Open Access

The bear in Eurasian plant names: motivations and models

  • Valeria Kolosova1Email author,
  • Ingvar Svanberg2,
  • Raivo Kalle3,
  • Lisa Strecker4,
  • Ayşe Mine Gençler Özkan5,
  • Andrea Pieroni6,
  • Kevin Cianfaglione7,
  • Zsolt Molnár8,
  • Nora Papp9,
  • Łukasz Łuczaj10,
  • Dessislava Dimitrova11,
  • Daiva Šeškauskaitė12,
  • Jonathan Roper13,
  • Avni Hajdari14 and
  • Renata Sõukand3
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201713:14

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-016-0132-9

Received: 4 May 2016

Accepted: 19 December 2016

Published: 21 February 2017

Abstract

Ethnolinguistic studies are important for understanding an ethnic group’s ideas on the world, expressed in its language. Comparing corresponding aspects of such knowledge might help clarify problems of origin for certain concepts and words, e.g. whether they form common heritage, have an independent origin, are borrowings, or calques. The current study was conducted on the material in Slavonic, Baltic, Germanic, Romance, Finno-Ugrian, Turkic and Albanian languages. The bear was chosen as being a large, dangerous animal, important in traditional culture, whose name is widely reflected in folk plant names. The phytonyms for comparison were mostly obtained from dictionaries and other publications, and supplemented with data from databases, the co-authors’ field data, and archival sources (dialect and folklore materials). More than 1200 phytonym use records (combinations of a local name and a meaning) for 364 plant and fungal taxa were recorded to help find out the reasoning behind bear-nomination in various languages, as well as differences and similarities between the patterns among them. Among the most common taxa with bear-related phytonyms were Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng., Heracleum sphondylium L., Acanthus mollis L., and Allium ursinum L., with Latin loan translation contributing a high proportion of the phytonyms. Some plants have many and various bear-related phytonyms, while others have only one or two bear names. Features like form and/or surface generated the richest pool of names, while such features as colour seemed to provoke rather few associations with bears. The unevenness of bear phytonyms in the chosen languages was not related to the size of the language nor the present occurence of the Brown Bear in the region. However, this may, at least to certain extent, be related to the amount of the historical ethnolinguistic research done on the selected languages.

Keywords

EthnobotanyEthnolinguisticsTraditional knowledgePhytonymsBrown bear Ursus arctos MotivationLatin calques

Background

Many plant names have an animal element as a part of them. Animal names in folk (and scientific) plant names are common in many languages in Europe, as well as outside Europe. The prefix bear- is very common in many languages in the Eurasian area, which reflects the bear’s importance in the folk tradition.

Phytonyms (that is plant names) with animal names as components have been discussed by many ethnobotanists, folklorists, and linguists. Already a pioneering plant name researcher T. Thiselton-Dyer [1] observed that bear was a common animal element in many plant names, giving bear’s foot, bear-berry, bear’s bilberry, bear’s-garlic, bears-breech, and bear’s-wort as examples. The word bear could denote the size, the coarseness, and frequently the worthlessness or spuriousness of the plant. H. Kreiter [2] gave an account of French vernacular names of plants derived from animal names. H. Marzell published a dissertation on animals in German plant names [3]. Croatian and general Slavonic material was analysed in works by N. Vajs [4] and S. Dubrovina [5], respectively. I. Hauenschield provided an important contribution with her studies on the use of animals in Turkic plant names [6]. She noted that the bear is an important animal in Turkish folklore and also has a very prominent place among Turkic plant names, generally connected with forest and mountain flora. Hungarian plant names were researched by Rácz [7], who considered dog’s, wolf’s, pig’s names among the most common ones among those with an animal element. Komi phytonyms were discussed by Rakin [8]. Most of these works analyse many plant names in detail, but somewhat selectively, and without statistics.

Specific animals were discussed in numerous articles. For example, the Dutch ethnobotanist T. van Asseldonk examined the use of ‘pig’ in plant names in French, German, Dutch, and Flemish [9]; T. B. Haber – on dogs and other canines in British and American English [10]. Some authors tried to find explanations of naming in traditional culture [11]; such an approach is typical in ethnolinguistics. Still, most researchers limited themselves to comparing plants’ organs with these or those body parts of animals, as well as pointing out some of their features – that is, their properties and characteristics. So, van Asseldonk mentioned the toxicity of some ‘pig’-herbs and the fact that some of them are eaten by pigs [9]; Haber included worthless, inferior, harmful, and not cultivated plants to the list of ‘dog’ plants, adding those serving as dog’s medicine, curing dog bites, and beneficial to dogs [10]. In a work based on Slavonic plant name data, V. Kolosova [12] discerned sixteen motivations (plant features which were the reason behind the naming) for animal names, a plant’s shape, surface, colour, size, habitat, status, and a plant being animal’s food or medicine among them. N. Vajs in her article [4] attempted to set up correspondences between the appearance of plants and an animal body part forming the basis of nomination (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1

Correspondences between the appearance of plants and animal body parts based on nomination (adapted from [4])

More specifically plant names with a bear component were discussed in articles by Brodskij [13] on Finno-Permic and Balto-Fennic languages and by Kolosova [14] on Russian dialects. We should also mention Dahlstedt [15] who in more depth discussed many bear berry names in northern Scandinavia. He notes that bear- in names of berries in northern Scandinavia is probably pejorative, because it is often used to berries regarded as inedible. However, it can also refer to the colour, because unripe berries can be red or maroon.

There was often no direct relationship between the actual habitat of an animal species and the use of animal metaphors in local plant names. There were for instance names with ‘lion’, ‘monkey’ and ‘dragon’ in the Nordic languages, and ‘elephant’ and ‘lion’ in various Turkic plant names [6, 16, 17]. The Tudor naturalist Turner recorded bearefote (nowadays still called bear’s foot) in English already in 1538 for Helleborus [18]. No wild bears were present in the British Isles at that time. They were probably extinct already by 500 AD or somewhat later [19].

Bear-related plant names can be considered semantically transparent or in some cases semi-transparent in Berlin’s terms [20], yet we are talking about once traditional, but now highly literate societies. Therefore understanding the motivations of plant names is not easy. Plant names and the naming of plants subsume a great many aspects: synchronic, diachronic, structural, semantic/associative, systemic/variational, etymological, geographical, social, etc. There is also a question of the emotive/situational value of plant names and the handling of plant names in literary contexts. Many plant names reflected folklore motifs and mythological ideas. In addition, there were normative aspects in terms of diffusion and normalization of plant names. It is therefore not only a question of the supposed origin and motif of denomination (why was a plant X called Y?). Some names were for instance just translations of the Latin name, and especially the pre-Linnaean Latin names must be considered, cf. Turner’s bearefote [21].

Large charismatic animals have always attracted people’s interest, and therefore there exists a rich cultural history associated with such animals. Predators especially have exerted a special attraction in art, folklore, myths, rituals, and other cultural expressions. This applies in particular to the bear (along with wolf) that has played a central role in people’s perceptions across Eurasia. Bear worship has for instance been common all over the circumpolar area [2226]. Some peoples even regarded bears as their ancestors [27, 28]. Vice versa, in Slavonic etiological legends bear is a human transformed into a beast as a punishment for some sin. South Slavs celebrated special “bear days” [29].

Bears are found all over the northern hemisphere [30]. Very much was written about the bear in folk perception and as a prey for hunters. Our relationship with bears seems eternal, ranging from prehistoric human relation to the cave bear right up to the bear’s place in today’s popular culture [31, 32]. Several ancient (Pliny the Elder, Claudius Aelianus), medieval (Hildegard of Bingen, Albertus Magnus, Bartholomew of England), and Renaissance authors (Olaus Magnus, Conrad Gessner) dealt with the bear in detail. The scholarly literature on the bear in human history is extensive and covers many aspects [27, 30, 3336].

Echoes of ancient ideas on some “equality” of humans and bears have been alive in ritual practices until recently. For instance, in Älvdalen, in the Swedish province Dalecarlia, a fiancée was called ‘she-bear’, and there are many expressions connected with the rituals before a wedding when the bear metaphor is used. Björn-grånka is the local term for a spruce tree, Picea abies (L.) H. Karst, which was set upright against the door of a farm where someone had the banns of marriage published. This was done to prevent ‘the bear’ from coming ‘out of hibernation’ [37]. In Russian wedding songs the bride is called мeдвeдицa ‘she-bear’ [38].

As a charismatic animal, hunted, revered, and feared, the bear also has many euphemisms in Eurasia [29, 3941]. Strictly speaking, bear/björn/bjørn/Bär in the Germanic languages literally mean “the brown one”, is an old euphemism [41]; Russian literary and common name for bear is also a euphemism literally meaning “honey eater”; all of them are used instead of old Indo-European name *ŗkso- (kept in Gr. άρκτoς and Lat. ursus), that has been tabooed for many centuries [42]. The Hungarian language uses a Slavonic borrowing medve for the same reason.

The objectives of the research were to answer the following questions:
  1. a.

    which plants were associated with the bear in folk plant nomenclatures?

     
  2. b.

    why certain plants were considered ‘bear plants’ (i.e. eventual links to local perceptions)?

     
  3. c.

    is there a common perception of the same taxon over larger areas?

     
  4. d.

    what are differences and similarities of the patterns among different languages?

     
  5. e.

    do plant names with ‘bear’ component always link to the animal ‘bear’?

     
  6. f.

    which word-formative models are used for creating ‘bear’-names?

     

Methods and sources

Within this work we concentrated on plant names related to the Brown Bear (Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758) historically or still today co-habitating in the areas of the distribution of selected language groups (Fig. 2). We give an overview of using the bear as a prefix in Eurasian folk plant names (sometimes it is not a prefix but just a word meaning ‘bear’ or ‘little bear’ used as a metaphorical name). The names belonging to the official nomenclature were not analysed, unless they coincided with the folk ones.
Fig. 2

Language groups reviewed in this publication and present geographic distribution of Brown Bear (Ursus arctos). Red – distribution of Brown Bear. Circles indicate the regions inhabited by the speakers of the language group very roughly. Base map (species distribution map) is created by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and distributed by Wikimedia according to Attribution-Share Alike Creative Commons License (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ursus_arctos_range_map.svg)

Only species names were considered. The cases of bear-nomination for individual natural objects, as, i.e., It. faggio dell’orso ‘bear’s beech’ for one famous big tree at Mt. Tranquillo, near Pescasseroli village, are not analysed.

Plant names containing the root bear- were analysed in the spoken dialects of several Eurasian languages: Slavonic (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Macedonian, Polish, Russian, Ruthenian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Sorbian, and Ukrainian), Germanic (English, German, Danish, Norwegian and Swedish), Romance (French, Italian, Latin, Sardinian, Friulian), Finno-Ugrian (Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian, Izhorian, Livonian, Saami, and Votic), Turkic languages (Bashkir, Chuvash, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Tatar, Turkish, Uyghur, and Uzbek) and other languages (Albanian, Lithuanian). The authors also considered the cases when the plant was unidentified, but the citation from respondent explained the using of a bear-name. The inner form (literal translation) of local names is given in square brackets.

The published dictionaries, ethnolinguistic literature, folkloric and ethnographic references based on primary literature and original field investigations were considered. Field materials from Abruzzo [Cianfaglione], Transylvania [Frendl and Papp], Estonia [Kalle and Sõukand], Transylvania [Molnár, Babai], and the Alps [Pieroni] are published for the first time. Data was extracted from the sources and entered in an Excel spreadsheet. Nomenclature followed The Plant List database [43] for plants and Index Fungorum [44] for fungi. The dataset supporting the conclusions of this article was included within the article as its (Table 1). The dataset has the following structure: valid nomenclature taxon, original source taxon identification, local plant name and its literal translation into English, language and geographical area of fixation of the plant name, motivation, and the source of the information. The column containing motivations was formed on the basis of the material extracted from the sources.
Table 1

AA currently valid nomenclature

The taxon indicated in original source

Local name

Literal translation

Language

Area

Motivation

Reference

Acanthus hirsutus Boiss.

Acanthus hirsutus Boiss.

ayıeli

bear hand

Turkish

Anatolia

shape

[59]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

ayïpänġäsi

bear claw

Azeri

 

Latin calque

[171]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

ayïwtabani

bear sole

Bashkir

 

Latin calque

[171]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

upauri

bear foot

Chuvash

 

Latin calque

[171]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

medviđa stopa

bear foot

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[126, 137, 138]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

medvidnja stupa

bear foot

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[126, 137, 138]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

medvija stupa

bear foot

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[126, 137, 138]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

medvjeđa stupa

bear foot

Croatian

no location

Latin calque

[84, 126, 137, 138]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

medvejsko kopito

bear hoof

Croatian

no location

?

[126, 138]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

medvedovina

bear plant

Croatian

no location

Latin calque

[126, 138, 225]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

stopa medvidnja

bear foot

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[126, 138, 239]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

stopa medvinja

bear foot

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[126, 138, 239]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

stopa medvjednja

bear foot

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[126, 138, 239]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

stopa medvjeđa

bear foot

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[126, 138, 239]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

stopa medvjeska

bear foot

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[126, 138, 239]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

medvědí pazneht

bear hoof

Czech

 

Latin calque

[61]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

medvědí paznecht

bear hoof

Czech

 

Latin calque

[61]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

nedvědí paznot

bear hoof

Czech

 

Latin calque

[61]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

nedvězí paznot

bear hoof

Czech

 

Latin calque

[61]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

vlašský nedvědí pazneht

Italian bear hoof

Czech

 

Latin calque

[61]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

vlašský nedvědí paznecht

Italian bear hoof

Czech

 

Latin calque

[61]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

patte d’ours

bear paw

French

 

Latin calque

[2]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

branc ursine

bear paw

French

 

Latin calque

[2]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

branque ursine

bear paw

French

 

Latin calque

[2]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

branche ursine

bear paw

French

 

Latin calque

[2]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

Bärenklau, echte, italienische, welsche

bear claw, true, Italian, ?

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

Bärentappe

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

Bärentatze

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

branca ursina

bear paw

Italian, central

Tuscany, central Italy

?

[74]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

ayuwayaghï

bear foot

Kazakh

 

Latin calque

[171]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

ayuwtabanï

bear sole

Kazakh

 

Latin calque

[171]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

мeдвeдзoвa тaлпa

bear foot

Ruthenian

Vojvodina

Latin calque?

[125]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

мeдвeдoвинa

bear plant

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque?

[84]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

мeдвejcкo кoпитo

bear hoof

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque?

[84]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

мeдвecкa cтoпa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque?

[84]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

мeдвидњa cтупa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque?

[84]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis L.

мeдвиja cтупa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque?

[84]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

medvednik

bear plant

Slovenian

 

Latin calque?

[84]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

medvenik

bear plant

Slovenian

 

Latin calque?

[84]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

barjaca stopa

bear foot

Sorbian

 

Latin calque

[186]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

ayuajaghï

bear foot

Tatar

 

Latin calque

[171]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

ayutabanï

bear sole

Tatar

 

Latin calque

[171]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

ayıpençesi

bear claw

Turkish

 

shape

[171]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

ayïpenġesi

bear claw

Turkmen

 

Latin calque

[171]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

barica

she-bear

Upper-Sorbian

 

Latin calque?

[63]

Acanthus mollis L.

Acanthus mollis

ayïqtåwån

bear sole

Uzbek

 

Latin calque

[171]

Acanthus spinosus L.

Acanthus spinosus L.

branca ursina salvatica

wild bear branch

Italian, central

Tuscany, central Italy

?

[74]

Acanthus spinosus L.

Acanthus spinosus L.

barica

she-bear

Upper-Sorbian

 

Latin calque

[121]

Acanthus spp.

Acanthus spp.

medvedska taca

bear paw

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[228]

Acanthus spp.

Acanthus (various species, including spinosus and mollis)

bear's breech

bear breech

Eng. General

England

surface

[46]

Acanthus spp.

Acanthus L.

ayıpençesi

bear paw

Turkish

Anatolia

shape

[131]

Acanthus spp.

Acanthus

barnica

bear plant

Upper-Sorbian

 

Latin calque?

[63]

Achillea millefolium L.

Achillea millefolium L.

karhunkukka

bear flower

Finnish

Perho, Sievi

surface

[82]

Achillea millefolium L.

Achillea millefolium L.

karhunruoho

bear grass

Finnish

Perho

surface

[82]

Achillea nobilis L.

Achillea nobilis L.

ayıdanası

bear calf

Turkish

W Anatolia

folklore

[145]

Aconitum napellus L.

Aconitum napellus

bear's foot

bear foot

Eng. Midland

Nottingham

shape

[45]

Aconitum napellus L.

Aconitum napellus L.

karupesa

bear nest

Estonian

Mus

size

[58]

Aconitum sp.

Aconitum sp.

ayïwtabani

bear sole

Bashkir

 

shape

[171]

Aconitum sp.

Aconitum sp.

ayïqtåwån

bear sole

Uzbek

 

shape?

[171]

Acorus calamus L.

Acorus cal.

Bärenmutter-wurzel

bear mother root

German, non specified

not specified

folk etymology?

[65]

Actaea rubra (Aiton) Willd.

Actaea rubra (Aiton) Willd.

karhunmarja

bear berry

Finnish

Sort, Konn

dangerousness

[82]

Actaea spicata L.

Actaea spicata L.

мeдвeжьи ягoды

bear berries

Central Russian

Nizhni Novgorod

inedibility?

[57]

Actaea spicata L.

Actaea spicata L.

meškauogė

bear berries

Lithuanian

Lithuania

dangerousness, bear food

[87, 191]

Actaea spicata L.

Actaea spicata L.

мeдвeжья тpaвa

bear grass

Northern Russian

Olonets

dangerousness (toxic)?

[57]

Actaea spicata L.

Actaea spicata L.

bjønnbær

bear berry

Norwegian

Northern Odal, Vodal

?

[80]

Actaea spicata L.

Actaea spicata L.

мeдвeжья ягoдa

bear berry

Russian

Middle Ob region

dangerousness (toxic)

[101]

Actaea spicata L.

Actaea spicata

björnbär

bear berry

Swedish

Österbotten, Nyland

status-

[155]

Aegopodium podagraria L.

Aegopodium podagraria

medvedova taca

bear paw

Slovenian

 

?

[84, 144]

Agasyllis latifolia Boiss.

Siler latifolium L.

medvedovka

bear plant

Slovenian

 

?

[144]

Ajuga reptans L.

Ajuga reptans L.

мeчa cтъпкa

bear step

Bulgarian

 

shape, surface

[86]

Alchemilla xanthochlora Rothm.

Alchemilla vulgaris L.

bear's foot

bear foot

Eng. Southern, Northern

Hampshire, Northumberland

shape

[45]

Alchemilla xanthochlora Rothm.

Alchemilla vulg.

Barendaumen

bear thumb

German, non specified

not specified

shape?, surface?

[65]

Allium rotundum L.

Allium rotundum L.

ayı sarmısağı

bear garlic

Turkish

Kırklareli (European part of Turkey)

wild

[227]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum L.

Hudhër arushe, Hudhrr ariu

bear garlic

Albanian

Albania

bear food

[210, 211]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum

ayï soganï

bear onion

Azeri

 

Latin calque

[171]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum

ayïu huganï

bear onion

Bashkir

 

Latin calque

[171]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum L.

мeчи лук

bear onion

Bulgarian

Kyustendil area

Latin calque

[86]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum

bjørneløg

bear onion

Danish

Denmark

Latin calque

[187]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum L.

karusibul

bear onion

Estonian

Hää

Latin calque

[58]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum L.

karulauk

bear leek

Estonian

 

Latin calque

([58, 237, 238]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium urs.

Bärenknoblauch

bear garlic

German, non specified

not specified

bear food

[65]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium urs.

