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Table 2 Medicinal plants reported in the studied area

From: Traditional knowledge in semi-rural close to industrial areas: ethnobotanical studies in western Gironès (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula)

Family Taxon (voucher) Catalan vernacular names Medicinal use Part used Pharmaceutical form UR
Adoxaceae Sambucus nigra L. (BCN113595) Sabuquer. Saüc. Saüquer Anticatarrhal. antidiarrhoeal. anti-inflammatory. antipneumonic. antipyretic. buccal antiseptic. external antiseptic. for amygdalitis. for earache. for headache. emmenagogue. expectorant. not reported. ocular antiseptic, refrigerant. stomachic Fruit. inflorescence. not reported Aerosol. bath. essence. eyedrops. fumigation. medicinal wine. not reported. poultice. syrup. tisane 81
Amaranthaceae Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris var. crassa (Alef.) Helm (BCN50761) Bleda. Polpa (elaborated product). Remolatxa. Sucre (elaborated product). Sucre candi (elaborated product) Against taeniasis. anticatarrhal. antihelminthic. expectorant Root Decoction. direct use. ointment 8
Amaryllidaceae Allium cepa L. (BCN28655) Ceba Antitussive. expectorant. for aphonia. not reported. resolutive Bulb Direct use. gargle. poultice 7
Allium sativum L. (BCN29832) All Analgesic. callicide. for earache. hematocathartic Bulb Alcoholic tincture. direct use. embrocation 29
Anacardiaceae Pistacia lentiscus L. (BCN29907) Llentiscle Analgesic. teeth strengthening Aerial part. not reported Collutorium 2
Apiaceae Conium maculatum L. (BCN32171) Cicuta Anticolitic Aerial part Bath 1
Eryngium campestre L. (BCN31274) Espinacal Anticholesterolemic. buccal antiseptic Aerial part. root Collutorium. tisane 5
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (BCN26350) Fonoll Anticolitic. antidiarrhoeal. digestive. galactogenea. internal antiseptica, laxative. postpartum coadjuvanta. stomachicb Aerial part Direct use. emulsion. tisane 15
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Hill (BCN29905) Julivert Abortive. hypoglycaemic Aerial part. stem Direct use 2
Araceae Arum italicum Mill. (BCN32358) Xàrria. Xèrria Against tineaa. antihaemorrhoidal. anti-inflammatory. antipyroticb. for amygdalitis. for skin disordersa Bulb. fruit Embrocation. not reported. ointment 6
Araliaceae Hedera helix L. (BCN29869) Heura. Heura d’alzina Antihypertensive. antipyrotic Leaf Poultice. tisane 3
Asparagaceae Agave americana L. (BCN46860) Figuerassa Not reported Leaf Not reported 1
Ruscus aculeatus L. (BCN29939) Galzeran. Galleranc Cardiotonic Root Not reported 1
Asphodelaceae Aloe maculata All. (BCN50760) Antipyrotic Leaf Direct use 1
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. (BCN27242) Àloe. Àloe vera Antipyrotic. laxative. vulnerary Leaf. inflorescence Direct use. embrocation 10
Aspleniaceae Ceterach officinarum DC. in Lam. et DC. (BCN29850) Dauradella Antihypertensive. blood pressure regulator Frond Not reported. tisane 2
Asteraceae Achillea ageratum L. (BCN113701) Herba del fàstic Purgative Inflorescence Tisane 1
Achillea millefolium L. (BCN113708) Cordonet. Herba de les milfulles Antineoplastic. emmenagogue Inflorescence Tisane 2
Arnica montana L. subsp. montana (BCN29628) Àrnica Anti-ecchymotic. antalgic/anti-ecchymotic/anti-inflammatory. external antiseptic. for stings Inflorescence Embrocation. lotion. not reported 13
Artemisia absinthium L. (BCN29837) Artemisa. Donzell Abortive. antihelminthic. for alcohol dishabituation Aerial part Alcoholic tincture. not reported 3
