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  • Research
  • Open Access

Astonishing diversity—the medicinal plant markets of Bogotá, Colombia

Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201814:43

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-018-0241-8

  • Received: 12 February 2018
  • Accepted: 31 May 2018
  • Published:

Abstract

Background

Despite the importance of local markets as a source of medicinal plants in Colombia, comparatively little comparative research reports on the pharmacopoeiae sold. This stands in contrast to wealth of available information for other components of plant use in Colombia and other countries. The present provides a detailed inventory of the medicinal plant markets in the Bogotá metropolitan area, hypothesizing that the species composition, and medicinal applications, would differ across markets of the city.

Methods

From December 2014 to February 2016, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 plant vendors in 24 markets in Bogotá in order to elucidate more details on plant usage and provenance.

Results

In this study, we encountered 409 plant species belonging to 319 genera and 122 families. These were used for a total of 19 disease categories with 318 different applications. Both species composition and uses of species did show considerable differences across the metropolitan area—much higher in fact than we expected.

Conclusions

The present study indicated a very large species and use diversity of medicinal plants in the markets of Bogotá, with profound differences even between markets in close proximity. This might be explained by the great differences in the origin of populations in Bogotá, the floristic diversity in their regions of origin, and their very distinct plant use knowledge and preferences that are transferred to the markets through customer demand. Our study clearly indicated that studies in single markets cannot give an in-depth overview on the plant supply and use in large metropolitan areas.

Keywords

  • Medicinal plants
  • Markets
  • Colombia
  • Globalization

Background

Like in many tropical countries, traditional knowledge in Colombia is still under-documented [13], despite the fact that the country could be called the “cradle of modern ethnobotany”, due to the decade long research of Richard Evans Schultes [4]. General ethnobotanical studies in Colombia have frequently focused on individual interesting species [513], specific medicinal applications (e.g., antiviral and antitumor activity) [14, 15], leishmaniasis [16], snake bites [1721], crops and economically important plants [10, 2225], or specific plant families [2633]. Individual ethnic groups were recently treated by a variety of authors [3438]. Columbian medicinal plant use has even been studied overseas [39].

However, in contrast to neighboring countries like Peru and Bolivia [31, 4050], although Lima et al. [51] provided a comparison of markets in the wider Amazon.

Thus, for Colombia there is very little comparative information available about which plants are sold in Colombian markets, under which vernacular name at any given time, for which indication, which dosage information, and what kind of information about side effects vendors provide to their clients. The present study attempts to remedy this situation by providing a detailed inventory of medicinal plant markets in the Bogotá metropolitan area. We hypothesized that, on the one hand, like in Peru and Bolivia [31, 4050] the plant and use composition of different markets would vary depending on their location and customer population, but that, on the other hand, there would overall be a large overlap in plants between markets, and larger markets would comprise an almost complete inventory of all species available.

Methods

Ethnobotanical inventory

From December 2014 to February 2016, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 plant vendors in 24 markets in Bogotá in order to elucidate more details on plant usage and provenance. The markets were chosen to cover as many neighborhoods of Bogotá as possible, thus trying to represent the complete geography of the city and its ethnically diverse population. Plants were always sold in the regular mercados de abasto—the regular food supply markets. Within a neighborhood, we always chose the main market, in order to make data comparable. Semi-structured interviews following [49] are under consideration of the collection standards established by [52]. During the interviews, a complete sample of all plants sold in a respective market stall was bought and all available information for each species elucidated from the vendor. Vendor participants were self-selected: every vendor in the studied markets was asked if they wanted to participate in the study, and the vendors who agreed were then interviewed. Overall about one third of the vendors in the markets participated in the interviews. Interviews were conducted only after explaining the study to all participants and obtaining their oral prior informed consent. No further ethics approval was required. All work was carried out following the International Society for Ethnobiology Code of Ethics [53] and under the framework provided by the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their use of the Convention on Biological Diversity; the interviewed vendors retain the copyright of their traditional knowledge. Any commercial use of any of the information requires prior consensus with the informants involved, and an agreement on the distribution of benefits.

Twenty-six of the participants were women, and 12 men, with ages ranging from 25 to 70 years. The ethnicity of the vendors was not disclosed. All interviews were conducted in Spanish.

Vouchers of all species were collected, and all plant material was identified at the National Herbarium of Colombia. No material whatsoever was exported from Colombia. The nomenclature of all species follows www.tropicos.org, under APG III [54].

Statistical analysis

Among markets we compared plant species reported as being used (unique Latin binomials, e.g., Aloe vera), plant uses (unique combinations of a species used for an ailment or illness, e.g., Aloe vera for eye irritation), and plant categories (unique combinations of a species used for a category of ailments, e.g., Aloe vera sensory system).

To compare the geographic/market structure of plants and plant uses, we extracted lists of unique and shared plants, plant uses, and plant categories in each market [55]. In addition to these raw counts, we also used Euclidian distance as a metric of the difference among markets.

To evaluate plant importance, we used the logarithmic informant consensus (LIC) index of [56]. Here, we considered markets as “occurrences,” so for a species:
$$ \mathrm{LICs}=\mathrm{sum}\ \Big(\mathrm{ICu}\times \ln \left(\mathrm{FCus}\right) $$
where for each use of a species ICu = (FCu − NSu)/(FCu − 1), FCu is the total reports of that use and NSu is the number of species reported for the use.

To evaluate the diversity of uses across markets, we calculated, for each plant that occurs in at least two markets, the percent of its uses that are unique to each market.

All analyses were performed using the R program package [57].

Results

In this study, we encountered 409 plant species belonging to 319 genera and 122 families in all markets studied (Table 1). In all markets, the most common plant families used were Fabaceae (43 species, 10.5%), Asteraceae (34 species, 8.3%), Lamiaceae (24 species, 5.8%), Malvaceae (16 species, 3.9%), Solanaceae (15 species, 3.7%), and Euphorbiaceae (13 species, 3.1%). Almost all of all species were known only by their Spanish names.
Table 1

Family / Scientific name

Vernacular name

Medicinal Use categories (Ailment / Illness) *= non medicinal uses

Market

Acanthaceae

Aphelandra pilosa Leonard

Cajeto

Metabolism and nutrition (High cholesterol, Obesity); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza Santander

Hygrophila tyttha Leonard

Amansaguapos / Dominio

Nervous system and mental health (Anxiety, Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Seizures)

Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de San Benito

Justicia pectoralis Jacq.

Amansatoros

Blood and circulatory system (Cardiac stimulant); Nervous system and mental health (Anxiety)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Justicia xanthostachya Leonard

Pulmonaria

Dental health (Mouth infections); Muscular-skelettal system (Muscle relaxant); Nervous system and mental health (Sedative); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Fever, Inflammation); Reproductive system and sexual health (Sexual potency); Respitarory system (Expectorant, Flu, Help breathing); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent, Healing)

Plaza de Las Ferias

Trichanthera gigantea (Bonpl.) Nees

Cajeto / Nacedero / Quiebrabarrigo / Quiebrabarriga / Cafeto

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure); Digestive system (Hernia, Liver problems); Infections and infestations (Syphilis, Vermifuge); Metabolism and nutrition (Obesity); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Reproductive system and sexual health (Dysmenorrhea, Emenagogue); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Sores); Urinary system (Diuretic, Urinary infection); Veterinary (Hernia in cows)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Adoxaceae

Sambucus peruviana Kunth

Sauco

Blood and circulatory system (Arteriosclerosis, Blood cleansing); Cultural illnesses (Purifies the body); Dental health (Mouth diseases); Digestive system (Constipation, Diarrhea); Infections and infestations (Measles); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Neuralgia, Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Apena, Fever, Headache, Promotes sweating); Others (Sunstroke, Tonic); Respitarory system (Bronchial diseases, Bronchitis, Cough, Expectorant, Flu, Respiratory tract, Sinusitis, Throat inflamation); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Burns, Skin diseases); Urinary system (Diuretic, Urinary infection)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Quirigua; Plaza del Restrepo

Algae

Caulerpa sp.

Caulerpa

Animal food (Animal food)*; Human food (Water purifier)*

Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca)

Gracilaria sp.

Gelosa

Digestive system (Constipation); Human food (Food)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Amaranthaceae

Amaranthus spinosus L.

Bledo

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Stomach ache); Reproductive system and sexual health (Menstrual colic); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing wounds, Sores)

Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Beta vulgaris L.

Acelga

Digestive system (Constipation, Liver problems); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis); Urinary system (Urinary infection)

Plaza de Fontibón

Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

Quinua / Quinua roja

Infections and infestations (Tuberculosis); Muscular-skelettal system (Fractures, Luxation, Sprain); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Stomach ache)Reproductive system and sexual health (Dysmenorrhea)Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de La Concordia

Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants

Flor del Paico / Paico / Payco

Blood and circulatory system (Tachycardia); Digestive system (Cholera, Colic, Diarrhea, Digestive problems, Flatulence, Indigestion, Stomach problems); Infections and infestations (Malaria, Vermifuge); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Inflammation, Spasms); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Asthma, Cough, Flu)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del Quirigua; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Gomphrena globosa L.

Siempreviva

Digestive system (Dysentery); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Spasms); Reproductive system and sexual health (Dysmenorrhea)Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Burns, Calluses, Skin diseases, Skin spots, Warts)

Plaza de Paloquemao

Gomphrena serrata L.

Abrojo

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Cough, Lung diseases, Pneumonia)

Plaza de Fontibón

Iresine diffusa Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.

Penicilina

Blood and circulatory system (Anemia)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Amaryllidaceae

Allium sativum L.

Ajo / Ajo macho / Flor de ajo

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing, Circulatory stimulant, High blood pressure); Cultural illnesses (Good luck, Witchcraft); Digestive system (Gastritis, Intestinal infections, Liver problems); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Infections and infestations (Infections, Vermifuge); Metabolism and nutrition (High cholesterol); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism)Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Cancer, Hemorrhage)Others (Tonic); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Cough)

Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza de San Carlos; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Lucero; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) Kuntze

Duende

Cultural illnesses (Witchcraft)

Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán

Anacardiaceae

Anacardium occidentale L.

Cajú / Marañón

Blood and circulatory system (Anemia); Cultural illnesses (Strengthen); Dental health (Mouth infections); Digestive system (Constipation); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Metabolism and nutrition (Scurvy)Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant)Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (General malaise); Others (Memory, Tonic); Reproductive system and sexual health (Infertility, Sexual potency); Respitarory system (Expectorant, Flu); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Acne, Calluses, Healing, Skin diseases, Warts); Urinary system (Prostate); Human food (Food)*

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Concordia; Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Restrepo

Mangifera indica L.

Mango

Dental health (Afts, Mouth infections, Strengthen the gums, Toothache); Infections and infestations (Malaria); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Inflammation)

Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Schinus molle L.

Pimiento

Digestive system (Diarrhea); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis); Urinary system (Diuretic); Human food (Food)*

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca)

Spondias purpurea L.

Ciruela del País

Digestive system (Diarrhea); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent)

Plaza del Restrepo

Annonaceae

Annona cherimola Mill.

Chirimoyo

Digestive system (Constipation); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer)

Plaza de Paloquemao

Annona muricata L.

Guanábana / Guanábano

Cultural illnesses ("Fríos encajados"); Digestive system (Constipation, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Flatulence, Indigestion, Stomach problems, Vomitive); Infections and infestations (Bot fly); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Spasms, Stomach ache); Respitarory system (Flu); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Bruises); Urinary system (Urinary infection); Human food (Beberage, Food)*

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Annona squamosa L.

Anón

Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Bruises); Toxic (Insecticide)*

Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart.

Malagusta

Digestive system (Strengthens digestive system); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Lack of appetite, Stomach ache); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent)

Plaza de Las Cruces

Apiaceae

Anethum graveolens L.

Eneldo

Digestive system (Flatulence, Indigestion); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant);Human food (Condiment)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del Restrepo

Angelica archangelica L.

Angélica

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer, Spasms)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Apium graveolens L.

Apio

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Digestive system (Colic, Diarrhea, Flatulence, Gallbladder, Indigestion, Liver problems); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Nervous system and mental health (Nerves, Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Inflammation, Stomach ache); Others (Sunstroke); Reproductive system and sexual health (Menstrual colic); Respitarory system (Aphonia); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Lucero

Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancr.