Bärlauch

bear leek

German, non specified

not specified

bear food

[65]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum

medvefokhagyma

bear garlic

Hungarian

Egerszék (Transylvania)

wild

Frendl and Papp unpublished

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum

medvesósdi

bear’s sorrel

Hungarian

Egerszék (Transylvania)

wild

Frendl and Papp unpublished

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum L.

ajë dell'orse; aju dell'orso; ajo dell'ors

bear garlic

Italian, central

Gran Sasso d'Italia and Laga Mt., Abruzzo and little portion of eastern Latium, central Italy

wild, status-

Cianfaglione unpublished

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum L.

ajë de l'urs

bear garlic

Italian, central

Valle Peligna and Alto Sangro, Abruzzo, central Italy

wild, status-

Cianfaglione unpublished

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum L.

ajë dë jursë

bear garlic

Italian, southern

Valle Subequana, mid Valle dell'Aterno, Altopiano delle Rocche (L'Aquila), Abruzzo, central Italy

wild, status-

Cianfaglione unpublished

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum

ayuw xogon

bear onion

Kirghiz

 

Latin calque

[171]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum

meškinis česnakas

bear garlic

Lithuanian

Lithuania

Latin calque, bear food

[87]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum L.

мeдвeжий лук

bear onion

Russian

Ural

Latin calque

[181]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum L.

мeдвeжий чecнoк

bear garlic

Russian

Ural

Latin calque

[181]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum L.

мeдвeдзoв чecнoк

bear garlic

Ruthenian

Vojvodina

Latin calque?

[125]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum L.

мeдвeђи лук

bear onion

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque?

[84]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum L.

мeдвjeђи лук

bear onion

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque?

[84]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum

medvedji zheſen

bear garlic

Slovenian

 

Latin calque?

[209]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum

ayısarımsağı

bear garlic

Turkish

Anatolia

wild

[235]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum

ayi sarüsagï

bear garlic

Turkish

 

Latin calque

[171]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum L.

cybula medveža

bear onion

Ukrainian

 

Latin calque

[130]

Allium ursinum L.

Allium ursinum L.

łuk medvežyj

bear onion

Ukrainian

 

Latin calque

[130]

Allium victorialis L.

Allium victorialis L.=Allium ursinum L.

мeдвeжий лук

bear onion

Russian

Middle Ob region

Latin calque

[101]

Allium xiphopetalum Aitch. & Baker

Allium sylvestre

medvjeđi luk

bear onion

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[228]

Aloe spp.

Aloe spp.

karusapp

bear bile

Estonian

 

status-

[58, 64]

Aloe spp.

Aloe spp.

karusaba

bear tail

Estonian

Rap

folk etymology

[58]

Amelanchier ovalis Medik.

Amelanchier oval.

Bärenbirne

bear pear

German, non specified

not specified

bear food

[65]

Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb.

Anchusa arvensis (L.) M.Bieb.

kahro ohtja

bear thistle, bear thorn

Estonian

 

surface

[173]

Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb.

Anchusa arvensis (L.) M.Bieb.

karukeel

bear tongue

Estonian

 

surface

[182]

Anchusa arvensis (L.) M. Bieb.

Lycopsis arvensis L.

karu osjad

bear horsetails

Estonian

 

folk etymology

[183]

Anchusa officinalis L.

Anchusa officinalis L.

karukeel

bear tongue

Estonian

Kuu

shape and surface

[214]

Anchusa officinalis L.

Anchusa officinalis L.

karuohakas, karuohakad, karuohtjad, kahru-ohtjad

bear thistle, bear thorn

Estonian

Rid, Võn

surface

[58, 64, 73]

Anchusa officinalis L.

Anchusa officinalis L.

kahru-ohtja, kahro ohtja, karu-ohtja (ohakad)

bear thistle, bear thorn

Estonian

 

surface

[73, 236]

Anchusa officinalis L.

Anchusa officinalis

björntass

bear paw

Swedish

Skåne

shape

[155]

Anemone alpina L.

Anemone alpina

Bärenplumpe

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Anemone alpina L.

Anemone alpina

Bärentatze

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Anemone alpina L.

Pulsatilla alpina

medveje

bear plant

Slovenian

 

?

[209]

Anemone alpina L.

Anemone alpina

medveje

bear plant

Slovenian

 

?

[84]

Anemone patens L.

Anemone patens L.

karumunnid

bear balls

Estonian

Tallinn

surface

[58]

Anemone patens L.

Anemone patens L.

karukell, lilla karukell

bear bell, lillack bear bell

Estonian

North Estonia

surface

[58]

Anemone patens L.

Anemone patens L.

karusäärepael

bear shank's ribbon

Estonian

Rap

surface

[58]

Anemone pratensis L.

Anemone pratensis L., Pulsatilla Mill.

karukell, karukelluke, karu kellad, karukellad

bear bell(s)

Estonian

North Estonia

surface

[58, 64, 73, 182, 183]

Anemone pratensis L.

Anemone pratensis L.

karu-kübar

bear hat

Estonian

 

surface

[236]

Anemone pratensis L.

Anemone pratensis L.

karumunnid

bear balls

Estonian

Noa

surface

[58]

Anemone pratensis L.

Anemone pratensis L.

karukollad

bear club moss

Estonian

Kad

surface

[58]

Anemone pratensis L.

Anemone pratensis L.

karulilled, sinine karulill, kahrulill

bear flower(s), blue bear flower

Estonian

Pal, Äks, Har

surface

[58]

Anemone pratensis L.

Anemone pratensis L.

karusäärepaelad

bear shank's ribbons

Estonian

Nis

surface

[58]

Anemone pratensis L.

Anemone pratensis L., Pulsatilla Mill.

karukäpad, karu kepad, karu-käpad

bear paws

Estonian

North Estonia, Ha

surface

[58, 73, 183]

Anemone pratensis L.

Anemone pratensis

bjønneblomme

bear flower

Norwegian

Sigdal

?

[80]

Anemone pulsatilla L.

Anemone puls.

Bärenblume

bear flower

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Anemone sylvestris L.

Anemone sylvestris L.

karukellad

bear bells

Estonian

JJn, Juu

surface

[58]

Anemone sylvestris L.

Anemone sylvestris L.

karusilm

bear eye

Estonian

Amb, JMd

surface

[58]

Angelica archangelica L.

Archangelica Hoffm.

мeдвeжьи дудки

bear pipes

Central Russian

Novgorod

size?

[57]

Angelica archangelica L.

Angelica archangelica L.

karhunputk, karhunputka, karhunputke

bear thistle, bear thorn

Finnish

 

folk etymology, size

[55]

Angelica archangelica L.

Angelica archangelica L.

karhun-yrtti

bear herb

Finnish

 

folk etymology, size

[82]

Angelica archangelica L.

Angelica archangelica L.

karunputet

bear pipe

Ingrian

 

folk etymology, size

[56]

Angelica archangelica L.

Angelica archangelica L.

karhuntruba

bear pipe

Izhorian

 

folk etymology, size

[56]

Angelica archangelica L.

Angelica archangelica L.

karupuded

bear pipe

Izhorian

 

folk etymology, size

[56]

Angelica archangelica L.

Angelica archangelica L.

karuputki

bear pipe

Izhorian

 

folk etymology, size

[56]

Angelica archangelica L.

Angelica archangelica

guovžžarássi

bear plant

North Saami

 

?

[212]

Angelica archangelica L.

Archangelica Hoffm.

мeдвeжьи дудки

bear pipes

Northern Russian

Vologda

size?

[57]

Angelica archangelica L.

Archangelica Hoffm.

мeдвeдoк

little bear

Russian

Middle Ural

?

[57]

Angelica archangelica L.

Archangelica Hoffm.

мeдвeжья дудкa

bear pipe

Russian

Ekaterinburg region

?

[57]

Angelica archangelica L.

Archangelica Hoffm.

мeдвeжкa

little bear

Russian

Novosibirsk region

?

[57]

Angelica archangelica L.

Archangelica Hoffm.

мeдвeжкa

little bear

Russian

Ekaterinburg region

?

[57]

Angelica archangelica L.

Angelica ?

björnkål

bear cabbage

Swedish

Dalarna

size?

[155]

Angelica archangelica L.

Angelica archangelica

björnstut

bear trumpet

Swedish

Lappland

size?

[155]

Angelica archangelica L.

Angelica silvestris

björnflo

bear plant

Swedish

Lappland

size?

[155]

Angelica archangelica L.

Angelica silvestris

björnstut

bear trumpet

Swedish

Lappland, Ångermanland, Västerbotten, Lappland

size?

[155]

Angelica archangelica subsp. litoralis (Wahlenb.) Thell.

Angelica archangelica ssp. litoralis

björnfloka

bear plant

Swedish

Österbotten

size?

[155]

Angelica spp.

Angelica spp.

karhun yrti

bear herb

Finnish

 

folk etymology, size

[82]

Angelica spp.

Angelica spp.

karhun putki, carhun putki

bear pipe

Finnish

 

folk etymology, size

[82]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris L.

мeдвeжьи дудки

bear pipes

Central Russian

Novgorod

size?

[57]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris L.

karhun-yrtti

bear herb

Finnish

 

folk etymology, size

[82]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris L.

karhunputki, carhunputki, Karhunputk

bear pipe

Finnish

 

folk etymology, size

[55, 82]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris L.

karhuntruba

bear pipe

Ingrian

 

folk etymology, size

[56]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris L.

karunputet

bear pipe

Ingrian

 

folk etymology, size

[56]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris L.

karuputki

bear pipe

Izhorian

 

folk etymology, size

[56]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris L.

мeдвeжья пучкa

bear cow-parsnip

Russian

Middle Ob region

bear food?

[101]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris L.

мeдвeжьи пучки

bear cow-parsnip

Russian

Ural

size?

[57]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris

björnkumminstrånge

rough bear cummin

Swedish

Dalarna

bear food

[155]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica syilvestris

björnloka

bear plant

Swedish

Gästrikland, Dalarna, Västmanland

size?

[155]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris

björnlop

bear plant

Swedish

Dalarna

size?

[155]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris

björnpipa

bear pipe

Swedish

Västmanland, Dalarna, Västergötland

size?

[155]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris

björngräs

bear grass

Swedish

Dalarna

size?

[155]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris

björnslök

bear plant

Swedish

Värmland

size?

[155]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris

björnflor, björnflo

bear plant

Swedish

Lappland

size?

[154, 155]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris

björnstut

bear trumpet

Swedish

Västerbotten

shape?

[154]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris L.

byönngras

bear grass

Swedish

Älvdalen

?

[223]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris L.

byönnkumåstraingg

bear caraway plant

Swedish

Älvdalen

?

[223]

Angelica sylvestris L.

Angelica sylvestris L.

byönnkumåstraungg

bear caraway plant

Swedish

Älvdalen

?

[223]

Angelica ursina (Rupr.) Maxim.

Angelophyllum ursinum

мeдвeжий кopeнь

bear root

Russian

 

Latin calque

[116]

Angelica ursina (Rupr.) Maxim.

a Kamchatka plant

мeдвeжий кopeнь

bear root

Russian

Kamchatka

Latin calque?

[57]

Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn.

Antennaria dioica

medvědí tlapičky

bear paws

Czech

Chodov

surface

[83]

Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn.

Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn.

karukäpp

bear paw

Estonian

Amb, JMd

shape

[58]

Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn.

Antennaria dioica

Bärentatze

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

shape

[65]

Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn.

Antennaria dioica

Bärenpratze

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

shape

[65]

Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn.

Antennaria dioica

medvedove tačice

bear little paws

Slovenian

 

shape?

[84]

Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn.

Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn.

byönntasser

bear’s paws

Swedish

Älvdalen

shape

[223]

Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm.

Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm.

karhunputki

bear pipe

Izhorian

 

folk etymology

[172]

Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm.

Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm.

karuputki

bear pipe

Votic

 

folk etymology

[56]

Anthyllis vulneraria L.

Anthyllis vulneraria L.

Bärenklee

bear clover

German, non specified

not specified

surface?, shape?

[65]

Anthyllis vulneraria L.

Anthyllis vulneraria L.

Bärenpratze

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

surface?, shape?

[65]

Anthyllis vulneraria L.

Anthyllis vulneraria L.

Bärentappe

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

surface?, shape?

[65]

Anthyllis vulneraria L.

Anthyllis vulneraria L.

Bärentatze

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

surface?, shape?

[65]

Anthyllis vulneraria L.

Anthyllis vulneraria

medvetalpa

bear’s paw

Hungarian

Gyimes (Transylvania)

surface

[161]

Anthyllis vulneraria L.

Anthyllis vulneraria L.

medvjeka

bear plant

Slovenian

 

?

[89, 144]

Anthyllis vulneraria L.

Anthyllis vulneraria L.

medvejčka

bear plant

Slovenian

 

?

[89, 144]

Antirrhinum majus L.

Antirrhinum majus

medveszája

bear’s mouth

Hungarian

no data (Hungary or Transylvania)

shape

[176]

Apiaceae

Apiaceae, unidentified taxon

ursurèdda, sursurèdda

little female bear

Sardinian

Bari Sardo area, Ogliastra, eastern Sardinia

?

[142]

Arbutus unedo L.

Arbutus unedo L.

mbriachelle dë l'ursë

intoxicating little bear fruit

Italian, central

Lower Valle Peligna, upper Val Pescara, Abruzzo, central Italy

bear food

Cianfaglione unpublished

Arbutus unedo L.

Arbutus unedo

мeчje гpoжђe

bear grapes

Serbo-Croat

 

size?

[84]

Arbutus unedo L.

Arbutus unedo

ayı çileği

bear strawberry

Turkish

Anatolia

bear food

[169]

Arbutus unedo L.

Arbutus unedo

ayı çileği

bear strawberry

Turkish

Muğla (SW Anatolia)

shape, bear food

[169]

Arbutus unedo L.

Arbutus unedo

ayıyemişi

bear fruit

Turkish

İzmit (NW Anatolia)-Marmara Region

bear food

[178]

Arbutus unedo L.

Arbutus unedo

ayı yemişi

bear fruit

Turkish

Anatolia

bear food

[227]

Arbutus unedo L.

Arbutus unedo

ayı yemişi

bear fruit

Turkish

Anatolia

bear food

[227]

Arctium lappa L.

Arctium lappa L.

medvědí

bears

Czech

 

size?

[61]

Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.

Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.

ayı kabağı

bear zucchini

Turkish

Ankara (Inner Anatolia)

status -

[165]

Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.

Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.

ayı pıtırağı

bear cocklebur

Turkish

Yalova (NW Anatolia)

size

[227]

Arctium tomentosum Mill.

Arctium tomentosum Mill.

kahrutakjas

bear burr

Estonian

Se

shape and surface

[58]

Arctopus spp.

Arctopus L.

medvjeđa šapa

bear paw

Croatian

no location

shape?, surface?, Latin calque?

[126, 138, 244]

Arctostaphylos spp.

Arctostaphylos L.

мeдвeдильник

bear plant

Russian

Ural

Latin calque?

[57]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Rrush arushe; Rrush harushe

bear grape

Albanian

North Albania, Kosovo

bear food

[136]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

ayïġulaγï

bear’s ear

Azeri

 

shape

[6]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

ayïgäghï

bear ear

Azeri

 

shape

[171]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos

мядзвeджыя вушкi

bear little ears

Belarussian

Grodn.

bear food? status-?

[79]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos

мядзвeджыя вушкi

bear little ears

Belarussian

Minsk.

bear food? status-?

[79]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Spreng.

мeчe гpoздe

bear grapes

Bulgarian

 

Latin calque

[86]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

medveje grozje

bear grapes

Croatian

Podvežica

Latin calque

[126, 162]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

medvjedika

bear plant

Croatian

no location

Latin calque

[126, 217]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng. (Arctostaphylos officinalis Wimm. et Grab.)

medvjedica

she-bear

Croatian

no location

Latin calque

[126, 138, 244]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos

medvjedica

she-bear

Croatian

no location

Latin calque

[126, 138, 245]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

medvjetka

bear plant

Croatian

no location

Latin calque?

[126, 228, 229]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr.

nedvědice

bear plant

Czech

 

Latin calque?

[60, 72]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

medvědík

little bear

Czech

 

bear food? status-?

[61]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

medvědí hrozen

bear grapes

Czech

 

Latin calque

[61]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

medvědí hrozny

bear grapes

Czech

 

Latin calque

[61]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

bjørnebaer

bear berry

Danish

Denmark

Latin calque

[187]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

karukobar, karukobarad

bear cluster(s)

Estonian

 

Latin calque

[64]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

karupohlad

bear lingonberry

Estonian

Vig

inedibility

[64]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

karuviinapuu-marjalehed

bear grapetree berries leaves

Estonian

 

Latin calque

[64]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

karulehed, kahruliht

bear leaves

Estonian

Vig, Har

Latin calque

[64]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

karupuhulgalehed

bear lingonberry leaves

Estonian

 

Latin calque

[64]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

karutee

bear tea

Estonian

 

Latin calque

[64]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

karukapsas

bear cabbage

Estonian

Rap

Latin calque

[58]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

karukõrvad

bear ears

Estonian

Nrv

Latin calque

[58]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

uë ursine

bear bilberry

Friulian

Friuli, north-eatern Italy

bear food?

[153]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

pirusiel da l'ors

bear bilberry

Friulian

Carnia, Friuli, north-eastern Italy

status-

[74, 153]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Bären-Chris

?

German, non specified

not specified

Latin calque

[65]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylus uva-ursi

Bärenkraut

bear herb

German, non specified

not specified

Latin calque

[65]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Artostaphylus uva-ursi

Barentraube

bear grape

German, non specified

not specified

Latin calque

[65]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Bärenbeere

bear berry

German, non specified

not specified

Latin calque

[65]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

medvegerezd

bear’s slice

Hungarian

Transylvania

wild

[150]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

karhumarja

bear berry

Izhorian

 

Latin calque

[56]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

uva d'urso; uva ursina; uva urzina; evæ orsina; uva mursine; uvæ orsina; uva urzinæ; uvettæ dë l'ursë

bear grape

Italian, central and southern

Abruzzo, central Italy

wild, status-

([90], Cianfaglione unpublished)

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

ua orsina

bear bilberry

Italian, northern

Istria, Friuli, northern Italy

wild, status-

[153]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

ciate d'ors

bear feet

Italian, northern

Arco area, Trentino, north-eatern Italy

shape

[115]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

brussei de l'orso

bear bilberries

Italian, northern

Primiero area, Trentino, north-eastern Italy

status-

[115]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

uva dl'ours

bear grape

Italian, northern

Cuneo area, Piedmont, north-western Italy

wild, status-

[115]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

granteni d'ors; broc da l'ors

bear lingonberries

Italian, northern

Pinè and Val Rendena, Trentino, north-eastern Italy

status-

[115, 206]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

pan d'ors

bear bread

Italian, northern

Bergamo area, Lombardy, northern Italy

bear food

[74]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

uga d'ursu

bear grape

Italian, northern

Chiavari area, Liguria, north-western Italy

wild, status-

[74]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

uga dell'orso

bear grape

Italian, northern

Sondrio area, Lombardy, northern Italy

wild, status-

[74]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

ova orsèina

bear grape

Italian, northern

Reggio area, Emilia, northern Italy

wild, status-

[74]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

cerasella d'orso

bear hawthorn berry

Italian, southern

Terra di Lavoro area, southern Italy

status-, bear food?

[74]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

garnate del óurs; garnéte de órs; granats dl'aurs; granate de l'ours

bear bilberries

Ladin

Val Cordevole, Val di Fassa, Val Badia and Val Gardena, Veneto and Trentino, north-eastern Italy

Latin calque?, status-?

[207]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.

meškos ausys

bear ears

Lithuanian

Lithuania

shape, bear food

[87]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr.

