Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine volume 6, Article number: 35 (2010)
Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings.
The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008.
The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings, common Ayurvedic and earlier uses.
Although traditional herbal medicine is only a primary means of health care in far-west Nepal, the medicine has been pursued indigenously with complementing pharmacology and the Ayurveda. Therefore, further pharmacological evaluation of traditional herbal medicine deserves more attention.
Current estimates suggest that, in many developing countries, about two thirds of the population relies heavily on traditional practitioners and medicinal plants to meet primary health care needs . Although modern medicine may be available in these countries, traditional herbal medicine is often been used for historical, cultural, and ecological reasons, in particular this is due to continued availability , better compatibility  and high acceptance . Traditional herbal medicine possesses greater significance in Nepal Himalaya hence interest in herbal medicine has gradually increased in recent years . As a result, the medicine all over the world is nowadays revalued by extensive researches on base materials plant species and their therapeutic principles, however to date only about five percent of the total plant species have been thoroughly investigated [6–8] to ascertain safety and efficacy of traditional medicines.
Plant species have long been the principal ingredients of traditional medicine  and their use dates back to the beginning of human civilization . Herbal medicine has clearly recognizable therapeutic effects  as well as some toxic side-effects . Thus, Nepalese medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal properties are being screened for their active pharmacological effects . The present study therefore evaluated the ethnomedicinal uses of the selected 48 second priority medicinal plants of Baitadi, Dadeldhura and Darchula districts of far-west Nepal and comparatively assessed their uses against earlier standard literature on medicinal plants of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda (an ancient traditional system of herbal medicine in the Himalaya) and the latest phytochemical findings.
Materials and methods
The field study for primary data collection was carried out in the Baitadi, Dadeldhura, and Darchula districts of far-west Nepal from 2006-2008. The districts stretch between 29°01' and 30°15'N latitude, 80°03' and 81°09'E longitude and 357 m - 7132 m altitude. The study sites were Anarkholi, Dasharathchand, Jhulaghat, Khodpe, Kulau, Pancheswor, Patan, Salena, and Sera (Baitadi); Brikham, Jakh, Jogbudha, Patram, and Rupal (Dadeldhura), and Dumling, Gokule, Joljibi, Khalanga, Khar (Figure 1), Lali, and Uku (Darchula). All three districts are situated along the western borders of the country and lie adjacent to India. Due to variations in altitude, topography, and bio-climate within the districts, the diversity of medicinal plants and knowledge of utilization are vast. The subsistence use is profound particularly for home herbal healing [5, 14]. There are a number of diverse ethnic groups in the area. The largest ethnic group is the Chhetri (more than 50%), followed by Brahmin (about 20%), Dalits (about 10%), Thakuri (7%), Magar (2 %), and a few other groups. The first two groups are considered privileged and the rest are considered ethnic (Janajati) and disadvantaged (Dalits). Ethnic and disadvantaged groups have easy access opportunities provided by the government.
Field surveys and data collection
Four field surveys were carried out during different seasons of the year (May, December 2006, February 2007, March-April 2008). Each survey lasted over 20 days in the field. Primary data collection, after establishing oral informed consent with the participating communities, consisted of group discussions, informal meetings, schedule surveys, key informant surveys, cross-checking, and field observations. In all surveys, four group discussions and six informal meetings were held; in total 172 individuals were consulted. Informal meetings were held in villages while staying with them. The traditional healers (Baidhyas) and women representing major ethnic groups, castes, and occupations were encouraged to participate. Baidhyas are traditional medicinal practitioners particularly of the western Nepal mid-hills  and adjoining areas of India . Women were active participants of the informal meetings. Among the respondents, 3% were traditional healers, 12% were ethnic groups, and 21% were women.
All plant species encountered during field observations were recorded. Medicinal plant species were collected during the day and displayed during evening meetings for discussion. Both the collections and surveys/discussions were facilitated by local assistants, and the information was sought about vernacular dialects, indigenous uses of the species and participants' priority on species. Ranking was followed to categorize the first, second and third priority medicinal plant species. The species enumerated in the present study were the second priority medicinal plants of the local communities with informant consensus factor less than 0.85. The first priority medicinal plants with quantitative ethnomedicine were already discussed [14, 17].
Matching information from at least three respondents (mentions) was counted as a common response for the analysis. The single most common folk use of each species was valued for further discussion. Common species and mono specific genera which were well known by their dialect names were used only for discussion and not managed as voucher specimen for further identification. Voucher specimens were collected, and vernacular names and folk uses were recorded for each specimen. Specimen collection was made following Cunningham , and plants were identified to species level. Most of the species were identified in the field using literature [19, 20]. The remaining unidentified species were identified and housed in Kathmandu at Tribhuvan University Central Herbarium (TUCH), Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University, Nepal.
The observations of the present survey were compared to earlier observations, latest common phytochemical findings and common uses of the Ayurveda. The common uses of the Ayurveda were taken from the following literature [21–27]. Literature [28–33] of Nepal were used as reference for earlier ethnomedicinal information of the same area. Pharmacological information was retrieved from internet sources (available till June, 2010) and relevant journals; most of them were accessed from USA. About 240 research papers and articles were reviewed for analysis.
Results and Discussion
Traditional herbal medicine
Traditional herbal medicine has been used since ancient time in many parts of the world where access to formal and modern healthcare is limited. Nepal is not exempt and in mid-hills, mountainous and rural areas of the country where access and services are limited, herbal medicine is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. It is estimated that approximately 90% of the Nepalese people reside in rural areas where access to government health care facilities is lacking . These people rely predominantly on traditional herbal medicine. Traditional medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi (traditional healing system of Tibet and mountain areas of Nepal) systems. The former one is innate to the tribal group (i.e. Raute in study area) . Home herbal remedy and the Baidhya system are indigenous to far-west Nepal [14, 15] and are partly influenced by the Ayurveda . Extant of home herbal remedy in far-west Nepal is also due to relatively homogenous resource users and less encroachment from immigrants. Home herbal remedy and Baidhya system, yet transformations of the Ayurveda, are well established and practiced in the study area. The Amchi system is widely accepted and practiced throughout high altitude areas of Nepal  and is important in Darchula district, albeit with some modifications .
As communicated by Kunwar et al. , the knowledge base for traditional herbal medicine stems from spirituality, customs, livelihood strategies and available nearby resources. Medicinal herbs are main ingredients of traditional herbal medicine, and the traditional herbal medicine is considered as the main lifeline , the first choice , fewer side-effects, better patience tolerance, relatively less expense, and cultural acceptance and long history of use, in comparison to western medicine. Thus, the traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. Most of the time, this knowledge is passed on orally and therefore is endangered. Particularly the Amchi knowledge is passed down through dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi . Although traditional herbal medicine is effective in treatment of various ailments with considering ritual and socio-cultural customs , very often the medicine is used indigenously with indifference to the scientific knowledge and their possible side effects were overlooked. The dearth of reports of adverse effects and interactions probably reflect a combination of under-reporting and the benign nature of most herbs used . Therefore, the traditional herbal medicine deserves a great scope of research in the light of modern science.
The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed as a result of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Moreover inadequate modern medical resources/facilities and government subsidies also made traditional herbal medicine pertinent in Nepal. It is estimated that there is one physician for every 20,000 people whereas there is more than one healer for every 100 people in Nepal [41, 42]. Herbal medicine prescribed by healers is either preparation based on single plant part or a combination of several plant parts. However, we dealt only the primary one for further discussion in the present study. Many of the plants most often used in study area to treat ailments are also commonly used all over Nepal. Particularly the ethnic groups and scheduled caste are the major stakeholders of the traditional herbal medicine , so, traditional medicine is still the mainstay of health care in the rural areas of Nepal where the majorities of the denizens are from ethnic groups and scheduled castes.
