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Table 3 Frequency of different phytonyms related to bears for the most named taxa in the “bear-richest” languages

From: The bear in Eurasian plant names: motivations and models

Taxa/languages Est Germ Rus Sw Turk It Ukr S-C Bulg Sloven Cz Cr Lith Fin Bel Norw Eng Hung Sorb
Heracleum sphondylium L. incl. Heracleum sibiricum L. 5 14 1 3     3 2 2 4 4   3    1 3 4
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. 8 4 5 1 1 7 4 5 1 3 3 3 1   1 1   1 2
Rubus caesius L. 3 1   3   1 5     3   1   2     
Acanthus mollis L.   1    1 1   3   1 2 3        2
Allium ursinum L. 2 2 2   1 1 1 1 1 1    1      2  
Lycopodium clavatum L. 1 5   1   3      2   1      1  
Primula auricula L.   2 1    1 1 1 1   1 1      1   
Polytrichum commune Hedw. 1 1 1 2          1 1   1    
Empetrum nigrum L. 3   1 1          1 2   1    
Paris quadrifolia L. 2   1 1      2     1 1   1    
Arctous alpina (L.) Nied.   1   1   1           1    1
Verbascum spp.   1 1     1 1 1       2     
Equisetum arvense L. 1    1      1     1      3  
Heracleum spp. 1    2   1    1    1        
Calla palustris L. 1   1             1 1 1   
  1. Only those languages are included with at least 20 records of bear-related phytonyms, and only those taxa that have bear-related phytonyms in at least five different languages among these. The numbers show the number of different meanings bear-related phytonyms have for a specific plant in the corresponding language. In those cases where the two names have a similar meaning, but different words are used to express it, they are considered as different. Abbreviations: Est – Estonian, Germ – German, Rus – Russian, Sw – Swedish, Turk – Turkish, Ukr – Ukrainian, It – Italian. S-C – Serbo-Croat, Bulg – Bulgarian, Sloven – Slovenian, Cz – Czech, Cr – Croatian, Lith – Lithuanian, Fin – Finnish, Hung – Hungarian, Norw – Norwegian, Bel – Belarussian, Eng – English, Sorb – Sorbian