Calendula arvensis L. (BCN29637) Lligamans Ocular antiseptic Aerial part Bath 1
Calendula officinalis L. (BCN29977) Calèndula Anti-ecchymotic. hepatoprotective Inflorescence Liniment. tisane 2
Centaurea aspera L. (BCN113579) Caps de burro. Flor del sucre. Travalera Hypoglycaemic Aerial part Not reported. tisane 3
Inula helvetica Weber (BCN24668) Àrnica borda Anti-ecchymotic Inflorescence Lotion 1
Matricaria recutita L. (BCN113594) Camamilla. Camamilla romana Analgesic. anticatarrhal. antihelminthic. anti-nauseating. digestive. external antiseptic. internal antiseptic. ocular antiseptic. stomachicb Aerial part. inflorescence. not reported Bath. emulsion. tisane 46
Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (BCN113709) Espernallac. Santolina Digestive. not reported Inflorescence. not reported Tisane. not reported 2
Sonchus oleraceus L. (BCN113723) Lletissó. Llipsó. Llistó Diuretic Aerial part Not reported 1
Tanacetum vulgare L. (BCN113712) Camamilla de muntanya Purgativea Aerial part Direct use 1
Taraxacum officinale Weber in Wiggers (BCN25948) Dent de lleó. Xicoia Hepatoprotective Leaf Direct use 1
Tussilago farfara L. (BCN29964) Pota de cavall Antipyrotic. for undetermined illnesses Leaf Embrocation. not reported 2
Boraginaceae Lithospermum officinale L. (BCN113576) Herba pedrera Hepatic lithotriptic Aerial part Tisane 1
Symphytum tuberosum L. (BCN22606) Consolta Vulnerary Bulb Ointment 1
Brassicaceae Brassica napus L. (BCN46856) Nap. Nap de bou. Nap del camp Restorativea Root Direct use 1
Brassica oleracea L. subsp. oleracea (BCN32181) Bròquil. Col. Col aloma Analgesic Leaf Direct use 2
Buxaceae Buxus sempervirens L. (BCN29843) Boix For skin disordersa Aerial part Bath 1
Cannabaceae Celtis australis L. (BCN29845) Lledó (fruit). Lledoner Anticholesterolemic. antihypertensive. blood pressure regulator. cardiotonic Fruit. leaf Not reported. tisane 7
Caprifoliaceae Lonicera implexa Ait. (BCN113802) Lligabosc. Mareselva. Xuclamel External antiseptic Flower Bath 1
Scabiosa atropurpurea L. (BCN29947) Escabiosa Anti-acne. antitussive. buccal antiseptic. for scarlet fever. for measles Aerial part. flower. not reported Collutorium. tisane 5
Valeriana officinalis L. (BCN29816) Valeriana Abortive. sedative Root Tisane 2
Caryophyllaceae Herniaria glabra L. (BCN113577) Herba de les mil granes. Mil granes Diuretic, renal anti-inflammatory Aerial part Tisane 4
Cistaceae Cistus monspeliensis L. (BCN36740) Estepa. Mòdega Antidiarrhoeal Leaf Tisane 1
Clusiaceae Hypericum perforatum L. (BCN113597) Flor de Sant Joan. Herba de cop. Herba de Sant Joan Anti-ecchymotic. antipyrotic. gastric anti-inflammatory. renal anti-inflammatory. vulnerary Aerial part. flower. not reported Embrocation. liniment. lotion. not reported 32
Cneoraceae Cneorum tricoccon L. (BCN51285) Olivereta Antihypertensive Leaf Tisane 1
Crassulaceae Sedum sediforme (Jacq.) Pau (BCN29792) Cicatrizing Leaf Direct use 1
Sedum telephium L. (BCN24995) Bàlsam Antipyrotic Leaf Direct use 1
Cucurbitaceae Cucumis sativus L. (BCN46850) Cogombre (fruit) Antihaemorrhoidal. antivaricose. gastric anti-inflammatory Fruit Liniment 3
Cucurbita pepo L. var. pepo (BCN49858) Carbassa (fruit). Carbassera. Rabequet (fruit) Antihelminthic. for abscesses. for skin disorders. prostate anti-inflammatory. renal lithotriptic Fruit. seed Not reported. ointment 6