Arracacha

Sensory system (Conjunctivitis)

Plaza de La Perseverancia

Eryngium foetidum L.

Cilantrón / Cilantrón / Piurená

Digestive system (Flatulence, Indigestion, Stomach problems); Infections and infestations (Smallpox, Vermifuge); Respitarory system (Flu);Human food (Condiment)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío); Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Hinojo

Digestive system (Colic, Flatulence, Indigestion, Stomach problems, Vomitive); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Metabolism and nutrition (Restorative); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Dizziness, Headache, Hemorrhage, Lack of appetite, Spasms); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Galactogogue, Infected breasts); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Cough, Expectorant, Flu); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis); Urinary system (Diuretic, Kidney stones); Human food (Condiment, Food)*

Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza de San Carlos; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Quirigua; Plaza del Restrepo

Niphogeton ternata (Willd. ex Schltr.) Mathias & Constance

Apio de monte

Digestive system (Colitis, Diarrhea, Dysentery)Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism)

Plaza de Las Cruces

Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nyman ex A.W. Hill

Perejil

Blood and circulatory system (Heart diseases); Digestive system (Flatulence); Reproductive system and sexual health (Dysmenorrhea, Emenagogue);Human food (Condiment)*

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán

 Pimpinella anisum L.

Anís

Blood and circulatory system (Cardiac stimulant, Circulatory stimulant); Digestive system (Flatulence, Indigestion); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Others (Sunstroke); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Galactogogue); Respitarory system (Help breathing); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Apocynaceae

Allamanda cathartica L.

Capitana / Copa de Oro / Capitana / Copa de Oro / Jazmín

Anti-venom (Antidote); Digestive system (Constipation); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Headache); Respitarory system (Flu)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg.

Quimulá / Cumulá

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Apena); Respitarory system (Asthma, Expectorant)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca)

Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl.

Quebracho Blanco

Respitarory system (Asthma, Expectorant)

Plaza de San Carlos

Couma macrocarpa Barb. Rodr.

Jansoco

Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Care umbilical cord)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca)

Rauvolfia tetraphylla L.

Mirto

Anti-venom (Antidote); Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure)

Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de San Benito

Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum.

Pepa de cabrito / Caucho

Blood and circulatory system (Heart diseases); Digestive system (Constipation); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever)

Plaza Samper Mendoza

Vinca major L.

Amor antioqueño

Blood and circulatory system (Heart diseases); Digestive system (Constipation)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del Restrepo

Araceae

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott

Papachina / Pipachin

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Weakness in children); Human food (Food)*

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Monstera deliciosa Liebm.

Balazo

Human food (Food)*; Cultural (Anti theft)*

Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Philodendron dyscarpium R.E. Schult.

Odoká

Human food (Food)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott

Mafafa

Human food (Food)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Arecaceae

Phoenix dactylifera L.

Datilera

Digestive system (Constipation); Reproductive system and sexual health (Sexual potency); Respitarory system (Expectorant);Human food (Food)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Aristolochiaceae

Aristolochia grandiflora Sw.

Bejuco de Carare

Anti-venom (Antidote); Blood and circulatory system (Circulatory stimulant); Muscular-skelettal system (Muscular paralysis); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue, Infertility); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Stinging)

Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca)

Aristolochia maxima Jacq.

Bejuco de Carare / Carare / Guaco

Anti-venom (Antidote); Blood and circulatory system (Circulatory stimulant); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Stinging)

Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del Lucero; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Aristolochia ringens Vahl

Guaco

Anti-venom (Antidote); Nervous system and mental health (Sedative); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Stinging)

Plaza de Kennedy

Aristolochia triangularis Cham.

Bejuco Carare

Digestive system (Constipation); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Abortive); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue)

Plaza de La Perseverancia

Asclepiadaceae

Asclepias curassavica L.

Jalapa

Dental health (Toothache); Digestive system (Vomitive); Infections and infestations (Gonorrhea, Vermifuge); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin diseases)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca)

Funastrum clausum (Jacq.) Schltr.

Bejuco sapo

Digestive system (Vomitive); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis)

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Asparagaceae

Cordyline fruticosa (L.) A. Chev.

Palma morada / Palma real

Urinary system (DiureticUrinary infection)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío); Plaza del Lucero; Plaza del Restrepo

Furcraea cabuya Trel.

Fique / Penca de Fique / Pulque

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Digestive system (Hepatic stimulant, Indigestion, Liver problems, Stomach problems); Respitarory system (Flu); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin spots); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo

Furcraea macrophylla Baker

Fique

Digestive system (Liver problems); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Dropsy); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Sansevieria trifasciata Prain

Culebrilla

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Menopause); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Herpes)

Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán

Asteraceae

Achillea millefolium L.

Altamisa / Milenrama

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Digestive system (Gallbladder, Gastritis, Indigestion, Strengthens digestive system); Infections and infestations (Bot fly); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Hemorrhage, Inflammation, Lack of appetite, Nosebleed, Spasms); Others (Tonic); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue, Menstrual colic); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Acne, Boils, Bruises, Healing, Healing wounds, Skin ulcers, Sores); Urinary system (Hemorrhoids)

Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Las Ferias

Achyrocline bogotensis (Kunth) DC.

Vira Vira

Reproductive system and sexual health (Ovarian diseases); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Rashes, Skin diseases); Urinary system (Prostate, Urethral infections)

Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo

Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC.

Vira Vira

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Rashes, Skin diseases)

Plaza de San Benito

Ambrosia peruviana Willd.

Altamisa / Artemisa

Cultural illnesses (Witchcraft); Digestive system (Gallbladder, Liver problems); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Hemorrhage, Spasms, Tumors); Others (Tonic); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue, Menstrual colic); Veterinary (Udder inflammation)

Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza de San Benito; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza; Plaza Santander

Arnica montana L.

Arnica

Blood and circulatory system (Circulatory stimulant); Dental health (Strengthen the gums); Digestive system (Gallbladder); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Cramps, Fractures, Luxation, Sprain); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Dizziness, Inflammation, Promotes sweating, Tumors); Respitarory system (Pharyngitis, Respiratory tract); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Acne, Astringent, Bruises, Fungicide, Healing, Healing wounds, Skin diseases, Stretch marks)

Plaza de San Benito; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Artemisia absinthium L.

Ajenjo

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Cultural illnesses (Affright); Dental health (Halitosis, Toothache); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Flatulence, Gallbladder, Gallstones, Indigestion, Liver problems, Stomach problems, Vomitive); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Headache, Lack of appetite, Stomach ache); Others (Sunstroke, Tonic); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Breast care); Respitarory system (Cough, Lung diseases, Throat inflamation); Sensory system (Deafness, Otitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Stinging); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Quirigua; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Santander

Artemisia vulgaris L.

Artemisa / Altamisa

Nervous system and mental health (Epilepsy); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Childbed); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue)

Plaza de Paloquemao

Austroeupatorium inulifolium (Kunth) R.M. King & H. Rob.

Salvia Amarga

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure); Digestive system (Liver problems); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer); Respitarory system (Pharyngitis)

Plaza de San Benito; Plaza del Lucero; Plaza del Restrepo

Baccharis tricuneata (L. f.) Pers.

Sanalotodo

Endocrine system (Diabetes); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Bidens pilosa L.

Amor Seco / Chipaca / Masiquia

Cultural illnesses (Witchcraft); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Gallbladder, Indigestion, Liver problems); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Urinary system (Diuretic, Urinary infection)

Plaza de La Concordia; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Lucero; Plaza del Quirigua; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Calendula officinalis L.

Caléndula

Blood and circulatory system (Anemia, Blood cleansing); Digestive system (Colon inflammation, Constipation, Duodenum problems, Gastritis, Gastrointestinal disorders, Indigestion); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Dandruff, Hemorrhage, Inflammation, Promotes sweating, Stomach cancer); Reproductive system and sexual health (Menstrual colic); Sensory system (Otitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin and subcutaneous tissue, Bruises, Burns, Calluses, Healing, Pustules, Skin diseases, Skin ulcers, Sores, Warts)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza de San Carlos; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Lucero; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza; Plaza Santander

Chaptalia nutans (L.) Pol.

Lechuguita

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage); Others (Sunstroke)

Plaza Samper Mendoza

Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob.

Rompesaragüey

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Inflammation, Tumors); Others (Tonic)

Plaza Samper Mendoza

Chromolaena scabra (L. f.) R.M. King & H. Rob.

Salvia Amarga

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure); Dental health (Mouth diseases); Digestive system (Liver problems, Stomach problems); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer, Mosquito bites, Tumors); Respitarory system (Pharyngitis)

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Clibadium sylvestre (Aubl.) Baill.

Barbasco

Infections and infestations (Bot fly); Muscular-skelettal system (Muscular pain);Toxic (Insecticide)*

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del Restrepo

Cynara cardunculus L.

Alcachofa

Blood and circulatory system (Anemia, Arteriosclerosis, Blood cleansing); Digestive system (Constipation, Gallbladder, Hepatic stimulant, Indigestion); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Metabolism and nutrition (Goiter, Restorative); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Weakness in children); Respitarory system (Asthma); Urinary system (Diuretic, Kidney infection, Prostate)

Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Lucero; Plaza del Restrepo

Espeletia aff. corymbosa Bonpl.

Frailejón

Blood and circulatory system (Varicose veins); Cultural illnesses ("Fríos encajados"); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Childbed)

Plaza de Las Ferias

Espeletia argentea Bonpl.

Frailejón

Blood and circulatory system (Varicose veins); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Post partum care); Respitarory system (Asthma, Lung diseases); Sensory system (Otitis)

Plaza de San Carlos

Espeletiopsis garciae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.

Frailejón

Blood and circulatory system (Varicose veins); Cultural illnesses ("Fríos encajados", Incense for cleanising); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Childbed); Reproductive system and sexual health (Dysmenorrhea); Respitarory system (Lung diseases); Sensory system (Otitis); Cultural(Detergent)*

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán

Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

Guasca / Guascas

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure); Digestive system (Gastrointestinal disorders, Indigestion, Liver problems); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Metabolism and nutrition (Hyperglycemia, Scurvy); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Inflammation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Bruises, Healing, Sores); Urinary system (Kidney infection)

Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo

Gamochaeta americana (Mill.) Wedd.

Vira Vira

Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Post partum care); Respitarory system (Bronchial diseases, Lung diseases); Urinary system (Urinary infection)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Gamochaeta purpurea (L.) Cabrera

Vira Vira

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Promotes sweating); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Expectorant); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin diseases)

Plaza de La Concordia

Gnaphalium elegans Kunth

Vira Vira

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer, Hemorrhage, Inflammation); Sinusitis (Prostate, Urinary infection)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza de San Carlos; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Santander

Gomphrena serrata L.

Abrojo

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Cultural illnesses (Affright); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Digestive problems, Dysentery, Gastritis, Intestinal infections); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Stomach ache); Others (Tonic); Reproductive system and sexual health (Vaginal discharge); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Rashes); Urinary system (Urinary infection)

Plaza de San Carlos

Koanophyllon solidaginoides (Kunth) R.M. King & H. Rob.

Abrecaminos

Cultural illnesses (Good luck); Digestive system (Flatulence); Respitarory system (Flu, Respiratory tract); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Rashes, Skin diseases)

Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Matricaria chamomilla L.

Manzanilla / Matricaria

Human food (Beberage)*; Blood and circulatory system (Cardiac stimulant); Digestive system (Colic, Diarrhea, Flatulence, Indigestion, Stomach problems); Infections and infestations (Infections); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis); Nervous system and mental health (Nerves, Stress, Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Tranquilizer, Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses, Alopecia, Analgesic, Fever, Headache, Inflammation, Promotes sweating, Spasms, Stomach ache); Others (Tonic); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Breast care); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue, Menstrual colic); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing, Skin allergies)

Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Quirigua; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza; Plaza de Kennedy

Mikania guaco Bonpl.

Guaco

Anti-venom (Antidote); Metabolism and nutrition (Restorative)

Plaza de Paloquemao

Pentacalia corymbosa (Benth.) Cuatrec.

