Skip to main content

Truffle renaissance in Poland – history, present and prospects


The use of truffles in Poland has a long tradition, yet due to some historical aspects, this knowledge was lost. Currently, truffles and truffle orchards are again receiving attention, and thanks to, e.g., historical data, they have solid foundations to be established. Publications relating to truffles between 1661 and 2017 were searched for in international and national databases, such as the database of PhD theses, Google Scholar, and catalogues of the National Library of Poland, the Jagiellonian Digital Library, the University Library of J. Giedroyc in Bialystok and the Lower Silesian Digital Library (DBC). A very meticulous survey of the literature on truffles showed that truffles have been known since at least 1661. In the 18th century, the fungi were considered a non-timber forest product. It is interesting to mention the impact of Polish Count Michał Jan Borch in understanding the nature of truffles. The whitish truffle (Tuber borchii) is named after him. The greatest number of publications regarding truffles can be observed at the first half of the 19th and 20th centuries. The fungi were present not only in cookbooks but also in scientific literature, and aspects of their ecology and medicinal use are considered. The “dark ages” for truffles, mainly for social reasons, occurred after the Second World War. In tough times, when Poland was under Soviet communist control (1945–1989), truffles as a luxurious product have been completely forgotten. However, at the end of the 20th century, truffles started receiving attention in Polish society. Yet, the real awakening began in the first decade of the twenty-first century when the first truffle orchards were established. One of them has already produced the first fruit bodies of summer truffle (Tuber aestivum). Truffles have been present in Polish culture for centuries. Their renaissance indicates the need for fostering sustainable agroforestry-centred initiatives aimed at helping truffle growers in growing the precious fungi and thus meeting market demands.


Truffles (Tuber spp.) are hypogeous fungi belonging to the Pezizales (Ascomycota), a large group of symbiotic fungi growing with the roots (ectomycorrhiza) of several vascular plant species (angiosperms and gymnosperms). Some species of truffles, such as Tuber magnatum Pico (white truffle) and Tuber melanosporum Vittad. (black truffle), are the most valued and expensive due to their taste and aroma [1]. On average, the worldwide prices of T. magnatum range from €1200 to €4000 per kg depending on harvest [2]. The high prices are due to distinctive features of the special truffle and its insufficient provision [3]. This species is hard to grow on man-made plantations, so it is harvested mainly in natural stands [4]. To date, T. melanosporum, T. brumale and T. aestivum have been growing on plantations, yet in the case of T. magnatum, there is still a lack of cultivation methodology [5]. The natural distribution of T. magnatum is limited to some locations in Italy [2], Hungary [6], Slovenia [7] and Croatia [8].

The other appreciated species of truffles, T. melanosporum, is being cultivated worldwide [9]. Truffle orchards have been established in the southern hemisphere, and truffles are present in the market year-round [10]. Demand for black truffle (T. melanosporum) has stimulated research on the species. Hence, the biology of the species at the genomic level [11] is better understood than that of other truffle species. Soil and climate conditions conducive to T. melanosporum development are well known [12, 13]. However, in the last decade, a decreased yield of this species has been observed in Europe. Some authors combine this fact with climate warming (for instance, [14,15,16]). The increasing attention towards the highly appreciated and commercialized hypogeous fungi has led to intensification of the research on truffles to better understand their life cycle [1].

The first evidence for the culinary use of truffles by people inhabiting the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea comes from the Bronze era [17]. Hypogeous Ascomycetes of the genus Tirmania Chatin and Terfezia Tul. & C. Tul., known as desert truffles, have nourished the tribes of the Sahara [18]. Hypogeous fungi were known and eaten by ancient Babylonians, Etruscans, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans [19, 20]. In ancient times, truffles were a great mystery to scientists and common people because it was unknown where truffles came from. For example, according to the Greek biographer Plutarch (46–120 A.D.), a truffle was a conglomeration produced by the action of lightning, warmth, and water on the soil. Dioscorides (40–90 A. D.), the Greek physician and pharmacologist, thought that the truffle was a tuberous root. Theophrateous, the Greek philosopher (c. 370–280 B. C.), described truffles as plants without root, stem, branch, bud, leaf, flower, or fruit and with neither bark, pith, fibres, nor veins [21].

It is thought that the popularity of truffles during the Middle Ages was far less than that in ancient times [22]. However, from the latter era come precious works that describe methods of searching for truffles, referred to by some authors as ‘hunting for truffles’ (fr. chasse aux truffes, wł. caccia al tartufo, ang. truffle hunting) [22, 23]. Hunting for truffles in Italy using pigs and dogs has been depicted by the papal historian Bartolomeo Platina and the painter Ambrogio Lorenzetti [19].

At the beginning of the 18th century, truffles regained popularity and were included on menus by the French and Italians [22]. During the first decade of the 18th century, French botanist and physician Joseph Pierre de Tournefort and the pharmacist and botanist Claude-Joseph Geoffroy made observations that helped us recognize the nature of truffles. Geoffrey helped settle the botanical confusion surrounding the truffle, and in a 1711 paper titled “Vegetation de la Truffe”, he classified it among fungi [21]. Geoffroy’s observations were confirmed by Pier Antonio Micheli, the Italian botanist who provided the description of “seeds” (spores) in truffles. In his publication, Nuova plantarum genera [24], he noted that the spores developed inside sacks (asci). Over a hundred years later, Carlo Vittadini [25] and the Tulasne brothers [26] firmly established the scientific study of truffles. The latter researchers are considered the founders of modern mycology [21, 27].