Medicinal plants and their uses
Of the 48 species from 46 genera and 40 families (Table 1) discussed in the present study, indigenous uses of about 70% species resembled to the earlier ethnomedicinal reports. The indigenous uses of about 50% species had affinity to the Ayurveda, and about 40% species were found to have efficacy in pharmacology. Fabaceae, Moraceae and Rosaceae were represented by the greatest number of species (3 each), followed by Euphorbiaceae and Lamiaceae (2 each) for herbal medicine in study area. A total of 30 ailments were reported in the present study, and among these inflammation, cuts & wounds, diarrhea & dysentery and fever were considered as common, and the maximum number of medicinal plant species were used against, six species to each category and four for the latter. Similar observation of maximum number of species used for fever and cuts & wounds was reported by Manandhar . The plant parts used for herbal remedies were bark, flower, fruit, leaf, milk/latex, root/rhizome, seed, shoot, wood, and the whole plant. Plant parts root/rhizome, leaf, and fruits, etc. were most frequently utilized.
The results obtained support prior observations, pharmacology and Ayurvedic uses concerning the following species: the crude extracts of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes. This probably explains the use of these plants by indigenous people against a number of infections as transcend from transcultural environment with following home herbal remedy, Ayurveda and Baidhya systems. It is known that the families Rutaceae and Meliaceae are among the richest and most diverse sources of secondary metabolites among the angiosperms , and the species of Meliaceae are known to have intense antimalarial characters due to highly oxygenated terpenoids . Use of leaves of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) as antipyretic is widely used in study area (Table 1) and throughout Nepal  was substantiated by the nimbidin flavonoids [47, 48]. Oleic acid and gedunin of A. indica are also reported to be an in vitro antimalarial [49–51]. Other species contributed as antipyretic in home herbal remedy in study area were Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae), Aconitum spicatum (Ranunculaceae) and Osmanthes fragrans (Oleaceae).
Andrographolide and neoandrographolide from Andrographis paniculata own anti-inflammatory activity [52, 53]. Its diterpene exhibits antioxidant and hepato-protective properties [54–57]. Immunostimulant , antibacterial , analgesic  and antiprotozoal  characteristics of A. paniculata extract have also been demonstrated. These values probably explain the use of A. paniculata by the indigenous people against a number of infections and fever. Crude root extract of Podophyllum hexandrum (Berberidaceae) was used as hepato-protective, despite the hepatotoxic character reported due to its lignans . Podophyllotoxin has manifested antimitotic activity and capability of inhibiting DNA, RNA and protein synthesis . There were seven species in study area exhibiting hepato-protective effects. Among them, six were pharmacology based and three were folkloric. Plant extracts of P. hexandrum and Andrographis paniculata showed hepato-protective characters consistent with the folk use and pharmacology.
Alkaloids are most common in flowering plants, especially in Fabaceae, Ranunculaceae and Solanaceae . Some alkaloids (aconitine, anisodamine, berberine, charantine, leurosine) show antidiabetic effects . Berberine of Tinospora sinensis (Menispermaceae) is antidiabetic [66–68], but higher doses may be antagonistic , which strongly support the folkloric use of the plant extract. According to Marles and Farnsworth , there are about 1,000 species of plants that can act as an antidiabetic and approximately 80% of these are used in folk herbal medicine. Antidiabetic reports of Azadirachta indica, Carum carvi, Tinospora sinensis and Vitex negundo stated in the present communication were pharmacologically rationale and that of A. indica and T. sinensis was folk-based.
Euphorbiaceae species are generally characterized by milky latex , and sticky saps are co-carcinogenic, and can cause severe skin irritation and are toxic to livestock and humans . They are rich in active compounds including terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolics and fatty acids, having ethnopharmaceutical uses . Sapium insigne (Euphorbiaceae) is skin irritant, and commonly used as fish poison in study area and throughout Nepal . Both the water and methanol extracts of Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae) are antibacterial [74, 75] and effective as expectorant [76, 77] and broncho-dilator , which is consistent with the folkloric use in treatment of respiratory complaints.
Pharmacologically, curcumin of Curcuma species (Zingiberaceae) acts as an anti-inflammatory [78–80], antibacterial , antiviral , antifungal , antitumor [84, 85], antispasmodic , and hepato-protective . The oxygen radical scavenging activity of curcumin has been implicated in its anti-inflammatory effects [88, 89] thus curcumin may prove useful as a drug for arthritis, cancer, HIV [90–92] and high blood pressure . Wide range of pharmacological reports including antibacterial and antiviral complements the folk use to treat paralysis. Rhizome extract of the plant was widely used for skin diseases (bruises, injuries, etc.) in west Nepal  and in the Ayurveda .
The folk use of Acacia catechu (Fabaceae) wood tea as an expectorant fairly corroborated the pharmacological properties because the tannin and cyanidanol [94, 95] of the plant impart astringent activity which helps to recuperate diarrhea. Tannins are also known as antimicrobial  and triterpenoids are beneficial for inflammation and cancer . The hepato-protective and hypoglycemic properties of A. catechu could be attributed to the quercetin  and epicatechin  respectively. Leaf extracts of Taxus wallichiana (Taxaceae) inhibit pregnancy in rats , vitiate blood disorders  and control tumor growth . In the study area, Taxus leaf juice is used for treatment of cancer and bronchitis.
Lectins of Cannabis sativa (Cannabaceae) possess haema-gluttinating properties  which corroborate the indigenous use of the leaf extract to control bleeding. Crude leaf extract of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae) is recommended as antitussive and anti-asthma , antibacterial , antifungal , hypoglycemic , anti-cancer , acne control , inhibitor of edema [108, 109] to tracheal contraction . However, it did not corroborate the folk use for stomachache but was partially complemented by earlier observations [30, 111]. The unlike uses of the species after thorough scrutiny, under different medical systems and comparisons pose more research scopes. Several instances are rational behind a certain function of a phytomolecule sometimes inconsistent to the pharmacology and ethnopharmacology. Moreover, while advocating herbal medicine as alternative therapy, toxicity of plants should be borne in mind.
Lichens and their metabolites have manifold biological activity: antiviral, antibiotic , antitumor, allergenic, plant growth inhibitory, antiherbivore, ecological roles and enzyme inhibitory [113, 114]. Usnic acid and vulpunic acid (produced by mycobiont) of lichens are mitotic regulators  and own antibiotic properties . Parmelia sulcata lichen manifests antibacterial and antifungal activities [117, 118]. Use of Parmelia species to treat warts  is analogous to its folk use. Folk use of wood tea of Quercus lanata (Fagaceae) as a laxative may verify the actions of tannin. Tannins reveal activities against central nervous system disorders  and inflammation [121, 122]. Further pharmacological evaluation of the extracts of those species which reveal weak pharmacological validities are needed before they can be used as therapeutic potentials.
The compounds which contribute to the antioxidative properties are polyphenols , vitamin C , β carotene , anthocyanins , and flavonoids . Ellagic acid of Fragaria nubicola (Rosaceae) is also responsible for antioxidant activity . Antioxidants are associated with reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases  and many other ailments . Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of Fragaria fruit extracts [101, 131] are consistent with the folkloric use as remedy for skin diseases and wounds. The usage of root powder of Potentilla fulgens (Rosaceae) as a dentifrice is common in the study area and throughout Nepal [132, 133] and it is in accord to the Ayurvedic uses. However, the usage is yet to be verified pharmacologically.
Wogonin of Scutellaria discolor (Lamiaceae) is considered as a most potent antiviral  and anxiolytic  compound. Plant root extract is also useful for rheumatism . Whole plant and leaf paste is useful for cuts & wounds, which probably rationalize the activities of wogonin. Linalool also possesses an anxiolytic effect , and this effect probably substantiates the folk uses of Skimmia anquetilia (Rutaceae) leaves as medicine for headache and freshness. Linalool is the main constituent of Skimmia root. The indigenous uses of six species Arisaema flavum, Ficus religiosa, Rhododendron campanulatum (Figure 2), Smilax aspera, Solena heterophylla and Sterculia villosa repudiated to any of the comparables, since these uses were additional to the Nepalese ethnomedicinal vault and these addition demands further research.