мeдвeжий винoгpaд

bear grapes

Northern Russian

Vologda

Latin calque

[57]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

bjørnebær

bear berry

Norwegian

Eidskog, Budal

Latin calque

[80]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr.

mącznica niedzwiedziny

bear mealberry

Polish

 

bear food? status-?

[116]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr.

niedźwiedzie grono

bear grapes

Polish

 

shape

[72]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

вeдмeжьи ушки

bear little ears

Russian

Middle Ob region

bear food? status-?

[101]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

мeдвeжьe уxo

bear ear

Russian

Middle Ob region

bear food? status-?

[101]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

мeдвeжьe ушкo

bear little ear

Russian

Middle Ob region

bear food? status-?

[101]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

мeдвeжья ягoдa

bear berry

Russian

Middle Ob region

Latin calque?

[101]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (?)

мeдвeдильник

bear plant

Russian

Ural

Latin calque?

[181]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.

мeдвeжьи ушки

bear little ears

Russian

Ural

Latin calque?

[181]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi L.

мeдвeдзoвo уxo

bear ear

Ruthenian

Vojvodina

bear food? status-?

[125]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

мeдвeђe гpoжђe

bear grapes

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque?

[84]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

мeдвeткa

bear plant

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque?

[84]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

мeдвиjeдицa

she-bear

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque?

[84]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr.

мeдвeдoвo уxo

bear ear

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque?

[84]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

мeчиje гpoжђe

bear grapes

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque?

[84]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos

medvedica

she-bear

Slovak

Slovakia

Latin calque?

[62]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos

nedvedica

she-bear

Slovak

Slovakia

Latin calque?

[62]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

medvedovo uho

bear ear

Slovenian

 

bear food? status-?

[89]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

medvedove črešnje

bear sweet cherries

Slovenian

 

Latin calque?

[89]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

medvedji grozdič

bear grapes

Slovenian

 

Latin calque

[84, 89]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr.

medvedje uho

bear ear

Slovenian

 

Latin calque?

[84, 89]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

medvedovo grozdjiče

bear grapes

Slovenian

 

Latin calque

[84, 89]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos

mjedwjedźica

she-bear

Sorbian

 

Latin calque?

[186]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

holanska mjedwjedźica

forest she-bear

Sorbian

 

Latin calque?

[186]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

björnbär

bear berry

Swedish

Norrbotten

Latin calque

[155]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

björnebär

bear berry

Swedish

Sör-Tröndelag

Latin calque

[155]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

ayı üzümü

bear grape

Turkish

Anatolia

bear food

[160]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arbutus uva ursi

ayı üzümü

bear grape

Turkish

Anatolia

shape, bear food

[59]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr.

вушкo вeдмeжe

bear ear

Ukrainian

 

bear food? status-?

[180]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr.

мeдвeжий винoгpaд

bear grapes

Ukrainian

 

Latin calque

[130, 219]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr.

мeдвeжi ягoди

bear berries

Ukrainian

 

Latin calque

[130, 219]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr.

ушкo мeдвeжe

bear ear

Ukrainian, Central-Polessian

 

bear food? status-?

[180]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr.

мeдвeжинa

bear plant

Ukrainian, East-Polessian

 

bear food? status-?

[180]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr.

мeдвeдячi ягiдки

bear berries

Ukrainian, Pokutje-Bukovina

Bukovina

Latin calque?

[130, 219]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spr.

уxo мeдвeжe

bear ear

Ukrainian, Volhynian

 

bear food? status-?

[180]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.

Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng.

mjedwjedźica

she-bear

Upper-Sorbian

 

Latin calque?

[121]

Arctotis spp.

Arctotis

Bärenohr

bear ear

German, non specified

not specified

Latin calque

[65]

Arctotis spp.

Arctotis sp.

ayıkulağı

bear ear

Turkish

 

shape

[171]

Arctotis spp.

Arctotis sp.

ayï otu

bear’s grass

Turkish

 

?

[171]

Arctotis spp.

Arctotis sp.

ayıkulaği

bear’s ear

Turkish

 

shape

[6]

Arctotis spp.

Arctotis sp.

ayï pencesi

bear’s foot

Turkmen

 

shape

[171]

Arctotis stoechadifolia P.J. Bergius

Arctotis stoechadifolia P.J. Bergius

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Anatolia

shape

[226]

Arctotis stoechadifolia P.J. Bergius

Arctotis stoechadifolia P.J. Bergius

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Anatolia

shape

[226]

Arctous alpina (L.) Nied.

Arctostaphylos alpina

Bärenbeere

bear berry

German, non specified

not specified

Latin calque

[65]

Arctous alpina (L.) Nied.

Arctostaphylos alpinus (L.) Spreng.

uga dell'orso salvatico

wild bear grape

Italian, northern

Sondrio area, Lombardy, northern Italy

status-

[74]

Arctous alpina (L.) Nied.

Arctostaphylos alpinus

guovžžalasta

bear leaf

North Saami

 

?

[129]

Arctous alpina (L.) Nied.

Arctostaphylos alpine

guovžžamuorji

bear berry

North Saami

 

?

[212]

Arctous alpina (L.) Nied.

Arctostaphylos alpina

björnebär

bear berry

Norwegian

Vest-Agder

Latin calque

[155]

Arctous alpina (L.) Nied.

Arctostaphylos alpine

bjønnbær

bear berry

Norwegian

Ranen, Northern Norway

Latin calque

[15, 112]

Arctous alpina (L.) Nied.

Arctostaphylos alpina

hórska mjedwjedźica

mountain she-bear

Sorbian

 

Latin calque?

[186]

Arctous alpina (L.) Nied.

Arctostaphylos alpinus

bïernenmuerjie

bear berry

South Saami

 

Latin calque

[170]

Arctous alpina (L.) Nied.

Arctostaphylos alpine

björnbär

bear berry

Swedish

North Lapland

status-

[15]

Arctous alpina (L.) Nied.

Arctostaphylos alpina

björnbär

bear berry

Swedish

Lappland

status-

[155]

Arctous spp.

Arctous

medvedík

little bear

Slovak

Slovakia

Latin calque?

[62]

Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott

Arum triphyllum

medvědí kořen

bear root

Czech

 

?

[61]

Aristolochia clematitis L.

Aristolochia clematitis

medvedova grašca

bear vetch

Slovenian

 

bear food?

[84, 89]

Aristolochia clematitis L.

Aristolochia clematitis

medvedova grašica

bear vetch

Slovenian

 

bear food?

[84, 89]

Arum italicum Mill.

Arum italicum Mill.

мeчe вpeтeнo

bear spindle

Bulgarian

Berkovica area

shape, size

[86]

Arum maculatum L.

Arum maculatum All.

мeчкинa пчeнкa

bear maize

Bulgarian

Kozica village, Kichevo area

shape

[86]

Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald

Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald (Spiraea aruncus L.)

medvedovina

bear plant

Croatian

Hrvatsko zagorje

?

[126, 138]

Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald

Aruncus silvester

мeдвeдoвинa

bear plant

Serbo-Croat

 

?

[84]

Aruncus dioicus var. vulgaris (Maxim.) H. Hara

Aruncus sylv.

Barenmutter-strauss

bear mother bouquet

German, non specified

not specified

folk etymology?

[65]

Aruncus dioicus var. vulgaris (Maxim.) H. Hara

Aruncus silvester Kostel. = Spiraea aruncus

medvejka

bear plant

Slovenian

 

?

[89, 144]

Aruncus dioicus var. vulgaris (Maxim.) H. Hara

Aruncus silvester Kostel. = Spiraea aruncus

medvedovo latje

bear stalks

Slovenian

 

?

[89]

Aruncus sylvester Kostel. ex Maxim.

Spiraea aruncus

medvêjka

bear plant

Slovenian

 

?

[149]

Aruncus sylvester Kostel. ex Maxim.

Spiraea aruncus

medvêjak

bear plant

Slovenian

 

?

[149]

Asarum europaeum L.

Asarum europaeum L.

вeдмeжe вуxo

bear ear

Ukrainian, Podolian

Odessa

shape?

[180, 215]

Asparagus officinalis L.

Asparagus officinalis L.

мeдвeдник

bear plant

Russian

Tobolsk area

size?

[218]

Asparagus officinalis L.

Asparagus officinalis L.

мeдвeжник

bear plant

Russian

Tobolsk area

size?

[218]

Asparagus officinalis L.

Asparagus officinalis L.

мeдвeдкa

bear plant

Russian

Bashkortostan

size? wild?

[57]

Asparagus spp.

Asparagus L.

мeдвeжьe дepeвo

bear tree

Russian

Tobolsk area

size

[57]

Asplenium scolopendrium L.

Scolopendrium vulgare

мeчjи jeзик

bear tongue

Serbo-Croat

 

shape?

[84]

Aster amellus L.

Aster amellus

ayıkulaği

bear’s ear

Turkish

 

shape

[6]

Astragalus glycyphyllos L.

Astragalus glyc.

Bärenklee

bear clover

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?

[65]

Astragalus glycyphyllos L.

Astragalus glycyph.

Bärenschote

bear pod

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?

[65]

Astragalus glycyphyllos L.

Astragalus glycyphyllus L.

koren medvedov

bear root

Slovenian

 

German calque

[144]

Athamanta cretensis L.

Athamanta cret.

Bärenwurz

bear root

German, non specified

not specified

shape?, surface?

[65]

Atropa belladonna L.

Atropa belladona L.

мeчкини уши

bear ears

Bulgarian

 

shape, surface

[86]

Atropa belladonna L.

Atropa belladonna L.

karumustikas

bear blueberry

Estonian

Kan, Kul, Vai

folk etymology

[56, 58, 64, 214]

Atropa belladonna L.

Atropa bell.

Bärenmutz

?

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Atropa belladonna L.

Atropa bell.

Bärenwurz

bear root

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Atropa belladonna L.

Atropa belladonna L.

ayı çileği

bear strawberry

Turkish

Trabzon (NE Anatolia)

dangerousness

[227]

Atropa belladonna L.

Atropa belladonna L.

ayı libargası

bear blueberry

Turkish/Laz language

Trabzon (NE Anatolia)

dangerousness

[227]

Atropa belladonna L.

Atropa belladonna L.

ayı liforu

bear blueberry

Turkish/Laz language

Trabzon (NE Anatolia)

dangerousness

[227]

Avena fatua L.

Avena fatua L.

karu-kaerad

bear oats

Estonian

 

inedibility

[73]

Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drejer

Deschampsia flexuosa

björnjägal

bear’s grass

Swedish

Northern Sweden

?

[224]

Avenula pubescens (Huds.) Dumort.

Helictotrichon pubescens (Huds.) Schult. & Schult.f.

karukaer, karu-kaer, kahrukaer

bear oat

Estonian

 

folk etymology

[73]

Begonia metallica W.G.Sm.

Begonia metallica G. Smith.

мeдвeжьe уxo

bear ear

Russian

Middle Ob region

surface

[101]

Bidens tripartita L.

Bidens tripartita L.

вeдмeжи ушки

bear little ears

Ukrainian

Zhitomir

shape?

[215]

Blechnum spicant (L.) Sm.

Blechnum spicant (L.) Sm.

bjørnekam

bear comb

Norwegian

 

?

[80]

Boletus edulis Bull.

Boletus edulis

мeдвeдки

bear plant

Central Russian

Novgorod

status +

[57]

Boletus edulis Bull.

Boletus edulis

мeдвeжaник

bear plant

Central Russian

Tver

status +

[57]

Boletus edulis Bull.

old Boletus ed.

мeдвeжaник

bear plant

Central Russian

Tver

status +

[57]

Boletus edulis Bull.

old Boletus ed.

мeдвeжник

bear plant

Central Russian

Novgorod

status +

[57]

Boletus edulis Bull.

Boletus edulis and other Boletus spp.

medvegomba

bear’s mushroom

Hungarian

Tatrang, Csík, Sepsiszentgyörgy, Csinód, Gyimesfelsőlok (Transylvania)

surface

([99, 100, 204], Molnár and Babai unpublished, Frendl, Papp unpublished)

Boletus edulis Bull.

old Boletus ed.

мeдвeдoвик

bear plant

Northern Russian

Vologda

size? status +?

[57]

Boletus edulis Bull.

Boletus edulis

мeдвeжины

bear plant

Northern Russian

Vologda

status +?

[57]

Boletus edulis Bull.

Boletus edulis

мeдвeжник

bear plant

Northern Russian

Olonets, North

status+?

[57]

Boletus edulis Bull.

Boletus edulis Bull.

мeдвeдapa

bear plant

Serbo-Croat

 

?

[84]

Boletus edulis Bull.

Boletus edulis Bull.

ayıköşkü mantarı

bear pavilion mushroom

Turkish

Anatolia

shape, size

[146]

Boletus satanas Lenz

Boletus satanas Lenz

мeдвeдapa

bear plant

Serbo-Croat

 

dangerousness (toxic)?

[84]

Boletus spp.

Boletus Fr.

ayı mantarı

bear mushroom

Turkish

Anatolia

shape, size

[146]

Borago officinalis L.

Borago officinalis L.

karurohi

bear grass

Estonian

Trm

surface

[58]

Bovista plumbea Pers.

Bovista plumbea Pers.

sloffa d'ors

bear puffball

Italian, northern

Trento area, Trentino, northern Italy

size

[74]

Briza media L.

Briza media L.

karukaer

bear oats

Estonian

 

inedibility

Kalle and Sõukand unpublished

Bromus arvensis L.

Bromus arvensis L.

kahrukaar

bear oat

Estonian

Ote

inedibility

[58]

Bromus hordeaceus L.

Bromus hordeaceus L.

karukaer

bear oats

Estonian

Kuu

inedibility

[58]

Bromus secalinus L.

Bromus secalinus L.

karukaer, karukaur, karukaar, karukaeras, karukael, karukaerad, kahrukaar

bear oats

Estonian

general

inedibility

[58, 73, 174]

Bromus secalinus L.

Bromus secalinus L.

karhunkaatar

bear oat

Izhorian

 

inedibility

[56]

Bryophyta

moss

мeдвeдяник

bear plant

Central Russian

Tver

surface?

[57]

Bryophyta

moss

мeдвeжaтник

bear plant

Northern Russian

Karelia, Novgorod region

surface?

[141]

Bryophyta

moss

мeдвeжий мox

bear moss

Northern Russian

Karelia

surface?

[141]

Bryophyta

moss

мeдвeжник

bear plant

Northern Russian

Karelia

surface?

[57]

Bryum spp.

Bryum ssp

karusammal

bear moss

Estonian

 

folk etymology

[56]

Cactaceae spp.

cactus

мeдвeжья лaпa

bear paw

Russian

Novosibirsk

shape (thorny)

[57]

Calla palustris L.

Calla palustris

мeдвeжья лaпкa

bear little paw

Belarussian

Smol.

shape

[157]

Calla palustris L.

Calla palustris L.

мeдвeжьи лaпы

bear paws

Northern Russian

Kostroma

shape?

[57]

Calla palustris L.

Calla palustris

bjønnblekker

bear leaves

Norwegian

southern Norway

shape?

[80]

Caltha palustris L.

Caltha palustris L.

мядзвeжaя лaпкa

bear little paw

Belarussian

Smol., Gomel.

shape

[79]

Caltha palustris L.

Caltha palustris L.

karukoll

bear ogre

Estonian

Hlj

folk etymology

[58]

Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br.

Calystegia sepium L.

bearbind

bearbind

Eng. Southern

Kent, Surrey, Middlesex, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Herefordshire

folk etymology

[45]

Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br.

Calystegia sepium (L.) R.Br.

karhunköynnös

bear garland

Finnish

Hiit

?

[82]

Campanula glomerata L.

Campanula glomerata L.

karukübar

bear hat

Estonian

Ksi, Pal

folk etymology

[58]

Campanula glomerata L.

Campanula glomerata L.

karukatel

bear kettle

Estonian

Pal

folk etymology

[58]

Campanula patula L.

Campanula patula L.

karukellad

bear bells

Estonian

Mar

folk etymology

[58]

Campanula persicifolia L.

Campanula persicifolia L.

karukell

bear bell

Estonian

Pal

folk etymology

[58]

Campanula persicifolia L.

Campanula persicifolia L.

karukatlad

bear kettle

Estonian

Jõe

folk etymology

[58]

Campanula rotundifolia L.

Campanula rotundifolia L.

karukell

bear bell

Estonian

Pal

folk etymology

[58]

Campanula spp.

Campanula spp

karukellad

bear bells

Estonian

Lai

folk etymology

[58]

Campanula spp.

Campanula spp

karukatlad

bear kettle

Estonian

Plt

folk etymology

[58]

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

Capsella bursa pastoris Moench

мeчкaнa дупкa

bear hole

Bulgarian

Goce Delchev

?

[85]

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

Capsella bursa pastoris L.

мeчкинa дупкa

bear hole

Macedonian

Nevrokop region

?

[179]

Carduus crispus L.

Carduus crispus L.

karuohakas, karuuhakas, karuohtja

bear thistle, bear thorn

Estonian

general

size, shape

[58]

Carduus personata (L.) Jacq.

Carduus personatus

medvesaláta

bear’s lattice

Hungarian

Gyimes (Transylvania)

bear food

[97, 213]

Carduus spp.

Carduus ssp.

karuohakad, karuohtjad

bear thistle, bear thorn

Estonian

 

size, shape

[64]

Carex davalliana Sm.

Carex davalliana Sm.

karulakk

bear mane

Estonian

Mih, Lih, Kse, Han, Var, Tõs

shape

[58, 174]

Carlina acanthifolia All.

Carlina acanthifolia All. (incl. subsp. utzka (Hacq.) Meusel & Kästner)

rapa d'orse

bear turnip

Italian, southern

Scanno area (L'Aquila), Abruzzo, central Italy

bear food?

[90]

Carlina vulgaris L.

Carlina vulgaris L.

karune ohak

beary (hairy) thistle

Estonian

Phl

shape

[58]

Caucalis platycarpos L.

Caucalis lappula

medvetalp

bear’s paw

Hungarian

Moldva (East-Romania)

?

[78]

Centaurea jacea L.

Centaurea jacea L.

karukellad

bear bells

Estonian

Lüg

surface

[58]

Centaurea phrygia L.

Centaurea phrygia L.

мeдвeдник

bear plant

Central Russian

Nizhni Novgorod.

shape?

[57]

Centaurea scabiosa L.

Centaurea scabiosa L.

мeдвeжья лaпa

bear paw

Central Russian

Pskov

shape

[57]

Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach.

Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach.

karusammal

bear moss

Estonian

 

folk etymology

[64]

Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach.

Cetraria isl.

Bärengeist

bear brandy

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Chaerophyllum aromaticum L.

Chärophyllum arom.

Bärengiersch

bear ground elder

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?

[65]

Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub

Epilobium angustifolium L.

karukanep

bear cannabis

Estonian

Vil

folk etymology

[58]

Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub

Epilobium angustifolium

boelt’aajjankraesie

bear grass

South Saami

 

?

[148]

Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W.P.C. Barton

Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W.P.C.Barton

karhunkukka

bear flower

Finnish

Holl

?

[82]

Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W.P.C. Barton

Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Nutt.

мeдвeжьи ушки

bear little ears

Russian

Middle Ob region

shape?

[101]

Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr.

Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr.

radicio de l'urs

bear chicory

Italian, northern

Trentino and Friuli regions, north-eastern Italy

bear food

Pieroni unpublished

Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr.

Lactuca alpina

björnkål

bear cabbage

Swedish

Lappland, Ångermanland

bear food

[155]

Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr.

Lactuca alpina = Cicerbita alpina

björntorta

bear plant

Swedish

Dalarna

bear food

[155]

Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr.

Cicerbita alpina

björnkål

bear cabbage

Swedish

Lappland, Ångermanland

bear food?

[155]

Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr.

Cicerbita alpina

björngräs

bear grass

Swedish

Lappland, Västerbotten+H295

bear food?