Guasquín

Respitarory system (Pharyngitis, Throat inflamation)

Plaza Samper Mendoza

Senecio formosus Kunth

Arnica

Muscular-skelettal system (Fractures); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Inflammation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Bruises)

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza de San Carlos

Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.

Cardo Mariano

Digestive system (Liver problems)

Plaza del Quirigua

Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp.) H. Rob.

Yacón

Digestive system (Constipation, Gastrointestinal disorders, Indigestion, Intestinal infections, Regenerate intestinal flora); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Metabolism and nutrition (High cholesterol, Hyperglycemia, Lower cholesterol, Obesity, Strengthen inumosystem); Muscular-skelettal system (Osteoporosis); Nervous system and mental health (Nerves); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Colon cancer); Others (Tonic); Human food (Food)*

Plaza de La Concordia; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Lucero; Plaza del Restrepo

Spilanthes oppositifolia (Lam.) D'Arcy

Botón de oro / Botoncillo / Guaca / Chisaca

Cultural illnesses (Good luck); Dental health (Mouth diseases, Mouth infections, Toothache); Digestive system (Gallbladder, Liver problems); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing, Skin spots)

Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de La Concordia; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del Restrepo

Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni

Estevia

Blood and circulatory system (Cardiac stimulant, Circulatory stimulant, High blood pressure); Dental health (Cavities); Digestive system (Gastritis, Indigestion); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Metabolism and nutrition (Appetite suppressant, Gout, High cholesterol, Hyperglycemia, Obesity); Nervous system and mental health (Anxiety); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Respitarory system (Flu); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Fungicide, Healing, Skin care); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg.

Diente de León

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Digestive system (Constipation, Gallbladder, Gastritis, Indigestion, Liver problems, Stomach problems); Metabolism and nutrition (Gout, High cholesterol,Obesity); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Improve health, Stomach ache); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin ulcers); Urinary system (Diuretic, Urinary infection); Human food (Food)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Basellaceae

Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis

Insulina

Endocrine system (Diabetes); Metabolism and nutrition (Hyperglycemia); Muscular-skelettal system (Fractures); Respitarory system (Cough); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis)

Plaza de Paloquemao

Ullucus tuberosus Caldas

Chugua / Ulluco

Digestive system (Constipation); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Childbed)

Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Berberidaceae

Berberis glauca DC.

Tachuelo

Digestive system (Constipation); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Hemorrhage, Promotes sweating); Others (Tonic)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Berberis goudotii Triana & Planch. ex Wedd.

Espino

Digestive system (Constipation); Infections and infestations (Malaria); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Hemorrhage); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin Tonic)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del Restrepo

Bignoniaceae

Crescentia cujete L.

Totumo

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing, Varicose veins); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Headache, Hemorrhage); Others (Sunstroke); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Breast care); Respitarory system (Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed, Asthma, Bronchial dilator, Bronchial diseases, Cough, Expectorant, Respiratory tract, Sinusitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin ulcers)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza de San Benito; Plaza de San Carlos; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Delostoma integrifolium D. Don

Cajeto / Crecedor

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza Samper Mendoza

Handroanthus barbatus (E. Mey.) Mattos

Palo de Arco

Digestive system (Gallbladder)

Plaza de La Concordia; Jacaranda caucana Pittier

Jacaranda caucana Pittier

Gualanday

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Dental health (Mouth infections); Digestive system (Liver problems); Infections and infestations (Anthelmintic, Syphilis, Venereal diseases); Muscular-skelettal system (Bone pain); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Sensory system (Mouth ulcers); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Rashes, Skin diseases)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.) D. Don

Gualanday

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Infections and infestations (Syphilis, Venereal diseases); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Neuralgia, Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Burns, Skin allergies, Skin ulcers); Urinary system (Urethral infections)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del Restrepo

Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don

Gualanday

Infections and infestations (Syphilis)

Plaza de Paloquemao

Bixaceae

Bixa orellana L.

Bija / Achiote

Digestive system (Diarrhea, Indigestion, Liver problems); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer, Mosquito bites); Reproductive system and sexual health (Sexual potency); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Expectorant, Tonsillitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Burns, Eczema, Healing, Skin diseases); Human food (Condiment)*

Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza de San Benito; Plaza del Quirigua

Bombacaceae

Herrania nitida (Poepp.) R.E. Schult.

Otonasaré

Human food (Food)*

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca)

Boraginaceae

Borago officinalis L.

Borraja

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Cultural illnesses ("Fríos encajados"); Infections and infestations (Measles); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Inflammation, Promotes sweating); Reproductive system and sexual health (Dysmenorrhea, Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Cough, Expectorant, Flu); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Bruises)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de San Carlos; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Restrepo

Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken

Laurel

Infections and infestations (Infections); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Promotes sweating)

Plaza del Restrepo

Cordia dentata Poir.

Uvito

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Promotes sweating); Respitarory system (Cough, Expectorant)

Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío)

Heliotropium arborescens L.

Heliotropo

Digestive system (Vomitive); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin ulcers)

Plaza de San Carlos

Symphytum officinale L.

Confrey

Blood and circulatory system (Arteriosclerosis, Circulatory stimulant, Varicose veins); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Gastritis); Metabolism and nutrition (Gout, Restorative); Muscular-skelettal system (Bone pain, Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Others (Healthy hair); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Decongestant, Expectorant, Respiratory tract, Sinusitis); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Burns); Urinary system (Hemorrhoids)

Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo

Brassicaceae

Brassica nigra (L.) W.D.J. Koch

Mostaza

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Digestive system (Indigestion); Metabolism and nutrition (Restorative); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Lack of appetite); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Pneumonia)

Plaza del 12 de Octubre

Brassica rapa L.

Nabo

Digestive system (Intestinal inflammation); Infections and infestations (Bot fly); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Inflammation); Respitarory system (Asthma, Cough, Respiratory tract)

Plaza de La Perseverancia

Draba litamo L. Uribe

Lítamo real

Cultural illnesses (Longevity); Digestive system (Gastrointestinal disorders); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Paloquemao

Lepidium bipinnatifidum Desv.

Mastuerzo / Chisgo

Digestive system (Flatulence, Indigestion); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Others (Alcoholism); Respitarory system (Asthma, Throat inflamation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing wounds, Skin diseases); Urinary system (Urinary infection)

Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Nasturtium officinale W.T. Aiton

Berros / Mastuerzo

Blood and circulatory system (Anemia); Digestive system (Indigestion, Liver problems); Urinary system (Diuretic);Human food (Food)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Restrepo

Raphanus sativus L.

Rábano

Metabolism and nutrition (Obesity)

Plaza Boyacá

Bromeliaceae

Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L.

Melena / Barba de Viejo

Digestive system (Hernia); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Urinary system (Hemorrhoids)

Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Burseraceae

Bursera graveolens (Kunth) Triana & Planch.

Palo Santo / Sasafrás / Tatamaco

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing, Circulatory stimulant); Cultural illnesses (Good luck); Digestive system (Hernia); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Muscular pain, Sprain); Nervous system and mental health (Stress); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Dizziness, Headache, Promotes sweating); Respitarory system (Asthma, Cough, Flu); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Remove thorns, Skin allergies); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg.

Indio Desnudo / Caratero

Anti-venom (Antidote); Digestive system (Liver problems); Infections and infestations (Gangrene); Metabolism and nutrition (Obesity, Thyroid); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Remove thorns)

Plaza Samper Mendoza

Cactaceae

Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.

Nopal / Tuna

Metabolism and nutrition (High cholesterol, Lower cholesterol, Obesity); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Inflammation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Spurs on feet); Urinary system (Diuretic);Human food (Food, Water purifier)*

Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza del Restrepo

Pereskia guamacho F.A.C. Weber

Cactus

Blood and circulatory system (Cardiac stimulant); Digestive system (Liver decongestion); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza del Restrepo

Tephrocactus molinensis (Speg.) Backeb.

Tuna

Urinary system (Diuretic); Human food (Food coloring, Water purifier)*

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Calophyllaceae

Mammea americana L.

Mamey

Infections and infestations (Bot fly); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Alopecia)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Cannabaceae

Cannabis sativa L.

Marihuana

Cultural illnesses (Hallucinogen); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Stomach cramp); Reproductive system and sexual health (Infertility)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Caprifoliaceae

Valeriana officinalis L.

Valeriana

Cultural illnesses (Hypochondria, Vertigo); Dental health (Mouth infections, Toothache); Digestive system (Indigestion); Nervous system and mental health (Anxiety, Epilepsy, Sedative, Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Headache, Menopause, Seizures, Spasms); Respitarory system (Bronchial diseases, Cough, Throat inflamation)

Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Quirigua; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Santander

Caricaceae

Vasconcellea pubescens A. DC.

Papayuela

Respitarory system (Cough, Tonsillitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Acne, Warts)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza del Quirigua

Celastraceae

Maytenus laevis Reissek

Chuchuguaza / Chuchuhuaza

Blood and circulatory system (Anemia); Digestive system (Diarrhea); Metabolism and nutrition (Restorative); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Inflammation, Spasms, Tumors); Reproductive system and sexual health (Sexual potency); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Chrysobalanaceae

Chrysobalanus icaco L.

Icaco

Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent)

Plaza de San Benito

Clusiaceae

Clusia alata Planch. & Triana

Gaque / Vencedora

Cultural illnesses (Good luck); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Headache); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Flu); Human food (Water purifier)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de San Benito

Clusia multiflora Kunth

Chagualo

Digestive system (Constipation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin diseases)

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Commelinaceae

Callisia repens (Jacq.) L.

Sueldo / Suelda con suelda

Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Inflammation)

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Commelina erecta L.

Suelda con Suelda

Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Dislocation, Fractures, Luxation, Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Inflammation)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de La Concordia; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del Restrepo

Convolvulaceae

Cuscuta partita Choisy

Hilo de oro

Digestive system (Constipation, Liver problems)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza Samper Mendoza

Ipomoea carnea Jacq.

Batatilla / Kasisé / Ojo de sapo

Anti-venom (Antidote); Digestive system (Constipation)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza del 20 de Julio

Ipomoea hederifolia L.

Jalapa

Digestive system (Constipation)

Plaza del Restrepo

Coriariaceae

Coriaria ruscifolia L.

Reventadera / Sansú

Cultural illnesses (Hallucinogen); Digestive system (Diarrhea)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza del Restrepo

Costaceae

Costus villosissimus Jacq.

Insulina

Endocrine system (Diabetes); Respitarory system (Asthma, Bronchitis, Lung diseases)

Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Crassulaceae

Kalanchoe daigremontiana Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier

Aranto

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer)

Plaza de Paloquemao

Kalanchoe gastonis-bonnieri Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier

Lengua de Suegra

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure); Digestive system (Diarrhea); Infections and infestations (Abscesses); Metabolism and nutrition (Strengthen inumosystem); Nervous system and mental health (Relaxant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Cancer, Hemorrhage, Inflammation, Tumors); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Reduces uterine contractions); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis); Astringent (Healing, Skin care); Urinary system (Kidney infection)

Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del Restrepo

Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers.

Hoja Santa

Digestive system (Liver problems); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Muscular-skelettal system (Muscle relaxant); Nervous system and mental health (Sedative); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Cancer, Inflammation, Mosquito bites); Respitarory system (Cough); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Bruises, Burns, Healing wounds, Skin diseases, Skin ulcers)

Plaza del Quirigua

Cucurbitaceae

Cucurbita maxima Duchesne

Ahuyama

Digestive system (Constipation, Liver cleaning); Infections and infestations (Anthelmintic); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis)

Plaza de El Carmen

Momordica charantia L.

Balsamina / Bocado de Culebra / Subicogé / Balsamina

Cultural illnesses (Good luck, Witchcraft); Digestive system (Constipation, Indigestion, Vomitive); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Infections and infestations (Malaria, Venereal diseases, Vermifuge); Metabolism and nutrition (Hyperglycemia); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Hemorrhage); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Urinary system (Hemorrhoids)

Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán

Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw.

Cidra / Guatila

Blood and circulatory system (Circulatory stimulant); Digestive system (Stomach problems); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Metabolism and nutrition (Obesity); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Inflammation); Reproductive system and sexual health (Diuretic); Human food (Food)*

Plaza de San Benito; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Cunoniaceae

Weinmannia tomentosa L. f.

