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Table 3 Ethnomedicinal plants used by local inhabitants of Jakholi Block, Rudraprayag district, Uttarakhand, India

From: Ethnomedicinal plants used by local inhabitants of Jakholi block, Rudraprayag district, western Himalaya, India

Plant Family, botanical name and collection number Common/English name LF Parts used Preparation, Doses, application and ailments categories ∑Citation Previous uses reported
Acanthaceae
Barleria cristata L.
 ASR HAPPRC 1461
Kularkatya / Kuladya/Philippine violet H Leaves, Root Leaf and root paste applied in cuts and wounds. (60, DE) 60 1,2,3,4,5,6,7▲, 8, 9, 10, 11▲,12,13,14,15▲,16▲,17,18,19▲,20,21∆,22,23,24,25,26,27▲,28,29,30▲,31,32,33,34,35
Justica adhatoda L.
 ASR HAPPRC 1601
Basingu/Malabar nut S Leaves, Stem, Flower Leaf buds (5–10) decoction (kwath) 100 ml a time taken thrice a day for treatment of stomachache and fever (12, 23 GA, FI)
Stem used for cleaning teeth. (31,DP)
Flower powder (churna) used for cough and cold (15, RE)
Leaf extract / juice applied for treatment of cut and wounds. (3, DE)
84 1▲,2▲,3,4,5∆,6,7,8,9,10,11▲12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19▲,20,21∆,22,23▲,24∆,25,26,27∆,28,29,30,31∆,32,33,34,35
Acoraceae
Acorus calamus L.
 ASR HAPPRC 1456
Bauj / Baj/Sweet flag H Rhizome Rhizome powder (churna) (2-4 g) + ½ teaspoon Mishri (Sugar lumps) (2–4 g) gently mixed in cold water (250 ml) drunk thrice a day as it acts as refrigerant. (11, GA)
Rhizome powder (churna) used for cleaning teeth. (12, DP)
Fresh or dried rhizome extract dose of 2–3 teaspoons taken orally thrice a day including 1 taken early morning before eating, for treatment of stomachache (jonku). (15, GA)
Rhizome garland used to increase child immunity (17, DU) and also used to cure jaundice. (16 GA)
Rhizome paste applied in burns, cuts and wounds. (4, DE)
75 1∆,2∆,3,4∆,5,6,7,8,9∆,10,11,12,13,14∆,15,16,17,18∆,19∆,20,21,22∆,23▲,24,25∆,26,27▲,28,29,30∆,31,32,33∆,34,35∆
Amaryllidaceae
Allium cepa L.
 ASR HAPPRC 1404
Pyaz/Onion H Bulb Bulb juice (swarasa) used for treatment of burns, and skin diseases. (69, DE)
Bulb juice 1–2 drop is used for earache. (29, EC)
98 1,2,3∆,4∆,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12∆,13,14∆,15,16,17,18∆,19,20∆,21,22,23,24,25,26,27▲,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Anacardiaceae
Mangifera indica L.
 ASR HAPPRC 1618
Aam/Mango T Seeds Seed extract / juice (rasa) (Fig. 11) 1 teaspoon used to cure stomachache, dysentery and diarrhea (especially for child) (12,19, GA) 31 1,2,3,4,5∆,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14∆,15,16,17∆,18,19,20∆,21,22,23,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Apiaceae
Centella asiatica (L.) Urban
 ASR HAPPRC 1408
Brahmi/Asiatic pennywort H Aerial part Bramhi leaf paste applied for treatment of headache. (25, HA)
Daily use of bramhi juice beneficial for eyesight, leaf powder (churna) is also used for same action. (40, OP)
65 1∆,2∆,3▲,4∆,5∆,6,7,8,9∆,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17∆,18▲,19,20,21,22∆,23∆,24∆,25∆,26,27∆,28∆,29,30,31,32,33,34∆,35
Apocynaceae
Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand.
 ASR HAPPRC 1413
Aak/Crown Flower S Leaves, Latex Leaves used for treatment of joint pain, swelling (used as garam patti). (37, SK)
Latex is useful in skin diseases. (2, DE)
39 1,2,3,4∆,5∆,6,7,8,9,10,11∆,12,13,14,15,16,17,18∆,19∆,20∆,21∆,22,23,24,25∆,26,27∆,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35∆
Asphodelaceae
Aloe vera (L.) Brum.f.
 ASR HAPPRC 1627
Alovera / Gwarpatha H Leaves Leaves sac is used for treatment of skin diseases and burns. (65, DE) 65 1∆,2▲,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30▲,31∆,32,33,34,35
Asparagaceae
Asparagus adscendens Roxb.
 ASR HAPPRC 1456
Jhirni/Asparagus S Root, Seeds Root bark (100 g) + Seeds (5-10 g) are ground mixed with ghee(clarified butter) (1 tablespoon) and then shade dried; prepared powder (churna) is taken 1 teaspoon orally thrice a day with milk to remove weakness. (98, DU)
Root (50–60 g) cooked with cow milk (100 ml) (sodna) + 1–2 tablespoon sugar, (paka) taken orally thrice a day to increase memory power and body weight. Tuberous roots are also galactagogue (increasing and activating mammary gland). (26, GY)
124 1,2▲,3,4,5,6,7,8▲,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18∆,19∆,20,21∆,22,23,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30▲,31∆,32,33,34,35
Asteraceae
Eupatorium adenophora Spreng.
 Syn-Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M.King & H. Rob.