Cultivation of truffles began at the turn of 18th and 19th centuries in France and Italy [28]. The first commonly used method of truffle orchard establishment is known as Talon’s technique. In 1808, Talon proposed the idea of transplanting some seedlings that he had collected at the foot of oak trees known to host truffles in their root system. His technique was the mainstay of the black truffle industry for more than 150 years, although he was not aware that the success of truffle fructification depended on the mycorrhiza. The phenomenon of mycorrhiza has been described by Franciszek Kamieński [29] and Albert Benjamin Frank [30] introduced the term Mykorrhizen (from the Greek myko - fungus, rhiza - root) in 1885. Talon’s method of truffle orchard establishment was in use until the early 1970s, when French and Italian scientists developed the technique of nursery seedling inoculation. In 1973, the first seedlings inoculated with T. melanosporum appeared on the market [31].

Despite the technological progress since the 1980s, a decrease in productivity of the plantation is being observed [20]. Some researchers attribute this decrease to changes in rural land forest use [20] and others attribute it to changes in climate [32]. The decreasing supply and rising prices of truffles have provided an enormous incentive for research on truffle cultivation. At present, truffle orchards are being established all over the world, including in non-traditional areas and countries, for example, the United States, New Zealand, and Australia [13, 33].

In the mycological databases, such as Mycobank and Index Fungorum Mycobank, taxonomic details of more than 200 truffle species from all over the world are given, but only 70 species are fully verified [34]. On the other hand, Bonito and co-authors [35] reported at least 180 species of truffles. According to Ceruti [36], 28 species of Tuber are present in Europe. In 2012, another species of the genus was added, Tuber cistophilum, and its identity was confirmed using molecular tools [37].

In Poland, the presence of some species that are in great demand by the food market, such as Tuber macrosporum Vittad., T. mesentericum Vittad., T. borchii Vittad. and T. aestivum var. uncinatum Chatin, has been confirmed [38,39,40]. However, due to a “dark age” in Polish history (Soviet communist regime) knowledge about truffles and their occurrence has been lost for over half a century. Thankfully, research on these fungi and their use is currently undergoing a renaissance. Therefore, basing on historical data, the aim of this work is to:

  • show that truffles has been present in Polish culture for ages,

  • indicate the great potential of Poland in truffle collection and their culinary usage, as well as possibilities to grow the ultimate fungi.


To access to the maximum amount of data on truffle use in the past, detailed analysis was conducted using articles and books. International and national databases, such as the database of PhD theses, Google Scholar, and catalogues of the National Library of Poland, the Jagiellonian Digital Library, the University Library of J. Giedroyc in Bialystok and the Lower Silesian Digital Library (DBC) were checked. The overall search pattern covered not only the title, abstract and keywords but also the content concerning truffles or Tuber. No restrictions regarding the language of the publications consulted were imposed.

Each cited publication is indicated by letters (Table 1) depicting the content of a given publication: C – culinary and medicine use, methods of fruit bodies conservation; E – economical aspects, financial benefits from truffle hunting; L – belles-letters (poems, tales, songs, etc.); H – truffle hunting methods, dogs training; O – ecology, environmental conditions conducive to truffle occurrence; S – diversity of truffle species, truffle protection; T– truffle orchard establishment; X – others. Table 2 lists cookbooks and indicates the number of recipes with truffles.

Table 1 Truffles in Polish literature
Table 2 Truffles in Polish cookbooks


From the 17th century to the second world war

The first recipes for dishes with truffles can be found in the first Polish cookbook written by Stanislaw Czerniecki [41], who worked as a chamberlain at Michał Lubomirski’s court in Kraków. The book contains recipes for fish stuffed with truffles and truffles baked in the ashes. At that time, nobles in Poland used to hunt for truffles with dogs [42], which indicates the prevalence of these fungi. Kluk indicated the truffle in his publications [43, 44] as one of many forest products. Following publications from the 19th century, the data on truffle hunting with trained dogs can be found [23, 45,46,47,48].

At the time of King Augustus II the Strong (1697–1706, 1709–1733) and King Augustus III (1733–1763), truffles were used as a condiment to Polish dishes, and new ones came to Poland with French chefs [41]. Kuchowicz [49], describing Polish customs in the 17th and 18th centuries, also noted that dishes with truffle were served. In another Polish cookbook written by Wielądko [50], a recipe for chicken with truffles can be found. In the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century, the comments on truffles as well as the number of recipes with truffles indicate the culinary use of truffle [51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63].

Kluk, in his work [43], wrote about truffles as a product of lower forest utility: ‘here, I could assign the truffles, especially those growing in the oak forests, as valuable and prized at nobles’ tables if I would not consider how hard it is to find them and that they are not typical of all types of forest’. Later, Kluk [44] reported about the medicinal properties of truffles and its potions’ components. Over a century later, Schnaider [64] depicted the use of truffles by the Huculs (an ethnic group living in the southern part of Ukraine and in the north of Romania), who used truffles to mitigate heart problems. Contemporary data confirmed the medicinal properties of truffles in this context [65].

A few writers and poets have written about truffles. Usually, a truffle appeared as a metaphor for love in the Manual of Love Franz Blei [66] or as poems and epigrams for children, for example, those of Brzechwa [67] and Ścisłowski [68].

In the 18th and 19th centuries, some authors described domestic truffles and places of their growth [53, 69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77,78]. It was also during this time when Polish Count Michał Jan Borch [79], scientist and naturalist, started searching for methods of truffle cultivation. The whitish truffle (T. borchii) is named after him.

