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  • Open Access

Traditional knowledge in semi-rural close to industrial areas: ethnobotanical studies in western Gironès (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula)

Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201915:19

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-019-0295-2

  • Received: 31 August 2018
  • Accepted: 26 February 2019
  • Published:

Abstract

Background

The western Gironès is a district located in NE Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula). This area comprising 186.55 km2 and 10,659 inhabitants is composed of 5 municipalities encompassing 29 villages, located in the hydrographic basins of the Ter and Llémena rivers.

Methods

Following the methodology based on the semi-structured interviews, we carried out 40 interviews with 57 informants, 31 were women and the remaining 26 were men, with an average age of 78.6 years.

Results

In the present study, data from 316 taxa (301 angiosperms, 8 gymnosperms, and 7 pteridophytes) belonging to 89 botanical families were collected. The interviewed informants referred 3776 UR of 298 taxa, 1933 (51.19%) of them corresponding to the food category, 949 (25.13%) to the medicinal ones, and 894 (23.68%) to other uses. In addition, 581 vernacular names for 306 species, subspecies, and varieties have also been collected.

Conclusions

These results reveal the validity of traditional knowledge in the studied area, which can be seriously threatened by the loss of its rural condition and its proximity to industrialized areas.

Keywords

  • Ethnobotany
  • Ethnoflora
  • Gironès
  • Medicinal uses
  • Plant uses
  • Traditional knowledge

Introduction

The Catalan-speaking territories constitute a cultural unity that has attracted the interest of researchers from various disciplines. Since two pioneering PhD theses [1, 2], several similar studies have been devoted to ethnobotanical research in these areas ([314], among others), and papers derived from these academic works) with the common objective of collecting, inventorying, preserving, and disseminating the popular uses of plants. The so-called acculturation process taking place in the industrialized areas, in other words the adoption of modern culture to the detriment of the traditional one [15], is the main cause of the loss of this knowledge, which must be available for future generations.

For this reason, the research that was initially focused on non-industrialized areas [1622] has now been expanded in industrialized areas due to their rapid loss of traditional knowledge [2327].

Although ethnobotany, as defined by Harshberger [28], was conceived to study the plants used by a particular human group—not limited to any type of use—most studies have placed special interest in medicinal plants [2931] and secondly in those used for food purposes [3236]. The studies comprising the whole ethnobotanical knowledge of an industrialized area are less frequent. This situation is explained, according to Gras et al. [37], due to the fact that medicinal and food uses are most related to human health, which is still valid despite the above-mentioned acculturation process. In addition, according to these authors, plants with medicinal and food uses are more susceptible to being potentially used or transformed into commercial products.

The district (in Catalan “comarca”) of Gironès is located in NE Catalonia (Fig. 1), in its turn situated in the NE Iberian Peninsula. Our study was centered on the western part of this district, considering the natural unit constituted by territories under the influence of the hydrographic basins of the Ter and Llémena rivers. The western Gironès is composed of 5 municipalities encompassing 29 villages. The study area comprises 186.55 km2 and 10,659 inhabitants [38] representing a density of 57.14 inhabitants/km2. The altitudes range from 102 m a.s.l. in the locality of Bescanó to 256 m a.s.l. in Sant Martí de Llémena.
Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Location of the studied areas. In blue, Gironès district, including the study area (western Gironès). The figures correspond to the municipalities studied. 1: Sant Martí de Llémena, 2: Canet d’Adri, 3: Sant Gregori, 4: Bescanó, and 5: Aiguaviva. The intensity of colors is related to population density

The Gironès district has a Mediterranean climate with an irregular rain distribution with relatively wet springs and autumns and dry summers and winters. The mean rainfall increases in SE-NW direction, with values around 1000 mm per year in the North-Western edge. Winters are moderately cold and summers are hot, with an annual mean of 14.4 °C [39].

The landscape of the area was described by Girbal [40] and is very heterogeneous, the low areas are occupied by dry lands, with herbal communities from the alliances Diplotaxion erucoidis and Secalion cerealis. In the mountainous regions, there is an altitudinal gradient, from the calcicolous scrubs of Rosmarino-Ericion with Pinus halepensis. in the lowlands to the beeches with Pyrenean squill (Scillo liliohyacinthi-Fagetum sylvaticae) in the highlands. The intermediate zones are occupied by holm oak forests (Viburno tini-Quercetum ilicis subass. pistacietosum and Asplenio-Quercetum ilicis) and by a narrow belt of oak (Quercus pubescens) in the upper part connecting with beech (Fagus sylvatica).

Economically, this area has evolved through different historical periods: prior to the industrial era, it was based on agriculture—mainly cereals—livestock, and forest management for timber and charcoal production and a second period based on textile industry. Currently, these villages do not have their own economy and they have become dormitories for people working in Girona, the capital of the district, with an important economic activity [38]. To sum up, western Gironès is still at least what can be called a semi-rural area, since agriculture is still alive there, but three of its municipalities (Aiguaviva, Bescanó, Sant Gregori) play the above-mentioned role of dormitory to the close metropolitan, industrial area. Additionally, the river Llémena valley hosts an important number of secondary residences for people from the neighboring territory, especially from Girona, the 11th biggest city in Catalonia, with a population very close to 100,000, and head of one of the four Catalonian administrative units (province) including several districts, as among which the one here considered [38].

The main goals of the present study were (i) to collect plant uses and their vernacular names in a semi-rural area, to inventory and preserve this knowledge in order for it to be available to future generations, and (ii) to analyze the obtained results in order to establish some comparisons with similar territories.

Material and methods

Field work

The fieldwork took place from June 2013 to August 2014. We carried out 40 interviews to 57 informants: 23 were individual and 17 concerned 2 people, no one implying a bigger group. Out of the interviewed people, 31 (54%) were women and the remaining 26 (46%) were men. The methodology used was based on the semi-structured interviews [41] avoiding closed questionnaires and direct questions that could have an implicit answer so as not to coerce informants’ answers (Fig. 2). Conversations were developed in the Catalan language, common to interviewers and interviewees. During the ethnobotanical surveys, we not only focused on medicinal and food uses but also asked for knowledge of plants with other uses. The popular names of plants, in Catalan, were also collected.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Exemples of ethnobotanical interviews and some products derived from plants. a Interview in a homegarden. b Hypericum perforatum oil for burns and bumps. c Informants with ingredients to prepare ratafia. d Erica scoparia brooms

We have recorded information on both wild and cultivated plants, and also on plants that can be bought through commerce. Results are presented according to the classification of the folk uses of the species in three main categories: medicinal, food, and other uses. Within the food category, we distinguish the human and animal uses. To define the types of medicinal plant uses, we basically follow Cook’s Economic Botany Data Collection Standard [42].

The plant taxa cited by the informants were identified using the Flora dels Països Catalans [43] and the Flora Manual dels Països Catalans [44], which we basically follow for nomenclature. The allocation of families has been done following the APG IV [45]. The herbarium vouchers have been deposited in the herbarium BCN (Centre de Documentació de Biodiversitat Vegetal, Universitat de Barcelona).

The field work respected the ethical principles of the International Society of Ethnobiology [46] and we had the prior oral informed consent of the informants [47].

Data analysis

The interviews were recorded and subsequently transcribed, and all the information obtained was entered into the database of our research group (www.etnobotanica.cat). The analyses were carried out with Excel (Microsoft Excel 2007) and XLSTAT (v2007.5, Addinsoft SARL) programs. To analyze the results, we have used the use report (hereinafter, UR) [48].

With the aim of assessing the state of knowledge, studies of quantitative ethnobotany were also performed and the following indices were calculated: ethnobotanicity index (EI; [49]), which is the quotient between the number of plants used and the total number of plants that constitute the flora of the territory, expressed as a percentage; the informant consensus factor (FIC; [50]), which is the quotient between the number of medicinal use reports minus the number of used medicinal plants and the number of medicinal use reports minus one. This indicates the degree of reliability of the uses claimed (higher when closer to 1).

Number of medicinal plants used per informant (P/I), per inhabitant (P/H), and per unit of area (P/km2) were calculated, in order to compare with other territories from which this information is provided only for this kind of useful plants. The linguistic diversity index [51], obtained by dividing the number of folk names by the number of taxa reported, has been calculated to illustrate the cultural richness of the folk plant knowledge.

Finally, we calculated the recently proposed index of taxon usefulness in mixtures (ITUM; [52]), which is the quotient between the number of citation of this taxon in mixtures and its total citations, whether with simple or complex presentation. This index indicates the exclusiveness of taxa in mixtures when the value is one or closer to one.

Results and discussion

This study contributes information to complete the ethnobotanical knowledge in the North Eastern Catalan linguistic and cultural area, where still a territory is to be investigated before being able to perform a meta-analytic work. It also enlarges the ethnofloristic knowledge of the Iberian territories, which are among the most studied in Europe [27]. We believe that, in general, increasing data on Catalan and Iberian folk plant knowledge provides them with a bigger robustness, apart from contributing new or rare uses and taxa used. Plants having appeared not very long time ago in European folk phytotherapy constitute not the only but a good example of such additions that prospects as the present one can bring to the ethnoflora. Although when first contacting the informants we indicate that we are interested in orally-transmitted traditional uses, in some cases, they report to us that a certain knowledge on a plant use is recently acquired. Just as a case example, Aloe vera does not appear in the pioneering works on Catalan ethnobotany [1, 2], but is importantly present, with ten use reports, in this one. Even if these data may have not been considered in some occasions, a reflection should be initiated on the new incorporations to folk knowledge, which will become tradition and will lead to a renewed paradigm in plant uses.

Characteristics of the interviewees

The average age of the informants is 78.6 years, ranging from 58 to 92, the interval between 78 and 80 years being the one that accumulates a greater number of informants. This average is one of the highest values found in the recent studies carried out in similar areas and only surpassed in the island of Formentera [11].

Most informants were native (74%) and the remaining ones have lived in the area for more than half of their lives. Only 10% are native from the neighboring district of la Selva.

Regarding their work, most of the men have been farmers (18%) or shepherds (5%), while most of the women have combined the farm work with household affairs (23%). Other professions linked to the territory are textile (16%) and hotel (7%) industries, both important economic activities in this area.

Plant species, use reports, and botanical families

Data from 316 taxa (301 angiosperms, 8 gymnosperms, and 7 pteridophytes) belonging to 89 botanical families were collected in the present study. Thirteen taxa have only been determined at generic level and 19 present infraspecific categories. In the first case, taxa—in fact ethnotaxa—were referred to by the informants without specific category. It could be due to several or all species of the genus being used, or to the fact that they were not able to distinguish the taxa. The complete catalog of the recorded useful plants in the studied area is contained in Serrasolses [13], and the data concerning all plants, shown later, are synthesized, arranged by large use categories.

The five best represented families are Lamiaceae (12.39%), Poaceae (9.25%), Rosaceae (7.35%), Asteraceae (6.84%), and Fabaceae (5.55%), which partially coincides with the findings in other territories with similar characteristics [6, 10, 12, 53] and at the same time represents the most common botanical families, apart from Apiaceae and Rutaceae, of the Mediterranean flora [44]. This fact links with the idea that the closer to civilization a plant grows, the more it is used by local people [5457].

The interviewed informants refer 3776 UR of 298 taxa, 1933 (51.19%) of them corresponding to the food category, 949 (25.13%) to the medicinal ones, and 894 (23.68%) to other uses. The mean of UR per informant is 66.25, and 5.23 taxa per informant are cited, but these values show very large deviations due to the differences in knowledge that exist between the informants.

Medicinal plants are the most reported in the majority of ethnobotanical works carried out in the Catalan Countries [6, 10, 58]. However, in the present study, food uses are the most cited by the informants due to the collection of a large number of recipes devoted to the preparation of ratafia (see comments on this beverage in 3.5). This traditional Catalan liqueur [59], prepared with the immature fruit of Juglans regia and numerous species of preferably aromatic plants, is still consumed in areas close to the study area [60].

Quantitative ethnobotany

Some quantitative ethnobotany indexes concerning ten territories (the one here studied included) of the Catalan linguistic area are presented in Table 1. The ethnobotanicity index, not having into account the 50 taxa of allochthonous plants recorded, is 22.56% for the studied area; this roughly meaning that between one-fifth and one-quarter of the plants of the area have been claimed as useful by the informants. It occupies an intermediate position in the range of the values obtained for other Catalan-language studied areas The informant consensus factor (FIC) of medicinal information obtained for our interviewees (0.86) is close to the highest values in the quoted areas. Interestingly, this value, accounting for the consistency (thus, reliability) of plant use within a cultural and geographical group, which is an indicative of a generationally transmitted knowledge is higher to those obtained in Mexican areas (0.75, 0.79; [61, 62]). Recently, an ethnobotanical study of medicinal foods used by practitioners in an Indian area shows FIC for the different ailments treated ranging from 0 to 1, but low in mean value (0.26; [63]). The results are similar (with a highest value of 0.72) in a study of medicinal plants in the Greek Aegean Islands [64]. This indicates that the traditional pool of knowledge on plant use and management is still alive in the studied area. Consequently, we can state that there is a high consistency in folk plant knowledge in the industrial European zone considered, where it could have been hypothesized it would be lower, even as compared with less industrialized Asian or American territories, where ethnobiological data are a priori supposed to be high, robust, and less eroded.
Table 1

Quantitative ethnobotany indexes in ten territories (in italic, the one here studied) in the Catalan linguistic area. EI: ethnobotanicity index; FIC: informant consensus factor; MP: number of medicinal plants

Territory

EI

FIC

MP/informant

MP/inhabitant

MP/km2

Alt Empordà [10]

25.90

0.91

1.88

0.28 × 10−2

0.25

Castelló [1]

15.00

2.34

0.06 × 10−2

0.06

Cerdanya [2, 7]

0.93

1.11

0.82 × 10−2

0.23

Segarra [76]

3.17

0.54 × 10−2

0.13

Eastern Mallorca [57]

15.51

0.71

2.88

0.38 × 10−2

0.51

Western Gironès (this paper)

22.56

0.86

2.40

1.29 × 10−2

0.73

Guilleries [4]

20.00

5.64

0.58 × 10−2

0.27

Montseny [6]

23.20

0.91

1.95

0.44 × 10−2

0.42

Pallars Jussà and Pallars Sobirà [5]

29.10

0.87

1.66

2.32 × 10−2

0.16

Ripollès [58]