 ASR HAPPRC 1529
Basya/Crofton weed S Leaves, Stem Leaves extract / juice applied in cuts and wounds (antiseptic) and burns. (108, DE)
Stem piece (7–9 each 10–15 cm) dipped in 500 ml water for a night then this extract is drunk early morning for prompt treatment of pimples. (12, DE)
Fresh leaves decoction (kwath) is used for treatment of cough and cold (5–10 ml taken orally thrice a day). (18, RE)
138 1,2▲,3▲,4,5,6▲,7,8,9▲,10,11,12,13,14,15▲,16,17▲,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27▲,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L
 ASR HAPPRC 1585
Kalabasya / Gundrya/Billygoat-weed H Aerial parts Aerial plant parts extract and paste applied for treatment of burns, cuts and wounds. (36, DE) 36 1▲,2▲,3,4,5,6,7▲,8,9,10,11▲,12,13,14,15,16,17▲,18,19,20,21▲,22,23,24,25,26,27∆,28▲,29,30∆,31,32,33,34▲,35▲
Jurinea macrocephala DC.
 ASR HAPPRC 1620
Bishkandaroo H Root Root paste applied for treatment of boils, pimples, cuts and wounds, and skin diseases. (53,6,30,7 DE) 96 1,2,3▲,4,5,6▲,7,8,9∆,10,11,12,13,14,15∆,16,17,18,19,20,21,22∆,23∆,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32▲,33∆,34,35
Senecio nudicaulis Buch-Ham ex D.Don.
 ASR HAPPRC 1605
Neelbadi H Whole plant Fresh leaves juice (swarasa) or extract is used for treatment of ear problem (earache, puss in ear etc.). (10, EC)
Whole plants juice with Mishri (Sugar lumps) (4–6 g) used as refrigerant. (21, GA)
Leaves juice (1 teaspoon) is used for treatment of stomach problems (jonku, mostly occurring in children). (33, GA)
2–3 leaves juice with lukewarm water is used for treatment of fever. (11, FI)
75 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16▲,17,18∆,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27▲,28,29,30,3132,33,34,35
Taraxacum officinale (L.)
 Syn- Taraxacum campylodes G.E. Haglund Weber ex F.H.Wigg.
 ASR HAPPRC 1434
Kadatu/Common Dandelion H Whole plant Tuberous root paste (lepa) applied for treatment of cuts and wounds, headache. (16,17 DE, HA)
Root decoction (kwath) used for treatment of mouth and throat infection. (2, RE)
Whole plant paste (lepa) used for skin diseases and boils. (9, DE)
Fresh or dried root extract / juice used for treatment of fever. (21, FI)
65 1,2▲,3,4,5∆,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13▲,14,15∆,16,17,18,19∆,20,21,22,23,24,25,26∆,27∆,28∆,29∆,30▲,31,32,33∆,34,35
Berberidaceae
Berberis chitria Buch. Hamex Lindl
 ASR HAPPRC 1411
Totar / Totru S Root Decoction (Rasout) (Fig. 8) is used for treatment of eye flu and conjunctivitis. (110, OP)
Root (5–10 g) rubbed with water then ½ teaspoon taken orally thrice a day for treatment of stomachache. (3, GA)
Fresh root extract / juice ½ teaspoon thrice a day for treatment of diabetes. (7, DI)
120 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27▲,28▲,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Berberis lyceum Royle
 ASR HAPPRC 1594
Kingod/Barberry S Root, Inflore-scence Decoction (Rasout) (Fig. 8) of root is used for treatment of conjunctivitis (2–3 drop administered for 3–5 days. (101, OP)
½-1 teaspoon rasout taken orally thrice a day for treatment of stomachache. (3, GA)
Flower extract / juice is also used for treatment of eye infection. (1, OP)
Root is also used in treatment of diabetes. (7, DI)
112 1▲,2▲,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12∆,13,14,15,16∆,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27▲,28,29∆,30▲,31▲,32▲,33▲,34,35
Podophyllum hexandrum Royle
 Syn- Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S. Ying
 ASR HAPPRC 1611
Bankakhri/Indian Podophyllum H Root Root paste (lepa) used for treatment of cuts and wounds, boils, skin diseases. (3,31,8, DE) 42 1,2,3▲,4,5,6▲,7,8,9▲,10▲,11,12,13,14,15▲,16,17,18,19,20,21,22∆,23∆,24,25,26,27,28,29,30∆,31∆,32▲,33▲,34,35▲
Betulaceae
Betula utilis D. Don
 ASR HAPPRC 1624
Bhoj / Bhojpatra/Himalayan birch T Leaves, Bark Leaf and bark extract / juice is used for treatment of cut and wounds, boils. (17, DE) 17 1,2,3∆,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12∆,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23▲,24,25∆,26,27,28,29,30∆,31,32▲,33▲,34,35∆
Brassicaceae
Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.
 ASR HAPPRC 1626
Sarson/Indian mustard H Seeds Seeds oil used as hair tonic and in ear problems. Also used to cure skin diseases (12, 42, 15, HP, EC, DE) 69 1,2,3▲,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34∆,35
Megacarpaea polyandra Benth. ex Madden
 ASR HAPPRC 1616
Barmolu / Barmou H Whole plant Root (4-6 g fresh or dried) rubbed or crushed and mixed with 500 ml water and stayed outside in night covered with cloth and drunk early morning for treatment of fever. (7, FA)
Other preparation for fever (Jar) and refrigerant: root rubbed in chonthri and ½-1 spoon mixed with 1 glass whey / butter-milk (chanch) and 1 spoon sugar lumps (Mishri (Sugar lumps)) taken twice a day.
Whole plant is refrigerant (cooling effect) (56, GA).