The first study on the establishment of truffle orchards, which occurred in Poland, comes from a translation from German from the book by Bornholz [80]. Another publication by the author was published in Polish journals, such as Piast czyli pamiętnik technologiczny [81] and in Sylwan [82], and it shows the interest in cultivation of truffles at that time. Some hints on hunting for truffles and growing truffles were also published by Gawarecki [83]. Due to a survey done in 1883 on plants’ common names incited by Rostafiński (the professor of botany of Jagiellonian University in Krakow) [84], the presence of hypogeous fungi, very likely Tuber spp. or Choiromyces meandriformis in southern and eastern parts of Poland, was confirmed. Interest in truffles is given also by Szulczewski [85] who reported selling three species of fungi, viz.: Scleroderma vulgare, S. verrucosum and Rhizopogon luteolus as true truffles (black or white, respectively).

Rich notes dedicated to truffle occurrence, cultivation and culinary use are also given by Teodorowicz [86]. The author emphasized the phenomenon of symbiosis linking truffles and trees. Mutualistic characters of plants and animals’ relation, including flies and beetles, which are vectors of truffles are highlighted by Kurcyusz [87]. This theme was rather rarely present in Polish research and came back over 100 years later [88, 89].

The aftermath of the second world war

After the Second World War truffles were forgotten due to some changes of social and cultural character as well as changes of forest management. Primary factors determining truffle forgetfulness are given in further part of this article.

In the late 40s of the last century, despite the rich body of historical records on truffle, their presence in Poland was questioned [90]. However, at the beginning of the 1950s, some authors confirmed their occurrence [91, 92]. Lubelska [92] noted the sites of seven truffles species, including T. aestivum, T. borchii, T. rufum, T. puberulum, T. rapeodorum and T. melanospermum.

At the beginning of the 1980s, truffles began receiving attention again. Ławrynowicz [93] provided a scientific basis and summarized the knowledge about underground fungi. She described nineteen genera of ascomycetes that produce subterranean fruiting bodies, including Tuber spp. Data on the differentiation and classification of 21 European truffle species are given in this book. Based on available herbarium material, Ławrynowicz confirmed eight truffle species in Poland, among which only two are considered to be culinary prized, viz. T. mesentericum and T. borchii.

In 1981, T. mesentericum was found by Ławrynowicz for the first time at one location [38]. Currently, there are five known locations of this species in southern Poland [94, 95]. In Poland, this species is the only one among the other truffles which is under species’ legal protection [96].

In 2007, research on truffles conducted by Italian scientists revealed the presence of T. aestivum and other truffle species in Nida Basin [97]. The identity of T. aestivum, T. maculatum, and T. fulgens was genetically confirmed, and the sequences are deposited in NCBI (for example, [39]). Another economically and culinarily valid species of truffle, T. macrosporum, was found in the autumn of 2012 [40]. Its sequences were also deposited in the above-mentioned Gene Bank.

Ongoing research on truffles considers different aspects of the truffle’s life, and the number of publication dealing with the subject has been increasing [98]. In the last decade, the first Polish truffle orchards with seedlings inoculated from a native inoculum have been established, and in the oldest one, which was established in 2008, fruit bodies of T. aestivum occurred last autumn. The dates of the research done in the last decade were published by Hilszczańska and co-workers [97,98,99,100,101,102].

Truffles in Polish literature through the ages

The knowledge of truffles dates back to the 17th and 18th centuries. At the beginning of the 19th century, the number of publications about truffles increased, which reflected the interest of Polish society in the fungi. During the 19th century, 31 articles were published on the topic of truffles. Similarly, in the 20th century, 30 works concerning truffles have been published, with most of them published in the first half of the 20th century (Fig. 1). Table 1 shows the list of publications dealing with truffles published between 1661 and 2017.

Fig. 1

Number of publications on truffles in Poland from the 17th century to today

The main topics of these articles are the ecology of truffles and the environmental conditions conducive to their development, as well as their distribution. A great number of publications contain culinary and medicinal properties of the fungi, as well as methods for their storage. Topics on the culinary truffles appear not only in cookbooks but also in publications about the customs of the court over the centuries. In the 19th century, the focus was often on hunting for truffles and placing dogs for exploration, but today, most attention is paid to both the ecology and the protection aspects.

It has been observed that the number of cookbooks with recipes for dishes with truffles, as well as the number of stand-alone recipes, has increased over the centuries (Fig. 2). Some of them were subsequently reproduced, for example, the recipe for truffle sauce [54, 55, 60] or the recipe for the sirloin with truffle sauce [59, 60, 103]. Some names of the dishes indicate the preferences of Polish aristocrats, for instance, ‘Perch à la Radziwiłł’, or ‘Chop à la Radziwiłł’ [59]. The golden age of truffles in Poland ended with the Second World War. Their use over the centuries is shown in Table 2.

Fig. 2

Number of recipes with truffles in Polish cookbooks from the 17th century until today

Conclusions and future perspectives

Tracing the historical data on truffles indicates that truffles have been present in Polish culture for centuries. The fungi were valued and initially served at the royal court and aristocrats’ tables, such as those of Radziwiłłs, Branickis, and Lubomirskis. Gradually, the culinary use of truffles went into broader society levels, and hunting for truffles, together with traditional hunting, became popular. To train dogs for truffle finding, professionals were employed. Disappearance of truffles as a well-known delicacy after the Second World War was due to some factors of a socio-economic nature:

  1. 1.

    Changes in forest cover. After the Second World War, forests comprised only 20.8% of Polish territory. Unfavourable conditions for fruiting truffles included changes in species composition, age structure of stands and changes of forest management. For example, undergrowth shading the forest floor was more common due to the cessation of grazing in forests.

  2. 2.

    Changes in the structure of forest ownership and use. The disappearance of traditional types of forest use, such as cattle grazing and collection of brushwood.

  3. 3.