[154, 155]

Cirsium acaule (L.) A.A.Weber ex Wigg.

Cirsium acaule (L.) A.A.Weber ex Wigg.

karuohakas

bear thistle, bear thorn

Estonian

Mih

shape

[58]

Cirsium acaule (L.) A.A.Weber ex Wigg.

Cirsium acaule (L.) A.A.Weber ex Wigg.

karuuhakad

bear thistle, bear thorn

Estonian

Hag, Jür, Kos, Mar

shape

[58]

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.

Cirsium spp. arvense (L.) Scop.

karuohakad, karused uhakad, karuuhak, karuohtjas, karuõhakas

bear thistle, bear thorn

Estonian

general

shape

[58, 173]

Cirsium erisithales (Jacq.) Scop.

Cirsium erisithales (Jacq.) Scop.

talpe d'ors salvadie

wild bear poplar

Friulian

Friuli, north-eastern Italy

bear food?

[74]

Cirsium erisithales (Jacq.) Scop.

Cirsium erisithales

medvesaláta

bear’s lattice

Hungarian

Gyimes (Transylvania)

bear food

[97, 213]

Cirsium helenioides (L.) Hill

Cirsium heterophyllum L.

bjønnetunge

bear tongue

Norwegian

Oppland

?

[80]

Cirsium helenioides (L.) Hill

Cirsium heterophyllum L.

bjønnskor

bear shoes

Norwegian

Fitjar

?

[80]

Cirsium helenioides (L.) Hill

Cirsium heterophyllum L.

bjønnehatt

bear hat

Norwegian

 

?

[80]

Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop.

Cirsium oleraceum Scop.

мeдвeжник бoлoтный

swamp bear plant

Central Russian

Pskov

shape, surface

[57]

Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop.

Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop.

karukapsad

bear cabbage

Estonian

 

shape

[201]

Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop.

Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop.

karuohakas, karuuhak, karuohtja, karuohass, kahruohass

bear thistle, bear thorn

Estonian

general

shape

[58]

Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop.

Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop.

talpe d'ors

bear poplar

Friulian

Friuli, north-eastern Italy

bear food?

[74]

Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop.

Cirsium oleraceum

medvesaláta

bear’s lattice

Hungarian

Gyimes (Transylvania)

bear food

[97, 213]

Cirsium palustre (L.) Scop.

Cirsium palustre (L.) Coss. ex Scop.

karuuhak, karuohakas, karuohtjas, niidu-karuohtja, kahruohtja, etc

bear thistle, bear thorn

Estonian

general

shape

[58]

Cirsium rivulare (Jacq.) All.

Cirsium rivulare

medvesaláta

bear’s lattice

Hungarian

Gyimes (Transylvania)

bear food

[97, 213]

Cirsium spp.

Cirsium sp.

ayïwbastiken

bear’s head

Kazakh

Xinjiang

shape?

[6]

Cirsium spp.

Cirsium

björnborst

bear bristle

Swedish

Jämtland

shape

[155]

Cirsium spp.

Cirsium

björntistel

bear thistle

Swedish

Nyland

shape

[155]

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.

karuohakas, karuuhal, karuohtjas, karuuhtke, karuohe, karuuhakas, karuokas, kahro ohhak, kahru-uhak, etc

bear thistle, bear thorn

Estonian

general

shape

[58, 173]

Cladina stellaris (Opiz) Brodo

Cladina stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vězda, 1971

karusammal

bear moss

Estonian

 

folk etymology

[56]

Clavaria arbuscula Scop.

Clavaria arbuscula

medvedove grive

bear mane

Slovenian

 

shape?

[84]

Clavaria botrytis Pers.

Clavaria botrytis

medvedje šapke

bear little paws

Slovenian

 

shape?

[84]

Clavaria coralloides L.

Clavaria coralloides L.

мeчa cтъпкa

bear step

Bulgarian

Omurtag

shape, size

[85]

Clavaria flava Schaeff.

Clavaria flava

мeчja шaпa

bear paw

Serbo-Croat

 

shape?

[84]

Clavaria spp.

Clavaria

Bärenpfote

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Clavaria spp.

Clavaria

roggene Bärenpratze

?

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Clavaria spp.

Clavaria

Bärentatze

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.

Claviceps purpurea

мeдвeжий нoгoть

bear fingernail

Northern Russian

Karelia

colour, shape

[141]

Clematis spp.

Clematis spp. ?

aussara, autsàra, auttsàra, aursàra, attsara; ussarèddha

little female bear

Sardinian

Ogliastra, eastern Sardinia

?

[142]

Clematis vitalba L.

Clematis vitalba L.

bearbind

bearbind

Eng. Southern

Kent

folk etymology

[46]

Colchicum autumnale L.

Colchicum aut.

Bärenklachel

?

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Colchicum cilicicum (Boiss.) Dammer

Colchicum cilicicum (Boiss.) Dammer

ayı çiğdemi

bear colchicum

Turkish

S Anatolia

size

[146]

Colchicum cilicicum (Boiss.) Dammer

Colchicum cilicicum (Boiss.) Dammer

ayı çiğdemi

bear colchicum

Turkish

Gaziantep (SE Anatolia)

size

[242]

Comarum palustre L.

Potentilla palustris (L.) Scop.

karhunkämmen

bear palm

Finnish

Pielav

?

[82]

Comarum palustre L.

Potentilla palustris (L.) Scop.

karhunmansikka

bear strawberry

Finnish

Keit

inedibility

[82]

Comarum palustre L.

Comarum palustre

björnklo

bear claw

Swedish

Jämtland

shape

[155]

Conium maculatum L.

Conium maculatum

мeдвeжья дудкa

bear pipe

Russian

Ural

wild, size

[181]

Consolida regalis Gray

Delphinium consolida L.

мeчини oчи

bear eys

Bulgarian

Bosilegrad (Serb.)

fruit shape and surface

[86]

Convallaria spp.

Convallaria L.

мeдвeжьe уxo

bear ear

Northern Russian

Olonets

shape?

[57]

Convolvulus arvensis L.

Convolvulus arvensis L.

bearbind

bearbind

Eng. Northern

Yorkshire

folk etymology

[46]

Cornus alba L.

Svida alba (L.) Opiz.

мeдвeжья ягoдa

bear berry

Russian

Middle Ob region

inedibility

[101]

Cornus suecica L.

Cornus suecica L.

karhunmarja

bear berry

Finnish

Pielav

folk etymology

[82]

Cornus suecica L.

Cornus suecica L.

karhunpuola

bear lingonberry

Finnish

Palt

folk etymology

[82]

Cornus suecica L.

Cornus suecica

björnebär

bear berry

Norwegian

Östfold, Akershus, Hedmark, Telemark, Sogn Og Fjordane, Möre Og Romsdal, Sör-Tröndelag

?

[155]

Cornus suecica L.

Cornus suecica L.

bjørnebær

bear berry

Norwegian

Askim, Southern Høland, Southern Odal; Hjartadal, Aurland, Ytterøy

?

[80]

Corylus colurna L.

Coryllus colurna L.

Lejthi arushe

bear hazelnut

Albanian

Kosovo

inedibility

[95]

Corylus colurna L.

Corylus colurna L.

мeчa лecкa

bear hazelnut tree

Bulgarian

 

shape

[86]

Corylus colurna L.

Corylus colurna

мeдвjeђa лиjecкa

bear hazel

Serbo-Croat

 

size?

[84]

Corylus colurna L.

Corylus colurna

мeчja лecкa

bear hazel

Serbo-Croat

 

size?

[84]

Corylus colurna L.

Corylus colurna L.

ayı fındığı

bear hazelnut

Turkish

Anatolia

size

[93]

Cota tinctoria (L.) J. Gay

Anthemis tinctoria L.

kahro karri kakra, karro karri kakra

bear daisy

Estonian

 

surface

[173, 174]

Cota tinctoria (L.) J. Gay

Anthemis tinctoria L.

päiväkarud

day's bears

Estonian

Jõh

surface

[58]

Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

мeчи ябълки

bear apples

Bulgarian

 

bear food

[86]

Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

Crataegus oxyac.

Bärenbrot

bear bread

German, non specified

not specified

bear food

[65]

Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

Crataegus oxyacantha L.

pomatoi d'ors

bear fruit

Italian, northern

Giudicarie area, Trentino, north-eatern Italy

bear food?

[115]

Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

Crataegus oxyacantha L.

pomele de ors

bear fruit

Italian, northern

Lavis, Trentino, north-eastern Italy

bear food?

[115]

Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

Crataegus oxyacantha L.

spin d'ors

bear thorn

Italian, northern

Belluno area, Veneto, northern Italy

wild

[74]

Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

Crataegus oxyacantha L.

pan d'orsèr; pan d'ors

bear bread

Italian, northern

Belluno area, Veneto and Trentino, northern Italy

bear food

[74, 115]

Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

Crataegus oxyacantha

medvêdnik

bear plant

Slovenian

 

status-?

[149]

Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

Crataegus oxyacantha

medvednek

bear plant

Slovenian

 

status-?

[84, 89]

Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

Crataegus oxyacantha

medvedova hrušca

bear pear

Slovenian

 

status-?

[84, 89]

Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

Crataegus oxyacantha

medvedova hrušica

bear pear

Slovenian

 

status-?

[84, 89]

Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

Crataegus oxyacantha

medvedove hruške

bear pears

Slovenian

 

status-?

[84, 89]

Crataegus spp.

Crataegus spp.

pirigli de li ursi

little bear pear

Italian, southern

Lucoli and Marsica souroundings (L'Aquila), Abruzzo, central Italy

bear food?

([90], Cianfaglione unpublished)

Cyclamen cilicium Boiss. & Heldr.

Cyclamen cilicium Boiss. & Heldr.

ayı pancarı

bear beet

Turkish

Karaman (S Anatolia)

size, status- (tuber)

[92]

Cyclamen hederifolium Aiton

Cyclamen hederifolium Aiton

orecchia d'orso

bear ear

Italian, central

Tuscany, central Italy

shape

[74]

Cynoglossum creticum Mill.

Cynoglossum creticum Mill.

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Anatolia

shape

[92]

Cynoglossum officinale L.

Cynoglossum officinale L.

мeдвeжe вушкo

bear little ear

Ukrainian, Volhynian

Vinnitsa

shape?

[180, 203]

Cypripedium calceolus L.

Cypripedium calceolus L.

karu-ummisking

bear shoe with closed toe

Estonian

Mih

folk etymology

[58]

Dactylis glomerata L.

Dactylis glom.

Bärentappe

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

shape and surface?

[65]

Dactylorhiza maculata (L.) Soó

Orchis maculata L.

scrinfe dl'óurs

bear feet

Ladin

Livinallongo, Veneto, north-eastern Italy

?

[115]

Daphne mezereum L.

Daphne mezereum

meškalunkis

bear meadow

Lithuanian

Lithuania

dangerousness, bear food

[192]

Daphne mezereum L.

Daphne mezereum

мeдвeжья ягoдa

bear berry

Northern Russian

Karelia

dangerousness (toxic)

[141]

Daphne mezereum L.

Daphne mezereum

мeдвeжник

bear plant

Northern Russian

Karelia

dangerousness (toxic)

[141]

Daphne mezereum L.

Daphne mezereum

мeчja ликa

bear bast

Serbo-Croat

 

dangerousness (toxic)?

[84]

Dasypyrum villosum (L.) P. Candargy

Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Borbás

granë dell'urse

bear wheat

Italian, southern

Rocca Pia (L'Aquila), Abruzzo, central Italy

bear food?

[90]

Delphinium spp.

Delphinium

мeдвиje уxo

bear ear

Serbo-Croat

 

shape?

[84]

Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv.

Deschampsia cespitosa

björngägal

bear grass

Swedish

Västerbotten

?

[154]

Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv.

Aira caespito

björnjägal

bear’s grass

Swedish

Northern Sweden

?

[224]

Digitalis ferruginea L.

Digitalis ferruginea ssp. schischkinii

ayı mısırı

bear corn

Turkish

Trabzon (NE Anatolia)

shape

[227]

Digitalis grandiflora Mill.

Digitalis grandiflora (= Digitalis ambigua)

meškos taurė

bear cup

Lithuanian

Lithuania

dangerousness, bear food

[87, 96, 191]

Digitalis purpurea L.

Digitalis purpurea

björneblomst

bear flower

Norwegian

Rogaland

?

[155]

Digitalis purpurea L.

Digitalis purpurea

bjørneblomst

bear flower

Norwegian

Sauda

?

[80]

Digitalis purpurea L.

Digitalis purpurea

bjønnehanskje

bear glove

Norwegian

Sunnfjord

?

[80]

Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin

Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin

ayı baklası

bear vetch

Turkish

Bartın (NW Anatolia)

shape

[227]

Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn

Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn

ayı soğanı

bear bulb

Turkish

Muğla (SW Anatolia)

size

[147]

Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn

Urginea maritima

ayıkulağı

bear ear

Turkish

S Anatolia

shape

[226]

Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott

Aspidium fil.-mas

Bärenkraut

bear herb

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott

Aspidium fil.-mas

Bärenwurz

bear root

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott

Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott

ayıdöşeği

bear mattress

Turkish

Hasanbeyli-Adana (S. Anatolia)

shape

[198]

Dryopteris spp.

Dryopteris spp.

karukaatet

bear cover or isolation?

Ingrian

 

?

[56]

Dryopteris spp.

Dryopteris spp.

karukaattet

bear cover or isolation?

Ingrian

 

?

[56]

Dryopteris spp.

Dryopteris spp

karhunkaaded

bear cover or isolation?

Izhorian

 

?

[56]

Echium italicum L.

Echium italicum

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Muğla (SW Anatolia)

shape

[227]

Echium vulgare L.

Echium vulgare L.

karukellad

bear bells

Estonian

Ksi

shape

[58]

Echium vulgare L.

Echium vulgare L.

karulill

bear flower

Estonian

PJg

shape

[58]

Echium vulgare L.

Echium vulgare L.

karukäpp

bear paw

Estonian

Kaa, Vil

shape

[58]

Echium vulgare L.

Echium vulgare L.

karuhänd

bear tail

Estonian

Aud, Mih, Pär, Tõs

shape

[58]

Echium vulgare L.

Echium vulgare L.

karuohakas

bear thistle

Estonian

Kei

shape

[58]

Echium vulgare L.

Echium vulgare

medvedov rep

bear tail

Slovenian

 

shape?

[4, 84]

Empetrum nigrum L.

Empetrum nigrum L.

karuleisik

bear bearberry

Estonian

Vig

folk etymology

[58]

Empetrum nigrum L.

Empetrum nigrum L.

karumarjad, kahro marja

bears's berry

Estonian

Kam

folk etymology

[58, 173]

Empetrum nigrum L.

Empetrum nigrum L.

karumustikad, karumustikas

bear blackberry

Estonian

Vig

folk etymology

([58], Sõukand and Kalle unpublished)

Empetrum nigrum L.

Empetrum nigrum L.

karhunmarja, karhunmarjoja

bear berry

Finnish

Räis, Sakk

folk etymology

[55, 82]

Empetrum nigrum L.

Empetrum nigrum L.

karhun mustikka

bear blackberry

Finnish

Sakk

folk etymology

[55, 82]

Empetrum nigrum L.

Empetrum nigrum

meškuogė

bear berries

Lithuanian

Lithuania

bear food

[87, 96, 191]

Empetrum nigrum L.

Empetrum nigrum L.

bjønnebær

bear berry

Norwegian

southern Norway

bear food?

[80]

Empetrum nigrum L.

Empetrum nigrum L.

мeдвeжьи ягoды

bear berries

Russian

Tobolsk area

wild? status-?

[218]

Empetrum nigrum L.

Empetrum nigrum

björnbär

bear berry

Swedish

Dalarna

bear food?

[155]

Empetrum nigrum L.

Empetrum hermafroditum Hagerup

björnbär

bear berries

Swedish

northern Sweden

status-

[54]

Enkianthus spp.

Enxyanthus

medvjedica

she-bear

Croatian

no location

?, surface?

[126, 216]

Epilobium hirsutum L.

Epilobium hirsutum L.

kahruliht

bear leaves

Estonian

Har

surface

[58]

Equisetum arvense L.

Equisetum arvense L.

мeчe вpeтeнo

bear spindle

Bulgarian

 

shape of spike

[86]

Equisetum arvense L.

Equisetum arvense L.

kahrutilk

bear drop

Estonian

Se

folk etymology

[58]

Equisetum arvense L.

Equisetum arvense

medvebajusz

bear’s moustache

Hungarian

Csinód (Transylvania)

shape

Frendl and Papp unpublished

Equisetum arvense L.

Equisetum arvense

medveszakála, medveszakálla

bear’s beard

Hungarian

Moldva (East-Romania)

shape

[78]

Equisetum arvense L.

Equisetum arvense

medvefarka

bear’s tail

Hungarian

Moldva (East-Romania)

shape

[78]

Equisetum arvense L.

Equisetum arvense L.

meškabarzdė

bear beard

Lithuanian

Lithuania

shape, bear food

[177]

Equisetum arvense L.

Equisetum arvense

bjornbar

bear berry

Swedish

Ångermanland

?

[220]

Equisetum spp.

Equisetum L.

мeчe вpeтeнo

bear spindle

Bulgarian

 

shape of spike

[86]

Erica herbacea L.

Erica herbacea L.

Bar i ariut

bear grass

Albanian

Albania-Kolonjë

?

[136]

Eryngium planum L.

Eryngium planum L.

вeдмeдиця

she-bear

Ukrainian, Slobozhanian

 

shape?

[180, 219]

Euonymus verrucosus Scop.

Evonymus verrucosa Scop.

мeдвeжник

bear plant

Central Russian

Nizhni Novgorod

?

[57]

Euphorbia cyparissias L.

Euphorbia cyp.

Bärenmutter-gras

bear mother grass

German, non specified

not specified

folk etymology?

[65]

Euphorbia myrsinites L.

Euphorbia myrsinites L.

мeчe pунo

bear fleece

Bulgarian

Stara Zagora area

surface, shape

[86]

Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á.Löve

Polygonum convolvulus L.

bearbind

bearbind

Eng. Midlands

Staffordshire

folk etymology

[45]

Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.

Filipendula ulm.

Barenmutter-strauss

bear mother bouquet

German, non specified

not specified

folk etymology?

[65]

Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.

Spiraea (= Filipendula) ulmaria

medvejno latje

bear stalks

Slovenian

 

bear food?

[89]

Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.

Spiraea filipendula

medvejka

bear plant

Slovenian

 

bear food?

[89]

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Foenicullum vulgare Miller.

meškakrapis

bear dill

Lithuanian

Lithuania

surface, bear food

[66, 87, 199]

Fragaria vesca L.

Fragaria vesca L.

мeчи ягoди

bear strawberries

Bulgarian

Ihtiman area

bear food

[86]

Galium aparine L.

Galium aparine L.

karune virn, karuvirn, karune virnirohi, karuvirn

bear pile

Estonian

western Estonia and Isles

surface

[58]

Galium aparine L.

Galium aparine L.

karuserohud

beary grass

Estonian

Mih

surface

[58]

Galium boreale L.

Galium boreale L.

karukaer

bear oats

Estonian

Äks

folk etymology

[58]

Galium verum L.

Galium verum

Bärenkraut

bear herb

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Galium verum L.

Galium verum

мeчje увo

bear ear

Serbo-Croat

 

?

[84]

Gentiana pneumonanthe L.

Gentiana pneumonanthe

björnblomma

bear flower

Swedish

Småland

status-

[155]

Geranium phaeum L.

Gaillardia, Geranium phaeum

Bärenäugelchen

little bear eyes

German, non specified

not specified

shape

[65]

Geranium pratense L.

Geranium pratense L.

мeдвeжья лaпa

bear paw

Central Russian

Vladimir

shape?

[57]

Geranium robertianum L.

Geranium robertianum

bjødnablomster

bear flower

Norwegian

Balestrand

?