28.60

0.96

1.73

1.10 × 10−2

0.29

Medicinal uses

Our informants mentioned 137 species with medicinal uses and 949 use reports, 81.66% of which are referring to human medicine, 7.06% to veterinary, and 1.37% to both human and veterinary medicines (Table 2). No information was reported for the remaining 9.91%. The mean of medicinal taxa cited by informant is 2.40. This number of medicinal plants, quoted by the 57 informants, is close (slightly lower in ratio taxa/informant) to the one found in an area covering a part of the island of Mallorca, with a comparable number of interviewees as well: 121 taxa quoted by 42 informants [57]. Conversely, a recent study in a Turkish region [65] reports 92 taxa (35% of which with medicinal uses) quoted by 123 informants, i.e., a clearly lower ratio. Similarly, a research in a Myanmar area [66] records 75 medicinal taxa cited by 206 informants. This is also the case in Europe: in the Greek Aegean Islands, 200 informants reported uses of 109 medicinal plants [64]; the authors state that these plants are used, but they do not mention any other plant quoted by the informants and not currently used. This reinforces the above-exposed argument that the ethnobotanical corpus is still relevant in industrialized areas, even in comparison with non- or less-industrialized territories, where the weight of this knowledge is a priori supposed to be higher. There is still time left (probably in its very end) to collect the traditional knowledge on plant uses in industrialized zones, which is basic in order to reintroduce it to the younger generations, or to use certain information to develop a new useful product of higher reach.
Table 2

Medicinal plants reported in the studied area

Family

Taxon (voucher)

Catalan vernacular names

Medicinal use

Part used

Pharmaceutical form

UR

Adoxaceae

Sambucus nigra L. (BCN113595)

Sabuquer. Saüc. Saüquer

Anticatarrhal. antidiarrhoeal. anti-inflammatory. antipneumonic. antipyretic. buccal antiseptic. external antiseptic. for amygdalitis. for earache. for headache. emmenagogue. expectorant. not reported. ocular antiseptic, refrigerant. stomachic

Fruit. inflorescence. not reported

Aerosol. bath. essence. eyedrops. fumigation. medicinal wine. not reported. poultice. syrup. tisane

81

Amaranthaceae

Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris var. crassa (Alef.) Helm (BCN50761)

Bleda. Polpa (elaborated product). Remolatxa. Sucre (elaborated product). Sucre candi (elaborated product)

Against taeniasis. anticatarrhal. antihelminthic. expectorant

Root

Decoction. direct use. ointment

8

Amaryllidaceae

Allium cepa L. (BCN28655)

Ceba

Antitussive. expectorant. for aphonia. not reported. resolutive

Bulb

Direct use. gargle. poultice

7

Allium sativum L. (BCN29832)

All

Analgesic. callicide. for earache. hematocathartic

Bulb

Alcoholic tincture. direct use. embrocation

29

Anacardiaceae

Pistacia lentiscus L. (BCN29907)

Llentiscle

Analgesic. teeth strengthening

Aerial part. not reported

Collutorium

2

Apiaceae

Conium maculatum L. (BCN32171)

Cicuta

Anticolitic

Aerial part

Bath

1

Eryngium campestre L. (BCN31274)

Espinacal

Anticholesterolemic. buccal antiseptic

Aerial part. root

Collutorium. tisane

5

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (BCN26350)

Fonoll

Anticolitic. antidiarrhoeal. digestive. galactogenea. internal antiseptica, laxative. postpartum coadjuvanta. stomachicb

Aerial part

Direct use. emulsion. tisane

15

Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Hill (BCN29905)

Julivert

Abortive. hypoglycaemic

Aerial part. stem

Direct use

2

Araceae

Arum italicum Mill. (BCN32358)

Xàrria. Xèrria

Against tineaa. antihaemorrhoidal. anti-inflammatory. antipyroticb. for amygdalitis. for skin disordersa

Bulb. fruit

Embrocation. not reported. ointment

6

Araliaceae

Hedera helix L. (BCN29869)

Heura. Heura d’alzina

Antihypertensive. antipyrotic

Leaf

Poultice. tisane

3

Asparagaceae

Agave americana L. (BCN46860)

Figuerassa

Not reported

Leaf

Not reported

1

Ruscus aculeatus L. (BCN29939)

Galzeran. Galleranc

Cardiotonic

Root

Not reported

1

Asphodelaceae

Aloe maculata All. (BCN50760)

Antipyrotic

Leaf

Direct use

1

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. (BCN27242)

Àloe. Àloe vera

Antipyrotic. laxative. vulnerary

Leaf. inflorescence

Direct use. embrocation

10

Aspleniaceae

Ceterach officinarum DC. in Lam. et DC. (BCN29850)

Dauradella

Antihypertensive. blood pressure regulator

Frond

Not reported. tisane

2

Asteraceae

Achillea ageratum L. (BCN113701)

Herba del fàstic

Purgative

Inflorescence

Tisane

1

Achillea millefolium L. (BCN113708)

Cordonet. Herba de les milfulles

Antineoplastic. emmenagogue

Inflorescence

Tisane

2

Arnica montana L. subsp. montana (BCN29628)

Àrnica

Anti-ecchymotic. antalgic/anti-ecchymotic/anti-inflammatory. external antiseptic. for stings

Inflorescence

Embrocation. lotion. not reported

13

Artemisia absinthium L. (BCN29837)

Artemisa. Donzell

Abortive. antihelminthic. for alcohol dishabituation

Aerial part

Alcoholic tincture. not reported

3

Calendula arvensis L. (BCN29637)

Lligamans

Ocular antiseptic

Aerial part

Bath

1

Calendula officinalis L. (BCN29977)

Calèndula

Anti-ecchymotic. hepatoprotective

Inflorescence

Liniment. tisane

2

Centaurea aspera L. (BCN113579)

Caps de burro. Flor del sucre. Travalera

Hypoglycaemic

Aerial part

Not reported. tisane

3

Inula helvetica Weber (BCN24668)

Àrnica borda

Anti-ecchymotic

Inflorescence

Lotion

1

Matricaria recutita L. (BCN113594)

Camamilla. Camamilla romana

Analgesic. anticatarrhal. antihelminthic. anti-nauseating. digestive. external antiseptic. internal antiseptic. ocular antiseptic. stomachicb

Aerial part. inflorescence. not reported

Bath. emulsion. tisane

46

Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (BCN113709)

Espernallac. Santolina

Digestive. not reported

Inflorescence. not reported

Tisane. not reported

2

Sonchus oleraceus L. (BCN113723)

Lletissó. Llipsó. Llistó

Diuretic

Aerial part

Not reported

1

Tanacetum vulgare L. (BCN113712)

Camamilla de muntanya

Purgativea

Aerial part

Direct use

1

Taraxacum officinale Weber in Wiggers (BCN25948)

Dent de lleó. Xicoia

Hepatoprotective

Leaf

Direct use

1

Tussilago farfara L. (BCN29964)

Pota de cavall

Antipyrotic. for undetermined illnesses

Leaf

Embrocation. not reported

2

Boraginaceae

Lithospermum officinale L. (BCN113576)

Herba pedrera

Hepatic lithotriptic

Aerial part

Tisane

1

Symphytum tuberosum L. (BCN22606)

Consolta

Vulnerary

Bulb

Ointment

1

Brassicaceae

Brassica napus L. (BCN46856)

Nap. Nap de bou. Nap del camp

Restorativea

Root

Direct use

1

Brassica oleracea L. subsp. oleracea (BCN32181)

Bròquil. Col. Col aloma

Analgesic

Leaf

Direct use

2

Buxaceae

Buxus sempervirens L. (BCN29843)

Boix

For skin disordersa

Aerial part

Bath

1

Cannabaceae

Celtis australis L. (BCN29845)

Lledó (fruit). Lledoner

Anticholesterolemic. antihypertensive. blood pressure regulator. cardiotonic

Fruit. leaf

Not reported. tisane

7

Caprifoliaceae

Lonicera implexa Ait. (BCN113802)

Lligabosc. Mareselva. Xuclamel

External antiseptic

Flower

Bath

1

Scabiosa atropurpurea L. (BCN29947)

Escabiosa

Anti-acne. antitussive. buccal antiseptic. for scarlet fever. for measles

Aerial part. flower. not reported

Collutorium. tisane

5

Valeriana officinalis L. (BCN29816)

Valeriana

Abortive. sedative

Root

Tisane

2

Caryophyllaceae

Herniaria glabra L. (BCN113577)

Herba de les mil granes. Mil granes

Diuretic, renal anti-inflammatory

Aerial part

Tisane

4

Cistaceae

Cistus monspeliensis L. (BCN36740)

Estepa. Mòdega

Antidiarrhoeal

Leaf

Tisane

1

Clusiaceae

Hypericum perforatum L. (BCN113597)

Flor de Sant Joan. Herba de cop. Herba de Sant Joan

Anti-ecchymotic. antipyrotic. gastric anti-inflammatory. renal anti-inflammatory. vulnerary

Aerial part. flower. not reported

Embrocation. liniment. lotion. not reported

32

Cneoraceae

Cneorum tricoccon L. (BCN51285)

Olivereta

Antihypertensive

Leaf

Tisane

1

Crassulaceae

Sedum sediforme (Jacq.) Pau (BCN29792)

Cicatrizing

Leaf

Direct use

1

Sedum telephium L. (BCN24995)

Bàlsam

Antipyrotic

Leaf

Direct use

1

Cucurbitaceae

Cucumis sativus L. (BCN46850)

Cogombre (fruit)

Antihaemorrhoidal. antivaricose. gastric anti-inflammatory

Fruit

Liniment

3

Cucurbita pepo L. var. pepo (BCN49858)

Carbassa (fruit). Carbassera. Rabequet (fruit)

Antihelminthic. for abscesses. for skin disorders. prostate anti-inflammatory. renal lithotriptic

Fruit. seed

Not reported. ointment

6

Cupressaceae

Juniperus communis L. (BCN113589)

Ginebre. Ginebró

Analgesic. for scabiesa

Fructification. root

Liniment. lotion. poultice

3

Juniperus oxycedrus L. (BCN29879)

Càdec

Not reported

Aerial part

Not reported

1

Equisetaceae

Equisetum arvense L. (BCN24767)

Cua de cavall. Sangnua

Diuretic. not reported

Aerial part

Direct use. not reported

2

Equisetum sp.

Cua de cavall. Sangnua

Analgesic. antihypertensive. buccal antiseptic. diuretic. urinary antiseptic

Arial part

Collutorium. tisane

12

Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. (BCN113581)

Cua de cavall. Sangnua

Diuretic. for iron-deficiency. renal lithotriptic. salutiferous

Aerial part

Tisane

8

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia sp.

Lletdetereses. Lletdetresa

For warts

Latex

Direct use

4

Mercurialis annua L. (BCN29896)

Blet. Murcarol

Laxative

Aerial part

Tisane

1

Ricinus communis L. (BCN46089)

Oli de ricí (elaborated product)

Purgative

Fruit

Direct use

1

Fabaceae

Ceratonia siliqua L. (BCN32177)

Garrofa (fruit)

Salutiferousa

Fruit

Direct use

1

Medicago sativa L. (BCN29891)

Userda

Analgesic. anti-ecchymotic. not reported

Aerial part

Poultice

4

Spartium junceum L. (BCN29956)

Ginesta

Anti-ecchymotic. insects repellenta

Flower

Liniment

2

Fagaceae

Quercus ilex L. (BCN113730)

Aglà (fruit). Alzina. Aulina. Gla (fruit)

Antibronchitic. antidiarrhoeala. cicatrizingb. for amygdalitis

Bark. in situ living plant. leaf. stem

Bath. colloidal solution. direct use

5

Gesneriaceae

Ramonda myconi (L.) Reichenb. (BCN46088)

Orella d’os

Anticatarrhal. antihaemorrhoidal. antiherpes. antipneumonic. antipyretic, antitussive. pharyngeal anti-inflammatory. postpartum coadjuvanta. stomachic

Aerial part. leaf

Embrocation. not reported. tisane

15

Juglandaceae

Juglans regia L. (BCN29877)

Noguer. Nou (fruit). Nou verda (fruit)

Antialopecia. antihypertensive

Leaf

Bath. tisane

2

Lamiaceae

Hyssopus officinalis L. (BCN29709)

Hisop

Anticatarrhal

Aerial part

Tisane

1

Lavandula dentata L. (BCN29715)

Lavanda

Anti-inflammatory

Flower

Direct use

1

Lavandula stoechas L. (BCN113714)

Cap d’ase. Tomanyí

Stomachic

Flower

Tisane

2

Melissa officinalis L. (BCN113713)

Melissa. Tarongina

Tranquilizer

Aerial part

Tisane

1

Mentha ×piperita L. (BCN113813)

Menta. Menta de la xocolata. Menta piperita. Menta romana

Stomachic

Aerial part

Tisane

1

Mentha pulegium L. (BCN113598)

Poliol. Poniol

Antidiarrhoeal. antihypertensive. digestive. intestinal anti-inflammatory. tranquilizer

Aerial part. flower

Tisane

24

Mentha spicata L. (BCN113812)

Menta. Menta de la sopa. Menta silvestre. Menta espicata. Menta verdadera

Emmenagogue. for stings. intestinal anti-inflammatory

Aerial part. leaf

Direct use. emulsion. poultice. tisane

8

Origanum majorana L. (BCN113585)

Marduix

For earache

Aerial part

Embrocation. not reported

2

Origanum vulgare L. (BCN113705)

Orenga

Restorative. stomachic

Aerial part

Tisane

3

Prunella vulgaris L. (BCN113578)

Herba del traïdor

Anti-acne

Aerial part

Tisane

1

Rosmarinus officinalis L. (BCN113599)

Romaní

Analgesic. anticatarrhal. antidepressant. anti-ecchymotic

Aerial part

Liniment. lotion. medicinal wine. tisane

14

Salvia officinalis L. subsp. officinalis (BCN113583)

Sàlvia. Sàlvia de fulla ampla

Analgesic. antihypertensive. for fatigue. hematocathartic. not reported. sedative

Aerial part. not reported

Collutorium. not reported. tisane

10

Salvia verbenaca L. (BCN113580)

Herba de les iaies

Antipyertensive

Flower

Tisane

1

Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele (BCN113737)

Menta blava

Digestive

Aerial part

Tisane

1

Satureja montana L. (BCN113741)

Sajolida

Hematocathartic

Aerial part

Tisane

1

Sideritis hirsuta L. (BCN113582)