Encenillo

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage)

Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Cyclanthaceae

Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pav.

Iraca

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage)

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Cyperaceae

Rhynchospora nervosa (Vahl) Boeckeler

Tote

Respitarory system (Cough, Flu); Animal food (Bait)*

Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao

Dilleniaceae

Curatella americana L.

Chaparro

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure); Digestive system (Gallstones); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Metabolism and nutrition (Hyperglycemia); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Inflammation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent, Healing wounds, Rashes)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del Restrepo

Dioscoreaceae

Dioscorea alata L.

Ñame

Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism);Human food (Food)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de La Perseverancia

Dryopteridaceae

Dryopteris wallichiana (Spreng.) Hyl.

Helecho macho

Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Metabolism and nutrition (Rickets, Scurvy); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Lucero

Equisetaceae

Equisetum bogotense Kunth

Cola de caballo

Blood and circulatory system (Arteriosclerosis, Blood cleansing, Circulatory stimulant, Varicose veins); Dental health (Halitosis); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Dysentery, Indigestion, Liver problems); Metabolism and nutrition (Rickets); Muscular-skelettal system (Muscular pain); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Alopecia, Analgesic, Hemorrhage, Inflammation); Reproductive system and sexual health (Vaginal infections); Respitarory system (Flu, Laryngitis, Lung diseases, Throat inflamation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing, Sores, Sweating); Urinary system (Cystitis, Diuretic, Kidney infection, Urinary infection)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Lucero; Plaza del Restrepo

Equisetum giganteum L.

Cola de caballo

Digestive system (Dysentery); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Alopecia, Hemorrhage); Respitarory system (Lung diseases); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza del Restrepo

Ericaceae

Bejaria resinosa Mutis ex L. f.

Pegapega

Respitarory system (Expectorant)

Plaza del 12 de Octubre

Cavendishia bracteata (Ruiz & Pav. ex J. St.-Hil.) Hoerold

Quereme / Uva de Anís / Uvito

Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza de La Concordia

Cavendishia quereme (Kunth) Benth. & Hook. f.

Quereme

Cultural illnesses (Witchcraft); Dental health (Toothache); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca)

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum coca Lam.

Kaji / Coca

Nervous system and mental health (Sedative, Stimulant, Tranquilizer); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca)

Euphorbiaceae

Croton funckianus Müll. Arg..

Drago

Digestive system (Duodenum problems, Gallbladder); Infections and infestations (Anthelmintic, Malaria); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Santander

Croton lechleri Müll. Arg.

Sangre de Drago

Digestive system (Heartburn); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage); Others (Tonic); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Fungicide, Healing, Skin ulcers)

Plaza de El Carmen

Croton malambo H. Karst.

Malambo

Digestive system (Colitis, Diarrhea, Stomach problems); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Reproductive system and sexual health (Dysmenorrhea)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca)

Croton schiedeanus Schltdl.

Almizclillo

Blood and circulatory system (Arteriosclerosis, Blood cleansing); Digestive system (Liver problems); Urinary system (Urinary infection)

Plaza de La Concordia

Euphorbia hypericifolia L.

Pimpinela

Infections and infestations (Gangrene)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Euphorbia tithymaloides L.

Ipecacuana / Itamorreal

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Digestive system (Liver problems, Vomitive); Infections and infestations (Syphilis); Reproductive system and sexual health (Infertility); Respitarory system (Expectorant)

Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del Restrepo

Hura crepitans L.

Ceibo

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Promotes sweating); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Pustules, Sores); Urinary system (Diuretic);Animal food (Bait)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos

 Jatropha curcas L.

Piñón / Purga / Purga de Fraile

Digestive system (Constipation, Vomitive); Infections and infestations (Venereal diseases); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Burns, Rashes, Skin diseases)

Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca)

Jatropha gossypiifolia L.

Higuerillo

Digestive system (Constipation); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Breast care); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin Tonic);Food(Food)*; Cosmetic (Shampoo)*

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Paloquemao

Manihot esculenta Crantz

Yuca

Cultural illnesses (Against of Pedrohernández); Digestive system (Diarrhea); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin diseases)

Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío)

Phyllanthus niruri L.

Viernes Santo

Digestive system (Constipation); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Infections and infestations (Bot fly, Lice); Urinary system (Diuretic);Toxic (Insecticide)*

Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío)

Ricinus communis L.

Higuerilla / Higuerillo

Digestive system (Constipation, Diarrhea, Gastritis); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Promotes sweating); Sensory system (Stye); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Dry skin, Stinging);Human food (Food)*

Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza Santander

Fagaceae

Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.

Encina / Roble

Cultural illnesses (Bed-wetting); Dental health (Inflammation of the gums, Mouth infections, Toothache); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Flatulence, Gastritis, Liver problems); Infections and infestations (Bot fly); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Headache, Hemorrhage, Nosebleed, Stomach ache); Reproductive system and sexual health (Vaginal discharge); Respitarory system (Pharyngitis, Throat inflamation); Sensory system (Mouth ulcers); Urinary system (Hemorrhoids)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Perseverancia

Flacourtiaceae

Casearia sylvestris Sw.

Ratón

Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Pustules, Skin diseases, Skin ulcers, Sores)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca)

Gentianaceae

Gentiana sedifolia Kunth

Teresita / Alegría de Páramo

Digestive system (Strengthens digestive system)

Plaza Samper Mendoza

Gentianella corymbosa (Kunth) Weaver & Ruedenberg

Genciana

Blood and circulatory system (Anemia); Digestive system (Colic, Flatulence, Indigestion); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Cramps); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Lack of appetite, Sickness)

Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza del 12 de Octubre

Geraniaceae

Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér.

Geranio

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage); Reproductive system and sexual health (Infertility); Respitarory system (Throat inflamation); Urinary system (Kidney infection)

Plaza de La Concordia

Gesneriaceae

Columnea kalbreyeriana Mast.

Sanguinaria / Sangre de Cristo

Anti-venom (Antidote); Digestive system (Colon); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Human food (Food coloring)*

Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo

Drymonia serrulata (Jacq.) Mart.

Destrancadera

Cultural illnesses (Good luck); Digestive system (Gastrointestinal washes); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Breast cancer, Inflammation, Lung cancer, Prostate cancer, Uterine cancer); Reproductive system and sexual health (Uterine cysts); Urinary system (Prostate)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Kohleria spicata (Kunth) Oerst.

Tusilla

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage); Urinary system (Diuretic, Urinary infection)

Plaza de Kennedy

Hamamelidaceae

Hamamelis virginiana L.

Hamamelis

Blood and circulatory system (Varicose veins); Muscular-skelettal system (Sprain); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Alopecia); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Bruises); Urinary system (Hemorrhoids)

Plaza de Kennedy

Heliconiaceae

Heliconia hirsuta L. f.

Bijao

Anti-venom (Antidote); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism)

Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca)

Heliconia psittacorum L. f.

Gallito

Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Muscular paralysis, Rheumatism)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del Restrepo

Hepaticae-Marchantiaceae

Marchantia polymorpha L.

Hepática de las Fuentes

Digestive system (Liver problems); Urinary system (Kidney stones)

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Hypericaceae

Hypericum androsaemum L.

Hypérico

Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza de El Carmen

Hypericum licopodioides Triana & Planch.

Escobo

Cultural illnesses (Against shyness, Bed-wetting); Muscular-skelettal system (Cramps); Nervous system and mental health (Depression); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Menopause); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Acne, Burns, Eczema, Healing, Skin care, Skin diseases, Sores)

Plaza del Restrepo

Iridaceae

Sisyrinchium tinctorium Kunth

Espadilla / Ispaguilla

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Digestive system (Constipation, Flatulence, Indigestion); Infections and infestations (Syphilis); Respitarory system (Flu, Pneumonia)

Plaza de San Benito; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Juglandaceae

Juglans neotropica Diels.

Nogal

Blood and circulatory system (Anemia, Blood cleansing); Cultural illnesses (Good luck); Digestive system (Constipation, Indigestion, Liver problems); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Metabolism and nutrition (High cholesterol, Lower cholesterol); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Alopecia, Analgesic, Anti-agin, Dandruff, Promotes sweating); Others (Healthy hair); Reproductive system and sexual health (Dysmenorrhea, Vaginal discharge, Vaginal infections); Sensory system (Mouth ulcers); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent, Fungicide, Skin Tonic); Urinary system (Urethral infections, Urinary infection)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Lamiaceae

Cantinoa colombiana (Epling) Harley & J.F.B. Pastore

Cardo Santo

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Hemorrhage); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing)

Plaza de Kennedy

Hyptis capitata Jacq.

Botón Negro

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Hemorrhage); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing)

Plaza de Las Ferias

Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

Alhucema / Lavándula Espliego

Digestive system (Indigestion); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Headache); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Expectorant)

Plaza de Las Cruces

Marrubium vulgare L.

Marrubio / Marrubio blanco

Digestive system (Constipation); Infections and infestations (Gangrene, Tuberculosis); Metabolism and nutrition (Obesity); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Stomach ache); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Bronchial diseases, Cough, Expectorant)

Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza Samper Mendoza; Melissa officinalis L.

Melissa officinalis L.

Melissa / Toronjil

Blood and circulatory system (Heart diseases); Digestive system (Digestive problems, Flatulence, Indigestion); Nervous system and mental health (Nerves, Sedative, Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Spasms)

Plaza de La Concordia; Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza de San Benito; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Lucero; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Mentha spicata L.

Sígueme-Sígueme / Querendona / Yerbabuena

Cultural illnesses (Good luck); Dental health (Toothache); Digestive system (Flatulence, Gallbladder, Indigestion, Liver, Stomach problems); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Muscular-skelettal system (Cramps, Muscle relaxant); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant, Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Dizziness, Inflammation, Spasms); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Burns); Human food (Beberage)*

Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío); Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del Quirigua; Plaza Samper Mendoza; Plaza Santander

Mentha x piperita L.

Hierbabuena / Menta / Yerbabuena

Dental health (Toothache); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Digestive problems, Flatulence, Indigestion, Strengthens digestive system); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Nervous system and mental health (Nerves, Sedative, Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Hemorrhage, Stomach ache, Vomit); Reproductive system and sexual health (Menstrual colic); Respitarory system (Asthma)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Concordia; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb.

Tusilago / Poleo grande

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Headache); Respitarory system (Asthma, Cough, Expectorant, Throat inflamation)

Plaza de La Perseverancia

Ocimum americanum L.

Albahaca

Digestive system (Colon); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Stomach ache); Urinary system (Kidney stones)

Plaza del Restrepo

Ocimum basilicum L.

Albahaca / Albahaca morada

Blood and circulatory system (Arteriosclerosis, Heart diseases); Cultural illnesses (Bed-wetting, Good luck); Digestive system (Colitis, Flatulence, Hepatic stimulant, Indigestion, Intestinal infections); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Metabolism and nutrition (High cholesterol); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Nervous system and mental health (Nerves, Stimulant, Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Headache); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Bronchial diseases, Bronchitis, Flu, Respiratory tract, Throat inflamation); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis, Ear inflammation, Otitis,Strengthens vision); Urinary system (Diuretic, Urethral infections, Urinary infection)

Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío); Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza de San Benito; Plaza de San Carlos; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Quirigua; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Santander

Ocimum campechianum Mill.

Albahaca

Cultural illnesses (Bed-wetting); Digestive system (Flatulence, Gastrointestinal disorders, Intestinal infections); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Respiratory tract); Sensory system (Otitis, Strengthens vision); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán

Origanum majorana L.

Mejorana

Blood and circulatory system (Circulatory stimulant); Digestive system (Flatulence, Indigestion, Stomach problems, Strengthens digestive system); Nervous system and mental health (Migraine, Nerves, Stimulant, Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Spasms, Swollen glands); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Bronchial diseases, Expectorant); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Pustules, Sores)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Origanum vulgare L.

Orégano

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Inflammation)

Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Phyla dulcis (Trevir.) Moldenke

Orozú / Orozul

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure); Digestive system (Gastrointestinal disorders, Liver problems); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Inflammation); Respitarory system (Cough, Respiratory tract)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao

Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Romero

Blood and circulatory system (Anemia, Heart diseases); Cultural illnesses (Good luck, Hypochondria, Vertigo); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Gastritis); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Nervous system and mental health (Nerves, Stimulant, Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Alopecia, Headache, Spasms,Stomach ache); Others (Memory); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Asthma, Bronchitis, Cough); Sensory system (Strengthens vision); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing wounds); Human food (Condiment)*

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 12 de Octubre

Salvia cf. carnea Kunth

Salvia

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure)

Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Salvia hispanica L.