Aconitum spicatum (Ranunculaceae), taken alone is poisonous, so it is never used alone by the local communities. A paste made from its roots is applied as antipyretic and analgesic after mixing with Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae). Folk use of root extract of A. spicatum as an analgesic is consistent to the anti-inflammatory activity of caffeic acid found in the plant extract . About 80% of plant alkaloids possesses anti-inflammatory properties and among them isoquinoline (berbamine, berberine, cepharanthine and tetrandine) was the most active [139, 140]). Diterpenoid alkaloids, commonly isolated from the plants of Ranunculaceae family, are commonly found to have antimicrobial properties . Folk uses as antipyretic and analgesic of A. spicatum root extract are validated by the in vitro antimicrobial properties. In some cases, multi-component therapy has been practiced and considered as effective as Kareru et al.  observed in Kenya, but the present assessment considered only the primary one to discuss. We believe that the associate plants must also be considered as excellent candidates for future studies to determine the mechanisms of their activity, as well as for the isolation and identification of active constituents [143, 144]. Thus, traditional herbal medicine renders primary health care needs of two thirds of the rural population of the Nepalese, represents a largely unexplored source for potential development of new drugs [145, 146].
Validation of the ethnomedicinal uses of 48 Nepalese medicinal plants using comparative assessment with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings showed that the folk uses of only about 50%, 70% and 40% of plant species respectively exhibited affinity. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings, as well as common Ayurvedic and earlier uses. However, the frequent folk uses of Arisaema flavum, Ficus religiosa, Rhododendron campanulatum, Smilax aspera, Solena heterophylla and Sterculia villosa of study area repudiated at all. The preliminary results obtained from the present assessment indicate that further investigation of ethnopharmacology is worthwhile. The validity assessment from the present research provided the potential to identify, research, and use which plants and their ingredients are the most significant for treatment of particular diseases.
Farnsworth NR, Soejarto DD: Global importance of medicinal plants. The conservation of medicinal plants. Edited by: Akerelev O, Heywood V, Synge H. 1991, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 25-51. full_text.
Bhattarai NK: Traditional phytotherapy among the Sherpa of Helambu, Central Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1989, 27 (1/2): 45-54. 10.1016/0378-8741(89)90076-7.
Kamboj VP: Herbal medicine. Current Science. 2000, 78 (1): 35-39.
Ghimire SK, McKey D, Aumeeruddy-Thomas Y: Conservation of Himalayan medicinal plants: harvesting patterns and ecology of two threatened species Nardostachys grandiflora and Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora. Biological Conservation. 2005, 124: 463-475. 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.02.005.
Burlakoti C, Kunwar RM: Folk herbal medicines of Mahakali watershed Area, Nepal. Medicinal Plants in Nepal: An Anthology of Contemporary Research. Edited by: Jha PK, Karmacharya SB, Chettri MK, Thapa CB, Shrestha BB. 2008, Ecological Society, Kathmandu, Nepal, 187-193.
Bussmann RW: Ethnobotany and biodiversity conservation. Modern Trends in Applied Terrestrial Ecology. Edited by: Ambasht RS, Ambasht NK. 2002, Kluwer publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 345-362.
Patwardhan B, Warude D, Pushpangadan P, Bhatt N: Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A comparative overview. eCAM. 2005, 2 (4): 465-473.
Goswami S, Annalakshmi C, Panda N, Banerjee S, Sahu NP, Achari B, Das PK: Preclinical experimental evidence for anti gastric ulcer activity in an Indian medicinal plant. Abstract presented in the 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Biomedical and Therapeutic Sciences. 2005, Bundelkhand University, India
Khan S, Balick MJ: Therapeutic plants of the Ayurveda: a review of selected clinical and other studies for 166 species. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2001, 7 (5): 405-515. 10.1089/10755530152639729.
Kunwar RM, Nepal BK, Kshetri HB, Rai SK, Bussmann RW: Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2006, 2: 27. 10.1186/1746-4269-2-27. [http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/2/1/27]
Bailey CJ, Day C: Traditional plant medicines as treatment for diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1989, 12: 553-564. 10.2337/diacare.12.8.553.
Keen RW, Deacon AC, Delves HT, Moreton JA, Frost PG: Indian herbal remedies for diabetes as a cause of lead poisoning. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 1994, 70: 113-114. 10.1136/pgmj.70.820.113.
Taylor RSL, Edel F, Manandhar NP, Towers GHN: Antimicrobial activities of southern Nepalese medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1996, 50: 97-102. 10.1016/0378-8741(95)01335-0.
Kunwar RM, Uprety Y, Burlakoti C, Chowdhary CL, Bussmann RW: Indigenous use and ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants in Far-west Nepal. Journal of Ethnobotany Research & Applications. 2009, 7: 5-28.
Bhattarai NK: Medical ethnobotany in Karnali zone, Nepal. Economic Botany. 1992, 46 (3): 257-261. 10.1007/BF02866624.
Kala CP: Current status of medicinal plants used by traditional Baidhyas in Uttaranchal, India. Journal of Ethnobotany Research & Applications. 2005, 3: 267-278.
Kunwar RM, Bussmann RW: Medicinal, aromatic and dye plants of Baitadi and Darchula districts, Nepal Himalaya: status, uses and management. Biodiversitat und Naturausstattung im Himalaya III. Edited by: Hartmann M, Weipert J. 2009, Naturekunde Museum, Erfurt, Germany, 43-49.
Cunningham AB: Applied ethnobotany, people, wild plant use and conservation. 2001, Earthscan publishing limited. London and Sterling VA, 300-
Stainton A, Polunin O: Flowers of the Himalaya. 1984, Oxford University Press, New Delhi-India, 580-
Stainton A: Flowers of the Himalaya, a supplement. 1988, Oxford University Press, New Delhi-India, 86-
Bajracharya MB: Ayurvedic medicinal plants and general treatment. 1979, Piyusavarsi Ausadhalaya Mahaboudha, Kathmandu, Nepal, 230-
Dash B, Gupta K: Materia medica of Ayurveda based on Mandanapala's Nighantu. 1994, B Jain Publishers, New Delhi, India, 780-
Warrier PK, Nambiar VPK, Ramankutty C, (eds): Indian medicinal plants: A compendium of 500 species. 1994, Orient Longman Publishers, Kottakkal, India, 1-5.
Dey AC: Indian medicinal plants used in Ayurvedic preparation. 1998, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India
Rajbhandari TK, Joshi NR, Shrestha T, Joshi SKG, Acharya B: Medicinal plants of Nepal for Ayurvedic Drugs. 1995, Government of Nepal, Department of Plant Resources, Thapathali, Kathmandu, 387-
Sapkota CR, Adhikari SM: Ayurvedic pharmacology (Bheshaja Guna-Vijnana). 2001, Singhadurbar Vaidyakhana Vikas Samiti. Anamnagar, Kathmandu, Nepal
Joshi SG: Medicinal plants. 2006, Oxford & IBH Publishing. New Delhi, India, 491-
Rajbhandari KR: Ethnobotany of Nepal. 2001, Ethnobotanical Society of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal, 189-
Lama YC, Ghimire SK, Thomas YA: Medicinal plants of Dolpo: Amchis' knowledge and conservation. 2001, People and Plants program and WWF Nepal, Kathmandu, 150-
Manandhar NP: Plants and People of Nepal. 2002, Timber Press, Portland, Oregon USA, 599-
IUCN Nepal: National Register of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Revised & updated). 2004, The World Conservation Union, Nepal, 202-
Watanabe T, Rajbhandari KR, Malla KJ, Yahara S: A handbook of medicinal plants of Nepal. 2005, Ayur Seed Life Environmental Institute, Japan, 262-
Baral SR, Kurmi PP: A compendium of medicinal plants in Nepal. 2006, Mrs Rachana Publishers, Kathmandu, Nepal, 534-
Manandhar NP: Native phytotherapy among the Raute tribe of Dadeldhura district, Far-west Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1998, 60: 199-206. 10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00150-5.