    Changes at the society level due to war and the great loss of Polish citizens, especially the loss of Polish aristocracy and intelligentsia, including foresters, or social groups with the most knowledge and practice regarding collection, use and cultivation of truffles; emigration and migration of population from rural to urban areas.

  4. 4.

    The communist regime promoted “pork chop and carp” as the food for the ‘working class’ rather than the traditional delicacies of Polish cuisine. Truffles as a luxury product for the nobility were not welcomed by new authorities.

In Poland, research on the factors determining truffles’ cultivation is still in the pioneering stage [100]. Truffles in Poland are considered as rare fungi and many species remain undiscovered. Some of them, Tuber aestivum, for example, have the status of extinct and missing species on the Polish Red List of Plants and Fungi [104]. The area of soils which are conducive to truffle’ development is rather small. According to Krasowicz et al. [105] rendzinas and pararendzinas are only 1.1% of all type of soils. Moreover, a great part of the soil is used for agricultural purposes, and only a small portion is covered with forests. For instance, around the Forest District in Pińczów (Nida Basin), the location where research on truffles has been occurring since 2007 [97, 100], forest cover is only 10%. The share of stands on rendzic soil is only 7% of the forest area [106] (Plan Urządzenia Gospodarstwa Leśnego Nadleśnictwa Pińczów na lata 2013─2022).

Although it seems that scarcity of soils conducive to truffle growth could be a serious obstacle to promote and establish truffle orchards in Poland, the results of our pioneering work brings hope. We have obtained fruit bodies of T. aestivum after 8 years in truffle orchards established in eastern Poland [102]. Two other orchards are cared for by the Forest Research Institute, and new orchards are established every year by individual entrepreneurs. Currently, the priority in our work is to bring the truffles back to Polish society and to achieve in situ protection of Tuber fungi [97, 100, 107].


  1. 1.

    Mello A, Murat C, Bonfante P. Truffles: much more than a prized and local fungal delicacy. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;260:1–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Figliuolo G, Trupo G, Mang S. A realized Tuber magnatum niche in the upper Sinni area (south Italy). Open J Genet. 2013;3(2):102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Riccioni C, Rubini A, Belfiori B, Gregori G, Paolocci F. Tuber magnatum: the special one. What makes it so different from the other Tuber spp.? In: True truffle (Tuber spp.) in the world. Switzerland: Springer; 2016. p. 87–103.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Pieroni A. The changing ethnoecological cobweb of white truffle (Tuber magnatum Pico) gatherers in south piedmont, NW Italy. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2016;12(1):1–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Murat C, Vizzini A, Bonfante P, Mello A. Morphological and molecular typing of the below-ground fungal community in a natural Tuber magnatum truffle-ground. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;245(2):307–13.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Bratek Z, Gógán A, Halàsz K, Bagi I, Erdei V, Bujàki G. The northernmost habitats of Tuber magnatum known from Hungary. In: First hypogean mushroom conference, 6–8.04.2004, Rabat, Morocco; 2004. p. 28–30.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Rubini A, Paolocci F, Riccioni C, Vendramin GG, Arcioni S. Genetic and phylogeographic structures of the symbiotic fungus Tuber magnatum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71(11):6584–9.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Bragato G, Vignozzi N, Pellegrini S, Sladonja B. Physical characteristics of the soil environment suitable for Tuber magnatum production in fluvial landscapes. Plant Soil. 2010;329(1–2):51–63.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hall IR, Yun W, Amicucci A. Cultivation of edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. Trends Biotechnol. 2003;21(10):433–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Hall I, Wang Y, Danell E, Zambonelli A. Truffles and other edible mycorrhizal mushrooms-some new crops for the southern hemisphere. In: Hall I, editor. Edible mycorrhizal mushrooms and their cultivation. Proceedings of the second international conference on edible mycorrhizal mushrooms, Christchurch, New Zealand, 3–6 July, 2001. Lincoln: Crop & Food Research; 2002. p. 1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Martin F, Kohler A, Murat C, Balestrini R, Coutinho PM, Jaillon O, et al. Périgord black truffle genome uncovers evolutionary origins and mechanisms of symbiosis. Nature. 2010;464(7291):1033–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    García-Montero LG, Diaz P, Martin-Fernandez S, Casermeiro MA. Soil factors that favour the production of Tuber melanosporum carpophores over other truffle species: a multivariate statistical approach. Acta Agric Scand Sect B Soil Plant Sci. 2008;58(4):322–9.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Thomas P. An analysis of the climatic parameters needed for Tuber melanosporum cultivation incorporating data from six continents. Mycosphere. 2014;5(1):137–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Büntgen U, et al. Truffles and climate change. Front Ecol Environ. 2011;9:150–1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Büntgen U, Egli S, Camarero JJ, Fischer EM, Stobbe U, Kauserud H, et al. Drought-induced decline in Mediterranean truffle harvest. Nat Clim Chang. 2011;2(12):827–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Boddy L, Büntgen U, Egli S, Gange AC, Heegaard E, Kirk PM, et al. Climate variation effects on fungal fruiting. Fungal Ecol. 2014;10:20–33.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Shavit E. The history of desert truffle use. In: Kagan-Zur V, editor. Desert truffles phylogeny, physiology, distribution and domestication. Berlin: Springer; 2014. p. 217–41.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Bradai L, Neffar S, Amrani K, Bissati S, Chenchouni H. Ethnomycological survey of traditional usage and indigenous knowledge on desert truffles among the native Sahara Desert people of Algeria. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;162:31–8.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Tartufi RS. Frutti della terra, figli degli dei. Series: I preziosi della gastronomia. Genova: Sagep; 2011.