Semilla de Chía

Endocrine system (Diabetes); Metabolism and nutrition (Appetite suppressant, Obesity)

Plaza del 12 de Octubre

Salvia officinalis L.

Salvia

Dental health (Mouth diseases); Digestive system (Stomach problems); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Respitarory system (Expectorant, Pharyngitis, Throat inflamation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent)

Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán

Salvia palifolia Kunth

Mastranto

Blood and circulatory system (Arteriosclerosis, High blood pressure); Digestive system (Indigestion); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Headache)

Plaza de Paloquemao

Salvia scutellarioides Kunth

Mastranto

Blood and circulatory system (Arteriosclerosis); Dental health (Inflammation of the gums); Digestive system (Flatulence, Gastritis, Indigestion); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Muscular-skelettal system (Lumbago); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Altitude sickness, Analgesic, Menopause, Mosquito bites); Others (Sunstroke); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue, Vaginal infections); Respitarory system (Pharyngitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent, Burns, Healing, Healing wounds, Skin ulcers, Sores, Stinging, Sweating); Urinary system (Cystitis, Diuretic)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Perseverancia

Satureja brownei (Sw.) Briq.

Poleo

Cultural illnesses (Bed-wetting); Digestive system (Flatulence, Indigestion, Stomach problems); Respitarory system (Flu); Urinary system (Hemorrhoids);Human food (Condiment)*

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del Lucero; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Satureja montana L.

Hierba de San Juan

Digestive system (Diarrhea, Flatulence, Indigestion); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Spasms)

Plaza del Quirigua

Scutellaria incarnata Vent.

Alegría

Nervous system and mental health (Depression)

Plaza del Restrepo

Thymus vulgaris L.

Tomillo

Dental health (Gum pain, Halitosis, Toothache); Digestive system (Constipation, Flatulence, Gastritis, Indigestion, Strengthens digestive system); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Alopecia, Analgesic, Fatigue, Lack of appetite, Spasms, Stomach cramp); Others (Tonic); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue, Sexual potency, Vaginal discharge); Respitarory system (Cough, Flu, Sinusitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Cultural illnesses, Fungicide, Skin diseases); Human food (Condiment)*

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del Quirigua; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Lauraceae

Persea americana Mill.

Aguacate / Hoja de aguacate

Blood and circulatory system (Circulatory stimulant, Heart diseases); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Dysentery, Flatulence, Indigestion); Infections and infestations (Abscesses, Vermifuge); Metabolism and nutrition (Obesity); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Alopecia, Analgesic, Headache); Others (Healthy hair); Reproductive system and sexual health (Mouth infections, Sexual potency, Sterilize, Vaginal discharge, Vaginal infections); Respitarory system (Bronchial diseases, Flu); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent, Boils, Fungicide, Skin diseases); Urinary system (Diuretic, Hemorrhoids, Urethral infections); Animal food (Animal food)*; Human food (Food)*; Toxic (Rat poison)*

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Lucero; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Santander

Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

Bauhinia tarapotensis Benth.

Casco de vaca

Digestive system (Regenerate intestinal flora)

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del Restrepo

Bauhinia ungulata L.

Casco de vaca

Endocrine system (Diabetes); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Headache)

Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Brownea ariza Benth.

Palo de cruz

Cultural illnesses (Witchcraft); Digestive system (Constipation); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage); Reproductive system and sexual health (Dysmenorrhea)

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán

Brownea rosa-de-monte P.J. Bergius

Palo de cruz

Digestive system (Constipation); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage); Reproductive system and sexual health (Dysmenorrhea)

Plaza del Restrepo

Cassia fistula L.

Cañafístula

Digestive system (Constipation)

Plaza del Restrepo

Cassia grandis L. f.

Casia

Digestive system (Digestive problems); Infections and infestations (Syphilis); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue, Menstrual colic); Urinary system (Kidney stones)

Plaza de Kennedy

Chamaecrista desvauxii (Collad.) Killip

Cargarrocío

Digestive system (Constipation)

Plaza Santander

Copaifera pubiflora Benth.

Copaiba

Digestive system (Constipation); Infections and infestations (Venereal diseases); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Respitarory system (Bronchial diseases, Bronchitis); Urinary system (Hemorrhoids)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms

Bálsamo de Tolú

Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Promotes sweating); Respitarory system (Bronchial diseases)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Myroxylon peruiferum L. f.

Bálsamo del Perú

Infections and infestations (Tuberculosis); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Laryngitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Parkinsonia aculeata L.

Retamo

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Human food (Mead preservation)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de La Concordia

Phanera variegata (L.) Benth.

Casco de Vaca / Pata de Buey

Digestive system (Constipation, Dysentery); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Headache)

Plaza del Restrepo

Senna alata (L.) Roxb.

Monteyoco

Digestive system (Constipation); Infections and infestations (Bot fly)

Plaza de San Carlos

Senna alexandrina Mill.

Sen

Digestive system (Constipation)

Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo

Senna hirsuta (L.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby

Bicho de café

Blood and circulatory system (Anemia); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Gallstones, Indigestion); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Others (Tonic); Urinary system (Kidney stones)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Senna occidentalis (L.) Link

Bicho / Chilinchile / Brusca

Digestive system (Constipation, Diarrhea, Stomach problems); Infections and infestations (Malaria); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Respitarory system (Asthma); Urinary system (Prostate); Human food (Food)*

Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de Kennedy

Senna pallida (Vahl) H.S. Irwin & Barneby

Escobito

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Infections and infestations (Syphilis)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del Restrepo

Senna reticulata (Willd.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby

Martín Galvis

Metabolism and nutrition (Obesity)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Tamarindus indica L.

Tamarindo

Digestive system (Constipation, Flatulence, Gallbladder, Indigestion, Stomach problems); Infections and infestations (Malaria); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Inflammation); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Abortive); Respitarory system (Throat inflamation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin ulcers); Urinary system (Urinary infection); Human food (Food)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del Restrepo

Tara spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina) Britton & Rose

Dividivi

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Respitarory system (Sinusitis, Tonsillitis)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de San Benito

Leguminosae-Mimosoideae

Acacia dealbata Link

Acacia de la India

Digestive system (Constipation); Metabolism and nutrition (Obesity)

Plaza de Fontibón

Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg.

Niopo

Blood and circulatory system (Heart diseases); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer, Hemorrhage, Tumors); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Herpes)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de La Perseverancia

Entada polystachya (L.) DC.

Ojo de buey

Blood and circulatory system (Heart diseases); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Inga densiflora Benth.

Guamo

Digestive system (Dysentery)

Plaza de Fontibón

Inga ynga (Vell.) J.W. Moore

Guaba / Guamo Bejuco / Guamo Santafereño

Digestive system (Diarrhea, Dysentery, Intestinal inflammation); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Dropsy); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent)

Plaza del Lucero

Mimosa pudica L.

Dormidera

Nervous system and mental health (Epilepsy, Tranquilizer)

Plaza de Kennedy

Piptadenia flava (Spreng. ex DC.) Benth.

Zarza

Cultural illnesses (Hallucinogen)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del Restrepo

Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.

Samán

Digestive system (Constipation); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer);Animal food (Animal food)*; Human food (Beberage)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Kennedy

Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn.

Acacia de la India

Digestive system (Diarrhea, Indigestion); Infections and infestations (Typhus); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Respitarory system (Bronchial diseases, Laryngitis); Urinary system (Urinary infection)

Plaza de El Carmen

Vachellia nilotica (L.) P.J.H. Hurter & Mabb.

Acacia de la India

Digestive system (Gastrointestinal disorders); Infections and infestations (Scabies); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer); Respitarory system (Laryngitis, Respiratory tract); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Pustules, Sores)

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

Abrus precatorius L.

Chochito de Indio / Bejuco Pronia / Pionía / Chochos

Digestive system (Appendicitis); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Respitarory system (Bronchial diseases, Expectorant); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis, Stye);Toxic (Insecticide)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Santander

Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth

Guandul / Fríjol quinchoncho

Digestive system (Gastritis, Indigestion); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Spasms); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin ulcers); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza del Quirigua

Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC.

Pega-Pega

Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC. (Reproductive system and sexual health)

Plaza del Restrepo

Erythrina edulis Triana ex Micheli

Chachafruto

Urinary system (Diuretic); Human food (Food)*

Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca)

Erythrina poeppigiana (Walp.) O.F. Cook

Búcaro / Cámbulo

Blood and circulatory system (Heart diseases); Cultural illnesses (Hallucinogen); Digestive system (Constipation); Nervous system and mental health (Sedative); Others (Sunstroke); Respitarory system (Flu); Human food (Food)*

Plaza de La Concordia; Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca)

Erythrina rubrinervia Kunth

Eritrina / Siriguay

Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer)

Plaza Samper Mendoza

Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp.

Mata ratón

Others (Sunstroke); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin diseases);Toxic (Insecticide)*

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Glycine max (L.) Merr.

Soya

Animal food (Animal food)*; Human food (food)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Indigofera suffruticosa Mill.

Curí

Dental health (Salivation control); Infections and infestations (Gonorrhea);Human food (Food coloring)*

Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca)

Medicago sativa L.

Alfalfa

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing, High blood pressure); Dental health (Cavities, Dental health, Gum pain); Digestive system (Skin and subcutaneous tissue); Metabolism and nutrition (Obesity, Restorative, Rickets); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage); Urinary system (Urinary infection);Human food (Food)*

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del Restrepo

Mucuna mutisiana (Kunth) DC.

Ojo de venado / Pica pica

Digestive system (Cholera, Constipation); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Dropsy); Urinary system (Hemorrhoids)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Kennedy

Spartium junceum L.

Retama

Digestive system (Constipation); Endocrine system (Diabetes)

Plaza de San Benito

Vicia faba L.

Habas

Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Burns, Healing wounds)

Plaza Santander

Liliaceae

Lilium candidum L.

Azucena

Infections and infestations (Abscesses); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Cracked breasts); Sensory system (Otitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Bruises, Calluses, Skin spots)

Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Linaceae

Linum usitatissimum L.

Linaza

Digestive system (Constipation, Intestinal inflammation); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (General malaise); Respitarory system (Cough); Urinary system (Urinary infection)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza del 12 de Octubre

Loganiaceae

Spigelia anthelmia L.

Lombricera

Infections and infestations (Vermifuge)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca)

Loranthaceae

Oryctanthus alveolatus (Kunth) Kuijt

Pajarito

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure); Muscular-skelettal system (Fractures, Luxation); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Childbed); Respitarory system (Expectorant, Lung diseases, Tonsillitis)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC.) G. Don

Muérdago / Visco

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure); Cultural illnesses (Vertigo); Metabolism and nutrition (Gout, High cholesterol, Lower cholesterol); Nervous system and mental health (Epilepsy, Sedative); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Hemorrhage, Inflammation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Lycoperdaceae

Calvatia cyathiformis (Bosc) Morgan

Pedo de Bruja

Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing wounds)

Plaza Santander

Lycopodiaceae

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Cacho de Venado

Cultural illnesses (To make children walk (1-3 years)); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin care, Skin Tonic)

Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca)

Lythraceae

Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr.

San Antonio

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza del Restrepo

Cuphea dipetala (L.f.) Koehne

Moradita

Dental health (Mouth diseases); Infections and infestations (Syphilis); Respitarory system (Throat inflamation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca)

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth

Peralejo / Barbasco

Anti-venom (Antidote); Digestive system (Diarrhea); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent)

Plaza Samper Mendoza

Heteropterys riparia Cuatrec.

Saca-sal / Sígalo

Cultural illnesses (Good luck); Infections and infestations (Gonorrhea); Urinary system (Cystitis)

Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Malpighia glabra L.

Ciruelo de perro

Infections and infestations (Gonorrhea); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent); Urinary system (Urethral infections)

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Malvaceae

Alcea rosea L.