Root powder is also beneficial for abdominal problems (17, GA)
Root powder also used as antidote of snake bite and scorpion sting (root paste or powder prepared with ghee (clarified butter) and applied thrice a day) (9, PB)
89 1,2,3▲,4,5,6▲,7,8,9▲,10,11,12∆,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Caprifoliaceae
Nardostachys jatamansi (D. Don) DC.
 ASR HAPPRC 1428
Maasi/Spikenard H Rhizome Rhizome powder ½ teaspoon taken orally thrice a day with water to cure mental disorder and insomnia. (29,35, MA) 64 1,2,3▲,4▲,5,6,7∆,8,9∆,10∆,11,12∆,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22∆,23∆,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32∆,33,34,35
Valeriana jatamansi Jones
 ASR HAPPRC 1526
Sumaya/Indian Valerian H Rhizome Rhizome powder ½ teaspoon and 5-10 g Mishri (Sugar lumps) taken orally twice a day with lukewarm water for treatment of insomnia (7, MA), abdominal pain, digestive problems (2, GA), cough and cold. (2, RA)
Rhizome paste applied in cuts and wounds, boils, skin diseases and headache (4,15,3,2, DE, HA)
35 1,2▲,3,4∆,5,6▲,7,8,9▲,10,11,12,13∆,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21,22∆,23,24,25,26▲,27∆,28▲,29,30▲,31,32∆,33▲,34,35
Caryophyllaceae
Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Schult.
 ASR HAPPRC 1406
Daidya/Tropical Chickweed H Aerial part Paste of aerial part is used to cure herpes (Makra/Daad). (6, DE)
Leaves juice is used for treatment of fever and headache. (13, FI, HA)
19 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11∆,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30,31,32,33∆,34∆,35
Combretaceae
Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.
 ASR HAPPRC 1582
Baheda/Beleric T Fruit Fruit peel powder is useful in cough and respiratory diseases. (22,10, RE) 32 1▲,2▲,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11▲,12,13,14▲,15,16,17,18∆,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30∆,31,32,33,34,35
Terminalia chebula Retz.
 ASR HAPPRC 1598
Haida/Myrobalan T Fruit Fruit dipped in cow urine for 1 week, and then dried in partial shade and stored in jam bottle. ½-1 teaspoon taken orally thrice a day for treatment of cough. (42, RE)
Fruit peel rubbed with mustard oil is applied for treatment of skin diseases. (7, DE)
49 1▲,2▲,3,4,5,6∆,7,8,9,10,11▲,12,13,14,15,16,1718∆,19,20,21,22,23,24∆,25,26,27∆,28,29,30▲,31,32,33,34∆,35
Cucurbitaceae
Cucumis sativus L.
 ASR HAPPRC 1414
Kakhdi/Cucumber Cl Seeds Seeds (5–10) rubbed with water and 2 teaspoon of the prepared juice (swarasa) is given to child twice a day for treatment of fever (taap). Massages through juice / swarasa on whole body as refrigerant in fever (taap). (65, FI) 65 1,2∆,3,4,5∆,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour.
 ASR HAPPRC 1599
Yaladu Cl Fruit, Seeds Extract / juice (swarasa) of skin / peel of yaladu fruit ½-1 teaspoon taken orally thrice a day as refrigerant. (31, GA)
Seed powder (churna) (½-1teaspoon) taken orally thrice a day for treatment of internal injury. (11, DU)
42 1,2,3,4∆,5∆,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22∆,23,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Dioscoriaceae
Dioscorea bulbifera L.
 ASR HAPPRC 1552
Genthi/Air Yam Cl Tuber Tuber powder (churna) ½-1 teaspoon taken orally thrice a day for curing fever. (17, FI)
Tuber paste (lepa) applied for treatment of boils. (16, DE)
33 1∆,2∆,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17∆,18,19∆,20,21∆,22,23∆,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Ericaceae
Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude
 ASR HAPPRC 1520
Anyar T Leaves, Bark Leaves (4–5) and bark (5–10 g) crushed with 10–20 ml water, prepared in a semi-dried (avleha) preparation (anyarkutu) applied to cure boils, skin diseases (antiallergic). (33,10, DE) 43 1,2▲,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11∆,12,13▲,14,15▲,16▲,17,18,19,20,21,22▲,23▲,24,25,26∆,27∆,28▲,29,30▲,31,32,33,34,35
Fagaceae
Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus
 Syn- Quercus oblongata D. Don
 ASR HAPPRC 1393
Baanj/Himalayan oak T Gum, Root, Leaves, Bark Gum/resin rubbed in chonthri then 0.5–1 g given orally thrice a day with lukewarm water for treatment of especially child fever, stomach ache, laxative and refrigerant. (15, 13,36,59 FI, GA)
Gum/resin is also used in stri roga (female genital disorder, leukorrhea,). (2, GY)
Bark extract / juice (½-1 teaspoon) taken orally thrice a day with lukewarm water for treatment of stomachache and abdominal problem. (2, GA)
127 1,2▲,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11▲,12∆,13,14,15,16▲,17,18∆,19,20,21,22▲,23,24,25∆,26▲,27▲,28▲,29,30∆,31,32,33,34,35
Juglandaceae
Engelhardtia spicata Lechen ex Blume
 ASR HAPPRC 2798
Bish mahua T Whole plant Branches stem and root are used as toothbrush (cleansing teeth) and helpful to remove pyorrhea. (37, DP)
Leaves, bark and root paste applied for treatment of boils, cuts and wounds. (50, DE)
87 1,2,3,4,5,6∆,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Juglans regia L.