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Reyna S, García-Barreda S. Black truffle cultivation: a global reality. For Sys. 2014;3(2):317–28.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Hall I, Brown G, Zambonelli A. Taming the truffle. The history, lore, and science of the ultimate mushroom. Portland: Timberpress; 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Heim R. Champignons d'Europe. Généralités. Ascomycètes. Basidiomycètes. 2ème édition. Paris: N. Boubée & Cie; 1969.

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Szytler J. Poradnik dla myśliwych: czyli o rozmaitych sposobach zabijania lub łowienia zwierząt, z przydanemi uwagami nad obchodzeniem się z bronią utrzymywaniem koni, układaniem psów i sokołów do polowania zbieraniem i konserwowaniem trufli, urządzaniem wabiów itd. […]. Wilno: Ruben Rafałowicz; 1839.

  24. 24.

    Micheli PA. Nova plantarum genera [...]. Florentiae: Bernardi Paperini; 1729.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Vittadini C. Monographia tuberacearum. Mediolani: Ex Typographia Felicis Rusconi; 1831.

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Tulasne LR, Tulasne C. Fungi hypogaei: histoire et monographie des champignons hypogés. Paris: Friedrich Klincksieck; 1851.

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Trappe JM, et al. Diversity, ecology, and conservation of truffle fungi in forests of the Pacific northwest. Portland: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station; 2009.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Hall IR, Zambonelli A. Laying the foundations. In: Zambonelli A, Bonito GM, editors. Edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms, current knowledge and future prospects. Berlin: Springer; 2012. p. 3–16.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Kamieński F. Les organes végétatifs de Monotropa hypopitys L. Cherbourg: Imprimerie Ch. Syffert; 1882.

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Frank AB. Über die auf Wurzelsymbiose beruhende Ernährung gewisser Baume durch unterirdische Pilze. Ber Deut Bot Ges. 1885;3:128–45.

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Chevalier G. Du congrès de Spoleto à celui d’Aix-en Provence: les avances en matière de recherches sur la truffe et la trufficulture en France. W: Actes du Veme Congrès International Science et Culture de la Truffe et des autres Champignons Hypogés Comestibles, pod. red. Savignac, J. C., 4–6 mars 1999. Aix-en-Provence: Fédération Française des Trufficulteurs; 2001. p. 11–15.

  32. 32.

    Büntgen U, Kauserud H, Egli S. Linking mushroom productivity and phenology to climate variability. Front Ecol Environ. 2012;10:14–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Chevalier G. Truffles and truffle cultivation in Europe. Tuber 2008. 3° Congresso Internazionale di Spoleto sul tartufo; 2008. p. 8.

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Streiblová E, Gryndlerová H, Valda S, Gryndler M. Tuber aestivum – hypogeous fungus neglected in the Czech Republic. Czech Mycol. 2010;61(2):163–73.

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Bonito GM, Gryganskyi AP, Trappe JM, Vilgalys R. A global meta-analysis of Tuber ITS rDNA sequences: species diversity, host associations and long-distance dispersal. Mol Ecol. 2010;19:4994–5008.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Ceruti A, Fontana A, Nosenzo C. European species of the genus Tuber. An historical revision. Museo regionale di scienze naturali. Monographie XXXVII. Regione Piemonte: Torino; 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Alvarado P, Moreno G, Manjón JL. Comparison between Tuber gennadii and T. oligospermum lineages reveals the existence of the new species T. cistophilum (Tuberaceae, Pezizales). Mycologia. 2012;104(4):894–910.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Ławrynowicz M. Tuber mesentericum, an interesting species of black truffle in Poland. Acta Mycol. 1999;34(1):169–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Hilszczańska et al. 2010.

  40. 40.

    Hilszczańska D, Rosa-Gruszecka A, Sikora K, Szmidla H. First report of Tuber macrosporum occurrence in Poland. Sci Res Essays. 2013;7(23):1096–9.

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Czerniecki S. Compedium Ferculorum albo zebranie potraw. Kraków: Szedlowie Jerzy i Mikołaj; 1682.

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Hubert BM. Von den Tuberibus subterraneis, oder Truffeln, wi auch von der hierzu gebrauchlichen besonderen Art Spur oder sogenandten Truffel Hunde. Sammlung von Natur- und Medicin-, wie auch hierzu gehörigen Kunst- und Literatur-Geschichten. 1719;9:597–603.

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Kluk JK. Roślin potrzebnych, pożytecznych, wygodnych, osobliwie krajowych albo które w kraju użytkowane być mogą, utrzymanie, rozmnożenie i zażycie, vol. 2. Warszawa: Drukarnia Nadworna JK Mci i P. Kom; 1778. p. 183.

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Kluk K. Dykcyonarz Roślinny, vol. 1–3. Warszawa: Drukarnia Xięży Piarów (reprint of 1786 work); 1805-1811.

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Bobiatyński I. Nauka Łowiectwa we dwóch tomach, vol. 1. Wilno: Józef Zawadzki; 1823. p. 36.

    Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Gołębiowski Ł. Gry i zabawy różnych stanów w kraju całym, lub niektórych tylko prowincyach. Warszawa: Glücksberg; 1831. p. 146.

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Błoński F. Kilka słów o truflach krajowych i sposobach ich poszukiwania. Wszechświat. 1888;7:582–5.

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Rewieński S. Pies: jego gatunki, rasy, wychów, utrzymanie, użytki, układanie. Warszawa: Gebethner i Wolff; 1893. p. 273.

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Kuchowicz Z. Obyczaje staropolskie: XVII-XVIII wieku. Łódź: Wydawnictwo łódzkie; 1975. p. 39.

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Wielądko W. Kucharz doskonały, pożyteczny dla zatrudniających się gospodarstwem [...]. Warszawa: Michał Gröll; 1783.