Kunwar RM, Bussmann RW: Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2008, 4: 24-10.1186/1746-4269-4-24. [http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/4/1/24]
Dhar U, Manjkhola S, Joshi M, Bhatta A, Bisht AK, Joshi M: Current status and future strategy for development of medicinal plant sector in Uttranchal, India. Current Science. 2002, 83 (8): 956-964.
Bhattarai NK: Folk medicinal uses of indigenous aromatic plants of Nepal. Supplement to cultivation and utilization of aromatic plants. Edited by: Handa SS, Kaul MK. 1997, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India, 469-483.
Bhattarai S, Chaudhary RP, Quave CL, Taylor RSL: The use of medicinal plants in the Trans-Himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2010, 6: 14-10.1186/1746-4269-6-14.
Kunwar RM, Acharya RP, Bussmann RW: Medicinal plants in Nepal Western Himalaya: status, trade, use and community management. Journal of Ethnobotany Research & Applications. 2010, 9, ,
Shirwaikar A, Verma R, Lobo R, Shirwaikar A: Phytotherapy - safety aspects. Natural Product Radiance. 2009, 8: 55-63.
Gillam S: The traditional healer as village health worker. Journal of Institute of Medicine. 1989, 11: 67-76.
WRI: World Resources - 2005. The wealth of the poor: managing ecosystems to fight poverty. World Resource Institute, USA. 2005, [http://www.wri.org/publication/world-resources-2005-wealth-poor-managing-ecosystems-fight-poverty]
Joshi KR: Ethnomedicinal uses of plants: a case study from Sharmoli VDC, Darchula district, Nepal. Medicinal Plants in Nepal: An Anthology of Contemporary Research. Edited by: Jha PK, Karmacharya SB, Chettri MK, Thapa CB, Shrestha BB. 2008, Ecological Society, Kathmandu, Nepal, 178-187.
Farnsworth NR, Morris RW: Higher plants - the sleeping giant of drug development. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 1976, 148: 46-52.
Connolly DL: Chemistry of limonoids of the Meliaceae and Cneoraceae. Chemistry and chemical taxonomy of the Rutales. Edited by: Waterman PG, Grundon MF. 1983, Academic Press, London
Bhattarai S, Chaudhary RP, Taylor RSL: Ethnomedicinal plants used by the people of Nawalparasi district, Central Nepal. Our Nature. 2009, 7: 82-89.
Farnsworth NR: Biological and phytochemical screening of plants. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 1966, 55: 225-10.1002/jps.2600550302.
Wall ME: Antimutagenic agents from natural products. Journal of Natural Products. 1992, 55: 1561-1568. 10.1021/np50089a002.
Khalid SA, Farouk A, Geary TG, Jensen JB: Potential antimalarial candidates from African plants: an in vitro approach using Plasmodium falciparum. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1986, 15: 201-209. 10.1016/0378-8741(86)90156-X.
Phillipson JD, Wright CW: Can ethnopharmacology contribute to the development of antimalarial agents?. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1991, 32: 155-165. 10.1016/0378-8741(91)90113-R.
Krugliak M, Deharo E, Shalmiev G, Sauvain M, Moretti C: Antimalarial effects of c18 fatty acids on plasmodium. Experimental Parasitology. 1995, 81: 97-105. 10.1006/expr.1995.1097.
Madhav S, Tandan SK, Lal J: Anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide. Fitoterapia. 1996, 67: 452-458.
Batkhuu J, Hattori K, Takano F, Fushiya S, Oshiman K, Fujimiya Y: Suppression of NO production in activated macrophages in vitro and ex vivo by Neoandrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2002, 25 (9): 1169-1174. 10.1248/bpb.25.1169.
Hikino H, Kiso Y: Natural products for liver diseases. Economic and medicinal plant research. 1988, Academic Press, London, 2: 39-72.
Koul IB, Kapil A: Effect of diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata on antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 1994, 26: 296-300.
Sharma M, Tripathi P, Singh VP, Tripathi YS: Hepato-protective and toxicological evaluation of Hepatomed, an Ayurvedic drug. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1995, 33: 34-37.
Evans WC: An overview of drugs having antihepatotoxic and oral hypoglycaemic activities. Trease and Evans' Phamacognosy. 1996, UK, WD Sanders Company Ltd, 14
Puri A, Saxena R, Saxena RP, Saxena KC: Immuno-stimulant agent from Andrographis paniculata. Journal of Natural Products. 1993, 56: 995-10.1021/np50097a002.
Verma N, Vinayak M: Antioxidant action of Andrographis paniculata on lymphoma. Molecular and Biological Reproduction. 2008, 35: 535-540. 10.1007/s11033-007-9119-x.
Chiou WF, Chen CF, Lin JJ: Mechanism of suppression of indictable nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 cells by andrographolide. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2000, 129: 1553-1560. 10.1038/sj.bjp.0703191.
Gozalbes R, Gálvez J, García-Domenech R, Derouin F: Molecular search of new active drugs against Toxoplasma gondii. SAR QSAR Environmental Research. 1999, 10: 47-60. 10.1080/10629369908039165.
Anderson LA, Phillipson JD: Mistletoe, the magic herb. Pharmacy Journal. 1982, 229: 437-439.
Singh J, Shah NC: Podophyllum: A Review. Current Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 1994, 16: 53-83.
Filho JMB, Piuvexam MR, Moural MD, Silval MO, Batista KV, Cunhal EVL, FEchine IM, Takemura OS: Anti-inflammatory activity of alkaloids: a twenty century review. Rev Bras Farmacogn. 2006, 16 (1): Jan./Mar
Li WL, Zheng HC, Bukura J, Kimpe ND: Natural medicines used in traditional Chinese medicines for diabetes mellitus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004, 92: 1-21. 10.1016/j.jep.2003.12.031.
Zhao T, Wang X, Rimando AM, Che C: Folkloric Medicinal Plants: Tinospora sagittata var. cravaniana and Mahonia bealei. Planta Medica. 1991, 57: 505-506. 10.1055/s-2006-960188.
Kar A, Choudhary BK, Bandyopadhyay NG: Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003, 84: 105-108. 10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00144-7.
Jagetia GC, Rao SK: Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in Ehrlich Ascites carcinoma bearing mice. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2006, 29: 460-466. 10.1248/bpb.29.460.
Prince PSM, Menon PV, Gunasekharan G: Hypolipidaemic action of Tinospora cordifolia root in alloxane diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999, 64: 53-57. 10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00106-8.
Marles RJ, Farnsworth NR: Anti-diabetic plants and their active constituents. Phytomedicine. 1995, 2: 137-189.
Mitich LW: Intriguing world of weeds. Tansy Weed Technology. 1992, 6: 242-244.
Berry MI: Feverfew faces the future. Pharmacy Journal. 1984, 232: 611-
Rizk AFM: The chemical constituents and economic plants of the Euphorbiaceae. Euphorbiales: Chemistry, Taxonomy and Economic Botany. Edited by: Jury SL, Reynolds T, Cutler TDF, Evans FJ. 1987, Academic Press Inc. London, 293-326.
Abubakar El-Mahmood M: Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of Euphorbia hirta against some bacteria associated with enteric infections. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 2009, 3 (7): 498-505.
Vijaya K, Ananthan S, Nalini R: Antibacterial effect of theaflavin, polyphenon 60 (Camellia sinensis) and Euphorbia hirta on Shigella spp. - a cell culture study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995, 49: 115-118. 10.1016/0378-8741(95)90039-X.