 ASR HAPPRC 1581
Akhor/walnut T Whole plant Leaves, stem or branches, root, used for cleaning teeth and for treatment of pyorrhoea and for shining teeth. (89, DP)
Fruit peel paste is used for treatment of tinea pedis (kaaden) and boils, cuts and wounds and skin diseases. (28, DE)
Bark and leaves paste is applied for skin diseases, cuts and wounds. (9, DE)
126 1,2▲,3▲,4,5,6▲,7,8,9▲,10,11,12∆,13,14,15▲,16∆,17,18▲,19,20,21,22,23▲,24,25∆,26∆,27∆,28,29,30▲,31,32∆,33∆,34,35
Lamiaceae
Ajuga parviflora Benth.
 ASR HAPPRC 1573
Neelkanthi/Small-Flowered Bugleweed H Aerial part Leaves crushed and mixed with water, then the mixture filtered through cloth. This preparation of extract / juice (swarasa) in dose of ½-1 teaspoon taken orally thrice a day with 250 ml water is used for treatment of abdominal problems, and also act as refrigerant (cooling effect) (29, GA).
Leaves paste prepared with mustard oil applied for treatment of skin diseases, boils, and pimples (6, DE).
Fresh aerial part extract / juice (sawarasa) 1–2 drop thrice a day for treatment of earache / ear infection (puss in ear) (9, EC).
44 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22▲,23,24,25,26,2728,29,330▲,31▲,32∆,33,34,35∆
Mentha × piperita L.
 ASR HAPPRC 1591
Pudina/Peppermint H Aerial part Leaves powder (1 teaspoon) taken thrice a day with lukewarm water acts as appetizer (increasing digestion and hunger) (21, GA).
Fresh aerial plant part (2–4 g) + water + ½-1 kaagji fruit juice (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle) taken once a day acts as refrigerant (cooling effect), carminative (releases intestinal gases or flatulence) (12, GA).
Aerial part paste applied for treatment of burns (3, DE).
36 1,2,3,4,5∆,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18∆,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27▲,28,29,30∆,31,32,33,34,35
Lauraceae
Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T. Nees & Eberm.
 ASR HAPPRC 1505
Khikoda / Khikhaidu/Indian Bay Leaf T Bark, Leaves Bark powder is used to cure heart diseases (22, DU).
½-1 teaspoon bark powder taken orally thrice a day for treatment of stomachache. (25, GA)
47 1,2▲,3,4,5,6∆,7,8,9∆,10,11,12,13,14∆,15,16,17,18∆,19,20,21,22,23∆,24,25▲,26,27∆,28∆,29,30,31∆,32▲,33,34,35∆
Melanthiaceae
Paris polyphylla Sm.
 ASR HAPPRC1612
Dudhiya / Sankhjadi / Satwa / Myanaru/Himalayan Paris H Leaves, Rhizome Rhizome paste (lepa) applied in treatment of cuts and wounds, leaf also used as vegetable and its act as tonic. (36, 1, DE, DU) 37 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9∆,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18∆,19,20,21,22,23∆,24,25,26,27∆,28∆,29,30,31,32∆,33▲,34,35
Menispermaceae
Stephania elegans Hook. f. & ThomsonASR HAPPRC 1407 Pahari Cl Aerial part Leaf paste applied for treatment of headache. (4, HA)
Aerial part (1–2 ft bearing 6–8 leaves) + Mishri (Sugar lumps) (10–15 g) are crushed and dipped in water (500 ml) for a night, then taken as drink in early morning, as it acts as refrigerant. (15, GA)
Leaf (4–5) extract ½-1 teaspoon taken orally thrice a day for treatment of fever. (4, FI)
23 1,2,3,4,5∆,6,7,8,9∆,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,1718,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers
 Syn- Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr.
 ASR HAPPRC 1608
Giley/Heart-leaved moonseed Cl Whole plant Aerial part extract / juice is used as refrigerant. (91, GA)
(10 ml juice in 250 ml water + Mishri (Sugar lumps), 10 g)
Whole plant extract / juice useful in fever and diabetes. (1, FI)
Leaves paste applied in cuts and wounds. (1, DE)
Stem is used to cure diabetes (5–10 cm stem piece chewed daily). (35, DI)
128 1▲,2▲,3,4,5∆,6,7,8∆,9,10,11,12,13,14∆,15,16,17,18∆,19∆,20,21,22∆,23,24,25,26,27▲,28,29,30▲,31,32,33,34,35
Musaceae
Musa balbisiana Colla
 ASR HAPPRC 1614
Kaila/Banana T Bark, Fruit Bark extract (juice) / rasa is used as refrigerant (cooling effect). (13, GA)
Immature fruit is also used for treatment of dysentery and diarrhea. (11, GA)
24 1,2∆,3,4,5,6,7,8∆,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Myricaceae
Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
 ASR HAPPRC 1476
Kaafal/Box myrtle T Bark, Root Bark powder (churna) ½-1 teaspoon is taken with lukewarm water thrice a day for treatment of stomachache. (9, GA)
Bark extract / juice used to cure cuts and wounds. (17, DE)
Root paste (lepa) applied for treatment of headache. (6, HA)
32 1,2∆,3▲,4,5,6,7,8,9▲,10,11,12,13,14,15▲,16,17,18▲,19,20,21,22,23∆,24,25,26,27∆,28∆,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Myrtaceae
Psidium guajava L.