Herba de Sant Antoni

Vasotonic

Aerial part

Tisane

1

Stachys byzantina C. Koch (BCN113707)

Fulles de la mare de Déu. Planta de vellut

Antipyrotic. cicatrizing. vulnerary

Leaf

Direct use. embrocation

8

Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevisan (BCN25011)

Brotònica

Antihypertensive

Aerial part

Tisane

2

Teucrium chamaedrys L. (BCN29806)

Brotònica

Anticatarrhal

Aerial part

Not reported

1

Thymus serpyllum L. (BCN113719)

Farigola de pastor. Farigoleta. Salsa de pastor

Internal antiseptic. not reported. stomachic

Aerial part

Tisane

3

Thymus vulgaris L. (BCN113590)

Farigola

Anticatarrhal. anti-inflammatorya. buccal antiseptic. external antisepticb. gingival antiseptic. internal antisepticb. not reported. ocular antiseptic. postpartum antiseptica. postpartum coadjuvanta. salutiferous. sedative. stomachic. vulneraryb

Aerial part

Bath. collutorium. direct use, emulsion. fumigation. gargle. liniment. tisane

78

Lauraceae

Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees (BCN47283)

Canyella

Anticholesterolemic

Bark

Direct use

1

Laurus nobilis L. (BCN113717)

Llorer. Llort

Analgesic. anticatarrhal. expectorant. not reported

Leaf

Aerosol. bath. not reported

6

Liliaceae

Lilium candidum L. (BCN46841)

Lliri de Sant Antoni. Lliri de Sant Josep

Antipyrotic. external antiseptic. vulnerary

Flower. leaf

Embrocation. not reported

8

Linaceae

Linum usitatissimum L. (BCN47281)

Farina de llinet (elaborated product). Llinet

Antidiarrhoeal. buccal antiseptic. cicatrizinga. for abscesses. for amygdalitis. for respiratory disorders. for skin disorders. gastric anti-inflammatory. laxative. not reported. resolutive

Seed

Decoction. poultice

15

Lythraceae

Punica granatum L. (BCN29764)

Magrana (fruit). Magraner. Magraner agre. Magraner bord. Magraner dolç

Antihelminthic

Fruit. root

Decoction. direct use

3

Malvaceae

Althaea officinalis L. (BCN113799)

Malví

Not reported

Root

Not reported

1

Malva sylvestris L. (BCN29889)

Malva. Malva rosa

Anticatarrhal. antipyrotic. not reported

Aerial part. flower. leaf

Not reported. poultice. tisane

3

Theobroma cacao L. (BCN30763)

Xocolata (elaborated product)

Antihelminthic

Seed

Direct use

1

Tilia cordata Mill. (BCN26784)

Til·la

For headache. not reported. tranquilizer

Bract with inflorescence

Tisane

5

Tilia platyphyllos Scop. (BCN113739)

Tei. Til·la. Til·ler de bosc

Anticatarrhal. antihypertensive. tranquilizer

Bract with inflorescence

Tisane

8

Moraceae

Ficus carica L. (BCN24887)

Figa (infructescence). Figa d’Alacant (infructescence). Figa de coll de senyora (infructescence). Figa de coll llarg blanca (infructescence). Figa de coll llarg negra (infructescence). Figa de pota de cavall (infructescence). Figa de Sant Joan (infructescence). Figa negra (infructescence). Figuera. Figuera de coll de senyora

For warts

Latex

Direct use

5

Myrtaceae

Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (BCN29696)

Eucaliptu. Eucaliptus

Anticatarrhal. expectorant. for respiratory disorders

Leaf

Aerosol. tisane

18

Oleaceae

Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea (BCN29898)

Oli (elaborated product). Oli d’oliva (elaborated product). Olivera. Oliva (fruit)

Antihelminthic. antihypertensive. antihypotensive. antipyrotic. blood pressure regulator. cicatrizing. external antiseptic. for earache. for mastitis. for skin disorders. vulnerary

Flower. fruit. leaf

Direct use. embrocation. emulsion. fumigation. not reported. ointment. tisane

41

Paeoniaceae

Paeonia officinalis L. (BCN29320)

Peònia

Not reported

Root

Not reported

1

Papaveraceae

Chelidonium majus L. (BCN113742)

Berruguera. Celoni. Herba de les orenetes. Llet de Santa Teresa

For warts

Latex

Direct use

4

Papaver rhoeas L. (BCN29903)

Gallaret. Pipiripip. Quiquiriquí. Rosella

Analgesic. sedative

Seed

Direct use. not reported

2

Papaver somniferum L. (BCN24941)

Cascall

Analgesic. sedative

Flower. fruit. seed

Collutorium. direct use. not reported. tisane

10

Pinaceae

Pinus halepensis Mill. (BCN113592)

Pi. Pi blanc. Pi bord. Pi de pinya llarga. Pi petit. Pinya (fructification)

Antibronchitic. anticatarrhal. antipneumonic. antitussive. expectorant. for abscesses. not reported. vulnerarya

Aerial part. flower. fruit. gum/resin. leaf. pollen

Decoction. fumigation. liniment. lotion. not reported. syrup. tisane

33

Pinus pinaster Ait. (BCN36559)

Pi bord. Pi melis

Antibronchitic. antirheumatic

Fruit

Decoction. syrup

2

Pinus pinea L. (BCN26751)

Pi. Pi de llei. Pi de pinya. Pi pinyer

Antibronchitic

Fruit. leaf

Aerosol. syrup

2

Pinus sp.

Pi. Trementina (elaborated product)

Anti-ecchymotic

Gum/resin

Not reported

1

Plantaginaceae

Plantago lanceolata L. (BCN32138)

Plantatge de fulla estreta. Plantatge estret

Gingival antiseptic

Leaf

Collutorium

2

Plantago major L. (BCN29910)

Plantatge. Plantatge ample. Plantatge de fulla ampla

Buccal antiseptic. external antiseptic. for amygdalitis. gingival antiseptic. not reported. vulvar anti-inflammatory

Aerial part. leaf

Bath. collutorium. gargle. not reported

8

Poaceae

Arundo donax L. (BCN29825)

Canya. Canya americana. Canyer

For trauma

Stem

Direct use

1

Phleum phleoides (L.) Karsten (BCN113804)

Herba de les pedres

Analgesic

Inflorescence

Tisane

1

Triticum aestivum L. (BCN29963)

Blat. Farina (elaborated product). Pa (elaborated product). Palla (elaborated product). Segó (bran)

Antidiarrhoeala. antihelminthic. internal antiseptica. postpartum coadjuvanta. restorativea

Bran. fruit

Direct use. emulsion. poultice. solution

14

Zea mays L. (BCN29830)

Blat de morassa. Blat de moret. Blat de moro. Farro (elaborated product)

Diuretic. renal anti-inflammatory.. renal lithotriptic. urinary antiseptic

Styles and stigmas

Tisane

20

Ranunculaceae

Anemone hepatica L. (BCN29834)

Herba fetgera

For undetermined illnessesa, hepatoprotectiveb

Flower. leaf

Direct use. not reported. tisane

11

Clematis flammula L. (BCN29856)

Viadella. Virobella

For warts. not reported

Leaf

Direct use. poultice

3

Rosaceae

Agrimonia eupatoria L. (BCN-E-193)

Herba cuquera

Antihelminthic

Flower

Tisane

2

Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (BCN29858)

Arç. Arç blanc

Antihypertensive. cardiotonic

Flower

Tisane

3

Cydonia oblonga Mill. (BCN46849)

Codony (fruit). Codonyat (elaborated product). Codonyer

Antidiarrhoeal. antitussive. not reported. stomachic

Fruit

Alcoholic tincture, decoction, not reported. syrup

15

Potentilla reptans L. (BCN29754)

Gram negre

Antihypertensive

Root

Tisane

1

Prunus avium (L.) L. (BCN29827)

Cirera (fruit). Cirerer

Diuretic, for the influenza

Stem

Tisane

2

Pyrus malus L. subsp. mitis (Wallr.) O.Bolòs et J.Vigo (BCN46830)

Poma (fruit). Poma aspra (fruit). Poma cambusina (fruit). Poma camosa (fruit). Poma capçana (fruit). Poma del ciri (fruit). Poma del ciri groga (fruit). Poma del ciri vermella (fruit). Poma golden (fruit). Poma rodona (fruit). Poma royal (fruit). Pomer. Pomer del ciri. Pomera. Pomera del ciri

Anticatarrhal. restorative

Fruit

Direct use

3

Rosa canina L. (BCN29772)

Rosa. Rosa de pastor. Roser

Anticatarrhal

Fruit

Tisane

1

Rubus ulmifolius Schott (BCN29938)

Bardissa. Mora (fruit). Mora negra (fruit). Romeguera

Antidiarrhoeal. for stings. pharyngeal anti-inflammatory. vulnerary

Leaf. young shoot

Direct use. gargle

4

Sanguisorba minor Scop. (BCN113728)

Esparcet bord

Antdiarrhoeal

Aerial part

Tisane

1

Rubiaceae

Asperula cynanchica L. (BCN29634)

Herba prima

Diuretic. intestinal anti-inflammatory. renal lithotriptic. urinary antiseptic

Aerial part

Tisane

16

Coffea arabica L. (BCN46852)c

Cafè

Antihypotensive

Seed

Tisane

2

Rutaceae

Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (BCN46853)

Llimona (fruit). Llimoner

Anticatarrhal. anti-eccymotic. antihypertensive. digestive. for amygdalitis. restorative

Fruit

Direct use. gargle. not reported. tisane

9

Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (BCN24752)

Taronger. Taronger dolç. Taronja (fruit)

Anticatarrhal

Fruit

Direct use

1

Ruta chalepensis L. (BCN29940)

Ruda

Abortiveb. analgesicb. antihelminthicb. anti-inflammatory/antiseptic/cicatrizing mucronala. diuretic, for amygdalitis. for respiratory disorders. laxativeb. not reported. ocular antiseptic. ruminant antistatica, stomachic

Aerial part

Bath. direct use. liniment. poultice. not reported. tisane

38

Smilacaceae

Smilax aspera L. (BCN29951)

Arítjol

Analgesic. antihypertensive

Root

Decoction. liniment

2

Solanaceae

Nicotiana tabacum L. (BCN48711)

Tabac

Antihelminthic. antitussive

Leaf

Direct use. fumigation

3

Solanum melongena L. (BCN25004)

Albergínia

For warts

Fruit

Direct use

1

Solanum tuberosum L. (BCN29797)

Patata. Patatera. Trumfera

Antipyrotic

Tuber

Direct use

1

Thymelaeaceae

Daphne gnidium L. (BCN29687)

Antidiarrhoeala

Aerial part

Direct use

1

Ulmaceae

Ulmus minor Mill. (BCN113729)

Om

Anticholesterolemic. antipyrotic

Bark. leaf

Bath. tisane

3

Urticaceae

Parietaria officinalis L. subsp. judaica (L.) Béguinot (BCN113715)

Blet de paret. Mollerosa

Analgesic. anticatarrhal. antihaemorrhoidal. buccal antiseptic. digestive. for digestive disorders. for stings. for urticaria. postpartum coadjuvant. urinary antiseptic. vaginal antiseptic

Aerial part

Bath. collutorium. direct use. not reported. poultice. tisane

15

Urtica dioica L. (BCN29814)

Ortiga

Against prurigo. antieritematous. antihypertensive. emmenagogue. hemathocathartic. not reported. vasotonic

Aerial part. root

Bath. decoction. direct use. not reported. tisane

10

Urtica urens L. (BCN29966)

Ortiga de fulla petita

Anticatarrhal

Aerial part

Tisane

1

Verbenaceae

Lippia triphylla (L’Hér.) O. Kuntze (BCN29886)

Marialluïsa

Digestive. emmenagogue. for headache. laxative. not reported. postpartum coadjuvanta. stomachic

Leaf

Decoction. emulsion. tisane

21

Violaceae

Viola alba Besser (BCN27286)

Viola. Violeta

For the influenza

Flower

Tisane

1

Vitaceae

Vitis vinifera L. (BCN29972)

Raïm (fruit). Sarment. Vi (elaborated product). Vinagre (elaborated product). Vinya

Analgesic. anticholesterolemic. antieritematous. antipyretic. antitussivea. for abscesses. for blood disorders. for stings. partum coadjuvanta

Fruit. leaf

Bath. collutorium. direct use. medicinal wine. poultice. tisane

14

aEthnoveterinary

bHuman medicine and ethnoveterinary. No superscripted letter: human medicine

cIn our country. most coffee industrial presentations are based on C. arabica. the other taxa. such as C. canephora Pierre ex A.Froehner and C. liberica Hiern being clearly minority

The 20 most cited species are included in Table 3. Sambucus nigra and Thymus vulgaris, with 81 and 78 UR, respectively, are the species heading the ranking. These taxa are among the most cited in other Catalan territories [6, 10, 12, 53, 58]. Concerning the families, Lamiaceae (164 UR; 17.28%) and Adoxaceae (81 UR; 8.54%) are the most reported ones followed by Asteraceae (79 UR; 8.32%), Rutaceae (48 UR; 5.06%), and Oleaceae (41 UR; 4.32%). Lamiaceae and Asteraceae have a high number of representatives in the Mediterranean flora and Rutaceae include the citrus fruit species, whereas Adoxaceae is among the most cited families because of the medicinal importance of Sambucus nigra. Although Olea europaea, the most relevant species of the Oleaceae, presents medicinal uses as antihypertensive and antihelminthic among others, its high number of use reports is mainly due to the properties of its fruit’s oil as an excipient. One of the 20 top medicinal plants, Hypericum perforatum, is illustrated, prepared for use, in Fig. 2.
Table 3

List of the 20 most cited species, representing 61.12% of use reports

Taxon

Herbarium voucher

Family

UR

%

Sambucus nigra L.

BCN113595

Adoxaceae

81

8.54

Thymus vulgaris L.

BCN113590

Lamiaceae

78

8.22

Matricaria recutita L.

BCN113594

Asteraceae

46

4.85

Olea europaea L.

BCN29898

Oleaceae

41

4.32

Ruta chalepensis L.

BCN29940

Rutaceae

38

4.00

Pinus halepensis Mill.

BCN113592

Pinaceae

33

3.48

Hypericum perforatum L.

BCN113597

Hypericaceae

32

3.37

Allium sativum L.

BCN29832

Amaryllidaceae

29

3.06

Mentha pulegium L.