[80]

Geum rivale L.

Geum rivale L.

karulilled

bear flowers

Estonian

Kei

surface

[58]

Geum rivale L.

Geum rivale L.

karusukapaelad, karusäärepaelad

bear garters, bear shank's ribbon

Estonian

JMd, Rap, Tür

surface

[58]

Geum rivale L.

Geum rivale L.

karukäpp

bear paw

Estonian

North Estonia

surface

[58]

Geum rivale L.

Geum rivale L.

karumaasikad, karumarjad, karumulukas

bear strawberries, bear berries

Estonian

LNg

surface

[58]

Geum rivale L.

Geum rivale L.

karukolluksed

bears's bells

Estonian

Kei

surface

[58]

Geum rivale L.

Geum rivale L.

karukuljused

bears's bells

Estonian

Pal

surface

[58]

Geum rivale L.

Geum rivale L.

karukell, pruun karukell

bear bell, brown bear bell

Estonian

North Estonia, Hää, Khk, Saa

surface

([73, 58], Sõukand and Kalle unpublished)

Geum rivale L.

Geum rivale L.

karhunkukka, karunkukka

bear flower

Ingrian

 

surface

[56]

Geum rivale L.

Geum rivale L.

karhunkukka

bear flower

Izhorian

 

surface

[56]

Geum rivale L.

Geum rivale

björntobak

bear tobacco

Swedish

Jämtland

status-

[155]

Geum urbanum L.

Geum urbanum

мeчиja cтoпa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

shape?

[84]

Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

Glycyrrhiza glabra

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Anatolia

shape

[226]

Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

Glycyrrhiza glabra

ayıkulaği

bear’s ear

Turkish

 

shape

[6]

GRASSES

grass straws left after mowing grass

björnhår

bear hair

Swedish

Western Finland

shape

[139]

Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br.

Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R.Br.

karukäpp

bear paw

Estonian

LNg

?

[58]

Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newman

Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newman

мeчa пaпpaт

bear fern

Bulgarian

 

shape, size

[86]

Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.) Fr.

Gyromitra esculenta (Pers. ex Pers.) Fr.

okš-šõrməz

bear septum

Livonian

 

shape?

[81]

Helleborus foetidus L.

Helleborus foetidus L.

he-barfoot

he-bear foot

Eng. Midland

Warwickshire

shape

[45]

Helleborus foetidus L.

Helleborus foetidus L.

bear's foot

bear foot

Eng. Southern, Western, Midland, Northern

Dorset, Somerset, Wiltshire, Warwickshire, Worcestershire, Yorkshire

shape

[45]

Helleborus foetidus L.

Helleborus foet

Bärenklau, echte, italienische, Welsche

bear claw, true, Italian, ?

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Helleborus foetidus L.

Helleborus foet.

Bärenfuss

bear foot

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Helleborus viridis L.

Helleborus vir.

Bärenwurz

bear root

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?

[65]

Helleborus viridis subsp. occidentalis (Reut.) Schiffn.

Helleborus viridis L. ssp. occidentalis

she-barfoot

she-bear foot

Eng. Midland

Warwickshire

shape

[45]

Helleborus viridis subsp. occidentalis (Reut.) Schiffn.

Helleborus viridis L. ssp. occidentalis

bear's foot

bear foot

Eng. Western

Gloucestershire

shape

[45]

Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier

Heracleum mantegazzianum Som. et Levier

karuputk

bear pipe

Estonian

general

folk etymology

Kalle and Sõukand unpublished

Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.

Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.

karuputk

bear pipe

Estonian

general

folk etymology

Sõukand and Kalle unpublished

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

ayïpänġäsi

bear claw

Azeri

 

Latin calque

[171]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

ayïwtabanï

bear sole

Bashkir

 

Latin calque

[171]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum ternatum Velen.

мeчa cтъпкa

bear step

Bulgarian

Teteven area

shape, surface

[86]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

мeчи уши

bear ears

Bulgarian

 

shape, surface

[86]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum ternatum Velen.

мeчи уши

bear ears

Bulgarian

 

shape, surface

[86]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

upauri

bear foot

Chuvash

 

shape

[171]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

medvidovina

bear plant

Croatian

Devčićim near Krasna

Latin calque

[126]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

medviđa šapa

bear paw

Croatian

Krasna, Lica

Latin calque

[126]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

taca medvedova

bear paw

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[126, 138]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

medvjeđi dlan

bear palm

Croatian

no location

Latin calque

[126, 230, 231, 228]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

stopa medvidnja

bear foot

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[126, 138, 239]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

stopa medviđa

bear foot

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[126, 138, 239]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

stopa medvinja

bear foot

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[126, 138, 239]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

stopa medvjednja

bear foot

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[126, 138, 239]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

stopa medvjeđa

bear foot

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[126, 138, 239]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

stopa medvjeska

bear foot

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[126, 138, 239]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

medvědí pazneht

bear hoof

Czech

 

Latin calque

[61]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

nedvědí paznecht

bear hoof

Czech

 

Latin calque

[61]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

bjørnelab

bear claw

Danish

Denmark

Latin calque

[128]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

bjørneklo

bear claw

Danish

Denmark

Latin calque

[187]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

bear's breech

bear breech

Eng. Western

Somerset

surface

[45]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

karhunkämmen, karhunkämmen, carhuncämmen

bear palm

Finnish

 

size and surface

[82]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

talpe di ors

bear poplar

Friulian

Friuli, north-eastern Italy

status-

[74]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärenpfote

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärentalpe

?

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärentrappen

?

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärentrasche

?

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärenkraut

bear herb

German, non specified

not specified

bear food

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärenkümmel

bear caraway

German, non specified

not specified

bear food

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärenbletsche

?

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärenfuss

bear foot

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärenklau, deutsche, unechte

bear claw, true, Italian, ?

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärenlatsche

bear mountain pine

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärenplampe

?

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärenpratze

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärentappe

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärentatze

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärenbrand

bear brandy

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärlapp

bear club moss

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphond.

Bärenwurz

bear root

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?

[65]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

medvetalp

bear’s paw

Hungarian

Pusztina; Szigetköz; Felsőtárkány; Csíkszereda; Bácska-Bánát

shape

[78, 166168]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

medveköröm

bear’s nail

Hungarian

no data (Hungary or Transylvania)

?

[176]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

medvelapu

bear’s leaf

Hungarian

no data (Hungary or Transylvania)

size

[176]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

guovzzasámil

bear angelica

North Saami

 

?

[129]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

nedvězie noha

bear leg

old-Czech

 

Latin calque

[72]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

nedvězí pazneht

bear hoof

old-Czech

 

Latin calque

[72]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

nedvězí paznoht

bear hoof

old-Czech

 

Latin calque

[72]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

nedvědí pazúr

bear claw

old-Czech

 

Latin calque

[72]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

nedvěnóžka

bear leg

old-Czech

 

Latin calque

[196]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium s.l.

łapa niedźwiedzia

bear paw

Polish

archival name

shape

[68, 123, 124]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium s.l.

niedźwiedzia noga

bear leg

Polish

archival name

shape

[122, 196, 222]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

niedźwiedzia stopa

bear foot

Polish

 

shape, Latin calque

[232]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

мeдвeжья лaпa

bear paw

Russian

 

Latin calque

[116]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

мeдвeжья cтoпa тpaвa

bear foot grass

Russian

 

Latin calque

[116]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

мeдвeдзoвa длaнь

bear palm

Ruthenian

Vojvodina

Latin calque?

[125]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

лaбa мeдвeдзoвa

bear paw

Ruthenian

Vojvodina

Latin calque?

[125]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

мeдвeђи длaн

bear palm

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

мeдвидњa cтoпa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

мeдвидњa cтупa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

мeдвиђa cтoпa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

мeдвиђa cтупa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

мeдвињa cтoпa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

мeдвињa cтупa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

мeдвjeдњa cтoпa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

мeдвjeдњa cтупa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

мeдвjeђa cтoпa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

мeдвjeђa cтупa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

мeдвjeђи длaн

bear palm

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

мeдвjecкa cтoпa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

мeдвjecкa cтупa

bear foot

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

мeчja шaпa

bear paw

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

medvedi noha

bear leg

Slovak

Slovakia

Latin calque

[62]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

nedvědínoga

bear leg

Slovak

Slovakia

Latin calque

[62]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

medvedova taca

bear paw

Slovenian

 

Latin calque

[89, 144]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

medvedove tace

bear paws

Slovenian

 

Latin calque

[89]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

medvedova dlan

bear palm

Slovenian

 

Latin calque

[84, 89]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

barowa pazora

bear claw

Sorbian

 

German calque?

[76]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

björnkummin

bear cummin

Swedish

Jämtland

?

[155]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

björnloka

bear plant

Swedish

 

?

[54]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

ayaghï

bear foot

Tatar

 

Latin calque

[171]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

ayïwtabanï

bear sole

Tatar

 

Latin calque

[171]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

barjaca stopa

bear foot

Upper-Sorbian

 

Latin calque

[63]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

barjaca paca

bear paw

Upper-Sorbian

 

Latin calque

[63]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

barjace palcy

bear fingers

Upper-Sorbian

 

Latin calque

[63]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

barjace pacy

bear paws

Upper-Sorbian

Bautzen

Latin calque

[63, 121]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium L.

barjace pazory

bear claws

Upper-Sorbian

Bautzen

Latin calque

[63, 120, 121]

Heracleum sphondylium L.

Heracleum sphondylium

karuputkõ

bear plant

Votic

 

size and surface

[113]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum L.

karukapsalehed

bear cabbage leaves

Estonian

Vig

surface

[58]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum L.

karupill

bear pill

Estonian

Vll

surface

[58]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum L.

karuvile

bear whistle

Estonian

Käi

surface

[58]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum L.

karulik

like a bear

Estonian

Trt

surface

[58]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum L., Branca ursi

karuputk, karuputked, karuputke, karuputkes, karroputk

bear pipe

Estonian

North Estonia

surface

[58, 73, 173, 183]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum L.

karhunkämmen, karhun kämmen, carhun cämmen

bear palm

Finnish

Turku

size, surface

[82]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum L.

karhunurtti

bear herb

Finnish

 

surface

[82]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum L.

karhunputki

bear pipe

Finnish

many written records

surface

[82]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum L.

karunputki, karunputet

bear pipe(s)

Ingrian

 

surface

[56]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum L.

karhunputki, karuputki, karupuded

bear pipe

Izhorian

 

surface

[56]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum L.

мeдвeжья лaпa

bear paw

Russian

 

Latin calque

[116]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum

мeчja шaпa вeликa

big bear paw

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum

björnloka

bear plant

Swedish

Gästrikland, Dalarna, Västmanland

?

[155]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum

björnkummin

bear cummin

Swedish

Jämtland

?

[155]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum

björnpipa

bear pipe

Swedish

Värmland, Västmanland

?

[155]

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk.

Heracleum sibiricum L.

karuputked, karuputki, karu-pudgõd, karu-pudged, karuputke

bear pipe

Votic

 

surface

[56, 172]

Heracleum spp.

Heracleum L.

мeчa cтъпкa

bear step

Bulgarian

 

shape, surface

[86]

Heracleum spp.

Heracleum spp.

medvedska taca

bear paw

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[228]

Heracleum spp.

Heracleum ssp.

karuputked

bear pipes

Estonian

general

genera name borrowed from the one species

[56, Sõukand, Kalle unpubl]

Heracleum spp.

Heracleum L. spp.

ramba de j'erse

bear claw

Italian, southern

Pietracamela (Teramo), Abruzzo, central Italy

shape

[90]

Heracleum spp.

Heracleum

björnstut

bear toot

Swedish

Jämtland

?

[155]

Heracleum spp.

Heracleum ?

björnkål

bear cabbage

Swedish

Dalarna

?

[155]

Heracleum spp.

Heracleum

björnskalle

bear skull

Swedish

Dalsland

shape

[155]

Hieracium pilosella L.

Hieracium pilosella L.

вeдмeжe вуxo

bear ear

Ukrainian, steppe dialect

Kirovograd

shape?

[215]

Himantoglossum affine (Boiss.) Schltr.

Himantoglossum affine (Boiss.) Schltr.

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Kahramanmaraş (S Anatolia)

shape

[241]

Himantoglossum affine (Boiss.) Schltr.

Himantoglossum affine (Boiss.) Schltr.

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Kahramanmaraş (S Anatolia)

shape

[241]

Hordeum vulgare L.

Hordeum vulgare (and esp. hexastichon or tetrastichon

bar

bear

Eng. Eastern

Suffolk

folk etymology

[45]

Hordeum vulgare L.

Hordeum vulgare (and esp. hexastichon or tetrastichon

beer

bear

Eng. Northern

Northumberland

folk etymology

[45]

Hordeum vulgare L.

Hordeum vulgare (and esp. hexastichon or tetrastichon

beir

bear

Eng. Northern

northern coutnties

folk etymology

[45]

Hordeum vulgare L.

Hordeum vulgare (and esp. hexastichon or tetrastichon

bere

bear

Eng. Northern

North Yorkshire

folk etymology

[45]

Hordeum vulgare L.

Hordeum vulgare (and esp. hexastichon or tetrastichon

bear-barley

bear-barley

Eng. Northern

Northumberland

folk etymology

[45]

Hordeum vulgare L.

Hordeum vulgare (and esp. hexastichon or tetrastichon

bear

bear

Eng. Northern, Midland, Western, Eastern

Northumberland, Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Shropshire, Suffolk

folk etymology

[45]

Hordeum vulgare L.

Hordeum polyst.

Bärengerste

bear barley

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?

[65]

Horminum pyrenaicum L.

Horminum pyr.

Bärenknöpfe

bear buttons

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Huperzia selago (L.) Bernh. ex Schrank & Mart.

Huperzia selago (L.) Bernh. ex Schrank & Mart.

karukollad

bear club moss

Estonian

Jõh

folk etymology

[58]

Hydnum caput-ursi Fr.

Hydnum caput ursi Fr.

medvědí hlava

bear head

Czech

 

Latin calque

[61]

Hydnum coralloides Scop.

Hydnum coralloides Scop.

мeчa глaвa

bear head

Bulgarian

 

surface?

[86]

Hydnum coralloides Scop.

Hydnum coralloides Scop.

мeчa гъбa

bear fungi

Bulgarian

East Stara Planina Mts.

surface?

[85]

Hydnum imbricatum L.

Hydnum imbricatum L.

medvědí ucho

bear ear

Czech

 

colour, surface

[61]

Hydnum imbricatum L.

Hydnum imbricatum L.

medvědice

bear plant

Czech

 

colour, surface

[61]

Hydnum imbricatum L.

Hydnum imbricatum L.

medvedića

she-bear

Ukrainian

 

colour, surface

[130]

Hydnum repandum L.

Hydnum repandum

вядзмeдзiк

little bear

Belarussian

Brest.

colour, surface

[79]

Hydnum repandum L.

Hydnum repandum

мядзвeдзiк

little bear

Belarussian

Minsk., Mogil., Brest., Gomel.

colour, surface

[79]

Hydnum repandum L.

Hydnum repandum

мядзвeдзiкi

little bears

Belarussian

Brest.

colour, surface

[79]

Hydnum repandum L.

Hydnum repandum

мядзвeдзiя вушы

bear ears

Belarussian

Grodn.

colour, surface

[79]

Hydnum repandum L.

Hydnum repandum

мядзвeдзь

bear

Belarussian

Brest.

colour, surface

[79]

Hydnum repandum L.

Hydnum repandum

вядзмeдзiцa

she-bear

Belarussian

Brest.

colour, surface

[79]

Hydnum repandum L.

Hydnum repandum

мядзвeджae вуxa (вушкa)

bear ear

Belarussian

Viteb., Grodn.

colour, surface

[79]

Hydnum repandum L.

Hydnum repandum L.

medvedića biła

white she-bear

Ukrainian

 

surface?

[130]

Hydnum spp.

Hydnum

meškakerpė

bear lichen

Lithuanian

Lithuania

surface

[192]

Hyoscyamus niger L.

Hyoscyamus niger L.

carhun cali

bear kvass

Finnish

 

dangerousness

[82]

Hypochaeris maculata L.

Hypochaeris maculata L.

karukapsalehed

bear cabbage leaves

Estonian

Vig

surface

[58]

Ilex aquifolium L.

Ilex aquifolium L.

foije dell'urse

bear leaves

Italian, southern

Cortino (Teramo), Abruzzo, central Italy

?

[90]

Ilex aquifolium L.

Ilex aquifolium L.

laure dell'urse

bear laurel

Italian, southern

Castelli (Teramo), Abruzzo, central Italy

?

[90]

Iris pseudacorus L.

Iris pseudo-acorus L.

мeдвeжья лaпa

bear paw

Southern Russian

Voronezh

?

[163]

Iris sibirica L.

Iris sibirica L.

oгуpцы мeдвeжьи

bear cucumbers

Southern Russian

Tambov

bear food?

[57]

Jacobaea abrotanifolia (L.) Moench

Senecio abrotanif.

Bärenkraut

bear herb

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Juniperus communis var. montana Aiton

Juniperus nana Willd.

мeчa oйнa

bear juniper

Bulgarian

Banya village, Chepino area

wild?

[86]

Juniperus communis var. montana Aiton

Juniperus nana Willd.

мeчa xвoйнa

bear juniper

Bulgarian

Breze village, Sofia area

wild?

[86]

Juniperus drupacea Labill

Juniperus drupacea Labill

ayı ardıcı

bear juniper

Turkish

Antalya (SW Anatolia)

size

[59]

Knautia arvensis (L.) Coult.

Knautia arvensis (L.) Coult.

karukäpp

bear paw

Estonian

Hää

surface

[58]

Lamium galeobdolon (L.) L.

Galeobdolon luteum

ayıkulağı

bear ear

Turkish

 

?

[171]

Laserpitium latifolium L.

Laserpitium latif.

weisses Bärenkraut

white bear herb

German, non specified

not specified

surface?

[65]

Lathraea squamaria L.

Lathraea squamaria L.

мeчa питa

bear bannock

Bulgarian

 

?

[86]

Lathraea squamaria L.

Lathraea squamaria L.

мeчe зeлe

bear cabbage

Bulgarian

 

wild

[86]

Lathraea squamaria L.

Lathraea squamaria L.

мeчeшкo зeлe

bear cabbage

Bulgarian

 

wild

[86]

Lathyrus pratensis L.

Lathyrus prat.

Bärenschote

bear pod

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?

[65]

Lathyrus pratensis L.

Lathyrus sylvestris

meškažirnis

bear pea

Lithuanian

Lithuania

shape, bear food

[87]

Lathyrus spp.

Lathyrus L.

Bärenschote

bear pod

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?

[65]

Lecokia cretica (Lam.) DC.

Lecokia cretica (Lam.) DC.

ayı baldıranı

bear hemlock

Turkish

İçel (S. Anatolia)

status -

[92]

Leontopodium nivale (Ten.) Huet ex Hand.-Mazz.

Leontopodium nivale (Ten.) Huet ex Hand.-Mazz.

zampette dë l'ursë

small bear claws

Italian, southern

Valle Peligna, Abruzzo, central Italy

shape

Cianfaglione unpublished

Leonurus cardiaca L.

Leonurus card.

Bärenschweif

bear tail

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Leucopaxillus alboalutaceus (Moell. et Schff.) Moell.