 ASR HAPPRC 1610
Amrood/Guava T Leaves Leaves (2–3) rubbed with water, mixed in 250 ml water, and prepared extract is taken orally twice a day to cure stomachache. (21, GA)
Leaves’ semi-dried paste (avleha) 2–3 teaspoon taken thrice a day with 250 ml water for treatment of dysentery and diarrhea. (22, GA)
43 1,2,3▲,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14∆,15,16,17,18∆,19,20∆,21,22,23,24,25,26,27▲,28,29,30∆,31,32,33,34▲,35
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
 ASR HAPPRC 1597
Jaamun/Java Plum T Bark, Root Jaamun bark crushed with water, filtered through cloth and 10 ml (2 tablespoon) taken with 250 ml water thrice a day for treatment of dysentery and diarrhea. (14, GA)
Root and bark paste applied for treatment of headache. (11, HA)
25 1,2,3▲,4,5,6∆,7,8∆,9,10,11,12,13,14∆,15,16,17∆,18,19,20,21,22,23∆,24,25,26,27▲,28,29,30▲,31,32,33,34,35▲
Orchidaceae
Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo
 ASR HAPPRC 1621
Hathajadi/Himalayan Marsh Orchid H Tuber, Leaves Tuber paste (lepa) applied on cut and wounds as antiseptic. (14, DE)
Leaves rubbed and ½ teaspoon semi-dried preparation (avleha) taken orally with 1 glass water for treatment of abdominal heat or as refrigerant. (20, GA)
Tuber powder ½-1 teaspoon taken with milk or water to act as tonic. (39, DU)
73 1,2,3▲,4,5,6▲,7,8,9▲,10▲,11,12▲,13,14▲,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22∆,23▲,24,25,26,27,28,29,30▲,31,32▲,33▲,34,35∆
Oxalidaceae
Oxalis corniculata L.
 ASR HAPPRC 1490
Bhilmod/creeping woodsorrel H Aerial part Aerial parts crushed with lukewarm water, filtered through cloth and 1–2 drops of the fresh juice (swarasa) are used to cure earache. (14, EC)
Areal part paste (lepa) is used for treatment of pimples, skin diseases, cuts and wounds, burns (11, DE).
Aerial parts juice (swarasa) is used to cure cataract (ankh me phool). (9, OP)
Aerial parts or stem pieces used to cure boils. (12, DE)
46 1∆,2∆,3▲,4,5∆,6▲,7,8,9∆,10,11▲,12,13,14,15,16,17▲,18,19,20,21▲,22,23▲,24▲,25,26∆,27▲,28▲,29,30▲,31∆,32,33,34,35
Paeoniaceae
Paeonia emodi Royle
 ASR HAPPRC 1613
Dhandroo / Gandhya/Himalayan Peony H Leaves 1 teaspoon leaves decoction given thrice a day for treatment of child stomachache (jonku) (12, GA) and vermifuge (expelling or destroying intestinal worms). (17, GA)
It is also used to cure fever. (20, FI)
49 1,2▲,3∆,4,5,6▲,7,8,9∆,10,11,12,13,14,15∆,16,17,18,19,20,21,22∆,23,24,25∆,26,27∆,28,29,30∆,31,32,33,34,35
Phyllanthaceae
Phyllanthus emblica L.
 ASR HAPPRC 1400
Aanwla/Indian gooseberry T Fruit Crushed 3–4 fruits and soaked in water (250 ml) for 1 night then filtered through cloth and the prepared extract / juice (rasa) taken orally once a day, acting as refrigerant (cooling effect). (51, GA) 51 1∆,2∆,3,4,5∆,6∆,7,8,9,10,11∆,12,13,14∆,15,16,17,18∆,19,20,21,22,23∆,24▲,25∆,26,27∆,28,29,30▲,31,32,33,34,35
Pinaceae
Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D. Don) G. Don
 ASR HAPPRC 1574
Devdaar/Himalayan cedar T Bark, Resin Bark powder (churna) ½-1 teaspoon with lukewarm water taken orally thrice a day for treatment of abdominal problem. (11, GA)
Leaf and resin paste applied in boils, cuts and wounds. (7, DE)
Resin applied for treatment of cracked feet. (6, DE)
24 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12▲,13,14∆,15,16,17,18∆,19,20,21,22∆,23▲,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30∆,31,32∆,33∆,34,35∆
Pinus roxburghii Sarg.
 ASR HAPPRC 1580
Cheed / Kulain/longleaf Indian pine T Root, Resin 2–3 year old plant root (2–4 g) extract / juice with a dose of 1–2 teaspoon taken orally thrice a day for treatment of tuberculosis. (1, RE)
Resin is used for cracked feet, cuts and wounds, and bone fracture. (41,27, DE, SK)
69 1∆,2▲,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,1213,14,15▲,16∆,17,18∆,19,20,21,22,23▲,24,25,26∆,27∆,28,29,30,31,32▲,33,34,35∆
Plantaginaceae
Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.
 Syn Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennell) D.Y.Hong
 ASR HAPPRC 1432
Kadway/Picrorrhiza H Root, Leaves Root or stolon paste (lepa) applied in cuts and wounds, boils, burns and burning sensation, headache (leaves paste also used for same action). (7,15,13 DE,HA)
Fresh or dried root extract / juice (swarasa) 1 teaspoon taken orally thrice a day for treatment of fever (81 FI), and also used as refrigerant. (42, GA)
Root dipped in cow urine (2–4 h) and used for treatment of pimples. (6, DE)
½-1 tablespoon root powder taken once a day early morning before eating to remove intestinal worms. (11, GA)
Root extract / juice (swarasa) is also beneficial for milk feeding mother. (3, GY)
Root extract / juice 1 teaspoon taken orally with lukewarm water for treatment of stomachache. (42, GA)
220 1,2,3▲,4,5∆,6▲,7,8,9▲,10▲,11,12▲,13,14▲,15▲,16,17,18,19,2021,22▲,23▲,24,25,26,27,28,29,30▲,31,32▲,33,34,35
Plantago depressa Willd.