BCN113598

Lamiaceae

24

2.53

Lippia triphylla (L’Hér.) Kuntze

BCN29886

Verbenaceae

21

2.21

Zea mays L.

BCN29830

Poaceae

20

2.11

Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

BCN29696

Myrtaceae

18

1.90

Asperula cynanchica L.

BCN29634

Rubiaceae

16

1.69

Cydonia oblonga Mill.

BCN46849

Rosaceae

15

1.58

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

BCN26350

Apiaceae

15

1.58

Linum usitatissimum L.

BCN47281

Linaceae

15

1.58

Parietaria officinalis L.

BCN113715

Urticaceae

15

1.58

Ramonda myconi (L.) Rchb.

BCN46088

Gesneriaceae

15

1.58

Rosmarinus officinalis L.

BCN113599

Lamiaceae

14

1.48

Triticum aestivum L.

BCN29963

Poaceae

14

1.48

Our informants referred 50 (36.5%) allocthonous taxa with medicinal uses. This high percentage of allocthonous taxa in the western Gironès is an evidence of both the acculturation process and global market influence. About two-thirds (32) of allochthonous plants recorded are archaeophytes, and only ca. one-third are neophytes (15) or plants not present in the territory and purchased through commerce (three). This nuances the effect of globalization, which is, nevertheless, significant, with 18 out of 137 taxa (13.1%) having been introduced in relatively recent times. In addition, some taxa that could be classified as archaeophytes, since their expansion is not related to the Columbian exchange [67], have been recently introduced, in fact, in popular medicine. This is the case of Aloe vera (and other species of the genus used for similar purposes), which could have been introduced as ornamental (and in some cases escaped to the wild) in rather remote times, but are used as medicinal only in recent times; in some cases surely by direct essay in plants cultivated as ornamental and in other cases probably influenced by commercial products based on these plants. In any case, the presence of so-called exotic (allochthonous) plants in European folk medicine would undoubtedly be a good subject for further studies.

The results from the most reported parts are concordant with other Catalan language areas [5, 6, 12], the aerial part being the most cited (306 UR; 32.24%), including young aerial, sterile aerial, flowering aerial, and fructified aerial parts; followed by flowers and inflorescences (213; 22.44%), and fronds or leaves (147; 15.49%).

A total of 101 types of medicinal uses have been compiled, in which anticatarrhal (59 UR; 6.22%) and stomachic (58; 6.11%) are the most frequent. Conversely, grouped by organic systems disorders, the first positions are exchanged, i.e., digestive system disorders occupy the first position, followed by respiratory system disorders (Fig. 3). The seven first histograms in this figure, altogether accounting for almost three-quarters (73.2%) of medicinal uses, basically represent the kind of remedies mostly used in pharmaceutical ethnobotany or folk medicine and in phytotherapy in general, importantly focused on chronic and usually not very severe illnesses [50, 68, 69]. This does not at all preclude ethnobotany from being a solid basis for drug development, as already stated by Chadwick & Marsh [70] and recently confirmed, for instance, with the application of artemisinin and derivatives as the most important antimalarial drugs [71]. In this respect, some of the uses recorded in the present study, apart from those addressing mild ailments—which are also important for everyday life—could be worthy of further research related to the development of drugs against cardiovascular, mental or immune system disorders, or as a cancer preventive.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Organic systems disorders, in percentage, quoted in Gironès

The mode of preparation is not very variable. With just two preparation forms, we collect almost 50% of reports. Tisane, including infusion and decoction, is the most commonly used form, reported 324 times, and represents 34.14% of forms, followed by remedies without pharmaceutical form (146; 15.38%).

The number of medicinal plants per informant (MP/I) is 2.40, comparable to the results obtained in Castelló and Ripollès, but lower than in Guilleries (Table 1). This is due to the fact that the number of medicinal plants cited does not increase proportionally to the number of informants but, as the sample grows, the citation of new species becomes less and less frequent. In the same direction, the average of citations for plants does not grow when we increase the number of informants, but tends to stabilize [72].

The number of medicinal plants per inhabitant is slightly higher value than neighboring areas such as Cerdanya or Ripollès and lower than Alt Empordà (Table 1). The number of medicinal plants per km2 (MP/km2) is 0.73, much bigger than those calculated in Cerdanya, Alt Empordà, les Guilleries, Ripollès, and Montseny. We believe that these data are useful to compare territories, but it has to be taken into account that they do not basically depend on the informant sampling but on the total population or extension of each studied area.

This study has also inventoried 55 plant mixtures with 80 different taxa; the 3 most reported species are Thymus vulgaris with 16 citations and present in a 29.09% of mixtures, Triticum aestivum (14; 25.45%) and Rosmarinus officinalis (13; 23.64%). These mixtures were used to treat 28 diseases, and if we group the diseases by organic system disorders, respiratory, and pregnancy, birth and puerperal disorders are ranked in first position, both with 20% of mixtures. The first disorder is associated with human use and the second one with veterinary use as a postpartum coadjuvant, results that in accordance with those mentioned in Gras et al. [52]. The number of species per mixture varies largely from 1 mixture to another, ranging from 2 to 28 species per mixture and the average number of taxa or ingredients is 3.31. The mixture with the highest number of taxa is a poultice for pneumonia treatment.

The informant consensus factor (FIC) for mixtures data is 0.56, a lower value than in the recent before-mentioned study, devoted to plant mixtures in two Catalan territories [52]. The index of taxon usefulness in mixtures (ITUM), calculated for all taxa with more than three use reports in mixtures, is lower than 0.50 in almost all cases, except in Triticum aestivum (0.50) and Lavandula stoechas (0.67). The results show that there is not a trend of exclusiveness of taxa use in mixtures, but taxa used in mixtures are also employed alone.

Food uses

Food uses are the most reported by the informants in this area: 224 taxa belonging to 66 families constitute an important dataset, accumulating 1933 use reports. Six of these taxa have only been determined at the genus level, and from the remaining 218 ones, 3 of them have infraspecific categories. All of these results show a clear difference with other studied areas, where the medicinal uses predominate over food uses [6, 10, 58]. We do not have a clear hypothesis that explains this surprising result, but although some biases could have occurred in the interviewing process, the importance of crops and the proximity of the markets are two factors that need to be taken into account in this area.

Concerning the destination, a 70.67% of these taxa are used in human food, a 28.30% in animal feed, and there is no information for the remaining 1.03%. The mean of food taxa cited by informant is 3.42 for human food and 1.42 for animal feed.

The most reported families for human food consumption (Table 4) are Lamiaceae (272 UR), Rosaceae (174 UR), and Asteraceae (126 UR). These are families well represented in the Mediterranean flora as in the case of medicinal plants, and some of them comprising relevant categories for human food such as aromatic plants and fruit trees. The rare families concerning both the number of species and number of use reports usually correspond to taxa acquired through commerce. The five species that have received more citations are Mentha spicata (50 UR), Reichardia picroides (37 UR), Laurus nobilis (36 UR), Arbutus unedo (35 UR), and Rubus ulmifolius (34 UR). These are wild species, but Laurus nobilis is also very frequently cultivated near houses. Additionally, Reichardia picroides, one of the most well-known food (and also feed) plants in the Catalan linguistic area [34, 58] and in other Mediterranean areas [32, 73], is a wild species, which, as reported by Maggini et al. [74] in a study in Tuscany involving cultivation of several ecotypes, seems to be a promising vegetable crop, with nutraceutical properties. Further research in this sense in different areas would be desirable to confirm this point.
Table 4

Food plants reported in the studied area

Family

Taxon (voucher)

Catalan vernacular names

Preparation

Used part

Wild (W)/cultivated (C)

Use reports

Adoxaceae

Sambucus nigra L. (BCN113595)

Sabuquer. Saüc. Saüquer

Alcoholic beverage made with wine. Cooked in oil. Cooked in wine. Cooked with sugar. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Fruit. Inflorescence

W

15

Amaranthaceae

Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris var. crassa (Alef.) Helm (BCN50761)

Bleda. Polpa (elaborated product). Remolatxa. Sucre (elaborated product). Sucre candi (elaborated product)

Air dried. Alcoholic beverage made with wine. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Root

C

9

Amaryllidaceae

Allium cepa L. (BCN28655)

Ceba

Boiled in water. Cooked. Raw

Bulb

C

4

Allium porrum L. (BCN28791)

Porro

Condiment

Leaf

C

2

Allium sativum L. (BCN29832)

All

Boiled in water. Condiment. Cooked in oil. Raw

Bulb

C

10

Apiaceae

Apium nodiflorum (L.) Lag. (BCN113736)

Créixec. Creixen

Raw

Aerial part

W

4

Carum carvi L. (BCN29642)

Comí

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

1

Cuminum cyminum L. (BCN-E-194)

Comí

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Seed

W

1

Daucus carota L. subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang. (BCN46847)

Pastanaga

Boiled in water

Root

C

1

Eryngium campestre L. (BCN31274)

Espinacal

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

1

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (BCN26350)

Fonoll

Boiled in water. Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part. Inflorescence

W

27

Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Hill (BCN29905)

Julivert

Condiment

Leaf

C

4

Pimpinella anisum L. (BCN47278)

Anís verd. Matafaluga

Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Fruit

C

6

Apocynaceae

Vinca major L. (BCN25039)

Vinca. Vincapervinca

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

2

Asparagaceae

Aphyllanthes monspeliensis L. (BCN29627)

Llonsa. Pa de cucut

Raw

Aerial part. Flower

W

3

Asparagus acutifolius L. (BCN29976)

Espàrgol. Esparreguera. Espàrrec

Cooked in oil. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Leaf. Young shoot

W

12

Aspleniaceae

Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. (BCN113596)

Fulleta

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Frond

W

1

Asteraceae

Achillea ageratum L. (BCN113701)

Herba del fàstic

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Inflorescence

W

1

Achillea millefolium L. (BCN113708)

Cordonet. Herba de les milfulles

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

1

Arctium minus Bernh. (BCN113727)

Boiled in water

Stem

W

1

Artemisia abrotanum L. (BCN31263)

Broida

Condiment

Leaf

W

1

Artemisia absinthium L. (BCN29837)

Artemisa. Donzell

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

1

Bellis perennis L. (BCN31264)

Margaridoia

Raw

Leaf

W

2

Calendula officinalis L. (BCN29977)

Calèndula

High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Inflorescence

C

2

Centaurea aspera L. (BCN113579)

Caps de burro. Flor del sucre. Travalera

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Inflorescence

W

2

Chondrilla juncea L. (BCN29852)

Màstec

Preserved in vinegar. Raw

Leaf

W

29

Cichorium endivia L. (BCN46854)

Escarola

Condiment

Leaf

C

1

Cichorium intybus L. (BCN29660)

Cama-roja. Xicoia. Xicoina. Xicòria

Raw

Leaf

W

6

Cynara cardunculus L. (BCN-E-192)

Herba presonera. Presó. Presonera. Presora

Condiment

Inflorescence

C

18

Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench (BCN29872)

Mançanilla. Sempreviva

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part. Inflorescence

W

3

Matricaria recutita L. (BCN113594)

Camamilla. Camamilla romana

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part. Inflorescence

W

11

Pallenis spinosa (L.) Cass. (BCN31291)

Mala mare

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Inflorescence

W

2

Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth (BCN113704)

Cosconilla

High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Leaf

W

37

Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (BCN113709)

Espernallac. Santolina

High-grade alcoholic beverage. Milk-based beverage

Inflorescence

W

2

Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (BCN29958)

Card

Boiled in water

Stem

W

1

Sonchus sp.

Llepsó. Lletissó. Llistó

Raw

Aerial part

W

1

Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni (BCN30644)

Estèvia

Not reported

Leaf

C

1

Taraxacum officinale Weber in Wiggers (BCN25948)

Dent de lleó. Xicoia

Beverage made with water. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Leaf. Not reported. Root

W

3

Betulaceae

Corylus avellana L. (BCN29831)

Avellana (fruit). Avellana del queixal (fruit). Avellaner. Avellaner negret

Cooked. Raw

Fruit

W

7

Brassicaceae

Brassica napus L. (BCN46856)

Nap. Nap de bou. Nap del camp

Boiled in water

Root

C

1

Brassica oleracea L. subsp. oleracea (BCN32181)

Bròquil. Col. Col aloma

Preserved in salt and water

Leaf

C

1

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. (BCN46079)

Bossa de pastor. Caps blancs

High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Aerial part

W

2

Raphanus raphanistrum L. subsp. sativus (L.) Domin (BCN49860)

Rave

Raw

Stem

C

1

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek subsp. nasturtium-aquaticum (BCN29771)

Créixec. Creixen

Raw

Aerial part

W

6

Cactaceae

Opuntia maxima Mill. (BCN46078)

Figuera de moro

Condiment

Leaf

C

1

Campanulaceae

Campanula rapunculus L. (BCN50763)

Repunxó

Raw

Leaf. Root. Whole plant

W

22

Cannabaceae

Celtis australis L. (BCN29845)

Lledó (fruit). Lledoner

High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Fruit

C

15

Caprifoliaceae

Lonicera implexa Ait. (BCN113802)

Lligabosc. Mareselva. Xuclamel

High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Aerial part. Flower

W

13

Scabiosa atropurpurea L. (BCN29947)

Escabiosa

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

5

Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterrade (BCN49861)

Margarideta. Margaridoia. Marieta

Raw

Leaf

w

5

Caryophyllaceae

Dianthus caryophyllus L. (BCN31272)

Clavell. Clavell domèstic

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

C

4

Dianthus seguieri Vill. (BCN113734)

Clavell de pastor

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

1

Herniaria glabra L. (BCN113577)

Herba de les mil granes. Mil granes

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

5

Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke (BCN29948)

Culivells

Boiled in water

Leaf

W

5

Cistaceae

Cistus salviifolius L. (BCN36767)

Estepa. Mòdega

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

2

Clusiaceae

Hypericum perforatum L. (BCN113597)

Flor de Sant Joan. Herba de cop. Herba de Sant Joan

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part. Flower

W

12

Convolvulaceae

Convolvulus arvensis L. (BCN29663)

Corretjola

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

2

Crassulaceae

Sempervivum tectorum L. (BCN26780)

Matifoc

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Leaf

W

1

Cucurbitaceae

Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsumara et Nakai (BCN29662)

Síndria. Xíndria

Cooked with sugar

Epicarp. Fruit

C

2

Cucumis melo L. (BCN46851)

Meló (fruit)

Cooked with sugar. Raw

Fruit

C

6

Cucurbita ficifolia C.D.Bouché in Verh. (BCN29980)

Carabassa de cabell d’àngel

Cooked with sugar

Fruit

C

1

Cucurbita pepo L. var. oblonga Link (BCN29859)

Carabassó (fruit)

Boiled in water. Cooked in oil

Flower. Fruit

C

4

Cucurbita pepo L. var. pepo (BCN49858)

Carbassa (fruit). Carbassera. Rabequet (fruit)

Boiled in water

Fruit

C

2

Cupressaceae

Juniperus communis L. (BCN113589)

Ginebre. Ginebró

Air dried. Alcoholic beverage made with wine. Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Fruit

W

12

Juniperus oxycedrus L. (BCN29879)

Càdec

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Fruit

W

1

Equisetaceae

Equisetum arvense L. (BCN24767)

Cua de cavall. Sangnua

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

1

Equisetum sp.

