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Table 2 Medicinal uses of the reported taxa and their comparison with previous reports

From: Ethnomedicinal knowledge of the rural communities of Dhirkot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

Sr # Family Nomenclature Habit Medicinal uses Previous reports
Scientific name Local name Part used Preparation Application Disease treated
1 Acanthaceae Dicliptera roxburghiana Nees./AF-110 Churun H WP PD Internal *Diabetes, *Tonic 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
RT EX External *Wounds
Justicia vahlii Roth./AF-9 Bhekkar H LF IN Internal Respiratory tract diseases 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15,16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
Pteracanthus urticifolius (Wall. ex Kuntze) Bremek. /AF-48 Blue Nettle H WP EX Internal Diuretic, Stomach disorders, Ulcer 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14, 15, 16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
DE Internal Sedative, Tonic
2 Adoxaceae Viburnum grandiflorum Wall. ex DC./AF-92 Guch S SD JU Internal Typhoid 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,9,10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
FR ET Internal *Stomachache
3 Amaranthaceae Achyranthes aspera L./AF-7 Puthkanda H LE DE External *Toothache 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14, 15,16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
RT EX External *Earache
WP DE Internal *Pneumonia
EX Internal Dysentery
Amaranthus viridis L./AF-37 Ganyar H LE VG Internal Constipation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12,13, 14,15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
ST VG Internal Cough
SD PD Internal Eye Vision
Chenopodium ambrosioides L. /AF-84 Bathu/Bathwa H WP IN Internal *Measles, *Cough, Amenorrhea 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12,13,14,15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
LE PA External *Joint pain, *Backache
PD Internal *Cough, *Motion
SD PD Internal *Diuretic, *Dropsy (oedema)
4 Apocynaceae Nerium oleander L. /AF-40 Kneer S LF CH External Mouth disease 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9, 10, 11, 1 2,13,14, 15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
RT PA External Scorpion bite
BA EX External To kill wound worms
5 Araliaceae Hedera nepalensis K. Koch. /AF-135 Hurrbumbal/Betkal E LF DE Internal Diabetes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6, 7,8,9,10, 11,12, 13,14, 15,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
JU Internal *Indigestion, Ulcer
Hydrocotyle spp. L. /AF-114 Chamk wali boti H LF EX Internal Fever, Bowel Complaints
EX External Cuts, Burns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14,15,16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22
PO External Syphilitic ulcers
WP DE Internal Influenza, Hepatitis
6 Aspleniaceae Asplenium dalhousiae Hook. /AF-13 Niaroi H WP JU External Blisters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
Internal Cough
LE EX External Swelling, Rickets
7 Asteraceae Achillea millefolium L. /AF-19 Sultani Booti / Kangi Booti H FL EX Internal *Common Cold, *Flue, *Cough 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
External *Arthritis
LE PA External *Stop Bleeding, Wound Healing
Artemisia vulgaris L. /AF-55 Chaow H RT EX Internal *Regulation of menstrual cycle 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
WP IN Internal *Cardiac problems
Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff. /AF-79 Suryaly/Palouthi H LE JU Internal Sore infection 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14,15,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
RT PA External Toothache
Carpesium cernuum L. /AF-43 Marchi H WP EX Internal Cold, Fever 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
JU Internal Sore throat
RT EX Internal Antibacterial
SD DE Internal Intestinal parasites, Abdominal pain
Cichorium intybus L. /AF-2 Kasni H RT IN Internal Fever 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14,15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
LE DE Internal Indigestion, *Typhoid, *Jaundice
PD Internal *Gout
LE JU Internal *Gall Stones, *Gastrointestinal problems
Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. /AF-127 Kandayara H WP IN External Joint disorders 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14,15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,21,22
DE Internal Piles
RT PO External Sore Jaws
Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist./AF-129 Kali Buti H WP EX Internal Diuretic, *Cooling effect 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9, 10, 11,12,13, 14,15,16,17,18, 19, 20,21,22
IN Internal *Sore throat, *Diarrhea, *nose bleeding
RT DE Internal *Menstrual irregularities
LE EX (Oil) Internal *Tonsils
Galinsoga parviflora Cav./AF-73 Peelibooti H WP EX External *Skin disease, *Earache, *Scorpion bites 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14,15,16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
LF RB External *Skin inflammation
JU External *Blood clotting
Internal *Dysentery
Gerbera gossypina (Royle) Beauverd./AF-27 Bhurjali/ Ladrun H LF PA External Wounds, Skin Disease 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9, 10, 11,12,13, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
AP TE Internal *Nerve disorders
Inula spp. L./AF-95 Peeli Boti H WP EX Internal Diabetes, Fever 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14, 15,16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
RT DE Internal Digestive system disorders, Asthma
Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter ex Britton./AF-46 Pineapple-weed H WP EX Internal Vermifuge 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
TE Internal Cold, Fever
LF IN Internal Stomach pain
SD DE Internal Indigestion
Myriactis wallichii Less./AF-65 Safeed surajmukhi H LF PA External Wound healing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
Parthenium hysterophorus L./AF-69 Gandibooti H LF JU Internal *Fever, Constipation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13,14,15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
CH External Toothache
FL PD Internal Diabetes
WP DE Internal Dysentery, *Flue
Phagnalon rupestre DC./AF-51 Jijjo Booti Sub-S WP DE Internal Knee pain, Renal stones 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15,1 6, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
FP HB Internal Abdominal pain
LF PD External Joints pain
Prenanthes brunoniana Wallex DC./AF-128 Himalayan Blue Sow-Thistle H WP PO External Wounds, Sores 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10, 11,12,13, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22
Sigesbeckia orientalis L./AF-97 Yellow crown-head C LF EX External Rheumatism, Paralysis 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14, 15,16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
PA External Wounds
AP DE Internal Hypertension
EX External Gout
WP EX External Sore between toes
Sonchus arvensis L./AF-56 Dodhak/Dodhal H LF PO External *Anti inflammation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,,14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
WP PA External *Wounds cleaning
JU Internal *Chronic fever
RT DE Internal Asthma
Sonchus oleracus L./AF-106 Dodhak/Dodhal H LF DE Internal *Constipation, *Body weakness 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13,14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
PO External Swelling
WP JU Internal *Ulcers
IN Internal Diarrhea
ST LX External Warts
Tagetes minuta L./AF-139 Setbergha H FL EX Internal *Fever 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22
LF JU Internal *Piles
External *Earache, *Ophthalmic
Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg./AF-121 Hand H LF VG Internal *Diabetes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8, 9,10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
LX Internal *To stimulate Gallbladder, Indigestion
WP JU Internal Liver disease, Jaundice
RH DE Internal Jaundice
8 Balsaminaceae Impatiens edgeworthii Hook. f./AF-105 Tilchawli H WP EX Internal *Urinary tract infection 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12,13, 14,15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
External *Burns
Internal *Fever
Impatiens glandulifera Royle./AF-82 Tilcawli H RT PA External *Cooling effect on hands and Foot 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8,9, 10, 11,12,13,14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20,21,22
LF DE Internal Mental tension
FL TE External *Eye wash
9 Berberidaceae Berberis lycium Royle./AF-4 Sumbal S LE PA External *Bleeding, Wound healing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8, 9, 10, 11,12,13, 14,15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,21,22
RT EX Internal *Joint Problems
BA PD Internal Bleeding gums
10 Boraginaceae Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk./AF-23 Churuun H RT EX Internal *Throat diseases 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8, 9, 10, 11,12,13, 14,15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
FR CH External *Toothache