Cupressaceae Juniperus communis L. (BCN113589) Ginebre. Ginebró Analgesic. for scabiesa Fructification. root Liniment. lotion. poultice 3
Juniperus oxycedrus L. (BCN29879) Càdec Not reported Aerial part Not reported 1
Equisetaceae Equisetum arvense L. (BCN24767) Cua de cavall. Sangnua Diuretic. not reported Aerial part Direct use. not reported 2
Equisetum sp. Cua de cavall. Sangnua Analgesic. antihypertensive. buccal antiseptic. diuretic. urinary antiseptic Arial part Collutorium. tisane 12
Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. (BCN113581) Cua de cavall. Sangnua Diuretic. for iron-deficiency. renal lithotriptic. salutiferous Aerial part Tisane 8
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia sp. Lletdetereses. Lletdetresa For warts Latex Direct use 4
Mercurialis annua L. (BCN29896) Blet. Murcarol Laxative Aerial part Tisane 1
Ricinus communis L. (BCN46089) Oli de ricí (elaborated product) Purgative Fruit Direct use 1
Fabaceae Ceratonia siliqua L. (BCN32177) Garrofa (fruit) Salutiferousa Fruit Direct use 1
Medicago sativa L. (BCN29891) Userda Analgesic. anti-ecchymotic. not reported Aerial part Poultice 4
Spartium junceum L. (BCN29956) Ginesta Anti-ecchymotic. insects repellenta Flower Liniment 2
Fagaceae Quercus ilex L. (BCN113730) Aglà (fruit). Alzina. Aulina. Gla (fruit) Antibronchitic. antidiarrhoeala. cicatrizingb. for amygdalitis Bark. in situ living plant. leaf. stem Bath. colloidal solution. direct use 5
Gesneriaceae Ramonda myconi (L.) Reichenb. (BCN46088) Orella d’os Anticatarrhal. antihaemorrhoidal. antiherpes. antipneumonic. antipyretic, antitussive. pharyngeal anti-inflammatory. postpartum coadjuvanta. stomachic Aerial part. leaf Embrocation. not reported. tisane 15
Juglandaceae Juglans regia L. (BCN29877) Noguer. Nou (fruit). Nou verda (fruit) Antialopecia. antihypertensive Leaf Bath. tisane 2
Lamiaceae Hyssopus officinalis L. (BCN29709) Hisop Anticatarrhal Aerial part Tisane 1
Lavandula dentata L. (BCN29715) Lavanda Anti-inflammatory Flower Direct use 1
Lavandula stoechas L. (BCN113714) Cap d’ase. Tomanyí Stomachic Flower Tisane 2
Melissa officinalis L. (BCN113713) Melissa. Tarongina Tranquilizer Aerial part Tisane 1
Mentha ×piperita L. (BCN113813) Menta. Menta de la xocolata. Menta piperita. Menta romana Stomachic Aerial part Tisane 1
Mentha pulegium L. (BCN113598) Poliol. Poniol Antidiarrhoeal. antihypertensive. digestive. intestinal anti-inflammatory. tranquilizer Aerial part. flower Tisane 24
Mentha spicata L. (BCN113812) Menta. Menta de la sopa. Menta silvestre. Menta espicata. Menta verdadera Emmenagogue. for stings. intestinal anti-inflammatory Aerial part. leaf Direct use. emulsion. poultice. tisane 8
Origanum majorana L. (BCN113585) Marduix For earache Aerial part Embrocation. not reported 2
Origanum vulgare L. (BCN113705) Orenga Restorative. stomachic Aerial part Tisane 3
Prunella vulgaris L. (BCN113578) Herba del traïdor Anti-acne Aerial part Tisane 1
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (BCN113599) Romaní Analgesic. anticatarrhal. antidepressant. anti-ecchymotic Aerial part Liniment. lotion. medicinal wine. tisane 14
Salvia officinalis L. subsp. officinalis (BCN113583) Sàlvia. Sàlvia de fulla ampla Analgesic. antihypertensive. for fatigue. hematocathartic. not reported. sedative Aerial part. not reported Collutorium. not reported. tisane 10
Salvia verbenaca L. (BCN113580) Herba de les iaies Antipyertensive Flower Tisane 1
Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele (BCN113737) Menta blava Digestive Aerial part Tisane 1