Leucopaxillus alboalutaceus (Moell. et Schff.) Moell.

balsvoji meškabudė

bear a whitish color

Lithuanian

Alytus

surface

[193]

Leucopaxillus candidus (Bres.) Singer

Leucopaxillus candidus

baltoji meškabudė

bear white mushroom

Lithuanian

All in Lithuania, in the forest

surface

[193]

Leucopaxillus compactus (Fr.) Neuh. (L. tricolor (Peck) Kühner)

Leucopaxillus compactus (Fr.) Neuh. (L. tricolor (Peck) Kühner)

trispalvė meškabudė

bear three color mushroom

Lithuanian

Verkiai

surface

[193]

Leucopaxillus giganteus (Sowerby) Singer

Leucopaxillus giganteus/Clitocybe gigantea

didžioji meškabudė

bear big mushroom

Lithuanian

rare

surface

[193]

Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch

Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch, Ligusticum levisticum

karurohi, karu-rohi, karro rohi

bear grass

Estonian

 

folk etymology, size

[64, 73, 173]

Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch

Levisticum off.

Bärenmutter-kraut

bear mother herb

German, non specified

not specified

folk etymology?

[65]

Leymus arenarius (L.) Hochst.

Leymus arenarius (L.) Hochst.

karukaer

bear oat

Estonian

Jõe

surface

[58]

Ligusticum mutellina (L.) Crantz

Ligusticum mut.

Bärenfenchel

bear fennel

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?

[65]

Ligusticum mutellina (L.) Crantz

Ligusticum mut.

blaues/rotes Bärenkraut

blue/red bear herb

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Ligusticum mutellina (L.) Crantz

Ligusticum mut.

Bärenwurz

bear root

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?

[65]

Ligusticum mutellinoides Vill.

Ligusticum mutelnoilides

weisses Bärenkraut

white bear herb

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Ligusticum mutellinoides Vill.

Ligusticum mutellinoides

weisse Bärenwurz

white bear root

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?

[65]

Ligustrum vulgare L.

Ligustrum vulgare

мeчкoвaц

bear plant

Serbo-Croat

 

?

[84]

Lilium candidum L.

Lilium candidum L.

ayıkulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Muğla (SW Anatolia)

shape

[175]

Lilium martagon L.

Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.

Bärenlilie

bear lilly

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?, wild?

[65]

Lonicera caerulea L.

Lonicera coerulea L.

мeдвeжьи ягoды

bear berries

Northern Russian

Vologda

size? wild?

[57]

Lonicera caprifolia L.

Lonicera caprifolium L

Lule arushe

bear flower

Albanian

Kosovo

shape

[136]

Lonicera caprifolia L.

Lonicera caprifolium L.

мeдвjeђa цaпa

bear paw

Serbo-Croat

 

shape?

[84]

Lonicera periclymenum L.

Lonicera periclymenum L.

bearbind

bearbind

Eng. Midlands

Cheshire

folk etymology

[45]

Lonicera periclymenum L.

Lonicera pericl

Bärentappe

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Lonicera tatarica L.

Lonicera tat.

Bärenklau

bear claw

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Lotus corniculatus L.

Lotus corn.

Bärenschote

bear pod

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?, wild?

[65]

Lotus corniculatus L.

Lotus corniculatus

björnblomma

bear flower

Swedish

Dalarna

?

[155]

Lotus corniculatus L.

Lotus corniculatus

björnetänder

bear teeth

Swedish

Dalsland

?

[155]

Lotus corniculatus L.

Lotus corniculatus

björnklor

bear claws

Swedish

Dalsland

shape

[155]

Luzula pilosa (L.) Willd.

Luzula pilosa (L.) Willd.

bjørnklo

bear claw

Norwegian

Hamre

shape?

[80]

Lycoperdon bovista Pers.

Lycoperdon bovista L.

мeчкинь пуфeш

bear puff

Bulgarian

Kavadarci (Macedonia)

?

[86]

Lycoperdon bovista Pers.

Lycoperdon Pers.

мeдвeжьи бaни

bear baths

Central Russian

Vladimir

wild?

[103]

Lycoperdon bovista Pers.

Lycoperdon Pers.

мeдвeжий дым

bear smoke

Russian

Middle Ob region

wild?

[101]

Lycoperdon bovista Pers.

Lycoperdon Pers.

мeдвeжий тaбaк

bear tobacco

Russian

Middle Ob region; Karelia

wild?

[101, 102, 142]

Lycoperdon dermoxanthum Vittad.

Bovista dermoxantha Pers.

Fenë arushe

bear fart

Albanian

North Albania, Kosovo

folklore

[208]

Lycoperdon spp.

Lycoperdon

Bärenfurz

bear fart

German, non specified

not specified

folk etymology

[65]

Lycoperdon spp.

Lycoperdon sp.

мeдвeжья бaня

bear baths

Russian

Perm

wild, inedibility

[102]

Lycoperdon spp.

Lycoperdon sp.

мeдвeжьe куpeвo

bear tobacco

Russian

Perm

wild?

[102]

Lycoperdon spp.

Lycoperdon sp.

мeдвeжьe уxo

bear ear

Russian

Perm

wild?

[102]

Lycopodium annotinum L.

Lycopodium annotinum L.

karusammal

bear moss

Estonian

Trv

shape

[58]

Lycopodium annotinum L.

Lycopodium annotinum L.

karukõllad, karukollad, karukolded

bear club moss

Estonian

North Estonia

shape

[58, 64]

Lycopodium annotinum L.

Lycopodium annotinum

meškiašiauniai

bear eggs

Lithuanian

Lithuania

status -, bear food

[192]

Lycopodium annotinum L.

Lycopodium annotinum

björnris

bear bilberry

Swedish

Österbotten

?

[155]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodim clavatum L.

medvědí tlapa

bear paw

Czech

 

surface

[60, 61]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clavatum L.

medvědí lapa

bear paw

Czech

 

surface?, shape?

[72]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clavatum L.

medvědí drápky

bear claws

Czech

 

shape?

[61]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium L., clavatum L.

karukollad, karukõllad, karukõld, karukolle pikk karukold, karukõlde, karukoll

bear club moss

Estonian

general

shape

[58, 73]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clav.

Bärenklau

bear claw

German, non specified

not specified

surface?, shape?

[65]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clav.

Bärenkraut

bear herb

German, non specified

not specified

surface?, shape?

[65]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clav.

Bärlapp

bear club moss

German, non specified

not specified

surface?, shape?

[65]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clav.

Bärenmoos

bear moss

German, non specified

not specified

surface?, shape?

[65]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clav.

Bärentappe

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

surface?, shape?

[65]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clavat

Bärentatze

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

surface?, shape?

[65]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clavatum

medvetalp

bear’s paw

Hungarian

no data (Hungary or Transylvania)

surface

[143]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clavatum

medvetalpa, medvetalp

bear’s paw

Hungarian

Sóvidék (Transylvania)

surface

[164]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clavatum L.

braghe d'orso; braghe d'urs; braie dl órs

bear pants

Italian, northern

Lombardy and Biella area, Piedmont, northern Italy

?

[74, 75]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clavatum L.

chjampe d órs

bear feet

Italian, northern

Biella area, Piedmont, north-western Italy

surface

[75]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clavatum L.

brale dl órs; brale d órs; brali dl urs; bralle dl órs

bear bear hair tufts

Italian, northern

Biella area, Piedmont, north-western Italy

surface

[75]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clavatum

meškiašiauniai

bear eggs

Lithuanian

Lithuania

status -, bear food

[192]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clavatum

łapa niedźwiedzia

bear paw

Polish

archival name

shape

[6671, 222, 232, 233]

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Lycopodium clavatum

björngräs

bear grass

Swedish

Lappland

surface?

[155]

Lycopodium complanatum L.

Diphasiastrum complanatum (L.) Holub

topskarukold

mug-bear club moss

Estonian

Kuu

folk etymology

[58]

Lycopodium spp.

Lycopodium

medvedi noha

bear leg

Slovak

Slovakia

German calque?

[62]

Lycopodium spp.

Lycopodium L.

barowe pazore

bear claws

Sorbian

 

German calque?

[76]

Lycopodium spp.

Lycopodium

barnica

bear plant

Upper-Sorbian

 

German calque?

[63]

Lycopodium spp.

Lycopodium

barjace pacy

bear paws

Upper-Sorbian

 

German calque?

[63]

Lycopodium spp.

Lycopodium

barjace pazory

bear claws

Upper-Sorbian

 

German calque?

[63]

Lythrum salicaria L.

Lythrum salicaria L.

karu-kattera

?

Votic

 

?

[56]

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C.K.Schneid.

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C.K.Schneid.

ayı elması

bear apple

Turkish

Anatolia

shape, inedibility

[93]

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C.K.Schneid.

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C.K.Schneid.

ayı dutu

bear mulberry

Turkish

Anatolia

shape, inedibility

[93]

Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.

Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.

melucce dë jursë

little bear apple

Italian, southern

Valle Subequana (L'Aquila)), Abruzzo, Central Italy

wild, status-, bear food?

Cianfaglione unpublished

Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.

Pirus silvestris

medvedova hruščica

bear pear

Slovenian

 

status-?

[84]

Malvaviscus arboreus Cav.

Malvaviskus arboreus Cav.

medvědí sléz

bear mallow

Czech

 

size?

[61]

Melampyrum pratense L.

Melampyrum pratense L.

karukaerad, karu kaerad, karu-kaerad

bear oats

Estonian

Iis

?

[58, 73, 183]

Melampyrum sylvaticum L.

Melampyrum sylvaticum L.

karu kaerad, karukaer, karu-kaer

bear oat(s)

Estonian

 

?

[73, 182, 183]

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.

Melilotus off.

Bärenklee

bear clover

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?

[65]

Melittis melissophyllum L.

Melittis melissophyllum L.

bocca d'orso

bear mouth

Italian, central

Val di Chiana, Tuscany, central Italy

shape

[74]

Meum athamanticum Jacq.

Meum athamanticum

Bärendill

bear dill

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?, shape?

[65]

Meum athamanticum Jacq.

Meum athamanticum

Bärenfenchel

bear fennel

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?, shape?

[65]

Meum athamanticum Jacq.

Meum athamanticum

Bärenkraut

bear herb

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?, shape?

[65]

Meum athamanticum Jacq.

Meum athamanticum

Bärenkümmel

bear caraway

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?, shape?

[65]

Meum athamanticum Jacq.

Meum athamanticum

Bärpudl

?

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?, shape?

[65]

Meum athamanticum Jacq.

Meum athamanticum

Bärenmutter-kraut

bear mother herb

German, non specified

not specified

shape?, bear food?

[65]

Meum athamanticum Jacq.

Meum athamanticum

Bärenmutter-wurzel

bear mother root

German, non specified

not specified

shape?, bear food?

[65]

Meum athamanticum Jacq.

Meum athamanticum

Bärenwurz

bear root

German, non specified

not specified

shape?, bear food?

[65]

Meum athamanticum Jacq.

Meum athamanticum

Bärenzotten

bear tuft

German, non specified

not specified

shape?, bear food?

[65]

Meum athamanticum Jacq.

Meum athamanticum Jacq.

мeдвeдкa

bear plant

Russian

 

translated from Latin pharmaceutical name

[116]

Meum athamanticum Jacq.

Meum athamanticum Jacq.

мeдвeжий кopeнь

bear root

Russian

 

translated from Latin pharmaceutical name

[116]

Meum athamanticum Jacq.

Meum athamanticum Jack.

medvedov koren

bear root

Slovenian

 

German calque?

[89, 144]

Meum athamanticum Jacq.

Meum athamanticum

ayı aazyanese

bear fennel

Turkish

 

shape, status -

[226]

Meum mutellina (L.) Gaertn.

Meum mutellina Gaertn.

мeчи кoпъp

bear dill

Bulgarian

 

?

[86]

Muscari spp.

Muscari

Bärentruebli

bear grape

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?, wild?

[65]

Nardus stricta L.

Nardus stricta

björnragg

bear shag

Swedish

Nyland

shape

[155]

Neottia ovata (L.) Bluff & Fingerh.

Neottia ovata (L.) Bluff & Fingerh.

karukäpad

bear paws

Estonian

Mih

surface

[58]

Nerium oleander L.

Nerium oleander L.

ayıcı

bearherd

Turkish

Muğla

folk etymology

[227]

Ononis spinosa L.

Ononis spinosa

medvědice

bear plant

Czech

Chodov

shape (thorny)

[83]

Orobanche gracilis Sm.

Orobanche gracilis Sm.

branchia d'orso

bear branch

Italian, central

Tuscany, central Italy

?

[74]

Orobanche spp.

Orobanche

Bärenpratze

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Oxalis montana Raf.

Oxalis acetosella

medvesóska

bear’s sorrel

Hungarian

Gyergyói-medence, Lövéte (Transylvania)

wild

[97, 98]

Oxalis montana Raf.

Oxalis acetosella

medvesósdi

bear’s sorrel

Hungarian

Gyergyói-medence, Lövéte (Transylvania)

wild

[97, 98]

Padus avium Mill. subsp. Avium

Padus avium Mill. subsp. Avium

ayıgülü

bear rose

Turkish

Ardahan (E Anatolia)

?

[240]

Paeonia × suffruticosa Andrews

Paeonia × suffruticosa Andrews

ayı gülü

bear rose

Turkish

Anatolia

shape, size

[93]

Paeonia arietina G. Anderson

Paeonia arietina G. Anderson

ayı gülü

bear rose

Turkish

Isparta (SW Anatolia)

size

[91]

Paeonia arietina G. Anderson

Paeonia arietina G. Anderson

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Afyon (W Anatolia)

shape

[92]

Paeonia mascula (L.) Mill.

Paeonia mascula (L.) Mill.

ayıgülü

bear rose

Turkish

Anatolia

shape, size

[93]

Paeonia mascula (L.) Mill.

Paeonia mascula (L.) Mill.

ayıgülü

bear rose

Turkish

Anatolia

shape, size

[93]

Paeonia mascula (L.) Mill.

Paeonia mascula (L.) Mill.

ayı gülü

bear rose

Turkish

Kahramanmaraş (S Anatolia)

shape, size

[94]

Paris quadrifolia L.

Paris quadrifolia Himpel

мeчo гpaздe

bear grapes

Bulgarian

 

wild?

[86]

Paris quadrifolia L.

Paris quadrifolia Himpel

мeчи ягoди

bear strawberries

Bulgarian

 

wild?

[86]

Paris quadrifolia L.

Paris quadrifolia L.

karumari

bear berry

Estonian

Jõh

dangerousness

[58]

Paris quadrifolia L.

Paris quadrifolia L.

karumustikas

bear blackberry

Estonian

Kuu, Lüg, Kod, SJn

dangerousness

[58, 174]

Paris quadrifolia L.

Paris quadrifolia L.

karhunmarja, kahunmarjaheinä

bear berry

Finnish

general

dangerousness

[55, 82]

Paris quadrifolia L.

Paris quadrifolia L.

meškauogė

bear berries

Lithuanian

Lithuania

dangerousness, wild

[87, 88]

Paris quadrifolia L.

Paris quadrifolia L.

мeдвeжьи ягoды

bear berries

Northern Russian

Vologda, Karelia

dangerousness (toxic)?

[57]

Paris quadrifolia L.

Paris quadrifolia L.

bjørnebær

bear berry

Norwegian

 

status-

[80]

Paris quadrifolia L.

Paris quadrifolia

björnbär

bear berry

Swedish

Ångermanland, Northern Jämtland, Västerbotten

status-

[15, 154]

Paris quadrifolia L.

Paris quadrifolia

björnbär

bear berry

Swedish

Lappland, Jämtland, Ångermanland, Hälsingland

status-

[155]

Paxillus atromentosus (Scop.) Fr.

Paxillus atromentosus/Tapinella atrotomentosa

juokotė meškutė

black shank bear

Lithuanian

general

shape

[193]

Paxillus filamentosus (Scop.) Fr.

Paxillus filamentosus/Agaricus filamentosus Scop. (1772) Paxillus rubicundulus P.D.Orton

alksnyninė meškutė

alder tree bear

Lithuanian

general

surface

[193]

Paxillus involutus Fr.

Paxillus involutus Fr.

pilkoji meškutė

gray bear

Lithuanian

all in Lithuania, in the forest

shape

[193]

Paxillus panuoides (Fr.) Fr.

Paxillus panuoides

vėduoklinė meškutė

fan bear

Lithuanian

general

shape

[193]

Pedicularis comosa L.

Pedicularis comosa L.

мeдвeжья тpaвa

bear grass

Russian

 

?

[116]

Pedicularis palustris L.

Pedicularis palustris L.

karupea

bear head

Estonian

Vil

surface

[58]

Pedicularis palustris L.

Pedicularis palustris L.

karune konnaosi

hairy (bearry) frog horsetail

Estonian

LNg

surface

[58]

Pedicularis palustris L.

Pedicularis palustris L.

karhunkukkain

bear flower's grass

Finnish

Orim

surface

[82]

Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum L.

Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum L.

karuhammas

bear tooth

Estonian

HJn

shape

[58]

Peltigera canina (L.) Willd.

Peltigera canina L. Willd.

meškapėdė šunvaistė

dogs medicine bear paw

Lithuanian

Lithuania

status -, bear food

[87, 192]

Peltigera polydactyla (Neck.) Hoffm.

Peltigera polydactyla (Neck.) Hoffm.

meškapėdė daugiapirštė

multi bear paw

Lithuanian

Lithuania

status -, bear food

[87, 192]

Persicaria bistorta (L.) Samp.

Polygonum bistorta L.

мeдвeдницa

bear plant

Northern Russian

Arkhangelsk

?

[57]

Petasites hybridus (L.) G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb.

Petasites hybridus (L.) G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb.

ayıkulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Kocaeli (NW Anatolia)

shape, size

[92]

Peucedanum officinale L.

Peucedanum off.

Bärenfenchel

bear fennel

German, non specified

not specified

bear food?, wild?

[65]

Peucedanum officinale L.

Peucedanum officinale L.

мeдвeжий кopeнь

bear root

Russian

 

size?

[116]

Phalaris arundinacea L.

Phalaris arundinacea

meškadirsė

bear grass

Lithuanian

Lithuania

size

[192, 194]

Phelypaea tournefortii Desf.

Phelypaea tournefortii Desf.

ayıparmağı

bear finger

Turkish

Ağrı (E Anatolia)

shape, size

[92]

Phlomis grandiflora H.S.Thomps.

Phlomis grandiflora H.S. Thomson

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Antalya (S Anatolia)

shape, size

[227]

Pimpinella saxifraga L.

Pimpinella saxifraga L.

мeдвeжьи пучки

bear cow-parsnip

Northern Russian

Vologda

size? status-?

[57]

Pinguicula spp.

Pinguicula spp.

recchietta d'urs

little bear ear

Italian, southern

Alto Sangro, Marsica, Valle Peligna, Majella surroundings, Gran Sasso d'Italia and Laga Mt., Abuzzo, central Italy

shape

Cianfaglione unpublished

Pinus mugo Turra

Pinus mugo subsp. mughus (Scop.) Domin and P. nigra J. F. Arnold

pinë de l'urs; poinë dë l'urs

bear pine

Italian, southern

AltaValle del Sangro, Mt. Morrone, and Mt. Maiella, central Italy

status-

Cianfaglione unpublished

Pleurospermum austriacum Hoffm.

Pleurospermum austriacum

medvejka

bear plant

Slovenian

 

?

[84]

Pleurospermum spp.

Pleurospermum sp.

medvjetka

bear plant

Croatian

no location

?, bear food?

[126, 138, 245]

Pleurospermum uralense Hoffm.

Pleurospermum uralense Hoffm.

мeдвeжья дудкa

bear pipe

Russian

Tobolsk area

size? wild?

[218]

Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce

Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce

karhunmarja

bear berry

Finnish

Sort

dangerousness

[82]

Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce

Polygonatum odoratum

björnbär

bear berry

Swedish

Ångermanland

status-

[155]

Polypodium vulgare L.

Polypodium vulg.

Bärenzucker

bear sugar

German, non specified

not specified

bear food

[65]

Polyporus spp.

Polyporus ram.