LE PD Internal *Kidney disorder, *Tooth and gum diseases
11 Brassicaceae Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medick./AF-94 Doddipatti H AP VG Internal Diarrhea 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14,15, 16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
LE DE Internal Menstrual disorders
WP JU Internal * Nose bleeding
12 Buxaceae Sarcococca saligna (D. Don) Müll. Arg./AF-64 Niaroi/Ndroon S SH EX External Joint pain 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
RT JU Internal Gonorrhea
LF IN Internal Blood purification
13 Campanulaceae Campanula pallida Wall./AF-111 Beli Phool H WP EX Internal Dysentery, Liver disorders 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
14 Cannabaceae Cannabis sativa L./AF-83 Kamm/Bhang H LE TE Internal *Joint problems 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
WP DE Internal Whooping cough
15 Convolvulaceae Convolvulus arvensis L./AF-30 Speaker Booti C WP VG Internal Skin Diseases 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15, 16,17,18, 19,20,21,22
RT EX External Dandruff
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth./AF-76 Eieer C SD PD Internal Mental disorders, Constipation, Diuretic 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14,15, 16,17,18, 19,20, 21,22
RT EX Internal Syphilis
FL EX Internal Laxative, Purgative
16 Cyperaceae Cyperus serotinus Rottb./AF-116 Deela Ghass H RT EX Internal Tonic, Stimulant 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14,15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
Eriophorum comosum (Wall.) Nees. /AF-90 Berbaya H WP PD Internal Abdominal pain, Kidney pain 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6, 7,8,9, 10, 11,12,13, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
17 Dryopteridaceae Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott. /AF-17 Kungi H FD VG Internal Diabetes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14, 15,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
RT EX Internal To treat Tapeworms
External Muscle pain, Paralysis, Sciatica
18 Ebenaceae Diospyros lotus L. /AF-119 Amlook T FR ET Internal *Stomach disease, *Fever 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8 ,9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
TW RB External *Toothache, *Gums and lips coloring
19 Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. /AF-77 Kankoli S SD EX (Oil) Internal Breathing disorders, Lungs disease 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9,10, 11, 12, 13,14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
TW RB External Toothache
FR ET Internal *Mouth sore
20 Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia indica Lam. /AF-15 Dodhale/Dodhal H WP DE Internal Diarrhea, Dysentery 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
LX Internal Purgative
External Eye infection
PD External Oedema
Euphorbia prostrata Aiton. /AF- 49 Dodhal/Hazar Dani H WP DE Internal Dysentery, Diarrhea 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
AP IN Internal *Stomachache
LF PD External *Headache
Ricinus communis L./AF-57 Hernoli S RT EX External *Muscles weakness, *Gout disease 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13,14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
LF EX Internal *To remove poisonous from body
SD EX (oil) Internal *Scorpion bite
External *Eye Disease, Dandruff
21 Fabaceae Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile/AF-37 Kikar T ST Ash (PD) External *Eye Diseases 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
BA DE External Toothache
FL DE External *Earache
SD PD Internal *Kidney pain, Diabetes
External Toothpowder
Desmodium elegans DC./AF-31 Mangkit parang S WP Extract Internal *Diarrhea 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12,13, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
LE Extract External *Eye Infection
Internal *Cough, *Fever, *Vomiting
RT Powder External *Scorpion and Snake bites
Indigofera heterantha Wall.ex Brandis./AF-33 Jand S BR PD Internal Whooping cough 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8,9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
LF EX Internal Mouth infection
Lespedeza juncea (L. f.) Pers./AF-133 Silky bush-clover H SH DE Internal Dysentery, Diarrhea 1, 2, 3, 4,5, 6,7,8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14,15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
WP DE External *Skin ulcers, *Toothache
Medicago lupulina L./AF-132 Sirri H SD PD Internal Indigestion 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10, 11,12,13,14,15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