Satureja montana L. (BCN113741) Sajolida Hematocathartic Aerial part Tisane 1
Sideritis hirsuta L. (BCN113582) Herba de Sant Antoni Vasotonic Aerial part Tisane 1
Stachys byzantina C. Koch (BCN113707) Fulles de la mare de Déu. Planta de vellut Antipyrotic. cicatrizing. vulnerary Leaf Direct use. embrocation 8
Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevisan (BCN25011) Brotònica Antihypertensive Aerial part Tisane 2
Teucrium chamaedrys L. (BCN29806) Brotònica Anticatarrhal Aerial part Not reported 1
Thymus serpyllum L. (BCN113719) Farigola de pastor. Farigoleta. Salsa de pastor Internal antiseptic. not reported. stomachic Aerial part Tisane 3
Thymus vulgaris L. (BCN113590) Farigola Anticatarrhal. anti-inflammatorya. buccal antiseptic. external antisepticb. gingival antiseptic. internal antisepticb. not reported. ocular antiseptic. postpartum antiseptica. postpartum coadjuvanta. salutiferous. sedative. stomachic. vulneraryb Aerial part Bath. collutorium. direct use, emulsion. fumigation. gargle. liniment. tisane 78
Lauraceae Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees (BCN47283) Canyella Anticholesterolemic Bark Direct use 1
Laurus nobilis L. (BCN113717) Llorer. Llort Analgesic. anticatarrhal. expectorant. not reported Leaf Aerosol. bath. not reported 6
Liliaceae Lilium candidum L. (BCN46841) Lliri de Sant Antoni. Lliri de Sant Josep Antipyrotic. external antiseptic. vulnerary Flower. leaf Embrocation. not reported 8
Linaceae Linum usitatissimum L. (BCN47281) Farina de llinet (elaborated product). Llinet Antidiarrhoeal. buccal antiseptic. cicatrizinga. for abscesses. for amygdalitis. for respiratory disorders. for skin disorders. gastric anti-inflammatory. laxative. not reported. resolutive Seed Decoction. poultice 15
Lythraceae Punica granatum L. (BCN29764) Magrana (fruit). Magraner. Magraner agre. Magraner bord. Magraner dolç Antihelminthic Fruit. root Decoction. direct use 3
Malvaceae Althaea officinalis L. (BCN113799) Malví Not reported Root Not reported 1
Malva sylvestris L. (BCN29889) Malva. Malva rosa Anticatarrhal. antipyrotic. not reported Aerial part. flower. leaf Not reported. poultice. tisane 3
Theobroma cacao L. (BCN30763) Xocolata (elaborated product) Antihelminthic Seed Direct use 1
Tilia cordata Mill. (BCN26784) Til·la For headache. not reported. tranquilizer Bract with inflorescence Tisane 5
Tilia platyphyllos Scop. (BCN113739) Tei. Til·la. Til·ler de bosc Anticatarrhal. antihypertensive. tranquilizer Bract with inflorescence Tisane 8
Moraceae Ficus carica L. (BCN24887) Figa (infructescence). Figa d’Alacant (infructescence). Figa de coll de senyora (infructescence). Figa de coll llarg blanca (infructescence). Figa de coll llarg negra (infructescence). Figa de pota de cavall (infructescence). Figa de Sant Joan (infructescence). Figa negra (infructescence). Figuera. Figuera de coll de senyora For warts Latex Direct use 5
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (BCN29696) Eucaliptu. Eucaliptus Anticatarrhal. expectorant. for respiratory disorders Leaf Aerosol. tisane 18
Oleaceae Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea (BCN29898) Oli (elaborated product). Oli d’oliva (elaborated product). Olivera. Oliva (fruit) Antihelminthic. antihypertensive. antihypotensive. antipyrotic. blood pressure regulator. cicatrizing. external antiseptic. for earache. for mastitis. for skin disorders. vulnerary Flower. fruit. leaf Direct use. embrocation. emulsion. fumigation. not reported. ointment. tisane 41