Cua de cavall. Sangnua

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

4

Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. (BCN113581)

Cua de cavall. Sangnua

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

3

Ericaceae

Arbutus unedo L. (BCN29836)

Arboç. Bola d’arboç (fruit). Cirera d’arboç (fruit). Cirerer d’arboç

Cooked with sugar. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Fruit

W

35

Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull (BCN113722)

Bronsa. Bronsó

Raw

Flower

W

1

Erica arborea L. (BCN113593)

Bruc. Bruc boal. Bruc bord. Bruc d’ull de bou. Bruc de bou. Bruc de llei

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

3

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia sp.

Llet de Tereses. Lletdetresa

Condiment

Latex

W

1

Fabaceae

Acacia dealbata Link. (BCN29973)

Mimosa

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

C

2

Ceratonia siliqua L. (BCN32177)

Garrofa (fruit)

Air dried

Fruit

C

5

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (BCN47276)

Regalíssia

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Root

W

2

Lathyrus latifolius L. (BCN29712)

Pèsol bord

Boiled with water. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower. Fruit

W

4

Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (BCN113732)

Esparcet. Trepadella

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

C

2

Phaseolus vulgaris L. (BCN46837)

Fesol de l’ull marrón. Fesol de l’ull negre. Fesol de Santa Pau. Fesol del bitxet gros. Fesol de bitxet petit. Fesol menut. Fesola. Mongeta

Boiled in water

Seed

C

5

Robinia pseudoacacia L. (BCN31298)

Acàcia. Acàcia de jardí

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

C

2

Spartium junceum L. (BCN29956)

Ginesta

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

9

Trifolium incarnatum L. (BCN25026)

Fenc

Boiled in water. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part. Flower

C

3

Vicia faba L. (BCN46826)

Fava

Boiled in water. Cooked. Cooked in oil

Seed

C

6

Vicia sativa L. (BCN47746)

Veça

Raw

Aerial part

C

1

Fagaceae

Castanea sativa Mill. (BCN29844)

Castanya (fruit). Castanyer

Boiled in water. Cooked

Fruit

C

9

Quercus ilex L. (BCN113730)

Aglà (fruit). Alzina. Aulina. Gla (fruit)

Cooked. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower. Fruit

W

7

Quercus suber L. (BCN46829)

Suro. Alzina surera

Air dried

Fruit

W

1

Gesneriaceae

Ramonda myconi (L.) Reichenb. (BCN46088)

Orella d’os

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part. Leaf

W

4

Hydrangeaceae

Philadelphus coronarius L. (BCN27261)

Xeringuilla

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

C

2

Iridaceae

Crocus sativus L. (BCN32170)

Safrà

Condiment

Styles and stigmas

C

1

Juglandaceae

Juglans regia L. (BCN29877)

Noguer. Nou (fruit). Nou verda (fruit)

Air dried. Alcoholic beverage made with wine. Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Fruit. Leaf

C

29

Lamiaceae

Hyssopus officinalis L. (BCN29709)

Hisop

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part. Flower

W

5

Lamium flexuosum Ten. (BCN26731)

Ortiga blanca

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

2

Lavandula dentata L. (BCN29715)

Lavanda

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

1

Lavandula latifolia Medic. (BCN113740)

Barballó. Espígol. Lavanda

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

4

Lavandula stoechas L. (BCN113714)

Cap d’ase. Tomanyí

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part. Flower

W

6

Melissa officinalis L. (BCN113713)

Melissa. Tarongina

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part. Leaf

C

12

Mentha ×piperita L. (BCN113813)

Menta. Menta de la xocolata. Menta piperita. Menta romana

Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

C

15

Mentha pulegium L. (BCN113598)

Poliol. Poniol

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part. Flower

W

8

Mentha spicata L. (BCN113812)

Menta. Menta de la sopa. Menta silvestre. Menta espicata. Menta verdadera

Boiled with water. Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

50

Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (BCN113810)

Menta blanca

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

3

Nepeta cataria L. (BCN113798)

Gatera. Nepta

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

3

Ocimum basilicum L. (BCN29897)

Alfàbrega

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

C

6

Origanum majorana L. (BCN113585)

Marduix

Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part. Flower

C

27

Origanum vulgare L. (BCN113705)

Orenga

Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Not reported

Aerial part

W

18

Prunella grandiflora (L.) Scholler (BCN24956)

Herba del traïdor

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

1

Prunella laciniata (L.) L. (BCN29481)

Herba del traïdor

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

1

Prunella vulgaris L. (BCN113578)

Herba del traïdor

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

2

Rosmarinus officinalis L. (BCN113599)

Romaní

Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Aerial part. Flower

W

27

Salvia microphylla Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth (BCN113718)

Menta. Menta americana. Menta romana

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

C

4

Salvia officinalis L. subsp. lavandulifolia (Vahl) Gams (BCN29780)

Sàlvia de fulla estreta

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

1

Salvia officinalis L. subsp. officinalis (BCN113583)

Sàlvia. Sàlvia de fulla ampla

Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part. Flower. Leaf

C

11

Satureja montana L. (BCN113741)

Sajolida

Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

12

Sideritis hirsuta L. (BCN113582)

Herba de Sant Antoni

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

1

Stachys byzantina C. Koch (BCN113707)

Fulles de la mare de Déu. Planta de vellut

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Leaf

C

3

Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevisan (BCN25011)

Brotònica

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

C

2

Teucrium chamaedrys L. (BCN29806)

Brotònica

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

1

Thymus ×citriodorus (Pers.) Schreber (BCN113803)

Farigola de xocolata. Farigola llimonera

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

C

1

Thymus serpyllum L. (BCN113719)

Farigola de pastor. Farigoleta. Salsa de pastor

Boiled in water. Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

11

Thymus vulgaris L. (BCN113590)

Farigola

Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

34

Lauraceae

Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees (BCN47283)

Canyella

Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Bark

C

10

Laurus nobilis L. (BCN113717)

Llord. Llorer

Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part. Leaf

C

36

Liliaceae

Lilium candidum L. (BCN46841)

Lliri de Sant Antoni. Lliri de Sant Josep

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

C

4

Lythraceae

Punica granatum L. (BCN29764)

Magrana (fruit). Magraner. Magraner agre. Magraner bord. Magraner dolç

Cooked with sugar. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Flower. Fruit

C

6

Magnoliaceae

Magnolia grandiflora L. (BCN64396)

Magnòlia

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

C

2

Malvaceae

Althaea officinalis L. (BCN113799)

Malví

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Root

W

1

Malva sylvestris L. (BCN29889)

Malva. Malva rosa

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

8

Theobroma cacao L. (BCN30763)

Xocolata (elaborated product)

Condiment

Seed

C

1

Tilia cordata Mill. (BCN26784)

Til·la

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Bract with inflorescence

W

5

Tilia platyphyllos Scop. (BCN113739)

Tei. Til·la. Til·ler de bosc

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Bract with inflorescence

W

7

Moraceae

Ficus carica L. (BCN24887)

Figa (infructescence). Figa d’Alacant (infructescence). Figa de coll de senyora (infructescence). Figa de coll llarg blanca (infructescence). Figa de coll llarg negra (infructescence). Figa de pota de cavall (infructescence). Figa de Sant Joan (infructescence). Figa negra (infructescence). Figuera. Figuera de coll de senyora

Air dried. Cooked with sugar. Raw

Infructescence

C

11

Myristicaceae

Myristica fragrans Houtt. (BCN50769)

Nou moscada

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Fruit

C

6

Myrtaceae

Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (BCN29696)

Eucaliptu. Eucaliptus

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Leaf

C

2

Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry (BCN47279)

Clau d’espècia. Clau de pot. Clavell. Clavell d’espècia

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Floral bud

C

7

Oleaceae

Ligustrum vulgare L. (BCN24915)

Olivereta

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

2

Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea (BCN29898)

Oli (elaborated product). Oli d’oliva (elaborated product). Olivera. Oliva (fruit)

Condiment. Boiled in water. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Preserved in salt and water. Raw

Aerial part. Flower. Fruit

C

22

Syringa vulgaris L. (BCN29959)

Lilà

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

C

2

Papaveraceae

Papaver rhoeas L. (BCN29903)

Gallaret. Pipiripip. Quiquiriquí. Rosella

Boiled in water. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Aerial part. Leaf

W

4

Papaver somniferum L. (BCN24941)

Cascall

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

2

Pinaceae

Pinus halepensis Mill. (BCN113592)

Pi. Pi blanc. Pi bord. Pi de pinya llarga. Pi petit. Pinya (fructification)

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower. Fructification. Young shoot

W

10

Pinus pinaster Ait. (BCN36559)

Pi bord. Pi melis

Air dried. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower. Leaf

W

2

Pinus pinea L. (BCN26751)

Pi. Pi de llei. Pi de pinya. Pi pinyer

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Fructification

W

1

Plantaginaceae

Plantago lanceolata L. (BCN32138)

Plantatge de fulla estreta. Plantatge estret

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower. Leaf

W

4

Plantago major L. (BCN29910)

Plantatge. Plantatge ample. Plantatge de fulla ampla

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower. Leaf

W

5

Poaceae

Avena barbata Pott ex Link in Schrad. (BCN49867)

Avena. Cugula

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Fruit

W

2

Avena sativa L. (BCN29839)

Civada

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Fruit

C

2

Briza media L. (BCN113733)

Belluguets

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

2

Hordeum vulgare L. (BCN46843)

Ordi

Cooked

Fruit

C

1

Panicum miliaceum L. (BCN12911)

Mill

Air dried

Fruit

C

2

Saccharum officinarum L. (BCN50771)

Rom (elaborated product). Sucre roig (elaborated product)

Alcoholic beverage made with wine. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Stem

C

4

Secale cereale L. (BCN46828)

Sègol. Sègal

Boiled in water. Cooked

Fruit

C

7

Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (BCN31310)

Melca. Sorgo

Cooked

Fruit

C

1

Triticum aestivum L. (BCN29963)

Blat. Farina (elaborated product). Pa (elaborated product). Palla (elaborated product). Segó (bran)

Air dried. Boiled in water. Cooked. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Bran. Fruit. Spike

C

21

Zea mays L. (BCN29830)

Blat de morassa. Blat de moret. Blat de moro. Farro (elaborated product)

Air dried. Boiled in water. Cooked. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Fruit. Styles and stigmas

C

26

Polygonaceae

Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (BCN24886)

Fajol

Boiled in water. Cooked

Seed

C

16

Portulacaceae

Portulaca oleracea L. (BCN46835)

Verdolaga

Boiled in water. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Aerial part

W

23

Ranunculaceae

Anemone hepatica L. (BCN29834)

Herba fetgera

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part. Leaf

W

5

Clematis recta L. (BCN113720)

Viadella

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

1

Rhamnaceae

Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (BCN113700)

Gínjol (fruit). Ginjoler

Raw

Fruit

C

3

Rosaceae

Agrimonia eupatoria L. (BCN-E-193)

Herba cuquera

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

2

Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (BCN29858)

Arç. Arç blanc

Cooked in oil. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

4

Cydonia oblonga Mill. (BCN46849)

Codony (fruit). Codonyat (elaborated product). Codonyer

Cooked with sugar. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Fruit

C

24

Fragaria vesca L. (BCN29697)

Maduixa (infructescence). Maduixa de bosc (infructescence). Maduixa petita (infructescence). Maduixer. Maduixer de bosc. Maduixeta (infructescence)

Raw

Infructescence

W

16

Fragaria viridis Weston (BCN62767)

Marrans

Raw

Infructescence

C

1

Mespilus germanica L. (BCN50768)

Nespler. Nespla de bosc. Nespra. Nespro

Raw

Fruit

C

9

Prunus avium (L.) L. (BCN29827)

Cirera (fruit). Cirerer

High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Flower. Fruit

C

6

Prunus domestica L. subsp. domestica (BCN46834)

Pruna (fruit). Pruner. Pruna clàudia (fruit). Pruna de colló de frare (fruit)

Cooked with sugar. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Flower. Fruit

C

10

Prunus dulcis (Mill.) Weeb. (BCN46833)

Ametller

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

C

1

Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (BCN46832)

Préssec (fruit). Préssec cardinal (fruit). Préssec de coure (fruit). Préssec duran (fruit). Préssec groc (fruit). Préssec groc d’agost (fruit). Préssec mollar (fruit). Préssec sang de llebre (fruit). Préssec de Sant Joan (fruit). Préssec de Sant Pere (fruit). Presseguer

Cooked with sugar. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Flower. Fruit

C

9

Prunus spinosa L. (BCN30005)

Aranyó (fruit). Aranyoner. Arç. Arç negre. Arça

Cooked with sugar. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Fruit

W

13

Pyrus communis L. subsp. communis (BCN46831)

Pera (fruit). Pera conference (fruit). Pera de Sant Joan (fruit). Pera rogija (fruit). Perer. Perer mau

Alcoholic beverage made with wine. Cooked with sugar. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Flower. Fruit

C

8

Pyrus malus L. subsp. mitis (Wallr.) O.Bolòs et J.Vigo (BCN46830)

Poma (fruit). Poma aspra (fruit). Poma cambusina (fruit). Poma camosa (fruit). Poma capçana (fruit). Poma del ciri (fruit). Poma del ciri groga (fruit). Poma del ciri vermella (fruit). Poma golden (fruit). Poma rodona (fruit). Poma royal (fruit). Pomer. Pomer del ciri. Pomera. Pomera del ciri

Cooked with sugar. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Flower. Fruit

C

24

Rosa canina L. (BCN29772)

Rosa. Rosa de pastor. Roser

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

6

Rosa sp.