WP EX Internal Antibacterial
Trifolium pratense L./AF-42 Trapetra H FL and LF EX Internal Minimize menopause symptoms 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14,15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
WP PO External *Breast cancer
DE Internal *Cancer, *Whooping Cough, *Gout disease
22 Fagaceae Quercus incana W. Bartram./AF-32 Rein T SD PD Internal *Diuretic 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14, 15, 16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22
GL DE Internal Joint swelling, Dysentery
STb PD External *Skin ulcer
DE Internal Throat pain
23 Gentianaceae Gentianodes olivieri (Griseb.) Omer, Ali & Qaiser./AF-44 Neeli Booti H WP DE Internal Jaundice, Cough 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12,13, 14, 15,16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
PD Internal Throat problem
Swertia cordata (Wall. ex G. Don) C.B. Clarke./AF-26 Plamas H WP EX Internal Pneumonia fever, Throat problems, Malarial fever 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15, 16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22
IN Internal To kill intestinal worms
PD Internal Tonic
Swertia paniculata Wall./AF-50 Plamas/Jabba jarri H WP EX Internal *Malarial Fever, *Diarrhea 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15, 16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22
DE Internal *Tonic
24 Hypericaceae Hypericum perforatum L./AF-59 Sharan Gulab H SH DE Internal *Anxiety 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
WP EX Internal *Depression
External *Bruises, Wounds, *Intestinal problems
FL IN External Swelling, *Sunburns
25 Lamiaceae Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth./AF-20 Thandi Jarri/Ratti Booti H LE DE Internal Skin Infection, Stomach problem 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,21,22
WP EX Internal Jaundice, *Ulcer
Ajuga parviflora Benth./AF-21 Thandi Jarri H LE EX Internal Gastric problem 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
WP EX Internal Hypertension, Headache
Isodon rugosus (Wall. ex Benth.) Codd./AF-80 Chitta Manja S SD DE Internal Blood purifier 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,16,17,18, 19,20, 21, 22
SH EX Internal Abdominal pain
LF PD Internal *Digestive problem
PA External Blood clotting
Mentha arvensis L./AF-28 Podina H LF DE Internal Stomach acidity, Indigestion, Vomiting 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9,10, 11,12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
EX Internal Dysentery, Diarrhea
Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds./AF-29 Bareena H LF DE Internal Digestive disorders, Abdominal disorders 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9,10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
PD Internal Gastrointestinal problems
TE Internal *Headache
Micromeria biflora (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Benth. /AF-93 Chai booti H LF JU Internal Digestive disorders 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14,15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
RT PA External *Toothache
WP JU Internal *Sinus infection
Nepeta laevigata (D. Don) Hand.-Mazz. /AF-125 Jangli Bhaker H WP PD Internal *Fever, *Headache 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12,13,14, 15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
SD IN Internal *Dysentery
Origanum vulgare L./AF-62 Ban ajwain H WP JU Internal Stomachache 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14,15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
DE External Skin Infection
EX (oil) External *Pain reliever
SH CH External Toothache
Plectranthus rugosus Wall.ex Benth. /AF-34 Peemar S LF CH External *Toothache 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
RT DE Internal *Liver tonic
Prunella vulgaris L./AF-72 Kathri H LF DE Internal *Sore throat 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8, 9, 10, 11,12,13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
PA External Skin infection
WP PD External *Joint pains
DE Internal Heart disease
Salvia lanata Roxb./AF-126 Kathra H IN VG Internal *Cough 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9, 10, 11,12,13,14,15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
LF PO External Wounds, Itching
WP EX Internal *Abdominal worms, *Motion
26 Lauraceae Machilus odoratissimus Nees./AF-104 Chaan T AP EX Internal Diabetes, Epilepsy, Cardiovascular diseases 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