 ASR HAPPRC 1468
Syamatu H Whole plant Leaves paste applied for treatment of herpes, and burns. (2, DE)
Root paste (lepa) and extract / juice (swarasa) applied for treatment of boils, and skin diseases. (22,5, DE)
Semi-solid preparation (avleha) of seeds (seeds crushed with ghee (clarified butter)) ½-1 teaspoon is taken orally thrice a day with lukewarm water for curing indigestion, constipation. (6,2, GA)
37 1,2▲,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22▲,23,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Poaceae
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
 ASR HAPPRC 1625
Dublu / Doob/Bermuda Grass H Whole plant Root rubbed and dipped in water for 4–5 h then ½-1 glass drunk thrice a day for refrigerant quality. (17, GA)
Aerial part paste (lepa) applied in treatment of headache, cuts and wounds, and skin disease. (26, DE)
43 1,2∆,3∆,4∆,5∆,6,7∆,8,9,10,11∆,12∆,13,14,15,16,17,18∆,19∆,20▲,21,22,23▲,24∆,25,26,27∆,28∆,29▲,30,31,32,33,34,35∆
Echinochloa frumentacea Link
 ASR HAPPRC 1589
Jhangora/Indian barnyard millet H Seeds, Stem Bhaat (cooked like rice) made by jhangora seeds is used to cure jaundice. Sometimes it is given with whey or butter milk for similar effect. (79, GA) 79 1,2,3,4,56,7,8,9,10,11,12▲,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30▲,31,32,33,34,35
Hordeum vulgare L.
 ASR HAPPRC 1405
Jau / Jo/Barley H Seeds Seeds are dipped in water for 6–8 h and then the water is used as refrigerant. (17, GA) Fried seeds’ flour used for remove to weakness (sattoo). (9, DU)
Sattva (solid extract e.g. ash, macerated in water and stayed overnight then strained through cloth and solid matter allowed to settle) prepared through seeds then it is used for treatment of stomachache, indigestion. (3, GA)
29 1,2∆,3,4,56,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18∆,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Polygonaceae
Polygonum capitatum Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don
 Syn- Persicaria capitata (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) H. Gross
 ASR HAPPRC 1568
Lohchadi/pinkhead smartweed H Aerial part Leaves rubbed with mustard oil and the prepared paste is applied in the treatment of herpes. (1, DE)
Aerial part paste (lepa) applied for treatment of boils and burns. (21, DE)
22 1,2,3,4,56,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30∆,31,32,33,34,35
Rheum emodi Wall. ex Meisn.
 Syn. Rheum australe D. Don
 ASR HAPPRC 1549
Archu/Rhubarb H Root, Leaves Fresh or dried root extract / juice 10 ml with 250 ml water taken twice a day as refrigerant. (41, GA)
Root powder ½-1 teaspoon taken with water for treatment of internal body injury. (31, DU)
Fresh root and leaves paste applied for treatment of headache, muscles and boneache, burns, cuts and wounds. (44, HA, SK, DE)
116 1,2▲,3▲,4,56,7,8,9▲,10▲,11,12,13,14▲,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22▲,23∆,24,25∆,26,27,28,29▲,30,31,32▲,33∆,34,35▲
Rumex hastatus D. Don
ASR HAPPRC 1522
Amedu/Arrowleaf Dock H Whole plant Shade dried root powder (churna) ½-1 teaspoon taken orally thrice a day for treatment of stomachache. (21, GA)
Aerial parts extract / juice used for treatment of burns, cuts and wounds. (18, DE)
39 1,2∆,3∆,4,56▲,7,8,9,10,11▲,12,13,14,15,16▲,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25∆,26▲,27▲,28∆,29,30,31,32,33∆,34,35∆
Rumex nepalensis Spreng.
 ASR HAPPRC 1603
Khuldya/Nepal Dock H Root, Leaves Leaf and root paste applied in burns, cuts and wounds, skin diseases and boils. (5,9,6,12, DE)
Root powder ½-1 teaspoon is taken orally thrice a day for treatment of body pain. (2, DU)
Root paste applied for treatment of toothache. (1, DP)
Sattva (solid extract e.g. root powder (5–10 g), macerated in water (250 ml), stayed overnight, and then strained through cloth and solid matter allowed settle) filtered water (250 ml) drunk once a day as refrigerant and solid matter / powder ½-1 teaspoon taken with water for treatment of stomachache and fever. (5,3, GA, FI)
43 1,2,3,4,56▲,7,8,9∆,10,11,12,13,14,15∆,16,17,18,19∆,20,21,22∆,23▲,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30▲,31,32,33∆,34,35
Ranunculaceae
Aconitum balfourii Stapf
 Syn- Aconitum lethale Griff.
 ASR HAPPRC 1424
Bikh H Tuber Tuber paste with ghee (clarified butter) applied for treatment of snake bite and scorpion sting, boils, gout, joint pain and body pain (sool). Fresh or dried tuber extract / juice also used for same action. (62, 7,3, PB, DE,SK) 72 1,2,3,4,56∆,7,8,9∆,10∆,11,12∆,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22▲,23▲,24,25∆,26,27∆,28,29,30,31,32∆,33,34,35▲
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle
 ASR HAPPRC 1426
Atees/Indian Atees H Tuber Tuber paste applied for treatment of cut and wounds, boils, headache. (25, DE, HA)
Fresh or dried tuber extract / juice dosage of 1 teaspoon taken orally with lukewarm water thrice a day for treatment of fever, stomach ache, and killing intestinal worms. (78, 7, FI, GA)
Tuber rubbed with milk and honey, prepared semi-dried (avleha), used to cure child fever, stomachache etc. (37,3 FI, GA)
Dried or fresh tuber extract or juice dose of ½-1 spoon taken orally thrice a day with lukewarm water taken before meal to cure dysentery and diarrhea. (3, GA)
153 1,2▲,3▲,456▲,7,8,9▲,10▲,11,12▲,13,14▲,15▲,16,17,18,19,2021,22▲,23▲,24,25,26,27,28,29▲,30▲,31▲,32▲,33,34,35
Delphinium denudatum Wall. ex Hook. f. & Thomson
 ASR HAPPRC 1417
Nirbishi H Root Root paste (lepa) applied for treatment of boils, pimples, cuts and wounds. (22,3,3, DE)
Root paste with ghee (clarified butter) applied for treatment of scorpion and snake bite. (18, PB)
46 1,2,3∆,4,56▲,7∆,8,9,10,11,12▲,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21,22,23∆,24,25∆,26,27▲,28,29,30▲,31,32∆,33,34,35
Thalictrum foliolosum DC.