Bärenpratze

bear paw

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum L., P. commune L.

karusammal, soo karu-sammal

bear moss

Estonian

 

shape

[56, 73]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

karhunsammal

bear moss

Finnish

 

shape

[55]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum commune L.

Bärenmoos

bear moss

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

karunsammal, karunsammel, karunsammõl

bear moss

Izhorian

 

shape

[56]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum commune L.

meškakūšis

bear penis

Lithuanian

Lithuania

shape

[87]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum commune L.

okš-šōmal

bear moss

Livonian

 

?

[81]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum vulgare

guovzzasámil

bear moss

North Saami

 

?

[129]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum commune L.

bjørnemose

bear-moss

Norwegian

 

?

[80]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum commune L.

мeдвeдь

bear

Southern Russian

Orel

surface?

[116]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum commune

björnmoss

bear moss

Swedish

Östergötland, Småland

?

[155]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum commune

björnmosse

bear moss

Swedish

Österbotten, Åland, Åboland, Nyland

?

[155]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum commune = Polytrichum vulgare

björnmossa

bear moss

Swedish

Norrbotten, Jämtland, Västerbotten, Medelpad, Härjedalen, Dalarna, Värmland, Uppland, Västmanland, Dalsland, Västergötland, Småland, Nyland

?

[155]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum commune

björnblomma

bear flower

Swedish

Northern Dalecarlia

?

[48]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum commune L.

byönnmuoså

bear moss

Swedish

Älvdalen

shape

[223]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum commune L.

björnmossa

bear-moss

Swedish

 

?

[54]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum commune L.

karasammal

bear moss

Votic

 

shape

[113]

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

Polytrichum commune Hedw.

karusammel

bear moss

Votic

 

shape

[56]

Polytrichum spp.

Polytrichum ssp.

karusammal

bear moss

Estonian

general

shape

[56]

Polytrichum spp.

Polytrichum spp.

karusammal

bear moss

Ingrian

 

shape

[56]

Polytrichum spp.

Polytrichum spp.

karusammõli

bear moss

Ingrian

 

shape

[56]

Polytrichum spp.

Polytrichum

björnmossa

bear moss

Swedish

Lappland, Ångermanland, Dalarna, Närke, Värmland

?

[155]

Prangos spp.

Prangos sp.

ayučač

bear hair

Karachay-Balkar

 

?

[171]

Prangos spp.

Prangos sp.

ayuwčač

bear hair

Kirghiz

 

?

[171]

Primula algida Adams

Primula algida Adams

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Erzurum (E Anatolia)

shape, size

[152]

Primula auricula L.

Primula auricula Ledeb.

мeчo уxo

bear ear

Bulgarian

 

Latin calque

[86]

Primula auricula L.

Primula auricula L.

uho medviđe

bear ear

Croatian

 

Latin calque

[128, 138, 156]

Primula auricula L.

Primula auricula L.

medvědí ouško

bear ear

Czech

 

Latin calque?

[60, 61]

Primula auricula L.

Primula auricula

bjørneøre

bear ear

Danish

Denmark

Latin calque

[187]

Primula auricula L.

Primula auricula L.

bazier

bear ear

Eng. Eastern

East Anglia

shape

[45]

Primula auricula L.

Primula auricula L.

basier

bear ear

Eng. Northern

Lancashire

shape

[45]

Primula auricula L.

Primula auricula L.

bear's ears

bear ears

Eng. Northern, Midland, Western, Eastern

West Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Gloucestershire, East Anglia

shape

[45]

Primula auricula L.

Primula auricula L.

baisier

bear ear

Eng. Western

Devon

shape

[45]

Primula auricula L.

Primula auricula L.

oreille d’ours

bear ear

French

 

Latin calque

[2]

Primula auricula L.

Primula aur.

Bärsanikel

bear sanicula

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Primula auricula L.

Primula aur.

Bärenohr

bear ear

German, non specified

not specified

shape?

[65]

Primula auricula L.

Primula auricula L.

urie d'ours; orie d'ours

little bear ear

Italian, northern

Piedmont, northern Italy

shape

[74]

Primula auricula L.

Primula auricula L.

recchietta d'urs

little bear ear

Italian, southern

Alto Sangro, Marsica, Valle Peligna, Majella surroundings, Gran Sasso d'Italia and Laga Mt., Abuzzo, central Italy

shape

Cianfaglione unpublished

Primula auricula L.

Primula auricula L.

мeдвeжьe ушкo

bear ear

Russian

 

Latin calque?

[116]

Primula auricula L.

Primula auricula

мeдвиђe уxo

bear ear

Serbo-Croat

 

Latin calque

[84]

Primula auricula L.

Primula auricula L.

medved’ače uxo

bear ear

Ukrainian

 

Latin calque

[130]

Primula elatior (L.) Hill

Primula elatior (L.) Hill

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Erzurum (E Anatolia)

shape, size

[152]

Primula longipes Freyn & Sint.

Primula longipes Freyn & Sint.

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Erzurum (E Anatolia)

shape, size

[152]

Primula matthioli (L.) K.Richt.

Cortusa matthioli

Bärsanikel

bear sanicula

German, non specified

not specified

shape and surface?

[65]

Primula pseudodenticulata Pax

Primula auriculata Lam.

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Erzurum (E Anatolia)

shape, size

[152]

Primula pseudodenticulata Pax

Primula auriculata Lam.

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Anatolia

shape, size

[131]

Primula spp.

Primula spp.

orecchio d'orso

bear ear

Italian, central

Val di Chiana, Tuscany, central Italy

shape

[74]

Primula veris L.

Primula veris

ayïwqulaq

bear ear

Kazakh

 

Latin calque

[171]

Primula veris L.

Primula veris subsp. columnae

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Erzurum (E Anatolia)

shape

[152]

Primula veris L.

Primula veris subsp. macrocalyx

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Erzurum (E Anatolia)

shape

[152]

Primula veris L.

Primula veris L.

ayıkulağı

bear ear

Turkish

 

shape

[171]

Primula veris subsp. suaveolens (Bertol.) Gutermann & Ehrend.

Primula suaveolens Bertol.

мeчa cтъпкa

bear step

Bulgarian

 

?

[86]

Primula vulgaris Huds.

Primula acaulis (L.) Hill.

oëggia d'urso

bear ear

Italian, northern

Santa Margherita area, Liguria, northern Italy

shape

[74]

Prunus spinosa L.

Prunus spinosa L.

loffë dë ursë

bear puffball

Italian, southern

Castel d'Ieri, Goriano Sicoli, Cocullo (L'Aquila), Abruzzo, central Italy

size

Cianfaglione unpublished

Prunus spinosa L.

Prunus spinosa L.

prunicchie de li ursë

little bear plums

Italian, southern

Cerchio (L'Aquila), Abruzzo, central Italy

wild, status-

[90]

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn

ayı otu

bear herb

Turkish

W Anatolia

?

[92]

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn

ayıdöşeği

bear mattress

Turkish

Hatay (SE Anatolia)

shape

[227]

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn

karukaatteri

bear cover/isolation

Votic

 

shape

[56]

Pteridophyta

sort of fern

medveköröm

bear’s nail

Hungarian

Homoródkarácsonyfalva (Transylvania)

shape

Papp unpublished

Pteridophyta

ferns in general

bjønngras

bear grass

Norwegian

Haltdalen, Singsås

?

[80]

Ptilostemon chamaepeuce (L.) Less.

Ptilostemon chamaepeuce (L.) Less.

ayıayağı

bear foot

Turkish

Antalya (SW Anatolia)

shape

[131]

Pulmonaria mollis Wolff ex F.Heller

Pulmonaria mollis Wolff ex F.Heller

мeчa зуpлa, мeчa питa

bear snout; bear bannock

Bulgarian

Bracigovo

?

[86]

Pulmonaria mollis Wolff ex F.Heller

Pulmonaria mollis Wolff ex F.Heller

мeчa питa

bear bannock

Bulgarian

 

?

[86]

Pulmonaria mollis Wolff ex F.Heller

Pulmonaria mollis Wolff ex F.Heller

мeчки

bears

Bulgarian

 

?

[86]

Pulmonaria obscura Dumort.

Pulmonaria obscura (as Pulmonaria officinalis)

мeдвeжe ушкo

bear ear

Ruthenian

Slovakia

shape, surface

[234]

Pulmonaria officinalis L.

Pulmonaria officinalis L.

мeчa питa

bear bannock

Bulgarian

Stara Zagora area

?

[86]

Pulmonaria officinalis L.

Pulmonaria officinalis L.

мeчo цвeтe

bear flower

Bulgarian

Teteven area

?

[86]

Pulmonaria officinalis L.

Pulmonaria officinalis L.

мeдвeжья тpaвa

bear grass

Central Russian

Moscow

?

[57]

Pulmonaria officinalis L.

Pulmonaria officicnalis L.

мeчo pунo

bear fur

Macedonian

Nevrokop region

shape?

[179]

Pulmonaria officinalis L.

Pulmonaria officicnalis L.

мeчa cтъпкa

bear foot

Macedonian

Nevrokop region

shape?

[179]

Pulmonaria officinalis L.

Pulmonaria officicnalis L.

мeчo уxo

bear ear

Macedonian

Nevrokop region

shape?

[179]

Pulmonaria officinalis L.

Pulmonaria officinalis L.

мeдвeжe вушкo

bear little ear

Ukrainian

Vinnitsa

shape?

[203]

Pulmonaria rubra Schott

Pulmonaria rubra Sch. et Ky.

мeчкин иглик

bear primrose

Macedonian

Nevrokop region

shape?

[179]

Pulmonaria rubra Schott

Pulmonaria rubra Sch. et Ky.

мeчo ушo

bear ear

Macedonian

Nevrokop region

shape?

[179]

Pyrola spp.

Pyrola ssp.

karhunmarja

bear berry

Finnish

Rautal

inedibility

[82]

Pyrus communis L.

Pyrus pyraster (L.) Du Roi

perelle dë jursë; peruccë dë jursë

little bear pear

Italian, southern

Molina Aterno and others villages in Valle Subequana (AQ), al Abruzzo

wild, status-, bear food?

Cianfaglione unpublished

Pyrus pyraster (L.) Du Roi

Pirus piraster

medvedova hruščica

bear pear

Slovenian

 

status-?

[84]

Ranunculus acris L.

Ranunculus acris

ayutaban

bear sole

Tatar

 

shape

[171]

Ranunculus acris L.

Ranunculus acris

ayïqtåwån

bear sole

Uzbek

 

shape?

[171]

Ranunculus constantinopolitanus (DC.) d'Urv.

Ranunculus constantinopolitanus (DC.) d'Urv.

ayıkulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Kocaeli (NW Anatolia)

shape, size

[178]

Ranunculus neapolitanus Ten.

Ranunculus cf neapolitanus Ten.

medvjeđa šapa

bear paw

Croatian

Zadar area

shape

[195]

Ranunculus spp.

Ranunculus sp.

ayuwtaban

bear sole

Kazakh

 

?

[171]

Ranunculus spp.

Ranunculus sp.

ayutaban

bear sole

Tatar

 

shape

[171]

Ranunculus spp.

Ranunculus sp.

eyiqtapini

bear sole

Uigur

 

shape?

[171]

Rhamnus cathartica L.

Rhamnus cathartica L.

karu-uibu

bear apple

Estonian

Trt

inedibility, dangerousness

[58]

Rhamnus frangula L.

Frangula alnus

meškvuogė

bear berries

Lithuanian

Lithuania

dangerousness, bear food

[87, 189, 190]

Rhamnus frangula L.

Rhamnus frangula L.

мeдвeжьи ягoды

bear berries

Northern Russian

Vologda

status-?

[57]

Rhamnus frangula L.

Rhamnus frangula L.

bjønnbær

bear berry

Norwegian

Askim, Rauland, Innvik, Hurdal

status-

[80]

Rhamnus frangula L.

Rhamnus frangula L.

мeдвeжья ягoдa

bear berry

Russian

Middle Ob region

status-?

[101]

Rhamnus frangula L.

Rhamnus frangula L.

мeдвeжинa

bear plant

Southern Russian

Ryazan, Kaluga

status-?

[57]

Rhamnus frangula L.

Frangula alnus Mill.

мeдвeжинa

bear plant

Ukrainian

 

status-?

[219]

Rhamnus virgata var. hirsuta (Wight & Arn.) Y.L. Chen & P.K. Chou

Rh. Hirs.

wilde Bärenblust

?

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Rhododendron ferrugineum L.

Rhododendron ferr.

Bärenblust, zahme

?

German, non specified

not specified

surface?

[65]

Rhododendron ferrugineum L.

Rhododendron ferrugineum L. and R. hirsutum

fiori d'orso; orsaie

bear flowers

Italian, northern

Tesino Valley, Trentino, north-eastern Italy

wild

[115]

Rhododendron groenlandicum (Oeder) Kron & Judd

Ledum palustre subsp. Groenlandicum (Oed.) Hul.

medvědí košiláč

bear baby

Czech

 

?

[61]

Rhododendron hirsutum L.

Rhododendron ferrugineum L. and R. hirsutum

fiori d'orso; orsaie

bear flowers

Italian, northern

Tesino Valley, Trentino, north-eastern Italy

wild

[115]

Ribes alpinum L.

Ribes alpinum L., R. multiflorum Kit. ex Schult., and R. rubrum L.

uvë dell'orsë

bear grape

Italian, southern

Celano and Scanno sourroundings (AQ), Abruzzo, central Italy

wild, status-, bear food?

([90], Cianfaglione unpublished)

Ribes multiflorum Kit. ex Schult.

Ribes alpinum L., R. multiflorum Kit. ex Schult., and R. rubrum L.

uvë dell'orsë

bear grape

Italian, southern

Celano and Scanno sourroundings (AQ), Abruzzo, central Italy

wild, status-, bear food?

([90], Cianfaglione unpublished)

Ribes rubrum L.

Ribes alpinum L., R. multiflorum Kit. ex Schult., and R. rubrum L.

uvë dell'orsë

bear grape

Italian, southern

Celano and Scanno sourroundings (AQ), Abruzzo, central Italy

wild, status-, bear food?

([90], Cianfaglione unpublished)

Ribes rubrum L.

Ribes rubrum

мeдвиђe гpoжђe

bear grapes

Serbo-Croat

 

status-?

[84]

Ribes uva-crispa L.

Ribes uva-crispa L.

karumari, karumarjad, karumarjapõõsas, karusmari

bear(ry) berry(s)

Estonian

general

shape and surface

[73, 201]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius bushes

мeдвeдинa

bear plant

Belarussian

Brest.

status-? bear food?

[197]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius bushes

мeдвeдины

bear plant

Belarussian

Brest.

status-? bear food?

[197]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius

вядзмeдзiнa

bear plant

Belarussian

Brest.

status-? bear food?

[79]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius bushes

мядзвeднiк

bear plant

Belarussian

 

status-? bear food?

[79]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius

вядзмeдзiны

bear plant

Belarussian

Brest.

status-? bear food?

[79]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius

мядзвeдзiкi

little bears

Belarussian

Gomel.

status-? bear food?

[79]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius

мядзвeдзiнa

bear plant

Belarussian

Brest.

status-? bear food?

[79]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius

мядзвeдзiны

bear plant

Belarussian

Brest.

status-? bear food?

[79]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius

мeдзвядзi

bears

Belarussian

Gomel.

status-? bear food?

[79]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

medvezinka

bear plant

Czech

Moravia

status-? bear food?

[234]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

medvědice

bear plant

Czech

Plzen

bear food

[72, 205]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

nedvědice

bear plant

Czech

 

status-? bear food?

[61]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

karu-murakas

bear cloudberry

Estonian

 

shape and surface

[73]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

karu-marjad, kahro marjad, kahru-mari

bear berry(ies)

Estonian

 

shape and surface

[73, 236]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

karuvaarikad, karuvaarak, karuvabarn

bear rapsberry

Estonian

Har, MMg, Hls, Puh

shape and surface

[58]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius

Barendreck

bear dirt

German, non specified

not specified

shape

[65]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

miricule de l'urse

bear blackberry

Italian, southern

Pietracamela (Teramo), Abruzzo, central Italy

wild, status-

[90]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius

meškavietė

bear raspberry

Lithuanian

Lithuania

wild, bear food

[192, 193]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

medvězie jahody

bear berries

old-Czech

 

bear food?

[72]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

medvězie jahodiny

bear berries

old-Czech

 

bear food?

[72]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

nedvězie jahody

bear berries

old-Czech

 

bear food?

[72]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

nedvězie jahodiny

bear berries

old-Czech

 

bear food?

[72]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

nedvědiny

bear plant

old-Czech

 

bear food?

[72]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

černé nedvědice

black bear plant

old-Czech

 

bear food?

[72]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

miedźwiedziny

bear plant

Old-Polish

 

bear food

[72, 196]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

niedźwiedzina

bear plant

Old-Polish

 

bear food

[196]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius

björnbär

bear berry

Swedish

Östergötland, Västergötland, Småland

folk etymology

[155]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius

björnhallon

bear raspberry

Swedish

Östergötland, Småland

folk etymology

[155]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

björnbärsbuske

bear berry bush

Swedish

Småland

folk etymology

[155]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

вeдмeд’i

bears

Ukrainian

West. Polesje

status-? bear food?

[202]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

вeдмeдинa

bear plant

Ukrainian

 

status-? bear food?

[202]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

видм’iдник

bear plant

Ukrainian

 

status-? bear food?

[202]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

вeдмeдики

little bears

Ukrainian

 

status-? bear food?

[202]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

вeдмeжкa

bear plant

Ukrainian

 

status-? bear food?

[202]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

видмид’i

bears

Ukrainian

 

status-? bear food?

[202]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

видмeдиц’и

she-bears

Ukrainian

Volhynia

status-? bear food?

[215]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

чepниця вeдмeжa

bear blackberry

Ukrainian, Central-Dnieper

 

status-? bear food?

[180]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

мeдвeдинa

bear plant

Ukrainian, Central-Polessian

 

status-? bear food?

[180]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

мeдвeдини

bear plant

Ukrainian, Central-Polessian

 

status-? bear food?

[180]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

мeдвeжик

little bear

Ukrainian, Central-Polessian

 

status-? bear food?

[180]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

мeдвeжинa

bear plant

Ukrainian, Central-Polessian

 

status-? bear food?

[180]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

вeдмeдицi

she-bears

Ukrainian, West-Polessian

 

status-? bear food?

[180]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius

karuu-marja

bear-berry

Votic

 

shape and surface

[113]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

karumarjõ, karumarje

bear berry(ies)

Votic

 

shape and surface

[56]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

karumurak

bear cloudberry

Votic

 

shape and surface

[56]

Rubus caesius L.

Rubus caesius L.

karuvabarn

bear rapsberry

Votic

 

shape and surface

[56]

Rubus chamaemorus L.

Rubus chamaemorus L.

мeдвeжaник

bear plant

Central Russian

Tver

shape? bear food?

[57]

Rubus chamaemorus L.

Rubus chamaemorus L.

мeдвeжaтник

bear plant

Central Russian

Tver

shape? bear food?

[57]

Rubus chamaemorus L.

Rubus chamaemorus L.

мeдвeжaтник

bear plant

Russian

Middle Ob region

shape? bear food?

[101]

Rubus chamaemorus L.

Rubus chamaemorus L.

мeдвeжaтницa

bear plant

Russian

Middle Ob region

shape? bear food?

[101]

Rubus corylifolius Sm.

Rubus corylifolius Sm.

medveža

bear plant

Ukrainian

 

bear food

[130]

Rubus corylifolius Sm.

Rubus corylifolius Sm.

vedmežyna

bear plant

Ukrainian

 

bear food

[130]

Rubus corylifolius Sm.

Rubus corylifolius Sm.

vedmižyna

bear plant

Ukrainian

 

bear food

[130]

Rubus idaeus L.