27 Lilliaceae Allium cepa L./AF-137 Piyaz H BL JU Internal *Diarrhea 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8,9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 7, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
DE External *Dandruff, *Hair fall
HR External *To remove water from wounds
Allium sativum L. /AF-134 Thoom H BL PA External *Hair growth 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,21,22
DE Internal *Common cold
CH External Hypertension
EX External *Joint pain
LE PD Internal *Stomach problems
28 Lythraceae Punica granatum L./AF-66 Darun/ Jangle annar S SD JU Internal *Diabetes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9,10, 11, 12,13, 14,15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
LF PA External Tooth pain
FR ET Internal Jaundice
BR DE Internal Antithelmintic
29 Malvaceae Malva parviflora L./AF-74 Sonchal H LF VG Internal Constipation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,1213,14, 15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
DE Internal Cough
WP PO External *To remove swelling
RT DE External *Dandruff
30 Meliaceae Melia azedarach L./AF-6 Daraik T FR EX Internal Diabetes, Blood purification 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12,13,14,15,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
LB EX Internal Blood purification
LF EX External *Tonic, Antiseptic, Hair Fall
31 Moraceae Ficus carica L./AF-25 Phagwara S FR EX Internal Mouth ulcers, Inflammation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12,13, 14, 15,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
LF LX External Insect bites, Warts
DE Internal Piles
FR ET Internal Constipation
Ficus palmata Forssk./AF-10 Phagwara/ Injeer Tree FR ET Internal *Stomach disorders, Constipation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14, 15,16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
LF LX External Skin infection, *Epilepsy
Morus alba L./AF-115 Shehoot T FR EX Internal *Sexual disorders 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15,16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
JU Internal *Body weakness, Chest Infection
32 Oleaceae Jasminum grandiflorum L. /AF-36 Jasmine/Chambeli S FL EX Internal Breast cancer 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10, 11,12,13, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22
JU External Eye disorders
IN Internal Fever
LF CH External Mouth ulcer, Dental pain
RT EX (oil) External Headache
PA External Scabies
Olea ferruginea Royle./AF-8 Kaow T LF CH External Mouth infection 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8, 9, 10, 11,1 2,13, 14,15,16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
TE Internal Digestive disorders, Diabetes
FR EX External *Hair growth
33 Onagraceae Oenothera rosea L’Hér.ex Aiton. /AF-58 Buti/ Seh Davi H LF IN Internal Kidney disorders 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9,10, 11, 1 2,13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
RT PD Internal *Body weakness
34 Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata L./AF-41 Khati Buti H WP ET Internal Jaundice 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8,9,10, 11,12,13, 14,15,16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
LF CH External Toothache
DE Internal Diarrhea
ET Internal Blood purification
35 Pinaceae Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D. Don) G. Don./AF- 61 Dayar T ST EX (oil) External Skin disorders (eczema), *Joint pain 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 ,16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
Internal *Digestive disorders
ND PA External *Swelling, *To clean wounds, Chest infection
Pinus roxburghii Sarg./AF-87 Chir T LF DE Internal *Flue 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
RS PO External Wound healing, *Cracked Heels
Internal *Joint diseases, Digestive disorders, *Scorpion Bite
WP Oil Internal *Nose bleeding, *Flue
Pinus wallichina A.B. Jacks./AF-16 Biyar T RS PO Internal *Cough 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15,16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
External Wound healing
IN Internal *Expulsion of worms
EX Internal *Diuretic, *Kidney problem
36 Plantaginaceae Plantago lanceolata L./AF-86 Chamchi ptra/ Ispagol H FL IN Internal Dysentery 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 6, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22
SD PD Internal Diarrhea
LF PA External Cuts, *Inflammation
37 Platanaceae Planatus orientalis L./AF-123 Chinar T BA JU Internal *Snake and *Scorpion bite 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20 21, 22
DE Internal *Dysentery