 ASR HAPPRC 1562
Mamiri / Peelijad/Leafy Meadow-Rue H Whole plant Leaf and root extract / swarasa (fresh juice) or paste applied for treatment of boils, skin diseases, cuts and wounds. It also heals burns. (42,4,8, DE) 54 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9∆,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18▲,19,20,21,22,23∆,24,25,26∆,27∆,28∆,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Rosaceae
Duchesnea indica (Jacks.) Focke
 ASR HAPPRC 1575
Bhuikafal/Indian Strawberry H Fruit Fruit paste (lepa) applied for treatment of white patches, and skin diseases. (12, DE)
4–5 fruits rubbed and mix with water (250 ml) taken once a day, as it acts as refrigerant (cooling effect). (14, GA)
26 1,2,3,4,56,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17∆,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26∆,27∆,28∆,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Sims
 Syn Potentilla lineataTrevir.
 ASR HAPPRC 1553
Bajradanti/ Silver weed H Whole plant Roots and leaves used for cleaning teeth and also used for treatment of toothache. (79, DP)
Leaves are chewed to cure throat infection (khod). (15, RE)
94 1,2▲,3▲,4,56,7,8,9▲,10,11,12▲,13,14,15,16∆,17,18,19,20,21,22∆,23▲,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30,31,32▲,33,34,35▲
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch
 ASR HAPPRC 1437
Aaru/Peach T Bark, Leaves, Seeds Seeds with pericarp rubbed in chonthri, prepared paste is applied in boils and skin diseases. (12, DE)
Fine seed (1) powder gently mix in 20 ml water, filter it through cloth then 1 tablespoon given for child as refrigerant (cooling effect). (30, GA)
42 1,2,3,4,56,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18∆,19,20,21∆,22,23,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30∆,31,32,33,34,35
Rubus ellipticus Sm.
 ASR HAPPRC 1444
Hisaur/Golden Himalayan raspberry S Root, Leaves, Fruit Young shoots are chewed for treatment of throat infection (khod). (17, RE)
Root and leaves paste applied for treatment of skin diseases, and boils. (9, DE)
Stem is used as toothbrush for cleaning teeth. (26, DP)
52 1,2∆,3,4,56,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17∆,18,19,20,21,22,23∆,24,25,26∆,27∆,28∆,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Rubiaceae
Rubia manjith Roxb. ex FlemingASR HAPPRC 1473 Lyachkuru/Indian madder Cl Whole plant Aerial plant paste applied for treatment of skin diseases, burns, boils and headache. (7,6,3, DE, HA)
Whole plant powder (churna) ½-1 teaspoon with lukewarm water is taken thrice a day for treatment of abdominal problems. (3, GA)
19 1,2,3,4,5∆,6,7,8,9∆,10,11,12,13,14,15∆,16∆,17,18∆,19∆,20,21,22▲,23▲,24,25,26,27∆,28∆,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Rutaceae
Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle
 ASR HAPPRC 1579
Kaagji/Lime S Fruit 1 Fruit juice prepared with 250–500 ml water + ½-1 teaspoon salt +5–10 g Mishri (Sugar lumps) (sugar lumps) taken orally for treatment of dysentery and diarrhea, acts as a refrigerant (cooling effect) (42, GA), and it is also used to cure fever and headache. (29, FI, HA)
Fruit juice applied for treatment of pimples, cuts and wounds. (9, DE)
80 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Saxifragaceae
Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.
 ASR HAPPRC 1578
Pashanbhed / Syalmadi / Kaamal/Frilly Bergenia H Root, Leaves Fresh (5 g) or dried (2 g) root ground with ghee (clarified butter) (1 teaspoon) mixed with 250 ml water, taken once a day for abdominal sanitation. (3, GA)
Root and leaf paste is used for treatment of burns, boils, cuts and wounds. (7, DE)
Root juice (swarasa) 1 teaspoon in 250 ml water used as refrigerant (cooling effect). Root ground with water, made into semi dried preparation, then ½ teaspoon is given with milk to child thrice a day to cure syalbey (when child go to cool side rapidly or kind of fever). Root decoction also used for cure stone (8, FI, GA)
Root is also useful in leucorrhoea. (4, GY)
Root powder (½-1 teaspoon) taken thrice with lukewarm water for cure stomachache and stone (pathri). (45, GA)
67 1,2▲,3,4,5,6∆,7,8,9∆,10▲,11,12▲,13,14,15▲,16▲,17,18▲,19,20,21,22∆,23▲,24,25∆,26,27▲,28▲,29,30▲,31▲,32,33∆,34,35
Smilacaceae
Smilax aspera L.