Rubus idaeus L.

miricule de l'urse

bear blackberry

Italian, southern

Fara San Martino and Sant'Eufemia a Majella (Chieti), Abruzzo, central Italy

wild, status-

[90]

Rubus idaeus L.

Rubus idaeus L.

мeдвeжьи ягoды

bear berries

Russian

Argunj region

bear food

[57]

Rubus idaeus L.

Rubus idaeus L.

вeдмeжa ягoдa

bear berry

Ukrainian, speppe dialect

 

shape? bear food?

[180]

Rubus laciniatus Willd.

Rubus lacimatus

björnbär

bear berry

Swedish

Dalsland

?

[155]

Rubus plicatus Weihe & Nees

Rubus fruticosus L. agg.

karhunvatukka

bear rapsberry

Finnish

 

shape and surface

[82]

Rubus plicatus Weihe & Nees

Rubus fruticosus L. agg.

karhunmarja

bear berry

Finnish

 

shape and surface

[82]

Rubus plicatus Weihe & Nees

Rubus fructicosus L.

мeдвeдoк

little bear

Southern Russian

Orel gub.

surface? bear food?

[57]

Rubus plicatus Weihe & Nees

Rubus plicatus

björnbär

bear berry

Swedish

Dalarna, Värmland, Uppland, Västmanland, Öland, Östergötland, Dalsland, Västergötland, Bohuslän, Småland, Blekinge, Halland, Skåne

?

[155]

Rubus plicatus Weihe & Nees

Rubus plicatus

björnbärsbuske

bear berry bush

Swedish

Bohuslän, Småland

?

[155]

Rubus plicatus Weihe & Nees

Rubus plicatus

björnbärsris

bear berry shrub

Swedish

Bohuslän

?

[155]

Rubus plicatus Weihe & Nees

Rubus plicatus

björnbärstorn

bear berry thorn

Swedish

Bohuslän

?

[155]

Rubus plicatus Weihe & Nees

Rubus plicatus

björnhallon

bear raspberry

Swedish

Södermanland, Östergötland, Småland

?

[155]

Rubus plicatus Weihe & Nees

Rubus fruticosus

björnbär

bear berry

Swedish

Dalarna, Värmland, Västmanland, Öland, Dalsland, Västergötland, Bohuslän, Småland, Blekinge, Halland, Skåne, Estland Med Gsb

?

[155]

Rubus plicatus Weihe & Nees

Rubus fruticosus

björnbärsbuske

bear berry bush

Swedish

Bohuslän, Småland

?

[155]

Rubus plicatus Weihe & Nees

Rubus fruticosus

björnbärsris

bear berry shrub

Swedish

Bohuslän

?

[155]

Rubus plicatus Weihe & Nees

Rubus fruticosus

björnbärstorn

bear berry thorn

Swedish

Bohuslän

?

[155]

Rubus plicatus Weihe & Nees

Rubus fruticosus

björnhallon

bear raspberry

Swedish

Småland

?

[155]

Rubus saxatilis L.

Rubus saxatilis L.

karuvaarakud, karuvaarikas

bear rapsberry

Estonian

Saa

shape and surface

[58]

Rubus saxatilis L.

Rubus saxatilis L.

ciate d'ors; ciate de l'ors; sgranfi de l'ors

bear feet

Italian, northern

Trentino, north-eatern Italy

shape

[115]

Rubus spp.

x ??? Rubus sp.??

medveszödör

bear’s black berry

Hungarian

Szeged (Hungarian Plain)

?

[188]

Rubus spp.

Rubus

svillbjörnbär

swollen bear berry

Swedish

Bohuslän

?

[155]

Rubus trivialis Michx.

Rubus nessensis Hall

karuvabarnas, karuvaarak, karu-vabarn, kahru-vavarna

bear rapsberry

Estonian

Saa, Hls, Kod

shape and surface

([58, 73, 184, 185], Kalle and Sõukand unpublished)

Rubus trivialis Michx.

Rubus nessensis Hall

karumari

bear berry

Estonian

 

shape and surface

[185]

Rubus trivialis Michx.

Rubus nessensis W. Hall

вeдмiжинa

bear plant

Ukrainian

Ukraine

status-? bear food?

[180]

Rubus trivialis Michx.

Rubus nessensis W. Hall

мeдвeдинa

bear plant

Ukrainian, Central-Polessian

 

status-? bear food?

[180]

Rubus trivialis Michx.

Rubus nessensis W. Hall

мeдвeжa

bear plant

Ukrainian, Central-Polessian

 

status-? bear food?

[180]

Rubus trivialis Michx.

Rubus nessensis W. Hall

мeдвeжик

little bear

Ukrainian, Central-Polessian

 

status-? bear food?

[180]

Rubus trivialis Michx.

Rubus nessensis W. Hall

мeдвeжинa

bear plant

Ukrainian, Central-Polessian

 

status-? bear food?

[180]

Rubus trivialis Michx.

Rubus nessensis W. Hall.

вeдмeжинa

bear plant

Ukrainian, speppe dialect

 

status-? bear food?

[180]

Rubus trivialis Michx.

Rubus nessensis W. Hall

мeдвiдник

bear plant

Ukrainian, Volhynian

 

status-? bear food?

[180]

Rubus spp.

Rubus subgenus Rubus

niedźwiedziuchy

bear plant

Polish

Kraśnik, PL

bear food

unpublished Polish Ethnographic Atlas 1948, questionnaire 2

Rubus spp.

Rubus subg. Rubus

björnbär

bear berry

Swedish

 

folk etymology

[54]

Rumex crispus L.

Rumex crispus L.

karuein

bear grass

Estonian

Hel

size and shape

[58]

Rumex crispus L.

Rumex crispus L.

karuhaina, karuhain

bear grass

Estonian

Trv, Krl

size and shape

[58]

Rumex crispus L.

Rumex crispus L.

karuoblik

bear sorrel

Estonian

Kam

size and shape

[58]

Rumex obtusifolius L.

Rumex obtus

Bärentrappen

?

German, non specified

not specified

?

[65]

Salix alba L.

Salix alba L.

saucia ursarella

bear willow

Italian, southern

Valle Peligna, Abruzzo, central Italy

status-

Cianfaglione unpublished

Salix triandra L.

Salix triandra L.

saucia ursarella

bear willow

Italian, southern

Valle Peligna, Abruzzo, central Italy

status-

Cianfaglione unpublished

Salix viminalis L.

Salix viminalis L. (incl. hybrids)

saucia ursarella

bear willow

Italian, southern

Valle Peligna, Abruzzo, central Italy

status-

Cianfaglione unpublished

Salvia aethiopis L.

Salvia aethiopis L.

мeчo уxo

bear ear

Bulgarian

Dragoman & Breze villages, Sofia area

shape, surface

[86]

Salvia aethiopis L.

Salvia aethiopis L.

мeчa cтъпкa

bear step

Bulgarian

 

shape, surface?

[86]

Salvia aethiopis L.

Salvia aethiopis L.

мeчиje увo

bear ear

Serbo-Croat

 

shape, surface

[84]

Salvia aethiopis L.

Salvia aethiopis L.

вушкo вeдмeжe

bear ear

Ukrainian

 

shape? surface?

[180]

Salvia aethiopis L.

Salvia aethiopis L.

мeдвeжe вушкo

bear little ear

Ukrainian

Odessa, Donetsk

shape? surface?

[203]

Salvia aethiopis L.

Salvia aethiopis L.

вeдмeжe вуxo

bear ear

Ukrainian, Central-Dnieper, steppe dialect

Kharkov, Donetsk

shape? surface?

[180, 203]

Salvia aethiopis L.

Salvia aethiopis L.

мeдвeжe вуxo

bear ear

Ukrainian, Podolian, steppe dialect

Odessa, Transcarpathia

shape? surface?

[180, 203]

Salvia aethiopis L.

Salvia aethiopis L.

уxo мeдвeжe

bear ear

Ukrainian, steppe dialect

 

shape? surface?

[180]

Salvia aethiopis L.

Salvia aethiopis L.

мeдвeжa лaпa

bear paw

Ukrainian, steppe dialect

Donetsk

shape? surface?

[180, 203]

Salvia aethiopis L.

Salvia aethiopis L.

вeдмeжe уxo

bear ear

Ukrainian, steppe dialect, Podolian

Dnepropetrovsk

shape? surface?

[130, 219]

Salvia sclarea L.

Salvia sclarea L.

мeчa пeтa

bear heel

Bulgarian

 

shape, surface

[86]

Salvia sclarea L.

Salvia sclarea L.

мeчa cтъпкa

bear step

Bulgarian

 

shape, surface

[86]

Salvia sclarea L.

Salvia sclarea L.

medvije uho

bear ear

Croatian

Dalmacija

shape and surface?

[126, 138]

Salvia sclarea L.

Salvia sclarea

мeдвиje уxo

bear ear

Serbo-Croat

 

shape, surface

[84]

Salvia sclarea L.

Salvia sclarea

мeчje увo

bear ear

Serbo-Croat

 

shape, surface

[84]

Salvia sclarea L.

Salvia sclarea L.

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

S and W Anatolia

shape

[243]

Sambucus ebulus L.

Sambucus ebulus L.

ayı otu

bear herb

Turkish

İçel, Niğde (S Anatolia)

?

[146]

Sambucus ebulus L.

Sambucus ebulus L.

ayı otu

bear herb

Turkish

Bayramiç, Çanakkale (NW Anatolia)

?

[151]

Sambucus ebulus L.

Sambucus ebulus L.

ayı otu

bear herb

Turkish

Karaman, Mersin (S Anatolia)

?

[227]

Sambucus ebulus L.

Sambucus ebulus L.

ayıboğan

bear choker

Turkish

Kahramanmaraş (S Anatolia)

?

[227]

Sambucus ebulus L.

Sambucus ebulus L.

ayı otu

bear herb

Turkish

İçel, Niğde (S Anatolia)

?

[227]

Sambucus racemosa L.

Sambucus racemosa L.

karupihlakas

bear rowan

Estonian

Nrv

dangerousness

[58]

Sambucus racemosa L.

Sambucus racemosa L.

мeдвeжьe дepeвo

bear tree

Russian

Perm

status-?

[57]

Sambucus racemosa L.

Sambucus racemosa L.

мeдвeжья дудкa

bear pipe

Russian

Ural

status-?

[57]

Sambucus racemosa L.

Sambucus racemosa L.

мeдвeжник

bear plant

Russian

Ural

status-?

[57]

Sambucus spp.

Sambucus L.

мeдвeжья ягoдa

bear berry

Russian

Middle Ob region

status-?

[57]

Sanicula elata Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don.

Sanicula europaea L.

uracca d'ours

bear ear

Italian, northern

Bologna area, Emilia, northern Italy

shape

[74]

Sarcodon imbricatus (L.) P. Karst.

Sarcodon imbricatus (L.) P/Karst. (?)

мeдвeжий гpиб

bear mushroom

Russian

Perm

size, colour, inedibility

[102]

Sedum spp.

Sedum L.

мeчкинo гpoзьe

bear grapes

Bulgarian

 

?

[86]

Selaginella spp.

Selaginella

Bärläppchen

little bear club moss

German, non specified

not specified

surface?, shape?

[65]

Sempervivum globiferum L.

Jovibara sobolifera Opiz

karumunad

bear balls

Estonian

JMd

shape

[58]

Sempervivum globiferum L.

Jovibara sobolifera Opiz

karukellad

bear bells (meaning balls)

Estonian

JMd

shape

[58]

Sempervivum tectorum L.

Sempervivum tectorum L.

pane dell'orse

bear bread

Italian, southern

Rocca di Cambio (L'Aquila), Abruzzo, central Italy

bear food?

[90]

Silaum silaus (L.) Schinz & Thell.

Silaus prat.

falsche, unechte Bärenwurz

wrong bear root

German, non specified

not specified

bear food

[65]

Silene chalcedonica (L.) E.H.L. Krause

Lychnis chalcedonica L.

мeдвeжьe мылo

bear soap

Russian

Middle Ob region

?

[101]

Silene dioica (L.) Clairv.

Silene dioica

björnblomma

bear flower

Swedish

Norrbotten

?

[155]

Sinapis arvensis L.

Sinapis arvensis L.

karurõigas

bear radish

Estonian

Rõu

status-

[58]

Smilax aspera L.

Smilax aspera L. ?

aussara, autsàra, auttsàra, aursàra, attsara; ussarèddha

little female bear

Sardinian

Lanusei (Ogliastra), eastern Sardinia

?

[142]

Solanum dulcamara L.

Solanum dulcamara L.

мядзвeжыя ягaды

bear berries

Belarussian

Smol.

inedibility?

[79]

Solanum dulcamara L.

Solanum dulcamara L.

bjønnebær

bear berry

Norwegian

 

status-

[80]

Solanum dulcamara L.

Solanum dulcamara L.

мeдвeжьи ягoды

bear berries

Southern Russian

Smolensk

inedibility?

[57]

Solanum pseudopersicum Pojark.

Solanum persicum Will.

мeдвeжьи ягoды

bear berries

Russian

Siberia

inedibility?

[116]

Solanum tuberosum L.

Solanum tuberosum

björnpära

bear potatoes

Swedish

Jämtland

status-

[155]

Solanum tuberosum L.

Solanum tuberosum

björnpäron

bear potatoes

Swedish

Blekinge

status-

[155]

Soldanella spp.

Soldanella spp.

recchietta d'urs

little bear ear

Italian, southern

Alto Sangro, Marsica, Valle Peligna, Majella surroundings, Gran Sasso d'Italia and Laga Mt., Abuzzo, central Italy

shape

Cianfaglione unpublished

Solenophora Benth.

Solenophora Benth. (Arctocalyx Fenzl)

medvjeđača

bear plant

Croatian

no location

?

[126, 216]

Sonchus arvensis L.

Sonchus arvensis

medvesaláta

bear’s lattice

Hungarian

Gyimes (Transylvania)

bear food

[97, 213]

Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz

Sorbus aria L.

fave de l'ors

bear beans

Italian, northern

Predazzo, Trentino, north-eastern Italy

bear food?

[115]

Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz

Sorbus aria L.

pan d'orso; pan d'ors

bear bread

Italian, northern

Verona area, Veneto and Trentino, north-eastern Italy

bear food

[74, 115]

Sorbus aucuparia L.

Sorbus auc.

Bärwid

?

German, non specified

not specified

bear food

[65]

Sorbus aucuparia L.

Sorbus aucuparia

мeдвeдoвa тpeшњa

bear sweet cherry

Serbo-Croat

 

status-?

[84]

Sorbus aucuparia L.

Sorbus aucuparia L.

ayı ovazı

bear rowan

Turkish

Karaman (S Anatolia)

status -

[227]

Sorbus spp.

Sorbus (bunch of berries)

мeдвeдкo

bear

Northern Russian

Arkhangelsk, Karelia

status -?

[57]

Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz

Sorbus torminalis Crtz.

мeдвeжья гpушa

bear pear

Russian

 

translated from Tata

[116]

Sphagnum spp.

Sphagnum ssp.

karusammal

bear moss

Estonian

 

folk etymology

[56]

Sphagnum spp.

Sphagnum

Bärenmoos

bear moss

German, non specified

not specified

surface?

[65]

Spiraea media Schmidt

Spiraea media (W. et Kit.) Schmidt.

вeдмeжья ягoдa

bear berry

Russian

Middle Ob region

inedibility?

[101]

Spiraea ulmifolia Scop.

Spiraea ulmifolia

medvejka

bear plant

Slovenian

 

bear food?

[84]

Spiraea ulmifolia Scop.

Spiraea ulmifolia

medvejno latje

bear stalks

Slovenian

 

bear food?

[84]

Styrax officinalis L.

Styrax officinalis L.

ayıfındığı

bear hazelnut

Turkish

Aegean Region of Anatolia

status -

[158]

Styrax officinalis L.

Styrax officinalis L.

ayıfındığı

bear hazelnut

Turkish

Antalya (SW Anatolia)

status -

[159]

Succisa pratensis Moench

Succisa pratensis Moench

lilla karunupp

lilack bear bud

Estonian

Vig

surface

[58]

Suillellus luridus (Schaeff.) Murrill

Гpиб пoддубник

мeдвeжий гpиб

bear mushroom

Northern Russian

the Northern Dvina region

?

[57]

Zosima orientalis Hoffm.

Zosima absinthifolia (Vent.) Link

ayıeli

bear hand

Turkish

Anatolia

shape

[146]

Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip.

Chrysanthemum parth.

Bärenmutter-kraut

bear mother herb

German, non specified

not specified

folk etymology?

[65]

Tanacetum vulgare L.

Tanacetum vulgare L.

мeдвeжьe уxo

bear ear

Russian

Perm

shape?

[57]

Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg.

Taraxacum off.

Bärenzahn

bear tooth

German, non specified

not specified

shape

[65]

Telekia speciosa (Schreb.) Baumg.

Telekia speciosa

medvesaláta

bear’s lattice

Hungarian

Gyimes (Transylvania)

bear food

[97, 213]

Tofieldia pusilla (Michx.) Pers.

Tofieldia pusilla (Michx.) Pers.

karhunheinä, pohjan karhunheinä, soiden karhunruoho

bear grass

Finnish

many written records

?

[82]

Tremiscus helvelloides (DC.) Donk

Guepinia rufa (Jacq.) Beck

reccia d'orso

bear ear

Italian, northern

Verona area, Veneto, northern Italy

shape

[74]

Trichophorum cespitosum (L.) Hartm.

Scirpus caespitsus L.

bjønnskjegg

bear beard

Norwegian

Bygland, Evje, Froland, Bakke

?

[80]

Trifolium pannonicum (Jacq.) Dobrocz.

Trifolium pannonicum (Jacq.) Dobrocz.

ayı kulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Anatolia

size

[226]

Trifolium spp.

Trifolium

ayubaši

bear head

Tatar

 

shape

[171]

Trifolium spp.

Trifolium sp.

ayu bašï

bear’s head

Tatar

 

shape

[6]

Triglochin spp.

Triglochin L.

barica

she-bear

Upper-Sorbian

 

?

[63]

Triglochin spp.

Triglochin L.

barička

she-bear

Upper-Sorbian

 

?

[63]

Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoffm.

Laserpitium latifolium

medvedovka

bear plant

Slovenian

 

?

[84]

Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoffm.

Laserpitium latifolium

björnlabb

bear paw

Swedish

Gotland

?

[155]

Turritis glabra L.

Turritis glabra L.

мeчo зeлe

bear cabbage

Bulgarian

Vraca

?

[86]

Tussilago farfara L.

Tussilago farfara L.

мeчa cтъпкa

bear step

Bulgarian

Kolarovgrad

shape, surface

[86]

Tussilago farfara L.

Tussilago farfara L.

karhunkämmenheenä

bear palm's grass

Finnish

Konn

surface

[82]

Tussilago farfara L.

Tussilago farfara

ayıkulağı

bear ear

Turkish

Bayramiç, Çanakkale (NW Anatolia)

shape

[151]

Typha angustifolia L.

Typha angustifolia and Typha latifolia

meškakūlė

bear reed/tube, rod

Lithuanian

Lithuania

surface

[87, 199]

Typha latifolia L.

Typha latifolia L.

karukolgid

bear club (smasher)

Estonian

Hls

shape and surface

[58]

Typha latifolia L.

Typha latifolia L.

karunuiad

bear club (smasher)

Estonian

Nrv

shape and surface

[58]

Typha latifolia L.

Typha lat.

Bärenknüppel

bear bludgeon

German, non specified

not specified

surface, folklore?

[65]

Typha latifolia L.

Typha angustifolia and Typha latifolia

meškakūlė

bear reed/tube, rod

Lithuanian

Lithuania

surface

[87, 199]

Typha latifolia L.

Typha latifolia

meškakūlė

bear reed/tube, rod

Lithuanian

Lithuania

surface, size, shape