LF PA External *Wound healing
DE Internal *Dysentery
PD Internal *Teeth pain
38 Poaceae Arthraxon prionodes (Steud.) Dandy/AF-100 Kah H WP DE Internal Liver disease, Nervous system regulator 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
Aristida cyanantha Nees ex Steud./AF-122 Common Ghass H WP Ash (PD) External Burns, Skin infection 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
LE EX Internal Antithelmintic
Bromus catharticus Vahl./AF-68 Jarun ghass H RT EX Internal Purgative 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
WP EX External Skin disorders
Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin./AF-89 BunchGrass H LE DE Internal Fish Poisonings 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) Will. Watson./AF-140 Munyara Ghass H WP DE Internal Diarrhea, Intestinal worms 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
IN Internal Anorexia
LE PA External Skin diseases
ST PA External Scabies
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers./AF-18 Khabal H IN PA External *Skin infection 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22
WP JU Internal *Menstrual prolonged duration, Stomach acidity
External Eye Infection
PA External *Wounds healing
Dactylis glomerata L./AF-107 Billi Ghass H LE EX Internal Kidney problem, Bladder ailment 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
WP EX Internal Rickets
PL EX Internal Premenstrual syndrome
Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf./AF-118 Golgen beared Ghass H WP EX Internal *Dysentery, *Menorrhagia 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
RT EX Internal *Blood purification
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn./AF-131 Madhani ghass H WP PA External *Stop bleeding 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14,15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
LF JU Internal *Anthelmintic
RT DE Internal *Asthma
Oplismenus compositus (L.) P. Beauv./AF-130 Running mountaingrass H AP EX External Snake bite 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
Pennisetum orientale Rich. /AF-35 Siliak ghass/Haati Gaas H AP EX External *Snake bite 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
Saccharum spontaneum L. /AF-101 Kai H WP JU Internal *Cough, *Abdominal pain 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
RT EX Internal *Piles, *Sexual weakness, *Dyspepsia
DE Internal *Kidney stones
Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv./AF-113 Kera Ghass H SD PD Internal *To remove extra fats from body 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
DE Internal *Diuretic
WP IN External *Bruises
Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers./AF-102 Barun ghass H RT EX Internal Indigestion 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12,13, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22
SD PD Internal *Diuretic
LF PA External *Blood clotting, *Antiseptic
AP EX Internal *Abortion
39 Polygonaceae Persicaria capitata (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) H. Gross./AF-125 Pink bubble H AP DE Internal Fever, Diarrhea 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10, 11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
External *Eye diseases
WP EX Internal *Diuretic, *Hypothermia
RT EX Internal Urinary tract infection
Polygonum hydropiper L./AF-38 Knotweed/Marsh weed H WP DE Internal Menorrhagia 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13,14,15,16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
EX Internal Joints pain, Neurodegenerative disorders
LF JU Internal Liver pain
SD PD Internal Laxative
RT EX Internal Tonic
Rumex dentatus L. /AF-88 Hullah/ Jangli palak H LF PA External Antiseptic 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13,14,15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
PD External Wound Healing
RB External *Itching caused by Utrica dioica
Rumex hastatus D. Don./AF-63 Chukri/Harfali S AP RB External Scabies 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8,9,10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22
LF EX Internal *Jaundice
40 Primulaceae Androsace rotundifolia Hardw./AF-14 Thandi jari H LE EX Internal Stomach diseases, Menstrual problem 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20,21,22
RH EX External Eye disease
Myrsine africana L. /AF-22 Gogel S LF IN Internal *Stomachache 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12,13,14,15,16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
DE Internal Blood Purifier
FR ET Internal To remove intestinal Tapeworms, *Mouth Infection
PD Internal *Stomachache