 ASR HAPPRC 1448
Kukrdaad/Common smilax Cl Fruit Fruit (7–9) + 1 tablespoon Ghee (clarified butter) paste (lepa) applied for treatment of snake bite and scorpion sting for 5 days. (2, PB) 2 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18∆,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26∆,27∆,28∆,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Solanaceae
Solanum khasianum C.B. Clarke
 Syn- Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.
 ASR HAPPRC 1583
Bhugundroo / Konldbey/Dutch eggplant S Fruit, Root Fruit garland is used to cure jaundice. (61, GA)
Root decoction (½-1 teaspoon) taken thrice a day for 5–7 days to cure jaundice (konlbey). (1, GA)
Root paste applied to cure boils and burns. (14, DE)
76 1,2▲,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27▲,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Solanum nigrum L.
 Syn- Solanum americanum Mill
 ASR HAPPRC 1459
Kiwaini / Kyawen/Black nightshade H Fruit, Leaves Mature fruit (4–5) juice (swarasa) mixed with 250 ml water taken orally twice a day to cure fever, indigestion, and acts as refrigerant (cooling effect). (11,9, 16, FI, GA)
Fruit paste (lepa) applied on forehead for treatment of headache. (1, HA)
Leaves juice (swarasa) applied in cuts and wounds, boils. (2, DE)
39 1▲,2▲,3,4,5∆,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17∆,18▲,19▲,20▲,21,22,23,24▲,25,26,27▲,28∆,29,30▲,31▲,32,33∆,34,35
Taxaceae
Taxus wallichiana Zucc.
 ASR HAPPRC 1607
Thuner/Himalayan yew T Leaves Leaves extract / juice applied for treatment of boils, cuts and wounds. (27,15, DE) 42 1,2,3,4,5,6∆,7,8,9∆,10,11,12∆,13,14,15∆,16,17∆,18,19,20,21,22∆,23∆,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30∆,31,32,33∆,34,35
Urticaceae
Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis
 ASR HAPPRC 1618
Dholan/Himalayan nettle H Whole plant Root decoction is used for treatment of boils, swelling and joint pain. (10, 9,4, DE, SK)
Fresh root is also used for treatment of boils. (6, DE)
29 1,2∆,3,4,5,6,7,8,9∆,10∆,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23∆,24,25,26,27∆,28,29,30▲,31,32,33▲,34,35
Pouzolzia hirta Blume ex Hassk.
 ASR HAPPRC 1628
Kanchwalya H Root Root paste used to remove dandruff and prevent hair fall. (92, HP) 92 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35
Violaceae
Viola canescens Wall.
 ASR HAPPRC 1537
Bansai/Banasa/Himalayan White Violet H Aerial part Aerial plant paste used for cuts and wounds, (9, DE), flowers powder (churna) ½-1 teaspoon taken orally thrice a day with lukewarm water to cure cough. (11, RE) 20 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9▲,10,11,12,13,14,15▲,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26▲,27∆,28▲,29,30▲,31∆,32,33,34,35
Zingiberiaceae
Curcuma longa L.
 ASR HAPPRC 1619
Haldu/Turmeric H Rhizome Rhizome paste applied in cuts and wounds acts as antiseptic. (87, DE)
To cure deep bone wounds and internal body injury rhizome powder ½ teaspoon (1 g) mixed with 1 glass milk is drunk 1 glass a day. (19, DU)
106 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12▲,13,14,15,16,17,18∆,19,20▲,21,22,23,24▲,25,26,27▲,28,29,30∆,31,32,33,34∆,35
Hedychium spicatum Sm.
 ASR HAPPRC 1416
Syodu / Banhaldu/Spiked Ginger Lily H Rhizome, leaves Rhizomes (40-50 g) boiled in 100 ml water then the paste is applied for treatment of joint pain, burns, boils, and skin diseases. (4, SK, DE)
Fresh rhizome extract / juice can be used for treatment of cuts and wounds and boils. (22, DE)
Leaves paste (lepa) applied for treatment of headache. (6, HA)
32 1,2∆,3∆,4,5,6,7,8,9∆,10,11,12,13,14,15,16∆,17,18∆,19∆,20,21,22∆,23∆,24,25∆,26∆,27∆,28∆,29,30∆,31,32,33,34,35
Zingiber officinale Roscoe
 ASR HAPPRC 1609
Aadu/Ginger H Rhizome Rhizome powder (½-1) teaspoon taken orally thrice a day with lukewarm water for treatment of cough and cold. (66, RE)
Rhizome paste (lepa) also used for curing burns and boils. (6,2, DE)
74 1∆,2,3▲,4,5∆,6,7,8,9,10,11,12∆,13,14∆,15,16,17,18∆,19,20,21,22,23,24,25∆,26,27∆,28,29,30▲,31,32,33,34▲,35
  1. LF life forms, H herb, S, shrub; T tree, Cl climber
  2. GA gastro-intestinal disorders,RE respiratory complaints, FI fever and aches, DE Diseases of the skin, GY women’s health, SK skeletomuscular disorders, DI diabetes, OP ophthalmologic complaints, PB poisonous bite, DP dental problems, HP Hair problems, EC ear complaints, HA head ache, MA mental afflictions, DU different uses
  3. (▲) Similar use, (Δ) Dissimilar use, and () Not reported
  4. 1 [35]2 [31]3 [30]4 [41]5 [43] 6 [1],7 [48]8 [46]9 [22] 10 [26], 11 [49] 12 [32], 13 [50] 14 [51]15 [52], 16 [53]17 [54], 18 [39]19 [55] 20 [56]21 [57] 22 [38]23 [45], 24 [33]25 [58] 26 [29] 27 [11], 28 [27] 29 [59], 30 [44], 31 [28], 32 [36], 33 [37], 34 [17], 35 [18]