Rosa. Rosa de jardí. Roser

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower. Leaf

C

2

Rubus idaeus L. (BCN29774)

Gerd (fruit)

Cooked with sugar. Raw

Fruit

W

3

Rubus ulmifolius Schott (BCN29938)

Bardissa. Mora (fruit). Mora negra (fruit). Romeguera

Cooked with sugar. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Flower. Fruit. Young shoot

W

34

Sorbus domestica L. (BCN46827)

Server

Raw

Fruit

C

1

Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz (BCN43294)

Raw

Fruit

W

1

Rubiaceae

Asperula cynanchica L. (BCN29634)

Herbaprima

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

1

Coffea arabica L. (BCN46852)a

Cafè

Beverage made with water. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Seed

C

9

Rutaceae

Citrus aurantium L. (BCN46080)

Taronger agre. Taronger amarg. Taronger bord. Taronja agra (fruit)

Condiment. Cooked with sugar. High-grade alcoholic beverage.

Leaf. Fruit

C

4

Citrus japonica Thunb. (BCN113966)

Llimona de Xipre

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Fruit

C

1

Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (BCN46853)

Llimona (fruit). Llimoner

Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Epicarp. Fruit. Leaf

C

19

Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (BCN24752)

Taronger. Taronger dolç. Taronja (fruit)

Condiment. Cooked with sugar. High-grade alcoholic beverage

Epicarp. Flower. Fruit

C

15

Ruta chalepensis L. (BCN29940)

Ruda

Condiment. High-grade alcoholic beverage. Raw

Aerial part. Leaf

W

17

Schisandraceae

Illicium verum Hook.f. (BCN47282)

Anís estrellat

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Fruit

C

4

Scrophulariaceae

Verbascum sp.

Cua de guilla

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

1

Solanaceae

Capsicum annuum L. (BCN42737)

Bitxo

Cooked in oil. Preserved in salt and water

Fruit

C

12

Solanum lycopersicum L. (BCN29952)

Tomata (fruit). Tomata de guardar (fruit). Tomata de la meta (fruit). Tomata de penjar (fruit). Tomata dels tres cantos (fruit). Tomata plena (fruit). Tomata poma (fruit)

Cooked in oil. Preserved in salt and water. Cooked with sugar. Raw

Fruit

C

12

Solanum tuberosum L. (BCN29797)

Patata. Patatera. Trumfera

Boiled in water. Cooked

Tuber

C

3

Ulmaceae

Ulmus minor Mill. (BCN113729)

Om

Boiled in water

Leaf

W

1

Urticaceae

Parietaria officinalis L. subsp. judaica (L.) Béguinot (BCN113715)

Blet de paret. Mollerosa

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part

W

5

Urtica dioica L. (BCN29814)

Ortiga

Boiled in water

Aerial part

W

4

Verbenaceae

Lippia triphylla (L’Hér.) O.Kuntze (BCN29886)

Marialluïsa

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Aerial part. Leaf

C

12

Violaceae

Viola tricolor L. (BCN25041)

Pensaments

High-grade alcoholic beverage

Flower

W

2

Vitaceae

Vitis vinifera L. (BCN29972)

Raïm (fruit). Sarment. Vi (elaborated product). Vinagre (elaborated product). Vinya

Condiment. Cooked with sugar. Preserved in vinegar. Raw

Fruit

C

12

aIn our country, most coffee industrial presentations are based on C. arabica, the other taxa, such as C. canephora Pierre ex A.Froehner and C. liberica Hiern being clearly minority

Fruit (including fructification in the gymnosperms) and infructescence are the most used plant parts (29.28%), followed by aerial part, including the whole plant sometimes used in the same way by our informants (27.6%), flower and inflorescence (17.28%), and leaf (14.2%). Regarding the preparation forms, two of them are nearly tied at the top of the ranking; the first one, the beverage prepared with alcohol (39.02%) for the importance of traditional liqueur called ratafia, and the second one, the raw plant (20.79%), which is not really a form of preparation because it implies the direct use of raw material. The plant cooked in several ways (16.76%) and condiments (16.25%) are the two categories that follow them.

As an example of alcoholic beverages, apart from punctual quotations, we collected 6 complete receipts of ratafia in the studied area, the most diverse in terms of plant taxa comprising 76 species. All of them (including the young Juglans regia fruits with a few incisions made) are put together in maceration in a big glass bottle with an anisate alcohol, conserved typically 40 days in an external part of the house, and then filtered and, if necessary, corrected in sugar. After this, and with a final graduation around 23°, it may be consumed as a pleasure and medicinal liqueur. Some of the plants ready to prepare ratafia are shown in Fig. 2.

To illustrate a few food elaborations, Urtica dioica, usually known as a medicinal plant—also employed as such in the studied area—appears as one of the wild plants with more variation: it may be scalded and then either seasoned and consumed as a vegetable or prepared in omelet, and it may be boiled and eaten in soup. Sambucus nigra flowers are consumed in a very common way in northeast Catalonian areas [10, 34], the so-called brunyols or bunyols. These are kind of pastry prepared coating the flowers with a pasta made with floor and water, frying them in very hot oil, and finally seasoning them with salt or sugar, depending on the use of the product with salty food or as a dessert. Additionally, and more originally, the flowers (optionally together with tender leaves) of this species are prepared and consumed in omelet.

For human food, the use of cultivated and wild plants is similar in percentages: 44.62% of the taxa used are cultivated and 55.38% are wild. Contrarily to what one could expect, with crops dominating the market, the relevance of wild food plants is high.

Concerning animal fodder (Table 5), the most reported families are Poaceae (153 UR), Fabaceae (105 UR), and Brassicaceae (70 UR) the five more cited species being Zea mays (56 UR), Brassica napus (46 UR), Quercus ilex (37 UR), Medicago sativa (34 UR), and Triticum aestivum (28 UR). In general, these species are consumed raw (43.88%) or air-dried and preserved (39.12%). The most used parts of plants are the aerial part that sometimes includes the whole plant (41.68%), leaves (19.74%), and seeds (14.1%). These grains can be given directly to the animals or processed in order to obtain flour or fodder.
Table 5

Fodder plants reported in the studied area

Family

Taxon (voucher)

Catalan vernacular names

Preparation

Used part

Wild (W)/cultivated (C)

Use reports

Amaranthaceae

Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris var. crassa (Alef.) Helm (BCN50761)

Bleda. Polpa (elaborated product). Remolatxa. Sucre (elaborated product). Sucre candi (elaborated product)

Air drieda. Boiled in watera, e. Rawb, e

Root. Whole plant

C

25

Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris var. vulgaris (BCN46075)

Bleda

Boiled in watere

Aerial part

C

3

Apiaceae

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (BCN26350)

Fonoll

Rawf

Aerial part

W

4

Aquifoliaceae

Ilex aquifolium L. (BCN29876)

Grèvol

Rawf

Leaf

W

1

Araceae

Arum italicum Mill. (BCN32358)

Xàrria. Xèrria

Boiled in watere. Raw

Root. Whole plant

W

4

Araliaceae

Hedera helix L. (BCN29869)

Heura. Heura d’alzina

Rawa, g

Leaf

W

3

Asparagaceae

Agave americana L. (BCN46860)

Figuerassa

Boiled in watera, e

Leaf

W

5

Aphyllanthes monspeliensis L. (BCN29627)

Llonsa. Pa de cucut

Rawa

Aerial part

W

3

Asteraceae

Centaurea jacea L. (BCN21907)

Caps de burro

Rawf

Aerial part

W

1

Chondrilla juncea L. (BCN29852)

Màstec

Rawf

Aerial part

W

2

Cichorium endivia L. (BCN46854)

Escarola

Raw

Leaf

C

1

Cichorium intybus L. (BCN29660)

Cama-roja. Xicoia. Xicoina. Xicòria

Rawf

Aerial part

W

2

Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth (BCN113704)

Cosconilla

Rawf

Leaf

W

6

Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (BCN29958)

Card

Rawb

Aerial part

W

1

Sonchus oleraceus L. (BCN113723)

Lletissó. Llipsó. Llistó

Air driedf. Rawf, g

Aerial part

W

5

Sonchus sp.

Llepsó. Lletissó. Llistó

Rawa, c, f

Aerial part

W

5

Sonchus tenerrimus L. (BCN29954)

Lletissó. Llitsó

Rawf

Aerial part

W

3

Taraxacum officinale Weber in Wiggers (BCN25948)

Dent de lleó. Xicoia

Rawf

Aerial part

W

2

Brassicaceae

Brassica napus L. (BCN46856)

Nap. Nap de bou. Nap del camp

Boiled in watera, e. Rawa, e

Aerial part. Root. Whole plant

C

46

Brassica oleracea L. subsp. oleracea (BCN32181)

Bròquil. Col. Col aloma

Boiled in watera, e. Rawc, e, f

Leaf

C

22

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. (BCN46079)

Bossa de pastor. Caps blancs

Rawf

Aerial part

W

1

Raphanus raphanistrum L. subsp. sativus (L.) Domin (BCN49860)

Rave

Rawa

Whole plant

C

1

Cannabaceae

Celtis australis L. (BCN29845)

Lledó (fruit). Lledoner

Boiled in watere. Rawa, e

Leaf

C

10

Caprifoliaceae

Scabiosa atropurpurea L. (BCN29947)

Escabiosa

Rawf

Aerial part

W

1

Convolvulaceae

Convolvulus arvensis L. (BCN29663)

Corretjola

Rawf

Aerial part

W

6

Cucurbitaceae

Cucumis melo L. (BCN46851)

Meló (fruit)

Rawe

Epicarp. Fruit

C

6

Cucurbita maxima Duch. in Lam. (BCN-S-1499)

Rabequet (fruit). Carabassa (fruit)

Boiled in watere

Fruit

C

1

Cucurbita pepo L. var. oblonga Link (BCN29859)

Carabassó (fruit)

Rawe

Fruit

C

1

Cucurbita pepo L. var. pepo (BCN49858)

Carbassa (fruit). Carbassera. Rabequet (fruit)

Boiled in watere. Rawe

Fruit

C

12

Equisetaceae

Equisetum arvense L. (BCN24767)

Cua de cavall. Sangnua

Rawf

Aerial part

W

1

Equisetum sp.

Cua de cavall. Sangnua

Rawa, d

Aerial part

W

3

Ericaceae

Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull (BCN113722)

Bronsa. Bronsó

Rawa

Aerial part

W

1

Fabaceae

Ceratonia siliqua L. (BCN32177)

Garrofa (fruit)

Air-drieda, d

Fruit

C

8

Lupinus albus L. (BCN64375)

Llobí

Rawa, e

Seed

C

3

Medicago sativa L. (BCN29891)

Userda

Air-drieda, b, d, e, f. Boiled in watera. Rawb, f

Aerial part

C

34

Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (BCN113732)

Esparcet. Trepadella

Air-drieda, e, f, g. Rawf. Not reportedf

Aerial part

C

20

Pisum sativum L. (BCN32140)

Pèsol

Rawc

Fruit

C

1

Robinia pseudoacacia L. (BCN31298)

Acàcia. Acàcia de jardí

Rawb

Leaf

C

1

Spartium junceum L. (BCN29956)

Ginesta

Rawb

Aerial part

W

1

Trifolium incarnatum L. (BCN25026)

Fenc

Air-drieda, d. Boiled in watera. Rawa

Aerial part

C

23

Trifolium pratense L. (BCN29811)

Trèfola. Trèfoga

Air drieda. Rawf

Aerial part

W

4

Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (BCN32120)

Senigrec

Raw

Aerial part

W

1

Vicia faba L. (BCN46826)

Fava

Air-driedd, e. Rawa

Seed

C

6

Vicia sativa L. (BCN47746)

Veça

Rawa, f

Aerial part

C

3

Fagaceae

Castanea sativa Mill. (BCN29844)

Castanya (fruit). Castanyer

Rawe

Fruit

C

1

Quercus ilex L. (BCN113730)

Aglà (fruit). Alzina. Aulina. Gla (fruit)

Air driede. Boiled in watere. Cookede. Rawa, e, f

Fruit. Leaf. Young shoot

W

37

Quercus pubescens Willd. (BCN30007)

Roure

Rawa, e

Aerial part

W

3

Quercus suber L. (BCN46829)

Suro. Alzina surera

Rawa

Leaf

W

2

Linaceae

Linum usitatissimum L. (BCN47281)

Farina de llinet (elaborated product). Llinet

Air driede

Seed

C

1

Malvaceae

Malva sylvestris L. (BCN29889)

Malva. Malva rosa

Rawf

Leaf

W

1

Moraceae

Ficus carica L. (BCN24887)

Figa (infructescence). Figa d’Alacant (infructescence). Figa de coll de senyora (infructescence). Figa de coll llarg blanca (infructescence). Figa de coll llarg negra (infructescence). Figa de pota de cavall (infructescence). Figa de Sant Joan (infructescence). Figa negra (infructescence). Figuera. Figuera de coll de senyora

Rawe

Infructescence

C

1

Oleaceae

Fraxinus excelsior L. (BCN46844)

Freixa

Rawb, g

Leaf

W

2

Passifloraceae

Passiflora caerulea L. (BCN29747)

Flor de crist

Rawg

Aerial part

C

1

Plantaginaceae

Plantago lanceolata L. (BCN32138)

Plantatge de fulla estreta. Plantatge estret

Rawf

Aerial part

W

1

Plantago major L. (BCN29910)

Plantatge. Plantatge ample. Plantatge de fulla ampla

Rawf

Aerial part. Leaf. Whole plant

W

6

Plantago sp.