Adedapo AA, Shabi OO, Adedokun OA: Antihelminthic efficacy of the aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta (Linn.) in Nigerian dogs. Vet Arch. 2005, 75 (1): 39-47.
Falodun A, Okunrobe LO, Uzoamaka N: Phytochemical screening and anti-inflammatory evaluation of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006, 5 (6): 529-531.
Arora R, Basu N, Kapoor V: Anti-inflammatory studies on Curcuma longa (turmeric). Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1971, 59: 1289-1295.
Chandra D, Gupta S: Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of volatile oil of Curcuma longa (Haldi). Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1972, 60: 138-142.
Kohli K, Ali J, Ansari MJ, Raheman Z: Curcumin: a natural anti-inflammatory agent. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2005, 37: 141-147. 10.4103/0253-7613.16209.
Negi PS, Jayaprakasha GK, Jagan Mohan Rao L, Sakariah KK: Antibacterial activity of turmeric oil: a byproduct from curcumin manufacture. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 1999, 47: 4297-4300. 10.1021/jf990308d.
Bourne KZ, Bourne N, Reising SF, Stanberry LR: Plant products as topical microbicide candidates: assessment of in vitro and in vivo activity against herpes simplex virus 2. Antiviral Research. 1999, 42 (3): 219-226. 10.1016/S0166-3542(99)00020-0.
Apisariyakul A, Vanittanakom N, Buddhasukh D: Antifungal activity of turmeric oil extracted from Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995, 49: 163-169. 10.1016/0378-8741(95)01320-2.
Kuttan R, Sudheeran PC, Joseph CD: Turmeric and curcumin as topical agents in cancer therapy. Tumori. 1987, 73: 29-31.
Kawamori T, Lubet R, Steele VE: Chemopreventative effect of curcumin, a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent, during the promotion/progression stages of colon cancer. Cancer Research. 1999, 59: 597-601.
Itthipanichpong C, Ruangrungsi N, Kemsri W, Sawasdipanich A: Antispasmodic effects of curcuminoids on isolated guinea-pig ileum and rat uterus. Journal of Medical Association of Thailand. 2003, 86: 299-309.
Park EJ, Jeon CH, Ko G: Protective effect of curcumin in rat liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2000, 52: 437-440. 10.1211/0022357001774048.
Selvam R, Subramanian L: The anti-oxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995, 47: 59-67. 10.1016/0378-8741(95)01250-H.
Kunchandy E, Rao MNA: Oxygen radical scavenging activity of curcumin. International Journal of Pharmacy. 1990, 58: 237-240. 10.1016/0378-5173(90)90201-E.
Sui Z, Salto R, Li J, Craik C, Ortiz de Montellano PR: Inhibition of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases by curcumin and curcumin boron complexes. Bioorganic Medical Chemistry. 1993, 1: 415-422. 10.1016/S0968-0896(00)82152-5.
Mazumder A, Wang S, Neamati N, Nicklaus M, Sunder S, Chen J: Antiretroviral agents as inhibitors of both human immunodeficiency virus type 1integrase and protease. Journal of Medical Chemistry. 1996, 39: 2472-2481. 10.1021/jm960074e.
Kuttan R, Bhanumathy P, Nirmala K, George MC: Potential anti-cancer activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Cancer Letters. 1985, 29: 97-202. 10.1016/0304-3835(85)90159-4.
Dikshit M, Rastogi L, Shukla R, Srimal RC: Prevention of ischaemia-induced biochemical changes by curcumin and quinidine in cat heart. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1995, 101: 31-35.
Usher G: Acacia catechu Willd (Catechu, Dark catechu). A dictionary of plants. 1984, Delhi: CBS publishers and distributors, India, 1
Rage N, Dahanukar S, Karandikar SM: Hepato-protective effect of cyanidanol against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage. Indian Drugs. 1984, 22: 556-560.
Cowan MM: Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 1999, 12: 564-582. [http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/content/full/12/4/564]
Cipak L, Grausova L, Miadokova E, Novotny L, Rauko P: Dual activity of triterpenoids. Archieves of Toxicology. 2006, 80: 429-435. 10.1007/s00204-006-0072-6.
Rajnarayana K, Reddy MS, Chaluvadi MR, Krishna DR: Bi-flavonoids classification, pharmacological, biochemical effects and therapeutic potential. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2001, 33: 2-16.
Geetha BS, Mathew BC, Augusti KT: Hypoglycemic effects of Leucodelphinidin derivative isolated from Ficus bengalensis (Linn.). Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 1994, 38: 220-222.
Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN: A compendium of medicinal plants. 1979, Central Drugs Research Institute, Lucknow and Publication and Information Directorate, New Delhi, 2: 833-
van Wyk BE, Wink M: Medicinal plants of the World. 2004, Briza Publications, South Africa, 480-
Cortes-Maramba NP, Dayrit FM, de Castro NF, Estrada HR, Lim-Sylianco CY, Lingao AL, Quijano RF, Quintana EG: Selection and scientific validation of medicinal plants for primary health care. 1991, Philippine Council for Health Research and Development, 42-43. Technical Report Series No. 12
Samy RP, Ignacimuthu S, Sen A: Screening of 34 Indian medicinal plants for antibacterial properties. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1998, 62: 173-182. 10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00057-9.
Kumar VP, Chauhan NS, Padh H, Rajani M: Search for antibacterial and antifungal agents from selected Indian medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006, 107: 182-188. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.013.
Villasenor IM, Lamadrid MRA: Comparative anti-hyperglycemic potentials of medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006, 104: 129-131. 10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.067.
Masilungan VA, Vadlamudi S, Goldin A: Screening of Philippine medicinal plants for anticancer agents using CCNSC protocols. Cancer Chemotherapy Reports. 1971, 2: 135-140.
Amann W: Acne vulgaris and Agnus castus. Z Allgemeinmed. 1975, 51 (35): 1645-1648. (Published in German)
Telang RS, Chaterjee S, Varshneya C: Study on anagelsic and anti-inflammatory activities of Vitex negundo. Genetic Pharmacology. 1999, 31 (5): 363-366.
Singh AM, Malhotra S, Subban R: Anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents from Indian medicinal plants. International Journal of Integrative Biology. 2008, 3 (1): 57-72.
Nair AM, Saraf MN: Inhibition of antigen and compound 48/80 induced contractions of guinea pig trachea by the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Vitex negundo Linn. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 1995, 27: 230-233.
Bhattarai NK: Folk herbal medicines of Makwanpur District, Nepal. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1991, 29 (4): 284-295. 10.3109/13880209109082899.
Page D, Baniya CB, Taylor RSL: Isolation of biologically active compounds from ethnobotanically important Nepalese lichens. Ecoprint. 2003, 10 (1): 1-6.
Huneck S: The significance of lichens and their metabolites. Naturwissenschaften. 1999, 86: 559-576. 10.1007/s001140050676.
Aslan A, Güllüce M, Atalan E: A study of antimicrobial activity of some lichens. Bulletin of Pure and Applied Science. 2001, 20: 23-26.
Karagoz A, Dougroz N, Zeybck Z, Aslan A: Antibacterial activity of some lichen extract. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2009, 3 (12): 1034-1039.
Cocchietto M, Skert N, Nimis PL: A review on usnic acid, an interesting natural compound. Naturwissenschaften. 2002, 89: 137-146. 10.1007/s00114-002-0305-3.
Rankovic B, Misic M, Sukdolak S: Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the lichens Lasallia pustulata, Parmelia sulcata, Umbilicaria crustulosa and Umbilicaria cylindrica. Mikrobiologya. 2007, 76 (6): 817-821.
Momoh MA, Adikwu MU: Evaluation of the effect of colloidal silver on the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the lichen Parmelia perlata. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2008, 2 (6): 106-109.