Malva real

Dental health (To help teething, Toothache); Respitarory system (Bronchial diseases, Lung diseases, Throat inflamation); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Gossypium hirsutum L.

Algodonero / Algodón morado

Digestive system (Dysentery); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Respitarory system (Lung diseases); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza de Kennedy

Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.

Guacimo / Guásimo

Digestive system (Diarrhea); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Inflammation); Others (Healthy hair); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Burns, Healing wounds, Skin diseases); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de San Carlos

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.

Té de Ibisco / Cayeno

Digestive system (Constipation, Indigestion); Metabolism and nutrition (Scurvy); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Alopecia, Analgesic, Spasms); Others (Tonic); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Expectorant); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent, Skin allergies)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza del Restrepo

Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

Abutilón

Digestive system (Gallbladder); Metabolism and nutrition (Scurvy); Urinary system (Diuretic);Human food (Beberage)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del Restrepo

Malachra rudis Benth.

Malvavisco

Digestive system (Gastritis); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Promotes sweating); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Cough, Expectorant, Flu)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Malva parviflora L.

Malva

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Malva sylvestris L.

Malva / Malva común

Digestive system (Colic, Constipation, Diarrhea, Intestinal inflammation); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer); Respitarory system (Cough, Flu, Lung diseases)

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo

Malvaviscus penduliflorus DC.

Resucitado

Human food (Food)*

Plaza Santander

Matisia cordata Bonpl.

Zapote / Chupachupa

Human food (Food)*

Plaza de Kennedy

Modiola caroliniana (L.) G. Don

Patechulo

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán

Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam.) Urb.

Balso

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Headache); Respitarory system (Flu)

Plaza del 12 de Octubre

Sida cordifolia L.

Yerba Amarga

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Inflammation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing wounds)

Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío)

Sida glomerata Cav.

Escoba

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Respitarory system (Expectorant)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Sparrmannia africana L. f.

Tilo

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Muscular-skelettal system (Feet pain, Rheumatism); Nervous system and mental health (Nerves, Sedative, Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fatigue, Headache, Promotes sweating, Spasms, Stomach cramp); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Decongestant, Flu); Urinary system (Urinary infection)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo

Sterculia apetala (Jacq.) H. Karst.

Majao

Blood and circulatory system (Cardiac stimulant); Nervous system and mental health (Tonic); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza de Las Cruces

Melastomataceae

Arthrostemma ciliatum Pav. ex D. Don

Caña Agria

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever)

Plaza de San Benito

Menispermaceae

Abuta grandifolia (Mart.) Sandw.

Vibuajeiria

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever)

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Monimiaceae

Peumus boldus Molina

Boldo

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Dental health (Toothache); Digestive system (Constipation, Flatulence, Gallbladder, Indigestion, Liver cleaning, Liver problems); Infections and infestations (Syphilis); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Nervous system and mental health (Migraine, Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Dropsy, Headache, Lack of appetite); Sensory system (Strengthens vision); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Rashes); Urinary system (Diuretic, Kidney infection)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Moraceae

Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg

Hoja del Pan / Frutapán

Endocrine system (Diabetes); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Rashes, Warts);Human food (Food)*

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del Restrepo

Brosimum utile (Kunth) Oken

Avichurí

Respitarory system (Asthma, Bronchitis, Lung diseases); Human food (Food)*

Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca)

Cecropia peltata L.

Guarumo / Yarumo

Respitarory system (Respitarory system (Asthma, Bronchitis, Lung diseases)

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Ficus carica L.

Brevo

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure); Cultural illnesses (Meanness); Digestive system (Constipation); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Breast care); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Cough, Throat inflamation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Rashes, Skin care, Warts)

Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Quirigua

Ficus insipida Willd.

Higuerón

Infections and infestations (Infections and infestations (Anthelmintic, Vermifuge)

Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza del Lucero

Ficus maxima Mill.

Higuerón

Infections and infestations (Infections and infestations (Vermifuge)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud.

Dinde / Mora

Dental health (Dental health (Tooth extraction)

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Moringaceae

Moringa oleifera Lam.

Moringa / Hierba de la Vida

Blood and circulatory system (Anemia,Heart diseases, High blood pressure); Dental health (Inflammation of the gums); Digestive system (Constipation, Diarrhea, Gastritis); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Nervous system and mental health (Epilepsy); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Cancer, Dandruff, Dropsy, General malaise, Headache, Inflammation, Stomach ache); Others (Tonic); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Galactogogue); Respitarory system (Asthma); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing wounds); Urinary system (Kidney stones); Human food (Food)*

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Restrepo

Muntingiaceae

Muntingia calabura L.

Chitato

Dental health (Mouth infections); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Dysentery, Vomitive); Infections and infestations (Measles); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Stomach ache); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Cough); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin diseases)

Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Musaceae

Musa x paradisiaca L.

Colicero / Plátano hartón / Topocho

Digestive system (Diarrhea, Indigestion, Stomach problems); Infections and infestations (Tuberculosis); Metabolism and nutrition (Lactose intolerance, Restorative);Human food (Food)*

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca)

Myricaceae

Morella parvifolia (Benth.) Parra-Os.

Laurel Cruz

Digestive system (Diarrhea); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Respitarory system (Flu); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent)

Plaza de Paloquemao

Myristicaceae

Otoba novogranatensis Moldenke

Otoba

Digestive system (Flatulence, Liver problems); Infections and infestations (Leprosy, Scabies, Tuberculosis); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Alopecia); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Dermatitis, Skin diseases)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Fontibón

Myrtaceae

Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

Ocal / Eucalipto

Blood and circulatory system (Varicose veins); Cultural illnesses (Sahumerio); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Infections and infestations (Malaria); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Promotes sweating); Respitarory system (Asthma, Bronchitis, Cough, Decongestant, Expectorant, Flu, Laryngitis, Lung diseases, Respiratory tract, Sinusitis, Throat inflamation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Sores); Toxic (Insecticide)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza de San Carlos; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Eugenia uniflora L.

Nuez moscada

Digestive system (Stomach problems); Urinary system (Hemorrhoids)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca)

Myrcianthes leucoxyla (Ortega) McVaugh

Arrayán / Palo de arrayán

Dental health (Toothache); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Digestive problems, Dysentery, Indigestion, Stomach problems); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Metabolism and nutrition (Restorative); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Nervous system and mental health (Sedative, Stimulant); Others (Tonic); Sensory system (Deafness); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del Quirigua

Myrtus communis L.

Mirto

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Lung diseases)

Plaza Santander

Psidium guajava L.

Guayaba / Guayaba Biche

Blood and circulatory system (Anemia); Dental health (Toothache); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Dysentery, Indigestion); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Alopecia, Dropsy, Spasms); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing wounds, Skin ulcers, Sores)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Psidium guineense Sw.

Guayabo cimarrón

Digestive system (Diarrhea); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin ulcers)

Plaza de Paloquemao

Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston

Pomarroso

Digestive system (Flatulence, Indigestion)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza del Lucero

Onagraceae

Ludwigia peruviana (L.) H. Hara

Clavito

Respitarory system (Asthma, Bronchial diseases, Lung diseases, Pneumonia)

Plaza del Restrepo

Oenothera multicaulis Ruiz & Pav.

Flor de muerto / Yerba de las 3 flores / Injerta

Muscular-skelettal system (Fractures); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Inflammation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Bruises)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de San Benito; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Orchidaceae

Vanilla planifolia Andrews

Vainilla

Blood and circulatory system (Anemia); Reproductive system and sexual health (Sexual potency); Urinary system (Urinary infection);Human food (Condiment, Food)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis corniculata L.

Acedera

Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever)

Plaza Boyacá

Oxalis tuberosa Molina

Ibias u Ocas

Digestive system (Gallbladder, Gastritis); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Urinary system (Diuretic);Human food (Food)*

Plaza Samper Mendoza

Papaveraceae

Fumaria officinalis L.

Fumaria

Metabolism and nutrition (Scurvy); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Rashes)

Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Papaver somniferum L.

Flor de amapola / Adormidera

Digestive system (Diarrhea); Nervous system and mental health (Sedative); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Inflammation, Promotes sweating, Spasms, Stomach ache); Others (Sunstroke); Reproductive system and sexual health (Dysmenorrhea); Respitarory system (Expectorant, Respiratory tract); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis)

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán

Passifloraceae

Passiflora ligularis Juss.

Granadilla

Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Muscular-skelettal system (Back pain); Nervous system and mental health (Epilepsy); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Bruises)

Plaza de Kennedy

Turnera ulmifolia L.

Damiana

Reproductive system and sexual health (Infertility, Sexual potency); Respitarory system (Expectorant); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza Samper Mendoza

Phyllanthaceae

Phyllanthus niruri L.

Viernes Santo

Digestive system (Constipation); Infections and infestations (Bot fly, Lice)

Plaza de Kennedy

Phytolaccaceae

Petiveria alliacea L.

Anamú

Dental health (Cavities, Gum pain, Toothache); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Cancer, Inflammation, Promotes sweating, Seizures, Spasms, Tumors); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Childbed); Respitarory system (Respiratory tract); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Pustules, Sores); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Concordia; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza de San Benito; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Quirigua; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Phytolacca bogotensis Kunth

Cargamanta / Guaba

Blood and circulatory system (Varicose veins); Digestive system (Constipation); Infections and infestations (Scabies, Vermifuge); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer, Inflammation, Tumors); Respitarory system (Decongestant); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza de La Concordia; Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza del 20 de Julio

Pinaceae

Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham.

Pino / Pino silvestre

Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Respitarory system (Cough, Expectorant, Respiratory tract); Urinary system (Diuretic, Prostate)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Restrepo

Piperaceae

Peperomia garcia-barrigana Trel. & Yunck.

Siempreviva

Cultural illnesses (Good luck); Digestive system (Indigestion); Respitarory system (Flu)

Plaza de La Concordia; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán

Piper aduncum L.

Cordoncillo

Digestive system (Dysentery, Indigestion); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent, Sores)

Plaza de La Concordia; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Piper arboreum Aubl.

Cordoncillo

Digestive system (Dysentery, Indigestion); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Pustules, Sores)

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán

Piper obtusilimbum C. DC.

Desvanecedora

Blood and circulatory system (Varicose veins); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer, Inflammation, Tumors)

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del Restrepo

Plantaginaceae

Digitalis purpurea L.

Digital

Blood and circulatory system (Cardiac stimulant); Nervous system and mental health (Epilepsy in children, Tranquilizer); Respitarory system (Asthma); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza de La Perseverancia

Plantago australis Lam.

Llantén

Dental health (Mouth inflammations); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Liver cleaning); Respitarory system (Expectorant, Throat inflamation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Rashes)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Plantago major L.

Llantén

Dental health (Inflammation of the gums, Mouth inflammations); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Dysentery, Gastritis, Indigestion, Liver problems); Infections and infestations (Bot fly, Erysipelas, Gangrene); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Fever,Hemorrhage, Inflammation); Others (Tonic); Respitarory system (Expectorant, Respiratory tract, Throat inflamation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent, Healing, Skin ulcers); Urinary system (Hemorrhoids, Kidney infection)

Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Scoparia dulcis L.

Escobilla

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever)

Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Poaceae

Axonopus scoparius (Flüggé) Kuhlm.

Micay / Pasto Micay / Pimckay / Yerba micay

Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Galactogogue); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza del 12 de Octubre

Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf

Limoncillo / Limonaria

Cultural illnesses ("Fríos encajados"); Dental health (Cavities, Tooth cleaning); Digestive system (Flatulence); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Promotes sweating); Respitarory system (Flu); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin Tonic); Human food (Beberage)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Santander

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

Grama

Digestive system (Constipation); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Promotes sweating); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Anti-abortive); Urinary system (Diuretic, Urinary infection)

Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del Restrepo

Imperata contracta (Kunth) Hitchc.

Vende agujas

Urinary system (Cystitis, Urinary infection)

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán

Oryza sativa L.

Arroz

Digestive system (Diarrhea, Intestinal inflammation); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin Tonic);Human food (Food)*

Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza Samper Mendoza

Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br.

Grama

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Digestive system (Liver problems); Urinary system (Diuretic, Kidney infection, Urinary infection)

Plaza de Las Cruces

Polygalaceae

Monnina salicifolia Ruiz & Pav.