Plantatge

Rawf

Leaf

W

2

Poaceae

Arundo donax L. (BCN29825)

Canya. Canya americana. Canyer

Rawa, b

Leaf

W

2

Avena sativa L. (BCN29839)

Civada

Air drieda, c, f. Rawb

Aerial part. Fruit

C

26

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers (BCN29686)

Gram

Rawa

Aerial part

W

1

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. (BCN113745)

Forcadella. Xereix

Rawf

Aerial part

W

2

Hordeum vulgare L. (BCN46843)

Ordi

Air driedc, g. Boiled in watere

Aerial part. Fruit

C

10

Lolium perenne L. (BCN58204)

Margall. Raigràs

Air drieda, g. Rawb, f

Aerial part

C

10

Panicum miliaceum L. (BCN12911)

Mill

Air driedc

Fruit

C

5

Phalaris arundinacea L. (BCN51675)

Rawb

Aerial part

C

1

Secale cereale L. (BCN46828)

Sègol. Sègal

Air drieda. Boiled in watera. Rawb

Aerial part. Fruit

C

6

Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (BCN31310)

Melca. Sorgo

Air drieda, c, d. Rawa

Aerial part

C

6

Triticum aestivum L. (BCN29963)

Blat. Farina (elaborated product). Pa (elaborated product). Palla (elaborated product). Segó (bran)

Air drieda, b, c, d, e. Boiled in waterc, e. Cookedf

Aerial part. Bran. Fruit

C

28

Zea mays L. (BCN29830)

Blat de morassa. Blat de moret. Blat de moro. Farro (elaborated product)

Air drieda, c, d, e, f, g. Boiled in waterc, e. Rawa

Aerial part. Bract. Fruit

C

56

Polygonaceae

Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (BCN24886)

Fajol

Boiled in water

Seed

C

1

Portulacaceae

Portulaca oleracea L. (BCN46835)

Verdolaga

Rawa, e, f

Aerial part

W

11

Primulaceae

Anagallis arvensis L. (BCN29974)

Marruc

Rawc

Aerial part

W

2

Ranunculaceae

Anemone hepatica L. (BCN29834)

Herba fetgera

Rawc

Leaf

W

2

Clematis flammula L. (BCN29856)

Viadella. Virobella

Air drieda

Leaf

W

3

Clematis recta L. (BCN113720)

Viadella

Air drieda

Aerial part

W

1

Clematis vitalba L. (BCN29857)

Ridorta

Air drieda. Rawg

Leaf

W

2

Rosaceae

Rubus ulmifolius Schott (BCN29938)

Bardissa. Mora (fruit). Mora negra (fruit). Romeguera

Rawb

Young shoot

W

1

Smilacaceae

Sanguisorba minor Scop. (BCN113728)

Esparcet bord

Rawa

Aerial part

W

1

Smilax aspera L. (BCN29951)

Arítjol

Rawf

Aerial part

W

3

Solanaceae

Solanum lycopersicum L. (BCN29952)

Tomata (fruit). Tomata de guardar (fruit). Tomata de la meta (fruit). Tomata de penjar (fruit). Tomata dels tres cantos (fruit). Tomata plena (fruit). Tomata poma (fruit)

Rawc

Fruit

C

1

Solanum tuberosum L. (BCN29797)

Patata. Patatera. Trumfera

Boiled in waterc, e. Raw

Tuber

C

5

Ulmaceae

Ulmus minor Mill. (BCN113729)

Om

Boiled in watere. Rawa, b, e, f

Leaf

W

10

Fodder destination: aCows, bGoats, cHens, dHorses and mares, ePigs, fRabbits, gSheep; without superscripted letter: animal destination is not clear

For animal feed, the percentage repartition is similar than for human food: 44.44% of taxa used are cultivated and 55.56% are wild, again accounting for the importance of food plants in the region considered.

Other uses

This category, arranged in Table 6, includes uses that are neither medicinal or food. This is a melting pot with numerous subcategories. Most probably, in societies currently much more dependent on natural resources at an ethnobotanical level, many subcategories could be treated independently, because they would receive a big number of use reports, but we have realized that in our cultural area, where many uses have only few reports based on ancient memories, it is practical to treat all of them together (Gras et al. 2016). We have collected 894 UR concerning 125 taxa, 8 of them only determined at the genus level. These taxa belong to 47 plant families, Fagaceae (136 UR, 15.21%), Poaceae (117 UR; 13.09%), Ericaceae (109 UR; 12.19%), Cannabaceae (69 UR; 7.72%), and Fabaceae (48 UR; 5.37%) being the most cited.
Table 6

Plant with other uses reported in the studied area

Family

Taxon (voucher)

Catalan vernacular names

Use

Used part

Use reports

Adoxaceae

Sambucus nigra L. (BCN113595)

Sabuquer. Saüc. Saüquer

Artisanal. Fuel obtaining

Stem

14

Viburnum tinus L. (BCN30012)

Marfull

Ornamental

Whole plant

1

Apiaceae

Pimpinella anisum L. (BCN47278)

Anís verd. Matafaluga

Repellent

Whole plant

1

Araceae

Arum italicum Mill. (BCN32358)

Xàrria. Xèrria

Agrosilvopastoral management

Flower

1

Araliaceae

Hedera helix L. (BCN29869)

Heura. Heura d’alzina

Ornamental

Whole plant

1

Arecaceae

Phoenix dactylifera L. (BCN52783)

Palma

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Leaf

5

Asparagaceae

Agave americana L. (BCN46860)

Figuerassa

Unclassified

Inflorescence

1

Asparagus acutifolius L. (BCN29976)

Espàrgol. Esparreguera. Espàrrec

Folk oral literature. Ornamental

Aerial part. Young shoot

2

Ruscus aculeatus L. (BCN29939)

Galzeran. Galleranc

Ornamental

Aerial part

3

Yucca aloifolia L. (BCN286)

Ornamental. Unclassified

Whole plant

2

Asteraceae

Carlina acanthifolia All. (BCN24738)

Cardina. Carlina. Carolina

Domestic. Ornamental

Whole plant

8

Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench (BCN29872)

Mançanilla. Sempreviva

Ornamental

Aerial part

2

Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. et Cavill. (BCN24925)

Baleja

Artisanal

Aerial part

1

Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (BCN113709)

Espernallac. Santolina

Ornamental

Whole plant

1

Sonchus sp.

Llepsó. Lletissó. Llistó

Agrosilvopastoral management. Unclassified

Aerial part. Whole plant

2

Taraxacum officinale Weber in Wiggers (BCN25948)

Dent de lleó. Xicoia

Ludic

Infructescence

2

Begoniaceae

Begonia sp.

Tamaia

Ornamental

Whole plant

1

Betulaceae

Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. (BCN29620)

Vern

Artisanal. Timber

Stem

4

Corylus avellana L. (BCN29831)

Avellana (fruit). Avellana del queixal (fruit). Avellaner. Avellaner negret

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Fuel obtaining. Timber

Stem

15

Boraginaceae

Lithospermum officinale L. (BCN113576)

Herba pedrera

Ornamental

Aerial part

1

Buxaceae

Buxus sempervirens L. (BCN29843)

Boix

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Timber

Aerial part. Stem

14

Cannabaceae

Cannabis sativa L. (BCN24735)

Cànem. Carm

Artisanal. Textile

Stem

6

Celtis australis L. (BCN29845)

Lledó (fruit). Lledoner

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Timber

Fruit. Stem

63

Cistaceae

Cistus albidus L. (BCN36672)

Estepa

Smoking plant

Leaf

1

Cistus monspeliensis L. (BCN36740)

Estepa. Mòdega

Artisanal

Aerial part

2

Cistus salviifolius L. (BCN36767)

Estepa. Mòdega

Artisanal. Domestic

Aerial part

4

Coriariaceae

Coriaria myrtifolia L. (BCN113731)

Roldor

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Aerial part. Stem

7

Cucurbitaceae

Cucurbita pepo L. var. pepo (BCN49858)

Carbassa (fruit). Carbassera. Rabequet (fruit)

Artisanal

Fruit

1

Cupressaceae

Cupressus sempervirens L. (BCN35770)

Xiprer

Folk oral literature

Whole plant

2

Juniperus communis L. (BCN113589)

Ginebre. Ginebró

Timber

Stem

1

Juniperus oxycedrus L. (BCN29879)

Càdec

Artisanal. Domestic. Timber

Fruit. Stem

4

Dennstaedtiaceae

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn (BCN113735)

Falguera

Agrosilvopastoral management

Frond

5

Dryopteridaceae

Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (BCN29629)

Falguera

Agrosilvopastoral management

Frond

8

Equisetaceae

Equisetum arvense L. (BCN24767)

Cua de cavall. Sangnua

Agrosilvopastoral management

Aerial part

1

Equisetum sp.

Cua de cavall. Sangnua

Agrosilvopastoral management

Aerial part

1

Ericaceae

Arbutus unedo L. (BCN29836)

Arboç. Bola d’arboç (fruit). Cirera d’arboç (fruit). Cirerer d’arboç

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Fuel obtaining. Not reported

Stem

11

Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull (BCN113722)

Bronsa. Bronsó

Agrosilvopastoral management. Fuel obtaining

Aerial part

4

Erica arborea L. (BCN113593)

Bruc. Bruc boal. Bruc bord. Bruc d’ull de bou. Bruc de bou. Bruc de llei

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Fuel obtaining. Timber. Unclassified

Aerial part. Root. Stem

38

Erica multiflora L. (BCN29864)

Bruc

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Fuel obtaining. Unclassified

Aerial part

4

Erica scoparia L. (BCN113724)

Bruc. Bruc bord. Bruc d’escombres. Bruc de llei

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Domestic. Fuel obtaining. Unclassified

Aerial part. Stem. Whole plant

44

Erica sp.

Bruc

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Fuel obtaining.

Aerial part. Stem

8

Fabaceae

Genista scorpius (L.) DC. in Lam. et DC. (BCN27292)

Argelaga. Espines

Agrosilvopastoral management. Fuel obtaining.

Aerial part

13

Medicago sativa L. (BCN29891)

Userda

Agrosilvopastoral management

Aerial part

1

Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (BCN113732)

Esparcet. Trepadella

Agrosilvopastoral management

Flower

1

Phaseolus vulgaris L. (BCN46837)

Fesol de l’ull marrón. Fesol de l’ull negre. Fesol de Santa Pau. Fesol del bitxet gros. Fesol de bitxet petit. Fesol menut. Fesola. Mongeta

Agrosilvopastoral management

Whole plant

1

Robinia pseudoacacia L. (BCN31298)

Acàcia. Acàcia de jardí

Agrosilvopastoral management. Ornamental. Timber

Stem. Whole plant

13

Spartium junceum L. (BCN29956)

Ginesta

Agrosilvopastoral management. Fuel obtaining. Magic and religious beliefs and practices. Timber

Aerial part. Flower. Stem

12

Trifolium incarnatum L. (BCN25026)

Fenc

Agrosilvopastoral management

Aerial part. Flower

2

Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (BCN32120)

Senigrec

Repellent

Whole plant

1

Ulex parviflorus Pourr. (BCN30011)

Gatosa

Agrosilvopastoral management. Fuel obtaining

Aerial part

3

Wisteria sinensis (Sims) Sweet (BCN30014)

Lilà

Ornamental

Whole plant

1

Castanea sativa Mill. (BCN29844)

Castanya (fruit). Castanyer

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Timber

Stem

28

Fagaceae

Fagus sylvatica L. (BCN46845)

Faig

Fuel obtaining

Stem

1

Quercus coccifera L. (BCN29765)

Garrigues

Domestic

Aerial part

1

Quercus ilex L. (BCN113730)

Aglà (fruit). Alzina. Aulina. Gla (fruit)

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Dyer. Fuel obtaining. Ludic. Magic and religious beliefs and practices. Not reported. Tannery. Timber. Unclassified

Aerial part. Bark. Flower. Fruit. Leaf. Stem

66

Quercus pubescens Willd. (BCN30007)

Roure

Agrosilvopastoral management. Folk oral literature. Fuel obtaining. Timber

Fruit. Leaf. Stem

25

Quercus suber L. (BCN46829)

Suro. Alzina surera

Agrosilvopastoral management. Domestic. Fuel obtaining. Ludic. Textile. Timber. Unclassified.

Bark. Stem. Whole plant

15

Geraniaceae

Pelargonium sp.

Gerani

Ornamental

Whole plant

1

Juglandaceae

Juglans regia L. (BCN29877)

Noguer. Nou (fruit). Nou verda (fruit)

Dyer. Folk oral literature. Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Fruit. Whole plant

5

Juncaceae

Juncus effusus L. (BCN39991)

Jonc

Agrosilvopastoral management

Stem

1

Lamiaceae

Lavandula latifolia Medic. (BCN113740)

Barballó. Espígol. Lavanda

Cosmetic. Domestic. Ornamental

Aerial part. Whole plant

5

Ocimum basilicum L. (BCN29897)

Alfàbrega

Agrosilvopastoral management. Repellent

Whole plant

4

Origanum vulgare L. (BCN113705)

Orenga

Folk oral literature

Whole plant

2

Rosmarinus officinalis L. (BCN113599)

Romaní

Domestic. Folk oral literature. Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Aerial part

14

Salvia farinacea Benth. (BCN113718)

Sàlvia de jardí

Ornamental

Whole plant

1

Salvia officinalis L. subsp. officinalis (BCN113583)

Sàlvia. Sàlvia de fulla ampla

Ornamental

Whole plant

1

Thymus ×citriodorus (Pers.) Schreber (BCN113803)

Farigola de xocolata. Farigola llimonera

Ornamental

Whole plant

1

Thymus vulgaris L. (BCN113590)

Farigola

Folk oral literature. Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Aerial part. Whole plant

4

Lauraceae

Laurus nobilis L. (BCN113717)

Llord. Llorer

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Aerial part

39

Lythraceae

Punica granatum L. (BCN29764)

Magrana (fruit). Magraner. Magraner agre. Magraner bord. Magraner dolç

Artisanal. Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Aerial part

21

Moraceae

Ficus carica L. (BCN24887)

Figa (infructescence). Figa d’Alacant (infructescence). Figa de coll de senyora (infructescence). Figa de coll llarg blanca (infructescence). Figa de coll llarg negra (infructescence). Figa de pota de cavall (infructescence). Figa de Sant Joan (infructescence). Figa negra (infructescence). Figuera. Figuera de coll de senyora

Magic and religious beliefs and practices. Folk oral literature

Infructescence. Whole plant

7

Morus alba L. (BCN52588)

Morera

Agrosilvopastoral management

Stem

2

Morus nigra L. (BCN31289)

Arça. Morera

Agrosilvopastoral management. Fuel obtaining

Stem

3

Myrtaceae

Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (BCN29696)

Eucaliptu. Eucaliptus

Ornamental

Aerial part

1

Oleaceae

Fraxinus excelsior L. (BCN46844)

Freixa

Timber

Stem

3

Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea (BCN29898)

Oli (elaborated product). Oli d’oliva (elaborated product). Olivera. Oliva (fruit)

Artisanal. Domestic. Folk oral literature. Fuel obtaining. Magic and religious beliefs and practices. Timber

Aerial part. Fruit. Stem

10

Papaveraceae

Papaver rhoeas L. (BCN29903)

Gallaret. Pipiripip. Quiquiriquí. Rosella

Ludic. Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Flower

13

Pinaceae

Pinus halepensis Mill. (BCN113592)

Pi. Pi blanc. Pi bord. Pi de pinya llarga. Pi petit. Pinya (fructification)

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Folk oral literature. Fuel obtaining. Timber

Aerial part. Bark. Fructification. Stem. Whole plant

20

Pinus pinaster Ait. (BCN36559)

Pi bord. Pi melis

Agrosilvopastoral management. Fuel obtaining

Stem

4

Pinus pinea L. (BCN26751)

Pi. Pi de llei. Pi de pinya. Pi pinyer

Fuel obtaining

Fructification

1

Pinus sp.