Malhotra S, Subban R, Singh A: Lichens-role in traditional medicine and drug discovery. The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2008, 5 (2):
Takahash RN, de Lima TC, Murato GS: Pharmacological actions of tannic acid; II. Evaluation of CNS activity in animals. Planta Medica. 1986, 4: 272-275. 10.1055/s-2007-969150.
Mammela P, Savolainen H, Lindroos L, Kangas J, Vartiainen T: Analysis of oak tannins by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A. 2000, 89: 75-83. 10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00624-5.
Erdelyi K, Kiss A, Bakondi E, Bai P, Szabo C, Gergely P, Erdodi F, Virag L: Gallotannin inhibits the expression of chemokines and inflammatory cytokines in A549 cells. Molecular Pharmacology. 2005, 68: 895-904.
Marinova D, Ribarova F, Atanassova M: Total phenolics and total flavonoids in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. Journal of University Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy. 2005, 40 (3): 255-260.
Chanwitheesuk A, Teerawutgulrag A, Rakariyatham N: Screening of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds of some edible plants of Thailand. Food Chemistry. 2005, 92: 491-497. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.07.035.
Lisiewska Z, Kmiecik W, Korus A: Content of vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls and polyphenols in green parts of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) depending on plant height. Journal of Food Composition Annals. 2006, 19 (2-3): 134-140. 10.1016/j.jfca.2005.04.009.
Longo L, Vasapollo G: Extraction and identification of anthocyanins from Smilax aspera. Food Chemistry. 2006, 94: 226-231.
Harborne JB, Williams CA: Advances in flavonoids research since 1992. Phytochemistry. 2000, 55: 481-504. 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00235-1.
Caragay AB: Cancer-preventative foods and ingredients. Food Technology. 1992, 46: 65-68.
Willcox JK, Ash SL, Catignani GL: Antioxidants and prevention of chronic disease. Critical Review of Food Science and Nutrition. 2004, 44: 275-295. 10.1080/10408690490468489.
Kumpulainen JT, Salonen JT: Natural Antioxidants and Anticarcinogens in Nutrition, Health and Disease. 1999, The Royal Society of Chemistry, UK, 178-187.
van Wyk BE: Food plants of the World: identification, culinary uses and nutritional values. 2005, Briza Publication, South Africa
Joshi AR, Joshi K: Indigenous knowledge and uses of medicinal plants by local communities of the Kali Gandaki watershed area, Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2000, 73: 175-183. 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00301-9.
Kunwar RM, Duwadee NPS: Ethnobotanical notes on flora of Khaptad National Park, far-west Nepal. Himalayan Journal of Sciences. 2003, 1: 25-30.
Ma SC, Du J, But PP, Deng XL, Zhang YW, Ooi VE, Xu HX, Lee SH, Lee SF: Antiviral Chinese medicinal herbs against respiratory synctial virus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002, 79: 205-211. 10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00389-0.
Hui KM, Huen MS, Wang HY, Zheng H, Sigel E, Baur R, Ren H, Li ZW, Wong ZT, Xue H: Anxiolytic effect of Wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2002, 464: 1-8.
CSIR: The Wealth of India: Raw Materials. 1998, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, India, 1-10:
Lopez R, Pina MB, Estrada RR, Heinze G, Martinez VM: Anxiolytic effect of hexane extract of the leaves of Annona cherimolia in two anxiety paradigms: possible involvement of the GABA/Benzodiazepine receptor complex. Life Science. 2006, 78: 730-737. 10.1016/j.lfs.2005.05.078.
Park KH, Park M, Choi SE, Jeong MS, Kwon JH, Oh MH, Choi HK, Seo SJ, Lee MW: The antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Caffeoyl derivatives from the roots of Aconitum koreanum. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2009, 32 (12): 2029-2033. 10.1248/bpb.32.2029.
Wong CW, Seow WK, Ocallaghan JW, Thong YH: Comparative effects of tetrandrine and berbamine on subcutaneous air pouch inflammation induced by interleukin 1, tumour necrosis factor and platelet-activating factor. Agents Actions. 1992, 36: 112-118. 10.1007/BF01991238.
Ono M: Inflammation Inhibitors Containing Cepharanoline or Berbamine. 1994, Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-06 211, 661-
Omulokoli E, Khan B, Chhabra SC: Antiplasmodial activity of four Kenyan medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1997, 56: 133-137. 10.1016/S0378-8741(97)01521-3.
Kareru PG, Kenji GM, Gachanja AN, Keriko JM, Mungai G: Traditional medicines among the Embu and Mbeere peoples of Kenya. African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2007, 4: 75-86.
Kunwar RM, Burlakoti CM, Chowdhary CL, Bussmann RW: Medicinal plants in far-west Nepal: Indigenous uses and pharmacological validity. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Technology 4 (Special issue 1). 2010, Global Science Books, UK,
Rokaya MB, Munzbergova Z, Timsina B: Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants from the Humla district of western Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010, 130: 485-504. 10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.036.
Kunwar RM, Bussmann RW: Medicinal plants and quantitative ethnomedicine: a case study from Baitadi and Darchula districts, far-west Nepal. Journal of Natural History Museum. 2009, 24: 73-82.
Uprety Y, Asselin H, Boon EK, Yadav S, Shrestha KK: Indigenous use and bioefficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa district, Central Nepal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2010, 6: 3-10.1186/1746-4269-6-3. [http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/6/1/3]
Ambasta SP, Ramchandran K, Kashyapa K, Chand R: The useful plants of India. 1992, Council of Science and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi
Terada T, Fujimoto K, Nomura M, Yamashita J, Kobunai T, Takeda S, Wierzba K, Yamada Y, Yamaguchi H: Antitumor agents. I. DNA topoisomerase II inhibitory activity and the structural relationship of podophyllotoxin derivatives as antitumor agents. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 1992, 40: 2720-2727.
Goel HC, Prasad J, Sharma A, Singh B: Antitumour and radio-protective action of Podophyllum hexandrum. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1998, 36: 583-587.
Nazir T, Uniyal AK, Todaria NP: Allelopathic behavior of three medicinal plant species on traditional agriculture crops of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Agroforestry System. 2006, 69 (3): 183-187. 10.1007/s10457-006-9023-8.
Kirtikar KR, Basu BD: Indian medicinal plants. 1981, International Book Distributors, India, II: 838-
Kirtikar KP, Basu BD: Indian medicinal plants. 1935, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India, 1:
Bhattacharjee SK: Handbook of medicinal plants. 2008, Pointer publishers, Jaipur, India, 494-5
Aitzetmüller K: Antioxidative effects of Carum seeds. JAOCS. 1997, 74 (2): 185-
Iacobellis NS, Lo CP, Capasso F, Senatore F: Antibacterial activity of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. essential oils. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 2005, 53: 57-61. 10.1021/jf0487351.
Muthaiyan K, Kumaraswami D, Murugan S, Namasivayam N: Effect of dietary caraway (Carum carvi L.) on aberrant crypt foci development, fecal steroids, and intestinal alkaline phosphatase activities in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2006, 214: 290-296. 10.1016/j.taap.2006.01.001.
Koelz WN: Notes on ethnobotany of Lahul, Punjab. Quarterly Journal of Crude Drug Research. 1979, 17 (1): 1-56.
Eddouks M, Lemhadri A, Michel JB: Caraway and caper: potential anti-hyperglycemic plants in diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004, 94: 143-148. 10.1016/j.jep.2004.05.006.
Mc Laughlin JL, Miller RW, Powell RG, Smith CR: Hydroxy baccatin, deacetylcephalomannine and deacetyltaxol: new antitumor taxanes from Taxus wallichiana. Journal of Natural Products. 1981, 44 (3): 312-318. 10.1021/np50015a013.