Tinto

Cultural illnesses ("Fríos encajados", Good luck); Respitarory system (Sinusitis)

Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Polygala paniculata L.

Sarpoleta / Yerba de la Virgen

Infections and infestations (Malaria)

Plaza del Restrepo

Polygonaceae

Rheum officinale Baill.

Ruibarbo

Digestive system (Constipation, Diarrhea, Flatulence, Gallbladder, Stomach problems); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Lack of appetite, Stomach ache)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Restrepo

Rheum palmatum L.

Ruibarbo

Digestive system (Constipation, Digestive problems, Flatulence, Gallbladder, Indigestion,Stomach problems); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Headache; Reproductive system and sexual health (Infertility))

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de San Carlos

Rumex crispus L.

Lengua de Vaca / Romaza / Lengüevaca

Digestive system (Constipation, Gallbladder, Liver problems, Stomach problems); Metabolism and nutrition (Scurvy); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Reproductive system and sexual health (Infertility); Skin and sub-cutaneous tissue (Adstringent); Human food (Food)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza del Restrepo

Rumex obtusifolius L.

Lengua de Vaca

Digestive system (Constipation, Digestive problems, Gallbladder, Stomach problems); Reproductive system and sexual health (Infertility)

Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza de San Benito; Plaza del Restrepo

Ruprechtia ramiflora (Jacq.) C.A. Mey.

Cargamuchacho / Higuerón

Metabolism and nutrition (Restorative); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Improve health)

Plaza Boyacá

Polypodiaceae

Phlebodium aureum (L.) J. Sm.

Calaguala

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing, High blood pressure); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Indigestion); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer)

Plaza de Fontibón

Polypodium fimbriatum Maxon

Helecho

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing)

Plaza de Las Ferias

Serpocaulon triseriale (Sw.) A.R. Sm.

Helecho común

Digestive system (Constipation)

Plaza del Lucero

Portulacaceae

Portulaca oleracea L.

Verdolaga

Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Burns); Urinary system (Urinary infection);Human food (Food)*

Plaza de La Concordia; Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza del Lucero; Plaza del Restrepo

Primulaceae

Myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult.

Espadero / Cucharo

Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin allergies)

Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Pteridaceae

Adiantum capillus-veneris L.

Culantrillo

Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Expectorant); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Ranunculaceae

Ranunculus nubigenus Kunth ex DC.

Oreja de ratón

Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Warts)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Rhamnaceae

Rhamnus purshiana DC.

Cáscara Sagrada

Blood and circulatory system (Circulatory stimulant); Digestive system (Constipation, Indigestion); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Lack of appetite); Urinary system (Hemorrhoids)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza del Lucero

Rosaceae

Cydonia oblonga Mill.

Membrillo

Digestive system (Diarrhea, Strengthens digestive system); Respitarory system (Lung diseases); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Cracked lips); Urinary system (Hemorrhoids)

Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Malus pumila Mill.

Manzana verde

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Headache)

Plaza de Paloquemao

Rubiaceae

Alibertia patinoi (Cuatrec.) Delprete & C.H. Perss.

Borojó

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer); Reproductive system and sexual health (Sexual potency); Urinary system (Urinary infection)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Carapichea ipecacuanha (Brot.) L. Andersson

Ipecacuana

Respitarory system (Asthma, Cough, Expectorant, Lung diseases)

Plaza del Restrepo

Cinchona pubescens Vahl

Cascarilla / Quina

Digestive system (Diarrhea, Indigestion); Infections and infestations (Malaria); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Fever)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de San Carlos

Morinda citrifolia L.

Noni

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure); Digestive system (Colon, Duodenum problems, Gastritis); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Bone pain, Muscular pain, Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer, Fever, General malaise, Stomach ache); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue, Infertility); Respitarory system (Cough, Decongestant, Respiratory tract); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin diseases); Human food (Food)*

Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo

Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.

Uña de Gato

Digestive system (Duodenum problems, Gastritis, Gastrointestinal disorders, Intestinal inflammation, Liver problems, Stomach problems); Infections and infestations (HIV); Metabolism and nutrition (Strengthen inumosystem); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Cancer, Inflammation, Stomach ache); Reproductive system and sexual health (Contraceptives); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Fungicide, Healing wounds, Herpes); Urinary system (Diuretic, Kidney stones)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de San Carlos; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Santander

Rutaceae

Citrus aurantiifolia (igual a C. maxima) (Christm.) Swingle

Hoja del limón / Limón

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure); Digestive system (Cirrhosis, Flatulence, Gallbladder, Heartburn, Indigestion); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, General malaise, Headache); Respitarory system (Pleura inflamation, Throat inflamation); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis, Stye); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Pustules, Sores)

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Citrus aurantium (igual a C. maxima) L.

Naranja ácida / Naranja agria

Digestive system (Gallbladder, Liver problems); Nervous system and mental health (Sedative);Human food (Food)*

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza del 20 de Julio

Citrus limetta (igual a C. maxima) Risso

Lima

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure); Urinary system (Cystitis, Kidney stones, Urinary infection)

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Citrus sinensis (igual a C. maxima) (L.) Osbeck

Azahar / Naranjo

Blood and circulatory system (Heart diseases); Digestive system (Indigestion); Nervous system and mental health (Sedative); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Headache, Spasms, Stomach ache);Human food (Food)*

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Coleonema album (Thunb.) Bartl. & H.L. Wendl.

Diosme

Cultural illnesses (Good luck); Toxic (Insecticide)*

Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Ruta graveolens L.

Ruda

Cultural illnesses (Good luck); Digestive system (Constipation, Flatulence, Indigestion, Stomach problems); Infections and infestations (Erysipelas, Vermifuge); Muscular-skelettal system (Neuralgia); Nervous system and mental health (Epilepsy); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Promotes sweating, Stomach ache); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue, Menstrual colic, Strengthen uterus, Uterine diseases); Respitarory system (Cough); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Rashes)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza de San Benito; Plaza de San Carlos; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Lucero; Plaza del Quirigua; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza; Plaza Santander

Zanthoxylum rigidum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.

Uña de Gato

Digestive system (Liver problems)

Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca); Plaza del Restrepo

Salicaceae

Salix humboldtiana Willd.

Sauce

Dental health (Cavities); Muscular-skelettal system (Bone pain, Rheumatism); Nervous system and mental health (Sedative); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Alopecia, Analgesic, Fever)

Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de San Benito; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Sapindaceae

Aesculus hippocastanum L.

Castaño de Indias

Metabolism and nutrition (Obesity); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Inflammation)

Plaza de San Benito

Paullinia yoco R.E. Schult. & Killip

Yocó

Metabolism and nutrition (Appetite suppressant); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic)

Plaza Samper Mendoza

Sapindus saponaria L.

Chumbimba

Anti-venom (Antidote); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin Tonic); Urinary system (Cystitis);Cultural (Detergent)*; Cosmetic (Shampoo)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Sapotaceae

Chrysophyllum cainito L.

Caimito

Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Hemorrhage); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent, Skin Tonic);Human food (Food)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen

Níspero

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Urinary system (Diuretic, Kidney infection)

Plaza de La Concordia

Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H.E. Moore & Stearn

Zapote

Respitarory system (Flu); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío)

Scrophulariaceae

Alonsoa meridionalis (L. f.) Kuntze

Cascabelito

Respitarory system (Asthma)

Plaza del Restrepo

Verbascum virgatum Stokes

Verbasco / Gordolobo

Digestive system (Diarrhea); Muscular-skelettal system (Cramps); Nervous system and mental health (Tranquilizer); Respitarory system (Asthma, Bronchitis, Cough, Expectorant, Flu, Throat inflamation)

Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Simaroubaceae

Quassia amara L.

Aguasio / Cuasia Amarga / Cuasia

Blood and circulatory system (Circulatory stimulant); Cultural illnesses (Strengthen); Digestive system (Hepatic stimulant, Indigestion); Infections and infestations (Malaria); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever, Lack of appetite); Urinary system (Kidney infection); Toxic (Insecticide)*

Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Simarouba amara Aubl.

Simarruba / Tara

Digestive system (Constipation, Diarrhea); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Others (Alcoholism); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Sensory system (Ear)

Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del Restrepo

Smilacaceae

Smilax officinalis Kunth

Zarzaparrila

Anti-venom (Antidote); Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing, Circulatory stimulant); Infections and infestations (Syphilis); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Apena, Lack of appetite, Menopause, Promotes sweating); Reproductive system and sexual health (Virility); Respitarory system (Asthma, Bronchial diseases, Cough, Lung diseases); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Boils); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Quirigua; Plaza del Restrepo

Smilax siphilitica Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.

Zarcilla

Anti-venom (Antidote); Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Infections and infestations (Syphilis); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Menopause); Reproductive system and sexual health (Virility)

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Solanaceae

Brugmansia candida Pers.

Borrachero

Cultural illnesses (To go crazy); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Rheumatism); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Urinary system (Hemorrhoids);Toxic (Intoxicant)*

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Restrepo

Capsicum annuum L.

Ají

Blood and circulatory system (Varicose veins); Digestive system (Constipation, Flatulence, Indigestion); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Lumbago, Neuralgia, Rheumatism, Sprain); Nervous system and mental health (Depression, Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Heats up, Promotes sweating); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Flu, Laryngitis, Tonsillitis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Boils, Bruises)

Plaza de La Concordia

Capsicum rhomboideum (Dunal) Kuntze

Ají

Infections and infestations (Abscesses); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Lack of appetite)

Plaza de San Carlos

Cestrum buxifolium Kunth

Tinto

Infections and infestations (Typhus); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin diseases)

Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza del Restrepo

Cestrum mutisii Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.

Tinto

Infections and infestations (Typhus)

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Datura sanguinea Ruiz & Pav.

Borrachero

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Dropsy)

Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Datura stramonium L.

Chamico estramonio

Respitarory system (Asthma, Cough)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Mandragora officinarum Bertol.

Mandrágora

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Cultural illnesses (Good luck); Digestive system (Constipation, Vomitive); Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Scabies (Tetanus); Reproductive system and sexual health (Infertility, Sexual potency)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Santander

Nicotiana tabacum L.

Tabaco

Infections and infestations (Bot fly, Scabies, Tetanus); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Mosquito bites); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Fungicide);Toxic (Insecticide)*

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del Restrepo

Physalis peruviana L.

Uchuva / Capulí

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing); Infections and infestations (Vermifuge); Respitarory system (Cough, Throat inflamation); Sensory system (Conjunctivitis); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Solanum melongena L.

Berenjena

Metabolism and nutrition (High cholesterol, Obesity)

Plaza Samper Mendoza

Solanum nigrum L.

Pepamora / Yerbamora

Metabolism and nutrition (Restorative); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Inflammation, Promotes sweating); Others (Tonic); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Burns, Herpes, Skin ulcers)

Plaza del Restrepo

Solanum nigrum L.

Yerbamora

Digestive system (Duodenum problems); Infections and infestations (Gangrene); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Stomach cancer); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Eczema, Pustules, Rash, Rashes, Skin diseases, Stinging); Urinary system (Hemorrhoids)

Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del Restrepo

Solanum pseudocapsicum L.

Mirto

Cultural illnesses (Good luck); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza del 20 de Julio

Solanum quitoense Lam.

Lulo de Castilla

Nervous system and mental health (Nerves); Others (Sunstroke); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin diseases, Stinging)

Plaza del Restrepo

Sterculiaceae

Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.

Nacedero, Guásimo / Ñee au

Blood and circulatory system (Heart diseases); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (General malaise);Human food (Food)*

Plaza de Mercado del Municipio de Pacho (Cundinamarca)

Symplocaceae

Symplocos theiformis (L. f.) Oken

Fruta de pava / Té de Bogotá

Metabolism and nutrition (Restorative); Human food (Beberage)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Tropaeolaceae

Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & Pav.

Cubios

Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Eczema, Herpes); Urinary system (Diuretic, Urinary infection);Human food (Food)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Paloquemao

Urticaceae

Cecropia peltata L.

Guarumo / Yarumo

Blood and circulatory system (Heart diseases); Digestive system (Gallbladder); Others (Sunstroke); Respitarory system (Asthma, Bronchial diseases, Bronchitis, Lung diseases, Respiratory tract); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo

Parietaria debilis G. Forst.