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Szczepański JJ. Co dzisiay gotować czyli Sposób sporządzenia smakowitych potraw z mięsiwa, ryb, iarzyny i ciasta, przyprawiania rozmaitey podlewy, czyli sosów, tudzież robienia przednich galaret, tortów i pasztetów. Lwów: nakł. i dr. Józefa Jana Pillera; 1822.

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Gołębiowski Ł. Domy i dwory, przy tem opisanie apteczki, kuchni, stołów. Warszawa: Druk N. Glücksberga; 1830. p. 47.

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Dąbkiewicz J. Spiżarnia wiejska obywatelska [...]. Wilno: A. Marcinkowski; 1838.

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Leśniewski PE. Poradnik dla gospodyń wiejskich i miejskich, czyli Zbiór rad, wiadomości i przepisów obejmujący różne szczegóły gospodarstwa kobiécego [...], vol. 3. Warszawa: A. E. Glücksberg; 1838. p. 332.

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Leśniewska B. Kucharz polski jaki być powinien: książka podręczna dla ekonomiczno-troskliwych gospodyń. Warszawa: S. H. Merzbach; 1856. p. 481.

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Kraszewski JI. Wspomnienia Wołynia, Polesia i Litwy. Wilno: Nakład i druk T. Glücksberga; 1840. p. 106.

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Berdau F. Trufle. In: Encyklopedia powszechna, vol. 25. Warszawa: S. Orgelbrand; 1867. p. 604–7.

    Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Biełozierska K. Nowa praktyczna gospodyni litewska. Warszawa: Gebethner i Wolff; 1889.

    Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Norkowska M. Najnowsza kuchnia wytworna i gospodarska zawierająca 1032 przepisy gospodarskie, z uwzględnieniem kuchni jarskiej. Warszawa-Kraków Gebethner i Wolff; 1903. p. 229.

    Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Niewiarowska F, Małecka W. Kucharka Polska: czyli Szkoła gotowania tanich, smacznych i zdrowych obiadów. Cz. 1. Lwów: nakładem autorek; 1905. p. 340.

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Owoczyńska A. Najnowsza kuchnia warszawska zawierająca przeszło 1200 przepisów różnych potraw. Warszawa: Księgarnia Popularna; 1914. p. 341.

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Swoboda J. Użytek z grzybów w gospodarstwie domowem. Miejsce Piastowe: Nakładem autora; 1928.

    Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Śleżańska M. Kucharz polski. 635 praktycznych przepisów smacznych, tanich, wystawnych obiadów. Wydanie ósme poprawione i powiększone. Katowice: Księgarnia J. Leitgebera i S-ka; 1932.

    Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Schnaider J. Z kraju Hucułów. Medycyna ludowa. Lud. 1900;4(41):157–60.

    Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Gajos M, Ryszka F, Geistlinger J. The therapeutic potential of truffle fungi: a patent survey. Acta Mycol. 2014;49(2):305–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Blei F. Podręczniki miłości, vol. 1-3. Łódź: Księgarnia L. Fiszera; 1923.

    Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Brzechwa J. Grzyby. Biuro Wydawnicze “Ruch”, Warszawa. 1958.

    Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Ścisłowski W. Wesołe grzybobranie – fraszki dla dzieci. Rzeszów: Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza; 1986.

    Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Jundziłł J. Botanika Stosowana Czyli Wiadomość o Własnościach Y Uzyciu Roslin w Handlu, Ekonomice, Rękodziełach, o ich Oyczyźnie, mnożeniu, utrzymywaniu według Układu Linneusza. Wilno: Drukarnia Dyecezalna; 1799. p. 465–76.

    Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Zawadzki A. Enumeratio plantarum Galiciae et Bucovinae. Oder die in Galizien und der Bukowina wildwachsenden Pflanzen mit genauer Angabe ihrer Standorte. Breslau: Korn; 1835. p. 179.

    Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Pisulewski S. Gromady przyrodzone królestwa roślinnego: Podług układu Ant. Wawrz. de Jussieu. Warszawa: Jan Kaczanowski; 1841. p. 9–10.

    Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Gerald-Wyżycki J. Zielnik ekonomiczno-techniczny: czyli, Opisanie drzew, krzewów i roślin dziko rosnących w kraju, jako też przyswojonych, z pokazaniem użytku ich w ekonomice, rękodziełach, fabrykach i medycynie domowéj, z wyszczególnieniem jadowitych i szkodliwych. Wilno: Drukiem J. Zawadzkiego; 1845. p. 303–5.

    Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Czerwiakowski IR. Botanika szczególna. Vol. 1. Opisanie roślin skrytopłciowych lekarskich i przemysłowych. Kraków: Drukarnia Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego; 1849.

    Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Plater S. Mała encyklopedia polska, vol. 2. Poznań: Ernest Günther; 1847. p. 492.

    Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Belke G. Rys historyi naturalnej Kamieńca Podolskiego: poprzedzony krótką wiadomością o pracach uczonych w przedmiotach geologii, paleontologii, botaniki i zoologii, w Polsce w XIX wieku. Warszawa: Druk Gazety Codziennej; 1859. p. 42.

    Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Lelewel J. Geografja, opisanie, krajów Polskich: Geographische Beschreibung der polnischen Länder. Poznań: W drukarni Jana Konstantego Żupańskiego; 1859. p. 45.

    Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Bill JG. Najważniejsze grzyby jadalne i jadowite [...]. Wiedeń: Tłocznia OO Mechitharystów; 1860. p. 25–6.

    Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Spausta W. Trufle. Sylwan. 1897;15(6,7):161–7. 201–208

    Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Borch MJ. Lettres sur les truffes du Piémont, écrites en 1780. Milan: Chez les freres Reycends; 1780.

    Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Bornholz A. O sposobie uprawiania trufli w lasach i ogrodach. Warszawa: nakładem i drukiem Zawadzkiego i Węckiego Uprzywilejowanych Drukarzy i Xiegarzy Dworu Królestwa Polskiego; 1828.

    Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Bornholz A. O uprawie trufli. Piast: czyli pamiętnik technologiczny […]. 1829;8:13–24.

    Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Bornholz A. O sposobach uprawiania trufli w lasach I ogrodach. Sylwan. 1830;7:348–55.

    Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Gawarecki Z. Trufle i ich sztuczne pielęgnowanie. Lwów: Red. “Bartnika Postępowego”; 1895. p. 57.

    Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Łuczaj Ł, Köhler P. Grzyby w ankiecie Józefa Rostafińskiego (1850-1928) ogłoszonej w 1883 r. Etnobiologia Polska. 2014;4:5–54.

    Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Szulczewslki JW. Grzyby sprzedawane na targach Poznania. Rocznnik Nauk Rolniczych i Leśnych. 1933;29:1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Teodorowicz F. Projekt masowego zużytkowania bogactwa grzybowego lasów, łąk i ogrodów. Lwów: Księgarnia H. Altenberga, G. Seyfartha, E. Wendego i Sp.; 1917. p. 40.

    Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Kurcyusz A. Wzajemne stosunki roślin i zwierząt. Warszawa: Druk. Synów St. Niemiry; 1911.

    Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Byk A, Mokrzycki T, Rosa-Gruszecka A, Tylkowski S, Zamojski M. Grzybolcowate (Bolboceratidae) i wygonakowate (Ochodaeidae) - aktywność, wymagania ekologiczne i metody obserwacji. Studia i Materiały Centrum Edukacji Przyrodniczo-Leśnej w Rogowie. 2016;49A(4):124–41.

    Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Rosa-Gruszecka A, Gange AC, Harvey DJ, Jaworski T, Hilszczański J, Plewa R, et al. Insect-truffle interactions–potential threats to emerging industries? Fungal Ecol. 2017;25:59–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Orłoś H. Czy trufle prawdziwie rosną w Polsce? Czasopismo ogrodnicze. Organ Związku Rewizyjnego Spółdzielni RP I Centrali Gospodarczej Spółdzielni Ogrodniczych RP. 1947;10:14.

    Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Biegańska-Hornowska J. Grzyby jadalne i trujące. Łódź: Spółdzielnia Wydawniczo-Oświatowa “Czytelnik”; 1950.

    Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Lubelska B. O występowaniu trufli (Tuber Mich. i Choiromyces Vitt.) w Polsce. Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica. 1953;1:87–96.

    Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Ławrynowicz M. Grzyby (Mycota). In: Workowce (Ascomycetes), jeleniakowe (Elaphomycetales), truflowe (Tuberales), vol. 18. Warszawa: PWN; 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Ławrynowicz M, Krzyszczyk T, Faldzinski M. Occurrence of black truffles in Poland. Acta Mycol. 2008;43(2):143–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Ławrynowicz M. Four Tuber species accompanying T. mesentericum in natural sites in Poland. Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid. 2009;66(1):145–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Ustawa z dnia 16 kwietnia 2004 r. o ochronie przyrody, Dz.U. 2004 nr 92 poz. 880, z późn. zm.

  97. 97.

    Hilszczańska D, Sierota Z, Palenzona M. New Tuber species found in Poland. Mycorrhiza. 2008;18(4):223–6.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Gajos M, Hilszczańska D. Research on truffles: scientific journals analysis. Sci Res Essays. 2013;8(38):1837–47.

    Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Hilszczańska D. Propozycja mikoryzacji sadzonek drzew leśnych z udziałem trufli letniej (Tuber aestivum) w Polsce. Sylwan. 2009;153(4):281–9.

    Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Hilszczańska D, Rosa-Gruszecka A, Szmidla H. Characteristic of Tuber spp. localities in natural stands with emphasis on plant species composition. Acta Mycol. 2014;49(2):267–77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Hilszczańska D. Popularyzacja upraw truflowych w Polsce jako metody ochrony gatunkowej trufli letniej i zagospodarowania terenów nieleśnych. Studia i Materiały Centrum Edukacji Przyrodniczo-Leśnej. 2015;17(3):44.

    Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Hilszczańska D, Szmidla H, Horak J, Rosa-Gruszecka A. Ectomycorrhizal communities in a Tuber aestivum Vittad. Orchard in Poland. Open Life Sci. 2016;11(1):348–57.

    Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    Ćwierczakiewicz L. 365 obiadów za 5 złotych. Warszawa: Drukarnia Aleksandra Pajewskiego; 1871. p. 369.

    Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    Mirek Z, Zarzycki K, Wojewoda W, Szeląg Z. Czerwona lista roślin i grzybów Polski. Kraków: Instytut Botaniki PAN im. W. Szafera; 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    Krasowicz S, Oleszek W, Horabik J, Dębicki R, Jankowiak J, Stuczyński T, et al. Racjonalne gospodarowanie środowiskiem glebowym Polski. Polish J Agronomy. 2011;7:43–58.

    Google Scholar 

  106. 106.

    Plan Urządzenia Gospodarstwa Leśnego Nadleśnictwa Pińczów na lata 2013─2022. Plan Equipment Forestry Commission Forest Holding Pińczów for years 2013─2022.

  107. 107.

    Rosa-Gruszecka A, Hilszczanska D, Szmidla H. Warunki środowiskowe sprzyjające występowaniu trufli (Tuber spp.) na historycznych stanowiskach w Polsce. Leśne Prace Badawcze. 2014;75(1):5–11.

    Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    Pasek JC. Pamiętniki Jana Chryzostoma Paska z czasów panowania Jana Kazimierza, Michała Korybuta i Jana III (1690–1695) wydane z rękopismu przez Edwarda Raczyńskiego. Poznań: Nakład JJ Heinego; 1840. p. 138.

    Google Scholar 

  109. 109.

    Kitowicz J. Pamiętniki do panowania Augusta III i Stanisława Augusta z rękopismu. Poznań: W. Deckert i spółka; 1840. p. 227–9.

    Google Scholar 

  110. 110.

    Wydrzyński K. Przewodnik dla służby leśnej rządowej, czyli przepisy zawiadywania rządowego lasów […], vol. 1. Warszawa: Redakcja Sylwana; 1853. p. 381.

    Google Scholar 

  111. 111.

    Kurowski W. Myślistwo w Polsce i Litwie. Poznań: W drukarni Jana Konstantego Żupańskiego; 1865.

    Google Scholar 

  112. 112.

    Aleksandrowicz J, Błoński F. Trufle. In: Encyklopedia rolnicza, vol. 3. Warszawa: Muzeum Przemysłu i Rolnictwa; 1894. p. 616.

    Google Scholar 

  113. 113.

    Doleżan W. Trufle tatrzańskie. Wszechświat; 1901. p. 42.

    Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    Chełchowski S. Trufle Warszawskie. Wszechświat. 1905;33(1220):525–6.

    Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    Hildt LF. Wskazówki zbierania owadów tęgopokrywych. Warszawa: Druk Rubieszewskiego i Wrotnowskiego; 1910.

    Google Scholar 

  116. 116.

    Ochorowicz-Monatowa M. Uniwersalna książka kucharska: przeszło 2200 skromnych i wytwornych przepisów gospodarskich i kuchennych z uwzględnieniem niezbędnych warunków odpowiedniej dyety, codziennej hygieny oraz kuchni jarskiej. Warszawa: E. Wende; 1910.

    Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    Kobylański J. O truflach i polowaniu na nie. Ilustrowany Kuryer Codzienny; 1932. p. 351.

    Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    Orłoś H. Znaczenie grzybów w przyrodzie i gospodarce człowieka. Lwów-Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Książnica; 1938.

    Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    Dąbrowska M. Dzienniki powojenne 1945–1949, vol. 1. Warszawa: Czytelnik; 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  120. 120.

    Orłoś H. Atlas grzybów jadalnych i trujących. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Leśne; 1953.

    Google Scholar 

  121. 121.

    Lemnis M, Vitry H. W staropolskiej kuchni i przy polskim stole. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Interpress; 1970.

    Google Scholar 

  122. 122.

    Ihnatowicz I. Obyczaj wielkiej burżuazji warszawskiej w XIX wieku. Warszawa: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy; 1971. p. 78–9.

    Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    Grzywacz A. Grzyby leśne. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Leśne; 1988. p. 68.

    Google Scholar 

  124. 124.

    Kowecka E. Dwór “Najrządniejszego w Polszcze magnata”. Warszawa: Instytut Historii Kultury Materialnej Polskiej Akademii Nauk; 1991. p. 190–1.

    Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    Jankiewicz U, Russel S, Bagińska E, Hilszczańska D. Aktywność metaboliczna grzybni trufli letniej Tuber aestivum/Tuber uncinatum Vittad. Woda-Środowisko-Obszary Wiejskie. 2015;15(49):59–67.

    Google Scholar 

  126. 126.

    Hilszczańska D. Polskie Trufle. Skarb Odzyskany. O hodowli i kulinariach podziemnego przysmaku. Warszawa: Centrum Informacyjne Lasów Państwowych; 2016.

    Google Scholar 

  127. 127.

    Berger S, Janik K, Kulzowa-Hawliczkowa H, Laskowska M, Nowicka L, Rościszewska-Stoyanow A, et al. Kuchnia Polska. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne; 1968. p. 1–776.

    Google Scholar 

  128. 128.

    Zawistowska Z, Krzyżanowska M. Książka kucharska. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Watra; 1983. p. 1–541.

    Google Scholar 

  129. 129.

    Czerni A. W kuchni bez kompleksów: porady, przepisy. Warszawa: Młodzieżowa Agencja Wydawnicza; 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  130. 130.

    Bytnerowiczowa B. Kuchnia oszczędnej gospodyni. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Watra; 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  131. 131.

    Górska B. Wykwintna kuchnia na każdy dzień: 500 wybranych przepisów z czasopisma Burda Moden z barwnymi zdjęciami. Warszawa: Agencja Muza; 1991.

    Google Scholar 

  132. 132.

    Brodnicki P., Okrasa K. Pascal kontra Okrasa. Seria kuchnia Lidla. 2013.

    Google Scholar 

Download references


We are deeply grateful to Professor Jarosław Dumanowski (Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland) for correspondence and consultations on the history of gastronomy.


This work was supported by the State Forest Holding, project No. OR-, Forest Research Grant No. 260102 and by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, project No. 240309.

Availability of data and materials

The dataset supporting the conclusions of this article was included within the article as its (Tables 1 and 2).

Authors’ contributions

AGR and DH drafted the manuscript and designed the study. All authors conducted literature research and contributed to the preparation and critical revision of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Aleksandra Rosa-Gruszecka.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rosa-Gruszecka, A., Hilszczańska, D., Gil, W. et al. Truffle renaissance in Poland – history, present and prospects. J Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine 13, 36 (2017).

Download citation


  • Ethnomycology
  • Historical data
  • Truffles
  • Cuisine
  • Poland