Deshpande VH, Patil AD: Flavonoids of Acacia catechu heartwood. Indian Journal of Chemistry. 1981, 20: 628-
Singh KN, Mittal RK, Barthwal KC: Hypoglycemic activity of Acacia catechu, Acacia suma, Albizzia odoratissima seed diets in normal albino rats. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1976, 64: 754-757.
Ray DK, Thokchom IS: Antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, hypoglycaemic and hepato-protective activities of ethyl acetate extract of Acacia catechu in albino rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2006, 38: 408-413. 10.4103/0253-7613.28207.
Jayasekhar P, Mohanan PV, Rathinam K: Hepato-protective activity of ethyl acetate extract of Acacia catechu. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 1997, 29: 426-428.
Wang YH, Wang WY, Chang CC, Liou KT, Sung YJ, Liao JF, Chen CF, Chang S, Hou YC, Chou YC, Shen YC: Taxifolin ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats through its anti-oxidative effect and modulation of NF-kappa B activation. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2006, 13 (1): 127-141. 10.1007/s11373-005-9031-0.
Wallis TE: Cutch: text book of pharmacognosy. 1967, London: J & A Churchill Ltd, 5
Chapagain DJ, Joshi SD, Jnawali SR: Indigenous use of medicinal plants by the Tharu community in the southern buffer zone of Bardia National Park, Nepal. Proceeding of IV National Conference on Science and Technology. 2004, 738-751.
Lin WY, Peng CF, Tsai IL, Chen JJ, Cheng MJ, Chen IS: Antitubercular constituents from the roots of Engelhardtia roxburghiana. Planta Medica. 2005, 71 (2): 171-175. 10.1055/s-2005-837786.
Arif M, Zaman K, Fareed S, Hussain MS: Antibactetial, antidiarrhoeal and ulcer protective activity of methanolic extract of Spondias mangifera bark. International Journal of Health Research. 2008, 1 (4): 172-182.
Tannert U: Shellac, a natural polymer for hair care products. Cosmetics Conference. Frankfurt, 4-6th March, Germany. 1992
Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN: A compendium of medicinal plants. 1969, Central Drugs Research Institute, Lucknow and Publication and Information Directorate, New Delhi, 1: 497-
Prakash D, Upadhyay G, Singh BN, Dhakarey R, Kumar S, Singh KK: Free Radical Scavenging activities of Himalayan Rhododendrons. Current Science. 2007, 92 (4): 526-532.
Young HS, Lee CK, Park SW, Park KY, Kim KW, Chung HY, Yokozawa T, Oura H: Anti-tumorigenic effects of ursolic acid isolated from the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica. Natural Medicine. 1995, 49: 190-192.
Kim KW: Anticancer activities of plant triterpenoids, ursolic acid and oleanoid acid. J Korean Assoc Cancer Prevention. 1997, 2: 38-44.
Jain SK, Sinha BK, Gupta RC: Notable plants in ethnomedicine of India Deep Publications, New Delhi, India. 1991, 219-
Nair CKN, Mohanan N: Medicinal plants of India with species reference to Ayurveda. 1998, NAG Publishers. Delhi, India, 501-
Choudhary BR, Poddar MK: Andrographolide and kalmeg extracts; effects on intestinal brush border-membrane bound hydrolases methods. Findings of Experimental Clinical Pharmacology. 1985, 7: 617-
Rana AC, Avadhoot Y: Hepato-protective effects of Andrographis paniculata against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage. Archieves of Pharmacy Research. 1991, 14 (1): 93-95. 10.1007/BF02857822.
Visen PK, Shukla B, Patnaik GK, Dhawan BN: Andrographolide protects rat hepatocytes against paracetamol-induced damage. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1993, 40 (2): 131-136. 10.1016/0378-8741(93)90058-D.
Devkota HP, Basnet P, Yahara S: Diterpenes esters and phenolic compounds from Sapium insigne. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2009, 57 (11): 1289-1291. 10.1248/cpb.57.1289.
Park IW, Hang C, Song X, Green LA, Wang T, Liu Y, Chen C, Yang B, Chen G, He JJ: Inhibition of HIV I entry by extract derived from traditional chinense medicinal herb plants. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2009, 9: 29-10.1186/1472-6882-9-29. [http://www.biomedcentral.com]
Husain A, Virmani OP, Popali SP, Mishra LN, Gupta MM, Srivastava GN, Abraham Z, Singh AK: Dictionary of Indian medicinal plants. 1992, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP). Lucknow, India
Garcia-Argaez AN, Ramirez-Apan TO, Delgado HP, Velazquez G, Martinez-Vasquez M: Anti-inflammatory activity of coumarins from Decatropis bicolor on TPA ear mice model. Planta Medica. 2000, 66: 279-281. 10.1055/s-2000-14894.
Foster S, Duke JA: A field guide to medicinal plants. 1990, Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co, ISBN. 0395467225
Moermann D: Native American ethnobotany. 1998, Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, USA, 453-459.
Parekh J, Chanda S: Antibacterial and phytochemical studies on twelve species of Indian medicinal Plants. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2006, 10: 175-181.
Rajkapoor B, Jayakar B, Murugesh N: Antitumor activity of Bauhinia variegata on Dalton's ascitic lymphoma. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003, 89: 107-109. 10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00264-2.
Vinutha B, Prasanth D, Salma K, Sreeja SL, Pratiti D, Padmaja R, Radhika S, Amit A, Ventakeshwarlu K, Deepak M: Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007, 109: 359-363. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.06.014.
Sreelekshmi R, Latha PG, Arafat MM, Shyamal S, Shine VJ, Anuja GI, Suja SR, Rajasekharan S: Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antilipid peroxidation studies on the stem bark of Ficus religiosa. Natural Product Radiance. 2007, 6 (5): 377-381.
Agarwal V, Chauhan BM: A study of composition and hypolipidemic effect of dietary fibre from some plant foods. Plant Foods and Human Nutrition. 1988, 38 (2): 189-197. 10.1007/BF01091723.
Mangrio SM, Dahot MU, Leghari SM: Chemical constituents of Equisetum debile. Pakistan Journal of Plant Science. 1995, 1 (1): 41-48.
Pourmorad F, Hosseinimehr SJ, Shahabimajd N: Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoids contents of some selected Iranian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006, 5 (11): 1142-1145.
KC SK, Muller K: Medicinal plants from Nepal: evaluation as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999, 64: 135-139. 10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00117-2.
KC SK, Zieries K, Wiegrebe W, Muller K: Medicinal plants from Nepal. Evaluation as inhibitors of leukotriene bio-synthesis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2000, 70: 191-195. 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00203-8.
Rajbhandari M, Mentel R, Jha PK, Chaudhary RP, Bhattarai S, Gewali MB, Karmacharya N, Hipper M, Lindequest U: Antiviral activity of some plants used in Nepalese traditional medicine. eCAM. 2007, 6 (4): 517-522.
Siddiqui BS, Faizi S, Siddiqui G, Siddiqui S: Chemistry of Neem (Azadirachta indica), a sustainable source of natural pesticide. Neem and Environment. 1993, Oxford & IBH Publishing, New Delhi
Khanna N, Goswami M, Sen P, Ray A: Antinociceptive action of Azadirachta indica (neem) in mice: possible mechanisms involved. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1995, 33: 848-850.
CCRAS: Pharmacological investigation of certain medicinal plants and compound formulations used in Ayurveda and Siddha. Edited by: Pandey VN, Malhotra SC, Sharma DP. 1996, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha, New Delhi
Fabry W, Okema PO, Ansorg R: Antibacterial activity of east African medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1998, 60: 79-84. 10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00128-1.
Tahir AE, GMH Satti, Khalid SA: Antiplasmodial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis on Maytenus senegalensis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999, 64: 227-233. 10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00129-9.
Dorababu M, Joshi MC, Bhawani G, Kumar MM, Chaturvedi A, Goel RK: Effect of aqueous extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves on offensive and defensive gastric mucosal factors in rats. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 2006, 50: 241-249.