Palitaria

Urinary system (Diuretic, Urinary infection)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 20 de Julio

Parietaria officinalis L.

Parietaria

Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing wounds); Urinary system (Cystitis, Urinary infection)

Plaza del Quirigua

Urera baccifera (L.) Gaudich. ex Wedd.

Pringamosa

Infections and infestations (Erysipelas); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Urinary system (Urethral infections)

Plaza de San Carlos; Plaza del Restrepo

Urera caracasana (Jacq.) Gaudich. ex Griseb.

Pringamoza negra

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Hemorrhage)

Plaza de La Concordia

Urtica dioica L.

Ortiga / Ortiga mayor

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing, Circulatory stimulant); Digestive system (Stomach problems); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Heats up); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue, Uterus inflammation); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin allergies); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Urtica sp.

Poleo silvestre

Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin allergies, Skin diseases)

Plaza del Restrepo

Urtica urens L.

Ortiga / Ortiga blanca / Ortiga menor

Blood and circulatory system (Varicose veins); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Gastritis); Metabolism and nutrition (Boddy cleansing); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Alopecia, Dandruff, Inflammation, Nosebleed); Reproductive system and sexual health (Uterus inflammation); Respitarory system (Asthma, Expectorant); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Rashes, Skin allergies, Skin diseases); Urinary system (Diuretic, Kidney infection); Human food (Condiment)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Concordia; Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Restrepo

Verbenaceae

Aloysia citriodora Paláu

Cidrón

Blood and circulatory system (Circulatory stimulant, Heart diseases); Dental health (Toothache); Digestive system (Digestive problems, Flatulence, Gastrointestinal disorders, Indigestion, Stomach problems); Infections and infestations (Rabies); Nervous system and mental health (Depression, Nerves, Sedative, Stress, Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Seizures, Spasms); Respitarory system (Expectorant)

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío); Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza de San Benito; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Santander

Bouchea prismatica (L.) Kuntze

Arrocillo

Digestive system (Rectal problems); Infections and infestations (Malaria, Typhus); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin Tonic)

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Lantana camara L.

Sanguinaria / Venturosa / Sanguinaria

Blood and circulatory system (Blood cleansing, High blood pressure, Varicose veins); Digestive system (Indigestion, Liver problems, Stomach problems); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Fever, Promotes sweating, Spasms); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Breast care); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Expectorant, Flu); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Lantana canescens Kunth

Zorrillo

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue, Uterine diseases); Respitarory system (Bronchitis)

Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío)

Lantana trifolia L.

Venturosa

Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Promotes sweating); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue)

Plaza del 12 de Octubre

Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson

Curalotodo / Pronto alivio / Prontoalivio

Digestive system (Colic, Digestive problems, Flatulence, Indigestion, Stomach problems); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis, Bone pain, Rheumatism); Nervous system and mental health (Nerves, Sedative, Tranquilizer); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Fever, Headache, Promotes sweating, Spasms, Stomach ache); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue, Menstrual colic); Respitarory system (Asthma, Bronchial diseases, Cough, Flu, Sinusitis)

Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de Fontibón; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de La Perseverancia; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza del 12 de Octubre; Plaza del Lucero; Plaza Santander

Lippia hirsuta L.f.

Bunquín

Infections and infestations (Tuberculosis); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Spasms); Reproductive system and sexual health (Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Asthma, Bronchitis, Expectorant, Lung diseases)

Plaza Central de Corabastos

Verbena officinalis L.

Verbena

Blood and circulatory system (High blood pressure); Digestive system (Diarrhea, Gallbladder, Stomach ache); Infections and infestations (Typhus); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Headache, Tumors); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing wounds)

Plaza de San Carlos; Plaza del Restrepo; Plaza Samper Mendoza

Violaceae

Viola odorata L.

Violeta

Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Fever); Respitarory system (Cough)

Plaza de Las Cruces

Vitaceae

Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicolson & C.E. Jarvis

Bejuco de Agua

Cultural illnesses (To make children walk (1-3 years)); Digestive system (Constipation, Digestive problems); Infections and infestations (Venereal diseases); Muscular-skelettal system (Muscular pain, Rheumatism); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Analgesic, Inflammation, Promotes sweating); Pregnancy, childbirth and child-bed (Breast care); Respitarory system (Flu, Respiratory tract); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing); Urinary system (Diuretic, Hemorrhoids)

Plaza de Mercado de Armenia (Quindío); Plaza Samper Mendoza

Winteraceae

Drimys granadensis L. f.

Canelón

Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Skin Tonic);Human food (Beberage)*

Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de San Carlos

Drimys winteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.

Canelo

Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Others (Tonic)

Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.

Sábila

Digestive system (Constipation); Infections and infestations (Leprosy); Reproductive system and sexual health (Dysmenorrhea, Emenagogue); Respitarory system (Bronchial diseases, Bronchitis, Cough, Expectorant, Pneumonia); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing, Healing wounds, Skin diseases, Sweating); Toxic (Insecticide)*

Plaza Central de Corabastos; Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de Kennedy; Plaza de Las Ferias; Plaza de San Benito; Plaza del 7 de Agosto

Zingiberaceae

Curcuma longa L.

Azafrán de raíz / Cúrcuma

Blood and circulatory system (Circulatory stimulant, Thrombosis); Digestive system (Indigestion, Liver cleaning); Endocrine system (Diabetes); Metabolism and nutrition (High cholesterol, Obesity, Strengthen inumosystem); Muscular-skelettal system (Arthritis); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Cancer); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Healing wounds); Urinary system (Kidney infection); Human food (Condiment)*

Plaza del Restrepo

Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton

Cardamomo

Digestive system (Digestive problems); Nervous system and mental health (Stimulant); Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (Lack of appetite); Respitarory system (Expectorant)

Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 12 de Octubre

Zygophyllaceae

Bulnesia arborea (Jacq.) Engl.

Guayacán

Muscular-skelettal system (Rheumatism)

Plaza del Quirigua

Kallstroemia maxima (L.) Hook. & Arn.

Abrojo de patio / Verdolaga / Abrojo

Digestive system (Colon, Indigestion); Infections and infestations (Abscesses, Vermifuge); Others (Ceas smoke); Respitarory system (Bronchitis, Cough); Skin and subcutaneous tissue (Astringent, Pustules); Urinary system (Diuretic)

Plaza Boyacá; Plaza de El Carmen; Plaza de Las Cruces; Plaza de Mercado de Girardot (Cundinamarca); Plaza de Mercado Trinidad-Galán; Plaza de Paloquemao; Plaza del 20 de Julio; Plaza del 7 de Agosto; Plaza del Quirigua; Plaza Santander

Most remedies were taken orally as decoctions/infusions, and a much smaller number was applied as cataplasm. Applications involved preferentially leaves and aerial parts of the plant.

Four hundred two species were used for medicinal purposes. The most treated illness categories were Non-specific symptoms and general illnesses (223 species, 55.4%), Digestive system (208, 52%), Skin and subcutaneous tissue (142, 35.3%), Respiratory system (131, 32.6%), Urinary system (119, 29.6%), Blood and circulatory system (107, 26.6%), and Infections and infestations (100, 24.8%). Among the individual illnesses, indigestion (167 species, 41.5%) stood out as the most common illness, followed by diuretic uses (155, 38.5%), emmenagogues (125, 32%), and flatulence (123, 30.5%) and rheumatism, diarrhea, and use as laxative (120, 119, and 166 species, 30, 29.5, and 29%, respectively).

In the present study, almost without exception, the small markets contained much less species than the main markets. Markets in Bogotá had very large numbers of unique plants, and the difference between the plants they report is not explained by geographical factors (the main origin of a human population within different districts in Bogotá) (by 9 geographical zones: p = 0.37; by 15 localities: p = 0.41) or size (by number of species reported: p = 0.22) (Fig. 1). The proportion of unique plants in the markets of Bogotá was generally high and did not show relations to geography or market size (Fig. 2). Even the 11 plant species that were most widespread among all markets did in fact occurred only in relatively few markets (Fig. 3). Not surprisingly, while generally low informant consensus (IC) was highest for introduced species (Table 2).
Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ordination of Colombian markets in plant-space (plant species and their respective uses). The difference between the plants venders report is not explained by geographical factors (by 9 geographical zones: p = 0.37; by 15 localities: p = 0.41) or size (by number of species reported: p = 0.22)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Proportion of unique plants in Colombian markets

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The 11 most widespread species among Colombian markets (black squares)

Table 2

Logarithmic informant consensus of Colombia species exceeding the 95%ile (3.0)

Species

LIC

Sambucus nigra L.

6.5

Matricaria chamomilla L.

6.3

Ocimum basilicum L.

5.7

Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson

5.2

Calendula officinalis L.

5.1

Ruta graveolens L.

5.0

Aloysia citriodora Paláu

4.9

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

4.4

Trichanthera gigantea (Bonpl.) Nees

4.2

Juglans neotropica Diels

4.2

Persea americana Mill.

4.0

Allium sativum L.

4.0

Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.

3.9

Valeriana officinalis L.

3.5

Ambrosia peruviana Willd.

3.5

Equisetum bogotense Kunth

3.5

Columnea kalbreyeriana Mast.

3.4

Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.

3.3

Petiveria alliacea L.

3.2

Lantana camara L.

3.2

Introduced species in bold

Discussion

Overall, species richness encountered in Bogotá was considerably higher than reported in studies in Bolivia [50] but similar to what we encountered in Peru [4049]. The numbers of species used for each illness was astonishingly high in comparison to the studies in Bolivia and Peru cited above. In contrast to studies in Peru [42, 43, 49], or even Bolivia [50], the species composition and plant use divergence in the markets of Bogotá were also very high. This was in contrast to both our initial hypotheses: While we had expected some discrepancy in plant composition and use in different markets, very much like in Peru [42, 43, 49] and Bolivia [50], the differences between the markets in Bogotá were much larger. Similarly, in contrast to the expectation that larger markets would contain all plant species found in smaller markets, essentially every market in Bogotá was unique. Rather than reflecting shared colonial heritage in plant use, the markets in Bogotá reflected much more the origin of the surrounding population, and each market focused more on the plant resources from the populations’ origin area. This might reflect that the human population of Bogotá, with migrants from all over Colombia, is much more diverse than the populations in the comparison areas (Trujillo-Chiclayo in Peru with mostly coastal population and Andean migrants; La Paz with a mixed population of Quechua and Mestizo origin).

Conclusions

The present study indicated a very large species and use diversity of medicinal plants in the markets of Bogotá, with profound differences existing even between markets in close proximity. This might be explained by the great differences in the origin of populations in Bogotá, the floristic diversity in their regions of origin, and their very distinct plant use knowledge and preferences that are transferred to the markets through customer demand. Our study clearly indicates that studies in single markets cannot give an in-depth overview on the plant supply and use in large metropolitan areas.

Abbreviations

FCu: 

Use reports for a specific use

IC: 

Informant consensus

ICu: 

Informant consensus for a specific use

LIC: 

Logarithmic informant consensus

NSu: 

Species for a specific use

Declarations

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the participation of the market vendors in Bogotá, and the Herbario Nacional de Colombia for access to comparative plant material.

Funding

This study was funded endowment funds of the William L. Brown Center at Missouri Botanical Garden, for which we are grateful.

Availability of data and materials

The raw data without names of participants are available from the authors.

Authors’ contributions

RWB and NYPZ designed the study; CR conducted the fieldwork; RHE conducted the main statistical analysis; RBU, NYPZ, CM, and RHE analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. All authors read, corrected, and approved the manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Before conducting interviews, the individual prior informed consent was obtained from all participants. No further ethics approval was required. All work conducted was carried out under the stipulations of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity. The right to use and authorship of any traditional knowledge of all participants is maintained, and any use of this information, other than for scientific publication, does require additional prior consent of the traditional owners, as well as a consensus on access to benefits resulting from subsequent use.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

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Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Calle Ovidio Suarez (26), Cota Cota, La Paz, Bolivia
(2)
Herbario Nacional de Bolivia, Instituto de Ecología-UMSA, Campus Universitario, Cota Cota Calle 27, La Paz, Bolivia
(3)
William L. Brown Center, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299, USA

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