- Open Access
Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal
© Kunwar et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
- Received: 21 June 2010
- Accepted: 13 December 2010
- Published: 13 December 2010
Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings.
The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008.
The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings, common Ayurvedic and earlier uses.
Although traditional herbal medicine is only a primary means of health care in far-west Nepal, the medicine has been pursued indigenously with complementing pharmacology and the Ayurveda. Therefore, further pharmacological evaluation of traditional herbal medicine deserves more attention.
- Usnic Acid
- Medicinal Plant Species
- Traditional Herbal Medicine
Current estimates suggest that, in many developing countries, about two thirds of the population relies heavily on traditional practitioners and medicinal plants to meet primary health care needs . Although modern medicine may be available in these countries, traditional herbal medicine is often been used for historical, cultural, and ecological reasons, in particular this is due to continued availability , better compatibility  and high acceptance . Traditional herbal medicine possesses greater significance in Nepal Himalaya hence interest in herbal medicine has gradually increased in recent years . As a result, the medicine all over the world is nowadays revalued by extensive researches on base materials plant species and their therapeutic principles, however to date only about five percent of the total plant species have been thoroughly investigated [6–8] to ascertain safety and efficacy of traditional medicines.
Plant species have long been the principal ingredients of traditional medicine  and their use dates back to the beginning of human civilization . Herbal medicine has clearly recognizable therapeutic effects  as well as some toxic side-effects . Thus, Nepalese medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal properties are being screened for their active pharmacological effects . The present study therefore evaluated the ethnomedicinal uses of the selected 48 second priority medicinal plants of Baitadi, Dadeldhura and Darchula districts of far-west Nepal and comparatively assessed their uses against earlier standard literature on medicinal plants of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda (an ancient traditional system of herbal medicine in the Himalaya) and the latest phytochemical findings.
Field surveys and data collection
Four field surveys were carried out during different seasons of the year (May, December 2006, February 2007, March-April 2008). Each survey lasted over 20 days in the field. Primary data collection, after establishing oral informed consent with the participating communities, consisted of group discussions, informal meetings, schedule surveys, key informant surveys, cross-checking, and field observations. In all surveys, four group discussions and six informal meetings were held; in total 172 individuals were consulted. Informal meetings were held in villages while staying with them. The traditional healers (Baidhyas) and women representing major ethnic groups, castes, and occupations were encouraged to participate. Baidhyas are traditional medicinal practitioners particularly of the western Nepal mid-hills  and adjoining areas of India . Women were active participants of the informal meetings. Among the respondents, 3% were traditional healers, 12% were ethnic groups, and 21% were women.
All plant species encountered during field observations were recorded. Medicinal plant species were collected during the day and displayed during evening meetings for discussion. Both the collections and surveys/discussions were facilitated by local assistants, and the information was sought about vernacular dialects, indigenous uses of the species and participants' priority on species. Ranking was followed to categorize the first, second and third priority medicinal plant species. The species enumerated in the present study were the second priority medicinal plants of the local communities with informant consensus factor less than 0.85. The first priority medicinal plants with quantitative ethnomedicine were already discussed [14, 17].
Matching information from at least three respondents (mentions) was counted as a common response for the analysis. The single most common folk use of each species was valued for further discussion. Common species and mono specific genera which were well known by their dialect names were used only for discussion and not managed as voucher specimen for further identification. Voucher specimens were collected, and vernacular names and folk uses were recorded for each specimen. Specimen collection was made following Cunningham , and plants were identified to species level. Most of the species were identified in the field using literature [19, 20]. The remaining unidentified species were identified and housed in Kathmandu at Tribhuvan University Central Herbarium (TUCH), Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University, Nepal.
The observations of the present survey were compared to earlier observations, latest common phytochemical findings and common uses of the Ayurveda. The common uses of the Ayurveda were taken from the following literature [21–27]. Literature [28–33] of Nepal were used as reference for earlier ethnomedicinal information of the same area. Pharmacological information was retrieved from internet sources (available till June, 2010) and relevant journals; most of them were accessed from USA. About 240 research papers and articles were reviewed for analysis.
Traditional herbal medicine
Traditional herbal medicine has been used since ancient time in many parts of the world where access to formal and modern healthcare is limited. Nepal is not exempt and in mid-hills, mountainous and rural areas of the country where access and services are limited, herbal medicine is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. It is estimated that approximately 90% of the Nepalese people reside in rural areas where access to government health care facilities is lacking . These people rely predominantly on traditional herbal medicine. Traditional medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi (traditional healing system of Tibet and mountain areas of Nepal) systems. The former one is innate to the tribal group (i.e. Raute in study area) . Home herbal remedy and the Baidhya system are indigenous to far-west Nepal [14, 15] and are partly influenced by the Ayurveda . Extant of home herbal remedy in far-west Nepal is also due to relatively homogenous resource users and less encroachment from immigrants. Home herbal remedy and Baidhya system, yet transformations of the Ayurveda, are well established and practiced in the study area. The Amchi system is widely accepted and practiced throughout high altitude areas of Nepal  and is important in Darchula district, albeit with some modifications .