Paeoniaceae Paeonia officinalis L. (BCN29320) Peònia Not reported Root Not reported 1
Papaveraceae Chelidonium majus L. (BCN113742) Berruguera. Celoni. Herba de les orenetes. Llet de Santa Teresa For warts Latex Direct use 4
Papaver rhoeas L. (BCN29903) Gallaret. Pipiripip. Quiquiriquí. Rosella Analgesic. sedative Seed Direct use. not reported 2
Papaver somniferum L. (BCN24941) Cascall Analgesic. sedative Flower. fruit. seed Collutorium. direct use. not reported. tisane 10
Pinaceae Pinus halepensis Mill. (BCN113592) Pi. Pi blanc. Pi bord. Pi de pinya llarga. Pi petit. Pinya (fructification) Antibronchitic. anticatarrhal. antipneumonic. antitussive. expectorant. for abscesses. not reported. vulnerarya Aerial part. flower. fruit. gum/resin. leaf. pollen Decoction. fumigation. liniment. lotion. not reported. syrup. tisane 33
Pinus pinaster Ait. (BCN36559) Pi bord. Pi melis Antibronchitic. antirheumatic Fruit Decoction. syrup 2
Pinus pinea L. (BCN26751) Pi. Pi de llei. Pi de pinya. Pi pinyer Antibronchitic Fruit. leaf Aerosol. syrup 2
Pinus sp. Pi. Trementina (elaborated product) Anti-ecchymotic Gum/resin Not reported 1
Plantaginaceae Plantago lanceolata L. (BCN32138) Plantatge de fulla estreta. Plantatge estret Gingival antiseptic Leaf Collutorium 2
Plantago major L. (BCN29910) Plantatge. Plantatge ample. Plantatge de fulla ampla Buccal antiseptic. external antiseptic. for amygdalitis. gingival antiseptic. not reported. vulvar anti-inflammatory Aerial part. leaf Bath. collutorium. gargle. not reported 8
Poaceae Arundo donax L. (BCN29825) Canya. Canya americana. Canyer For trauma Stem Direct use 1
Phleum phleoides (L.) Karsten (BCN113804) Herba de les pedres Analgesic Inflorescence Tisane 1
Triticum aestivum L. (BCN29963) Blat. Farina (elaborated product). Pa (elaborated product). Palla (elaborated product). Segó (bran) Antidiarrhoeala. antihelminthic. internal antiseptica. postpartum coadjuvanta. restorativea Bran. fruit Direct use. emulsion. poultice. solution 14
Zea mays L. (BCN29830) Blat de morassa. Blat de moret. Blat de moro. Farro (elaborated product) Diuretic. renal anti-inflammatory.. renal lithotriptic. urinary antiseptic Styles and stigmas Tisane 20
Ranunculaceae Anemone hepatica L. (BCN29834) Herba fetgera For undetermined illnessesa, hepatoprotectiveb Flower. leaf Direct use. not reported. tisane 11
Clematis flammula L. (BCN29856) Viadella. Virobella For warts. not reported Leaf Direct use. poultice 3
Rosaceae Agrimonia eupatoria L. (BCN-E-193) Herba cuquera Antihelminthic Flower Tisane 2
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (BCN29858) Arç. Arç blanc Antihypertensive. cardiotonic Flower Tisane 3
Cydonia oblonga Mill. (BCN46849) Codony (fruit). Codonyat (elaborated product). Codonyer Antidiarrhoeal. antitussive. not reported. stomachic Fruit Alcoholic tincture, decoction, not reported. syrup 15
Potentilla reptans L. (BCN29754) Gram negre Antihypertensive Root Tisane 1
Prunus avium (L.) L. (BCN29827) Cirera (fruit). Cirerer Diuretic, for the influenza Stem Tisane 2
Pyrus malus L. subsp. mitis (Wallr.) O.Bolòs et J.Vigo (BCN46830) Poma (fruit). Poma aspra (fruit). Poma cambusina (fruit). Poma camosa (fruit). Poma capçana (fruit). Poma del ciri (fruit). Poma del ciri groga (fruit). Poma del ciri vermella (fruit). Poma golden (fruit). Poma rodona (fruit). Poma royal (fruit). Pomer. Pomer del ciri. Pomera. Pomera del ciri Anticatarrhal. restorative Fruit Direct use 3