41 Pteridaceae Adiantum caudatum L./AF-124 Maneria H FD EX External Wound healing, Skin diseases 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,20, 21,22
JU Internal Cough, Diabetes, Migraine
Adiantum tenerum Sw./AF-11 Hansraj H FD PO External Snake bite 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,20, 21,22
DE Internal Fever, To kill intestinal worms
WP EX Internal Cough, Fever, Pneumonia
Onychium japonicum (Thunb.) Kunze./AF-108 Carrot Fern H WP EX Internal Common cold, Dysentery, Jaundice 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,1 2,13, 14, 15,16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
LF JU External Hair fall
Pteris cretica L. /AF-60 Cretan brake H FD PA External Wound healing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9,10, 11, 12,13, 14,15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
WP DE Internal *Cough
Pteris vittata L./AF-45 Nanore H WP PA External *Bone Fracture 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7 , 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14,15,16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
EX Internal *Hypotonic
FD PA External *Antibacterial, *Antifungal
42 Ranunculaceae Clematis grata Wall./AF-78 Bailari C RT EX Internal *Bile disorders 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15, 16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
LE TE Internal *Scanty lacto genesis
Ranunculus arvensis L./AF-112 Jungli dhaniya H WP EX Internal Asthma, Arthritis, Hay fever 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,9, 10, 11,12,13,14, 15, 16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22
DE Internal To Kill Intestinal Worms
LF EX External
Ranunculus muricatus L./AF-120 Kor kandoli H AP CK Internal Asthma 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8,9, 10, 11, 12,13,14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22
WP EX Internal *Gout, Fever
43 Rosaceae Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Teschem./AF-39 Budimeva/ Surkh Akhra H FR ET Internal *Kidney stone 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12,13, 14,15,16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
LF DE Internal Sexual weakness, Mental disorders
Fragaria nubicola (Hook. f.) Lindl.ex Lacaita./AF-136 Budi meva H RT PD Internal Urinary disorder 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10, 11, 12, 13,14, 15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
FR JU Internal *Diabetes, *Sex Diseases
RB External Sunburn
Fragaria vesca L./AF-91 Budi meva H LF DE Internal *Mouth ulcer, *Gum inflammation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
FR JU Internal Anemia, Kidney diseases
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch./AF-75 Aru T LF JU Internal To kill intestinal worms, Whooping cough 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9,10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
PD External Wounds
BR CH External *Toothache
FL EX Internal Gastrointestinal problems
Pyrus malus L./AF-98 Saib T FR JU Internal Body weakness, Joint problems, *Heart disease Hypertension, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14,15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
PA External Face spots
FL TE Internal *Respiratory and *Nerves disorders
Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham.ex D. Don. /AF-85 Tangi T FR ET Internal Dark circles around eyes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
Rosa brunonii Lindl./AF-103 Jangli Gulab/Chal S BA IN Internal *Blood purification 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
FL DE Internal Constipation
PD External Skin infection
Rubus fruticosus L./AF-54 Kanachi S FR EX Internal *Tonic 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12,13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
ET Internal *Sore throat
LF IN Internal Diarrhea, *Bleeding
Rubus ellipticus Sm./AF-52 Akhrayar S FR JU Internal Fever, Cough, Sore throat 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9,10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15, 16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22
RT DE Internal Fever
LB JU Internal *Peptic ulcer
Rubus niveus Thunb./AF-67 Pahvonny S RT DE Internal Whooping cough, Dysentery 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9, 10, 11,12,13,14, 15,16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
EX External Wound healing, *Antitumor
LF IN Internal *Blood purifier
44 Rubiaceae Rubia cordifolia L./AF-71 Chero C LF PD Internal *Cough 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
