Serbo-Croat   Latin calque [84]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum björnloka bear plant Swedish Gästrikland, Dalarna, Västmanland ? [155]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum björnkummin bear cummin Swedish Jämtland ? [155]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum björnpipa bear pipe Swedish Värmland, Västmanland ? [155]
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. Heracleum sibiricum L. karuputked, karuputki, karu-pudgõd, karu-pudged, karuputke bear pipe Votic   surface [56, 172]
Heracleum spp. Heracleum L. мeчa cтъпкa bear step Bulgarian   shape, surface [86]
Heracleum spp. Heracleum spp. medvedska taca bear paw Croatian   Latin calque [228]
Heracleum spp. Heracleum ssp. karuputked bear pipes Estonian general genera name borrowed from the one species [56, Sõukand, Kalle unpubl]
Heracleum spp. Heracleum L. spp. ramba de j'erse bear claw Italian, southern Pietracamela (Teramo), Abruzzo, central Italy shape [90]
Heracleum spp. Heracleum björnstut bear toot Swedish Jämtland ? [155]
Heracleum spp. Heracleum ? björnkål bear cabbage Swedish Dalarna ? [155]
Heracleum spp. Heracleum björnskalle bear skull Swedish Dalsland shape [155]
Hieracium pilosella L. Hieracium pilosella L. вeдмeжe вуxo bear ear Ukrainian, steppe dialect Kirovograd shape? [215]
Himantoglossum affine (Boiss.) Schltr. Himantoglossum affine (Boiss.) Schltr. ayı kulağı bear ear Turkish Kahramanmaraş (S Anatolia) shape [241]
Himantoglossum affine (Boiss.) Schltr. Himantoglossum affine (Boiss.) Schltr. ayı kulağı bear ear Turkish Kahramanmaraş (S Anatolia) shape [241]
Hordeum vulgare L. Hordeum vulgare (and esp. hexastichon or tetrastichon bar bear Eng. Eastern Suffolk folk etymology [45]
Hordeum vulgare L. Hordeum vulgare (and esp. hexastichon or tetrastichon beer bear Eng. Northern Northumberland folk etymology [45]
Hordeum vulgare L. Hordeum vulgare (and esp. hexastichon or tetrastichon beir bear Eng. Northern northern coutnties folk etymology [45]
Hordeum vulgare L. Hordeum vulgare (and esp. hexastichon or tetrastichon bere bear Eng. Northern North Yorkshire folk etymology [45]
Hordeum vulgare L. Hordeum vulgare (and esp. hexastichon or tetrastichon bear-barley bear-barley Eng. Northern Northumberland folk etymology [45]
Hordeum vulgare L. Hordeum vulgare (and esp. hexastichon or tetrastichon bear bear Eng. Northern, Midland, Western, Eastern Northumberland, Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Shropshire, Suffolk folk etymology [45]
Hordeum vulgare L. Hordeum polyst. Bärengerste bear barley German, non specified not specified bear food? [65]
Horminum pyrenaicum L. Horminum pyr. Bärenknöpfe bear buttons German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Huperzia selago (L.) Bernh. ex Schrank & Mart. Huperzia selago (L.) Bernh. ex Schrank & Mart. karukollad bear club moss Estonian Jõh folk etymology [58]
Hydnum caput-ursi Fr. Hydnum caput ursi Fr. medvědí hlava bear head Czech   Latin calque [61]
Hydnum coralloides Scop. Hydnum coralloides Scop. мeчa глaвa bear head Bulgarian   surface? [86]
Hydnum coralloides Scop. Hydnum coralloides Scop. мeчa гъбa bear fungi Bulgarian East Stara Planina Mts. surface? [85]
Hydnum imbricatum L. Hydnum imbricatum L. medvědí ucho bear ear Czech   colour, surface [61]
Hydnum imbricatum L. Hydnum imbricatum L. medvědice bear plant Czech   colour, surface [61]
Hydnum imbricatum L. Hydnum imbricatum L. medvedića she-bear Ukrainian   colour, surface [130]
Hydnum repandum L. Hydnum repandum вядзмeдзiк little bear Belarussian Brest. colour, surface [79]
Hydnum repandum L. Hydnum repandum мядзвeдзiк little bear Belarussian Minsk., Mogil., Brest., Gomel. colour, surface [79]
Hydnum repandum L. Hydnum repandum мядзвeдзiкi little bears Belarussian Brest. colour, surface [79]
Hydnum repandum L. Hydnum repandum мядзвeдзiя вушы bear ears Belarussian Grodn. colour, surface [79]
Hydnum repandum L. Hydnum repandum мядзвeдзь bear Belarussian Brest. colour, surface [79]
Hydnum repandum L. Hydnum repandum вядзмeдзiцa she-bear Belarussian Brest. colour, surface [79]
Hydnum repandum L. Hydnum repandum мядзвeджae вуxa (вушкa) bear ear Belarussian Viteb., Grodn. colour, surface [79]
Hydnum repandum L. Hydnum repandum L. medvedića biła white she-bear Ukrainian   surface? [130]
Hydnum spp. Hydnum meškakerpė bear lichen Lithuanian Lithuania surface [192]
Hyoscyamus niger L. Hyoscyamus niger L. carhun cali bear kvass Finnish   dangerousness [82]
Hypochaeris maculata L. Hypochaeris maculata L. karukapsalehed bear cabbage leaves Estonian Vig surface [58]
Ilex aquifolium L. Ilex aquifolium L. foije dell'urse bear leaves Italian, southern Cortino (Teramo), Abruzzo, central Italy ? [90]
Ilex aquifolium L. Ilex aquifolium L. laure dell'urse bear laurel Italian, southern Castelli (Teramo), Abruzzo, central Italy ? [90]
Iris pseudacorus L. Iris pseudo-acorus L. мeдвeжья лaпa bear paw Southern Russian Voronezh ? [163]
Iris sibirica L. Iris sibirica L. oгуpцы мeдвeжьи bear cucumbers Southern Russian Tambov bear food? [57]
Jacobaea abrotanifolia (L.) Moench Senecio abrotanif. Bärenkraut bear herb German, non specified not specified shape? [65]
Juniperus communis var. montana Aiton Juniperus nana Willd. мeчa oйнa bear juniper Bulgarian Banya village, Chepino area wild? [86]
Juniperus communis var. montana Aiton Juniperus nana Willd. мeчa xвoйнa bear juniper Bulgarian Breze village, Sofia area wild? [86]
Juniperus drupacea Labill Juniperus drupacea Labill ayı ardıcı bear juniper Turkish Antalya (SW Anatolia) size [59]
Knautia arvensis (L.) Coult. Knautia arvensis (L.) Coult. karukäpp bear paw Estonian Hää surface [