Rosa canina L. (BCN29772) Rosa. Rosa de pastor. Roser Anticatarrhal Fruit Tisane 1
Rubus ulmifolius Schott (BCN29938) Bardissa. Mora (fruit). Mora negra (fruit). Romeguera Antidiarrhoeal. for stings. pharyngeal anti-inflammatory. vulnerary Leaf. young shoot Direct use. gargle 4
Sanguisorba minor Scop. (BCN113728) Esparcet bord Antdiarrhoeal Aerial part Tisane 1
Rubiaceae Asperula cynanchica L. (BCN29634) Herba prima Diuretic. intestinal anti-inflammatory. renal lithotriptic. urinary antiseptic Aerial part Tisane 16
Coffea arabica L. (BCN46852)c Cafè Antihypotensive Seed Tisane 2
Rutaceae Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (BCN46853) Llimona (fruit). Llimoner Anticatarrhal. anti-eccymotic. antihypertensive. digestive. for amygdalitis. restorative Fruit Direct use. gargle. not reported. tisane 9
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (BCN24752) Taronger. Taronger dolç. Taronja (fruit) Anticatarrhal Fruit Direct use 1
Ruta chalepensis L. (BCN29940) Ruda Abortiveb. analgesicb. antihelminthicb. anti-inflammatory/antiseptic/cicatrizing mucronala. diuretic, for amygdalitis. for respiratory disorders. laxativeb. not reported. ocular antiseptic. ruminant antistatica, stomachic Aerial part Bath. direct use. liniment. poultice. not reported. tisane 38
Smilacaceae Smilax aspera L. (BCN29951) Arítjol Analgesic. antihypertensive Root Decoction. liniment 2
Solanaceae Nicotiana tabacum L. (BCN48711) Tabac Antihelminthic. antitussive Leaf Direct use. fumigation 3
Solanum melongena L. (BCN25004) Albergínia For warts Fruit Direct use 1
Solanum tuberosum L. (BCN29797) Patata. Patatera. Trumfera Antipyrotic Tuber Direct use 1
Thymelaeaceae Daphne gnidium L. (BCN29687) Antidiarrhoeala Aerial part Direct use 1
Ulmaceae Ulmus minor Mill. (BCN113729) Om Anticholesterolemic. antipyrotic Bark. leaf Bath. tisane 3
Urticaceae Parietaria officinalis L. subsp. judaica (L.) Béguinot (BCN113715) Blet de paret. Mollerosa Analgesic. anticatarrhal. antihaemorrhoidal. buccal antiseptic. digestive. for digestive disorders. for stings. for urticaria. postpartum coadjuvant. urinary antiseptic. vaginal antiseptic Aerial part Bath. collutorium. direct use. not reported. poultice. tisane 15
Urtica dioica L. (BCN29814) Ortiga Against prurigo. antieritematous. antihypertensive. emmenagogue. hemathocathartic. not reported. vasotonic Aerial part. root Bath. decoction. direct use. not reported. tisane 10
Urtica urens L. (BCN29966) Ortiga de fulla petita Anticatarrhal Aerial part Tisane 1
Verbenaceae Lippia triphylla (L’Hér.) O. Kuntze (BCN29886) Marialluïsa Digestive. emmenagogue. for headache. laxative. not reported. postpartum coadjuvanta. stomachic Leaf Decoction. emulsion. tisane 21
Violaceae Viola alba Besser (BCN27286) Viola. Violeta For the influenza Flower Tisane 1
Vitaceae Vitis vinifera L. (BCN29972) Raïm (fruit). Sarment. Vi (elaborated product). Vinagre (elaborated product). Vinya Analgesic. anticholesterolemic. antieritematous. antipyretic. antitussivea. for abscesses. for blood disorders. for stings. partum coadjuvanta Fruit. leaf Bath. collutorium. direct use. medicinal wine. poultice. tisane 14
  1. aEthnoveterinary
  2. bHuman medicine and ethnoveterinary. No superscripted letter: human medicine
  3. cIn our country. most coffee industrial presentations are based on C. arabica. the other taxa. such as C. canephora Pierre ex A.Froehner and C. liberica Hiern being clearly minority