External *Broken Bones
RT IN Internal *TB, *Lung Cancer, *Nervous disorders, *Gout
PA External Wounds
45 Rutaceae Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb./AF-12 Timbar S BA IN Internal Stomach disease, To kill intestine worms, Fever 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15,16,17,18, 19, 20,21,22
TW RB External Toothache
FR JU Internal Indigestion, Cholera
SD EX (Oil) External *Antiviral
PD External Toothache, Gum pain
46 Salicaceae Salix nigra Marshall./AF-96 Bees T BA PO External To remove swelling 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22
PD Internal Dysentery, Arthritis
LF DE Internal To reduce pain, Fever
47 Sapindaceae Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Cambess.) Hook./AF-5 Banakhori T BA IN Internal *Fever 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
SD Oil External *Gout disease
FR PD Internal *Indigestion
48 Simaroubaceae Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle/AF-1 Dravia T BA IN Internal Diarrhea, *Dysentery 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
EX Internal *Anemia
FR JU Internal *Dysentery, *Bloody stools
LE EX/PD Internal *To remove Tapeworms
49 Solanaceae Solanum nigrum L./AF-109 Kach Mach H FR ET Internal Mouth ulcer 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12,13,14, 15, 16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22
LF JU Internal *Gout, Stomach worm
PA External Skin disorders
CH External Mouth Ulcer
WP IN Internal Diuretic, Abdominal disorders
50 Thymelaeaceae Daphne papyracea Wall.ex G. Don. /AF-53 Lokat Patr S RT Extract Internal Intestinal complaints 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14,15,16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
LE Paste External Swelling, Tumor
ST Paste External Snake bite
Wikstroemia canescens Wall. ex Meisn./AF-117 Chianthi S AP DE Internal Abortifacient 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14,15,16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
51 Urticaceae Debregeasia salicifolia (D. Don) Rendle. /AF-99 Sindwari S LE Powder External Skin diseases 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14, 15, 16,18, 19, 20, 21,22
Infusion Internal *Jaundice
FR Juice Internal *Bloody diarrhea
52 Valerianacea Valerianella muricata (Steven ex Roem. & Schult.) W.H. Baxter./AF-47 Cornsalad H LF EX Internal Nerve complaints 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,16,17,18, 19, 20, 22
53 Verbenaceae Verbena officinalis L./AF-138 Neeli Booti H RT JU Internal *Stomachache, *Snake bite 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9,10, 11, 12, 13,14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20,21, 22
WP DE Internal *Dropsy
SH PA External *Swollen gums
54 Violaceae Viola canescens Wall. /AF-81 Banafsha H WP JU Internal Antipyretic, *High Blood pressure, Asthma, Cough, *Flue, *Eye diseases, Stomachache, Liver disease 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22
FL JU Internal Cough, Insomnia
LF JU Internal Jaundice, Cough
55 Vitaceae Vitis jacquemontii R. Parker./AF-24 Dakh/Dalore/Jungli Angoor C FR ET Internal Tonic, Constipation, Laxative 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10, 11,12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17,18, 19, 20, 21,22
ST JU Internal Internal fever
  1. Habit: H, herbs, S shrubs, T trees, C climber, E epiphyte; 2. Part(s) used: LE leaf, FR fruit, RT Root, ST stem, AP aerial Parts, ND needles, WP whole Plant, FD fronds, SD Seed, FL flower, BA bark, BL bulb, RH rhizome, IN inflorescence, PL pollen, TW twig, SH shoot, LX latex, LB leaf bud, GL galls, BR branches, FP floral parts, RS resin; 3. Method of preparation: PD powder, DE decoction, EX extract, PA paste, JU juice, PO poultice, IN infusion, HR hot rubbing, CH chewed, VG vegetable, TE tea, RB rubbing, ET eaten, CK cooked, HB hot beverage. () = plants with similar use(s); () = plants with dissimilar use (s); () = plants not reported in a previous study; Condition/ailment written in bold indicate the most preferred use for a given plant; *Plant uses, which are not reported in a previous study. 1: Ahmad et al. [20]; 2: Hussain et al. [60] 3: Shaheen et al. [61]; 4: Amjad et al. [59]; 5: Ajaib et al. [62]; 6: Safeer et al. [63]; 7: Shabir et al. [64]; 8: Ahmad and Habib, [65]; 9: Qaseem et al. [66]; 10: Khan et al. [67]; 11: Wali et al. [68]; 12: Ijaz et al. [69]; 13: Hussain et al. [70]; 14: Aziz et al. [71]; 15: Ahmad et al. [39]; 16: Aziz et al. [50]; 17: Gulzar et al. [45]; 18: Umair et al. [36]; 19: Zahoor et al. [72]; 20: Kayani et al. [38]; 21; Umair et al. [73]; 22: Fatima et al. [74]