Halim EM: Lowering of blood sugar by water extract of Azadirachta indica and Abroma augusta in diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2003, 41 (6): 636-640.
Rao YK, Fang SH, Hsieh SC, Yeh TH, Tzeng YM: The constituents of Anisomeles indica and their anti-inflammatory activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2009, 121 (2): 292-296. 10.1016/j.jep.2008.10.032.
Dharmasiri MG, Ratnasooriya WD, Thabrew MI: Water extract of leaves and stems of pre-flowering but not flowering plants of Anisomeles indica possesses analgesic and antihyperalgesic activities in Rats. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2003, 41 (1): 37-44. 10.1076/phbi.22.214.171.12499.
Wang YC, Huang TL: Screening of anti-Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology. 2005, 43 (2): 295-300.
Shahidul AM, Quader MA, Rashid MA: HIV-inhibitory diterpenoid from Anisomeles indica. Fitoterapia. 2000, 71: 574-576. 10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00197-0.
Rizzini CT: The uses of lichens in medicine. Bras Med. 1952, 66 (38-39): 589-596.
Singh RK, Nath G, Goel RK, Bhattacharya SK: Pharmacological actions of Abies pindrow Royle leaf. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1988, 36: 187-191.
Brown JP: A review of the genetic effects of naturally occurring flavonoids, anthroquinones and related compounds. Mutation Research. 1980, 75: 243-277.
Oliveira FA, Vieira-Junior GM, Chaves MH, Almeida FR, Florencio MG, Lima RC, Silva RM, Santos FA, Rao VS: Gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of resin from Protium heptaphyllum in mice and rats. Pharmacological Research. 2004, 49: 105-111. 10.1016/j.phrs.2003.09.001.
Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN: A compendium of Indian medicinal plants. 1993, CDRI, Lucknow and Publications & Information Directorate, New Delhi
Iman RA, Priya BL, Chithra R, Shalini K, Sharon V, Chamundeeswari D, Vasantha J: In vitro antiplatelet activity-guided fractionation of aerial parts of Melothria maderaspatana. Indian Journal of Pharmacological Science. 2006, 68: 668-670. 10.4103/0250-474X.29646.
Wu HC, Si HC, Fan NC, Ho JA: Antioxidant activity and melanogenesis inhibitory effect of the acetonic extract of Osmanthes fragrans: a potential natural and functional food flavor additive. Food Science and Technology. 2009, 42 (9): 1513-1529.
Wang H, Gan D, Zhang X, Pan Y: Antioxidant capacity of the extracts from pulp of Osmanthes fragrans and its components. Food Science and Technology. 2010, 43 (2): 319-325.
Lee HH, Lin CT, Ling YL: Neuroprotection and free radical scavenging effects of Osmanthes fragrans. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2007, 14 (6): 819-827. 10.1007/s11373-007-9179-x.
Madhuri S, Pandey G: Some anticancer medicinal plants of foreign origin. Current Science. 2009, 96 (6): 779-783.
Azuine MA, Kayal JJ, Bhide SV: Protective role of aqueous turmeric extract against mutagenicity of direct-acting carcinogens as well as benzo(a)pyrene-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology. 1992, 118: 447-452. 10.1007/BF01629428.
Mali RG, Mehta AA: A review on anthelmintic plants. Natural Product Radiance. 2008, 7 (5): 466-475.
Achliya GS, Wadodkar SG, Dorle AK: Evaluation of CNS activity of Brahmi Ghrita. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2005, 37: 33-36. 10.4103/0253-7613.13853.
Dash GK, Bijayini M, Panda A, Patro CP, Ganapaty S: Anthelmintic activity of Evolvulus numullarius. Indian Journal of Natural Products. 2003, 19: 24-26.
Saini V, Kinger HK, Sharma DK, Ahuja N, Middha A, Gupta VB: Wound healing activities of Evolvulus nummullarius. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2007, 19: 5772-5774.
Pavithra PS, Srividya N, Verma RS: Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Evolvulus nummullarius. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2009, 41: 233-236. 10.4103/0253-7613.58514.
Bradley PR: British Herbal Compendium. 1992, BHMA, 1: ISBN No. 0-903032-09-0
Otsuka H, Fujioka S, Komiya T, Goto M, Hiramatsu Y, Fujimura H: Studies on anti-inflammatory agents; a new anti-inflammatory constituents of Pyracantha crenulata. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 1981, 29 (11): 3099-3104.
Wang KH, Lin RD, Hsu FL, Huang YH, Chang HC, Huang CY, Lee MH: Cosmetic applications of selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006, 106: 353-359. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.01.010.
WHO: WHO Regional publication western pacific series No.21. Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea. 1998, WHO Regional office Manila, 316-
Shao F, Hu Z, Xiong YM, Huang QZ, Wang CG, Zhu RH, Wang DC: A new antifungal peptide from the seeds of Phytolacca americana: characterization, amino acid sequence and cDNA cloning. Biochem Biophys Acta. 1999, 1430: 262-268.
Uckan FM, Rustamova L, Vassilev AO, Tibbles HE, Petkevich AS: CNS activity of pokeweed anti-viral protein (PAP) in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). BMC Infectious Diseases. 2005, 5: 9-10.1186/1471-2334-5-9.
Buckingham J: Dictionary of Natural Products. 1994, Chapman and Hall 2-6 Boundary Row, London, UK, 7:
Oran SA, Al-Eiwasi DM: Checklist of medicinal Plants in Jordan. Dirasat. Medical and Biological Sciences. 1998, 25: 84-112.
Chen PN, Chu SC, Chiou HL, Kuo WH, Chiang CL, Hsieh YS: Mulberry anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside, exhibited an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of a human lung cancer cell line. Cancer Letters. 2006, 235: 248-259. 10.1016/j.canlet.2005.04.033.
Okoli CO, Akals PA, Nwafor SV: Anti-inflammatory activities of Plants. Journal of Natural Remedies. 2003, 3 (1): 1-30.
Burkill HM: The useful plants of west tropical African families MFT. 1994, Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, 4: 605-
Justicia adhatoda. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justicia_adhatoda]
Luheshi GN: Cytokine and fever. Mechanism and sites of action. Annals of New York Academy of Science. 1998, 856: 83-89. 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb08316.x.
Rege NN, Javle H, Bapat RD: Antiendotoxic effect of Tinospora cordifolia: an experimental study in rats. Indian Journal of Surgery. 1998, 60: 303-305.
Dahanukar SA, Thatte UM: Current status of Ayurveda in phytomedicine. Phytomedicine. 1997, 4: 359-368.
Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Das J, Pal M, Saha BP: Studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera. Planta Medica. 1997, 63: 367-369. 10.1055/s-2006-957705.
Chakraborthy GS: Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of Aesculus indica. International Pharmaceutical Technical Research. 2009, 1 (2): 132-134.
Prajapati ND, SS Purohit, AK Sharma, Kumar T: A handbook of medicinal plants: a complement source book. 2006, Agrobios India (reprint), 554-
Go N: Bulletin of Department of Medicinal Plants No. 28. Medicinal Plants of Nepal. 2007, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Thapathali Kathmandu, Nepal, 402-
The authors wish to thank the Canadian Center for International Studies and Co-operation (CECI), Kathmandu, International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Lalitpur, Water Resource Consult, Lalitpur, and Resource and Environmental Conservation Society, Kathmandu for providing facilities for field studies and data analysis. Thanks are also due to Laxmi Kunwar, Meera Pandey, CM Burlakoti, P Budha, and CL Chowdhary for their support.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All authors share the contributions to this manuscript. RMK carried out field research, analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript, and KPS and RWB designed the study, supervised the work, collected the literature, and revised the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of this manuscript.
About this article
Cite this article
Kunwar, R.M., Shrestha, K.P. & Bussmann, R.W. Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal. J Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine 6, 35 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-6-35