Pi. Trementina (elaborated product)

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Domestic. Fuel obtaining. Timber

Aerial part. Cortical parenchyma. Leaf. Stem

9

Poaceae

Arundo donax L. (BCN29825)

Canya. Canya americana. Canyer

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal

Leaf. Stem. Whole plant

48

Avena barbata Pott ex Link in Schrad. (BCN49867)

Avena. Cugula

Ludic

Fruit

16

Avena sativa L. (BCN29839)

Civada

Agrosilvopastoral management. Ludic

Aerial part. Fruit

5

Briza media L. (BCN113733)

Belluguets

Ornamental

Flower

2

Panicum miliaceum L. (BCN12911)

Mill

Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Fruit

1

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Steudel (BCN27104)

Artisanal

Stem

1

Secale cereale L. (BCN46828)

Sègol. Sègal

Agrosilvopastoral management

Aerial part

2

Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (BCN31310)

Melca. Sorgo

Artisanal

Aerial part

2

Stipa tenacissima L. (BCN46091)

Espart

Textile

Aerial part. Stem

3

Triticum aestivum L. (BCN29963)

Blat. Farina (elaborated product). Pa (elaborated product). Palla (elaborated product). Segó (bran)

Agrosilvopastoral management

Fruit

6

Zea mays L. (BCN29830)

Blat de morassa. Blat de moret. Blat de moro. Farro (elaborated product)

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Domestic. Folk oral literature. Fuel obtaining. Ludic. Ornamental. Textile

Bract. Fruit. Inflorescence.Stem. Styles and stigmas

31

Ranunculaceae

Clematis flammula L. (BCN29856)

Viadella. Virobella

Agrosilvopastoral management

Aerial part

2

Clematis vitalba L. (BCN29857)

Ridorta

Agrosilvopastoral management. Domestic. Textile

Aerial part. Stem

6

Rosaceae

Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (BCN29858)

Arç. Arç blanc

Agrosilvopastoral management. Fuel obtaining

Stem. Whole plant

5

Cydonia oblonga Mill. (BCN46849)

Codony (fruit). Codonyat (elaborated product). Codonyer

Agrosilvopastoral management

Whole plant

3

Mespilus germanica L. (BCN50768)

Nespler. Nespla de bosc. Nespra. Nespro

Agrosilvopastoral management

Whole plant

1

Prunus armeniaca L. (BCN48712)

Abricoc (fruit). Albercoc (fruit). Albercoquer

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal

Endocarp. Whole plant

3

Prunus avium (L.) L. (BCN29827)

Cirera (fruit). Cirerer

Agrosilvopastoral management

Stem. Whole plant

2

Prunus dulcis (Mill.) Weeb. (BCN46833)

Ametller

Agrosilvopastoral management

Whole plant

1

Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (BCN46832)

Préssec (fruit). Préssec cardinal (fruit). Préssec de coure (fruit). Préssec duran (fruit). Préssec groc (fruit). Préssec groc d’agost (fruit). Préssec mollar (fruit). Préssec sang de llebre (fruit). Préssec de Sant Joan (fruit). Préssec de Sant Pere (fruit). Presseguer

Agrosilvopastoral management

Whole plant

3

Prunus spinosa L. (BCN30005)

Aranyó (fruit). Aranyoner. Arç. Arç negre. Arça

Domestic

Whole plant

1

Pyrus communis L. subsp. communis (BCN46831)

Pera (fruit). Pera conference (fruit). Pera de Sant Joan (fruit). Pera rogija (fruit). Perer. Perer mau

Agrosilvopastoral management

Whole plant

2

Pyrus malus L. subsp. mitis (Wallr.) O.Bolòs et J.Vigo (BCN46830)

Poma (fruit). Poma aspra (fruit). Poma cambusina (fruit). Poma camosa (fruit). Poma capçana (fruit). Poma del ciri (fruit). Poma del ciri groga (fruit). Poma del ciri vermella (fruit). Poma golden (fruit). Poma rodona (fruit). Poma royal (fruit). Pomer. Pomer del ciri. Pomera. Pomera del ciri

Agrosilvopastoral management. Domestic

Fruit. Whole plant

11

Rosa sp.

Rosa. Rosa de jardí. Roser

Ornamental

Whole plant

1

Rubus ulmifolius Schott (BCN29938)

Bardissa. Mora (fruit). Mora negra (fruit). Romeguera

Folk oral literature. Fuel obtaining

Aerial part. Young shoot

2

Rutaceae

Citrus aurantium L. (BCN46080)

Taronger agre. Taronger amarg. Taronger bord. Taronja agra (fruit)

Agrosilvopastoral management

Fruit. Whole plant

3

Citrus japonica Thunb. (BCN113966)

Llimona de Xipre

Ornamental

Whole plant

1

Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (BCN46853)

Llimona (fruit). Llimoner

Agrosilvopastoral management

Fruit

1

Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (BCN24752)

Taronger. Taronger dolç. Taronja (fruit)

Agrosilvopastoral management

Whole plant

1

Ruta chalepensis L. (BCN29940)

Ruda

Domestic. Folk oral literature. Magic and religious beliefs and practices

Aerial part. Whole plant

3

Salicaceae

Populus ×canadensis Moench (BCN113967)

Arbre. Pollancre

Timber

Stem

1

Populus nigra L. (BCN113746)

Arbre. Arbre bord. Pollancre

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Timber

Stem

3

Salix alba L. (BCN29777)

Sàlix. Saule

Artisanal

Stem

7

Salix fragilis L. (BCN31305)

Vimbera. Vímec. Vimequera. Vim

Artisanal

Stem

17

Sapindaceae

Aesculus hippocastanum L. (BCN29618)

Castanyer bord

Timber

Stem

1

Saxifragaceae

Bergenia sp.

Hortènsia d’hivern

Ornamental

Whole plant

1

Smilacaceae

Smilax aspera L. (BCN29951)

Arítjol

Fuel obtaining

Aerial part

1

Solanaceae

Nicotiana tabacum L. (BCN48711)

Tabac

Agrosilvopastoral management. Repellent. Smoking plant

Leaf

3

Solanum tuberosum L. (BCN29797)

Patata. Patatera. Trumfera

Agrosilvopastoral management. Domestic. Smoking plant

Leaf. Tuber. Whole plant

4

Typhaceae

Typha latifolia L. (BCN31314)

Balca

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal

Stem

10

Ulmaceae

Ulmus minor Mill. (BCN113729)

Om

Agrosilvopastoral management. Artisanal. Timber

Stem

13

Urticaceae

Urtica dioica L. (BCN29814)

Ortiga

Agrosilvopastoral management. Folk oral literature. Not reported

Aerial part. Whole plant

9

Violaceae

Viola alba Besser (BCN27286)

Viola. Violeta

Ornamental

Aerial part

1

Vitaceae

Vitis vinifera L. (BCN29972)

Raïm (fruit). Sarment. Vi (elaborated product). Vinagre (elaborated product). Vinya

Not reported

Fruit

1

The five most reported species are Quercus ilex (66 UR; 7.38%), Celtis australis (63 UR; 7.05%), Arundo donax (48 UR; 5.37%), Erica scoparia (44 UR; 4.92%), and Laurus nobilis (39 UR; 4.36%). This top list reflects the persistency of a rural bottom still alive in the studied territory, since these plants are importantly used for agricultural practices, e.g., Arundo to grow Lycopersicon esculentum or Phaseolus vulgaris plants, Celtis to elaborate forks and Erica (as its specific epithet claims, indicating an old use) to make brooms (Fig. 2).

Even if we treat all of them in a single category, thus comparable with the medicinal and food ones, the different uses (subcategories) are also addressed, and those regarding the present study can be observed in Fig. 4. We emphasize the importance of the artisanal uses (231 UR, 25.84%) comprising the making of shoes, toys, and brooms among others, agrosilvopastoral management (170 UR, 19.02%) and timber (127 UR, 14.21%). Some of these categories correspond to professions that no longer exist but that have had a lot of relevance in the past and are, in some cases, transformed to sell their products as touristic objects.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Other uses, as a percentage, quoted in Gironès

Regarding the parts of plant used, which are closely related with their uses, the most reported are the stem and trunk (364 UR; 40.72%), followed by the aerial part and the whole plant (253 UR; 28.3%), and the fruit and infructescence (65 UR; 8.50%).

Vernacular names

In this study, 581 vernacular names for 306 species, subspecies, and varieties have been collected, comprising 2892 reports. Ten taxa have been mentioned by the informants without any popular name. This is a very small percentage of the phytonyms recorded, and reflects that, in a few cases, the informants do not know (or, more often, do not remember) the name of a plant. The most reported taxa are those with a single or a few vernacular names as a general trend, as is the case of thyme (Thymus vulgaris), which has been mentioned 52 times with a unique popular name (farigola in Catalan language). In contrast, the species designated with more vernacular names are the cultivated ones, due to the names of landraces of several taxa that have also been quoted by the informants.

The ethnophytonymy index [53] shows a high value (32.6%), meaning that roughly one-third of the plants in the studied area have at least one folk name, comparable to the results from other Catalan territories, such as 35% in the Pallars district [5], 31% in Alt Empordà district [10], 29.8% in the island of Mallorca [12], 28% in the Montseny mountain massif [6], and 18% in Castelló province [1]. The allochthonous ethophytonymy index proposed by Carrió [12] calculates the rate between taxa having a vernacular name in non-Catalan languages (even for those taxa having also some Catalan names) and the total number of collected taxa. In the present study, the value is very small (4.7%, due to a few Spanish names) as compared with the one obtained in Mallorca (27.8, due to some names in Spanish and French languages; [12]), indicating a more culturally homogeneous informants’ pool.

The linguistic diversity index, which expresses the linguistic richness of a territory independently of its flora, reaches a value of 1.90 (almost two names per plant, in mean), comparable to those obtained in l’Alt Empordà (1.94) [10], Navarra (1.87) [75], and Montseny (1.76) [6].

It is interesting to remark that a certain number of folk plant names are linked to their uses. For instance, Achillea ageratum is called in Catalan language herba del fàstic (“disgusting herb”), since it incites vomiting; herba cuquera (“worm’s herb”) and herba fetgera (“liver’s herb”) allude, respectively, to the antihelminthic use of Agrimonia eupatoria and the hepatoprotective use of Anemone hepatica (the latter bearing the same indication in its specific epithet); Centaurea aspera, an hypoglycemiant plant, is named flor del sucre (“sugar’s flower”); nap de bou (“cow’s rape”) announces the use of Brassica napus to feed cattle; bruc d’escombres (“broom’s heather”) confirms the specific epithet of Erica scoparia, which is used, as other Erica species, for broom elaboration. All kind of plant uses are reflected in some vernacular names. We believe that an in-depth research on folk phytonyms (in different areas of a language and in different languages) and of scientific plant names that reflect plant uses is an interesting field of research, still scarcely or not at all addressed in ethnobotany.

Concluding remarks

This study has revealed that traditional knowledge is persisting in the studied area if we take into account the numbers of taxa quoted and of use reports, as well as the values of the calculated indexes and despite the proximity to the highly urbanized areas. We have detected a significant number of allochthonous useful plants, and we believe that this subject should be particularly addressed in ethnobotanical studies in other areas throughout the world. The food plant use dataset is particularly important. Conversely, although the knowledge remains in the memory of our informants, the medicinal use of plants is substantially smaller than it used to be (informants often speak in the past of these uses) in their daily life, proving the erosive process in plant traditional knowledge and use that our industrialized societies are experiencing. In this sense, our research helps to alleviate this deterioration and to inventory this heritage, making ready for dissemination and reintroduction to younger generations of the society, who have suffered acculturation, and also for further studies in drug or other useful products development. In any case, even though the current ethnopharmacological pool is eroded and less employed as opposed to some decades ago, as we have shown, the number of medicinal plants and uses recorded are clearly higher than in less industrialized areas, where uses are more persistent. This applies, even more, for the food ethnobotanical corpus and, again to a lesser extent, to the ethnobotany of non-food and non-medicinal plant uses, finally showing the general solidity of ethnobotanical tradition in the area studied, which is now recorded and, thus, protected.

Declarations

Acknowledgements

The authors want to thank the informants for sharing with us their knowledge and their time. Samuel Pyke (Botanical Garden of Barcelona) is also acknowledged for his revision of the English language, Josep M. Suñé (Universitat de Barcelona) for his advices regarding pharmaceutical preparations and forms, and Joan Veny (Institut d’Estudis Catalans) for his continuous help in phytonymic questions. This research was supported by projects 2014SGR00514 and 2017SGR1116 from Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan government) and PRO2017-S02-VALLES from the Institut d’Estudis Catalans. AG benefited from a predoctoral grant of the Universitat de Barcelona (APIF 2015-2018) and a predoctoral contract of project CGL2017-84297-R of the Spanish government. Finally, we acknowledge support of the publication fee by the CSIC Open Access Publication Support Initiative through its Unit of Information Resources for Research (URICI).

Funding

See acknowledgements.

Availability of data and materials

Not applicable.

Authors’ contributions

TG and JV coordinated the study. All authors (AG, GS, JV, and TG) participated in the design of the research, data collection, and results discussion. All authors wrote the manuscript and they read and approved the final manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

All the authors agree with the manuscript and consent to participate in it. Concerning the informants, they gave the informed consent (see “Material and Methods” section).

Consent for publication

The authors give their consent for publication of this manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Laboratori de Botànica (UB) – Unitat associada al CSIC, Facultat de Farmàcia i Ciències de l’Alimentació, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Joan XXIII 27-31, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
(2)
Institut Botànic de Barcelona (IBB, CSIC-ICUB), Passeig del Migdia s/n, Parc de Montjuïc, 08038 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
(3)
Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat (IRBio), Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
(4)
Secció de Ciències Biològiques, Institut d’Estudis Catalans, Carrer del Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

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