As communicated by Kunwar et al. , the knowledge base for traditional herbal medicine stems from spirituality, customs, livelihood strategies and available nearby resources. Medicinal herbs are main ingredients of traditional herbal medicine, and the traditional herbal medicine is considered as the main lifeline , the first choice , fewer side-effects, better patience tolerance, relatively less expense, and cultural acceptance and long history of use, in comparison to western medicine. Thus, the traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. Most of the time, this knowledge is passed on orally and therefore is endangered. Particularly the Amchi knowledge is passed down through dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi . Although traditional herbal medicine is effective in treatment of various ailments with considering ritual and socio-cultural customs , very often the medicine is used indigenously with indifference to the scientific knowledge and their possible side effects were overlooked. The dearth of reports of adverse effects and interactions probably reflect a combination of under-reporting and the benign nature of most herbs used . Therefore, the traditional herbal medicine deserves a great scope of research in the light of modern science.
The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed as a result of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Moreover inadequate modern medical resources/facilities and government subsidies also made traditional herbal medicine pertinent in Nepal. It is estimated that there is one physician for every 20,000 people whereas there is more than one healer for every 100 people in Nepal [41, 42]. Herbal medicine prescribed by healers is either preparation based on single plant part or a combination of several plant parts. However, we dealt only the primary one for further discussion in the present study. Many of the plants most often used in study area to treat ailments are also commonly used all over Nepal. Particularly the ethnic groups and scheduled caste are the major stakeholders of the traditional herbal medicine , so, traditional medicine is still the mainstay of health care in the rural areas of Nepal where the majorities of the denizens are from ethnic groups and scheduled castes.
Medicinal plants and their uses
Major uses of the medicinal plants, their chemical constituents, and latest common pharmacological findings (species are in order of references)
Scientific name, local name, family and voucher code
Folk use found in present survey
Major folk uses in previous studies
Major uses in the Ayurveda
Selected major chemical constituents
Latest common pharmacological findings
•⊗Lobelia pyramidalis Wall. Campanulaceae Lobelia (E), Aklebir (N), Eklebir (S), 569/00.
Syn. L. nicotianaefolia Roth
Juice of leaves and flowers is rubbed on body parts during body ache.
Leaves and flowers are antispasmodic and they are used as an expectorant. Plant is used for sciatia and back pain .
Lobeline may cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea .
♥⊗Cannabis sativa L. Cannabaceae Hemp (E), Ganja (N), Bhang (S).
Syn. C. indica Lam.
Leaf juice is applied to control bleeding.
Leaf juice is useful for healing wounds, control bleeding and stomachache .
Cannabigerol, cannabidiol, friedelin, lectins .
⊗Scutellaria discolor Colebr. Lamiaceae Ratpatya (L), Dampate (N) KU 07263.
Syn. S. indica Blume
Whole plant and leaf paste is useful for cuts and wounds.
Plant juice is used for rheumatism .
⊗Ficus palmata Forssk. Moraceae Bedu (N).
Syn. F. virgata Wall.
Plant milk is useful for taking out the thorns from wounds.
Fruits are taken for lungs disorders .
Fruits act as demulcent and laxative and are useful for lungs, spleen and bladders .
♥⊗Grewia disperma Rottb. Tiliaceae Viywal (L), Syalpuchre (N).
Syn. G. serrulata DC.
Root juice is taken as expectorant. Wood paste is applied for skin diseases (no other information given).
Root juice is taken during cough and cold. Bark paste is expectorant and used for boils .
Root juice is used for controlling bleeding and bronchitis .
Plant is applied in bleedings and bronchitis. Fruits are valued as cardiotonic .
⊗Podophyllum hexandrum Royle Berberidaceae Podophyllum, May apple (E), Laghupatra (N), Hatkaudo (L), Hansapadi, Laghupatra (S), 583/00.
Syn. P. emodi Wall. ex Hook. f. & Thomson
Root juice is taken for liver complaints (no other information given).
Root extract is purgative .
Aryltetralin, astragalin, lignan, picropodophyllin, podophyllotoxin, quercetin .
•⊗Potentilla fulgens Wall. Ex Hook. Rosaceae Himalayan Cinquefoil (E), Phosre (L), Bajradanti (N), Kanthamun (S), 93/00.
Syn. P. siemersiana Lehm.
Dried roots are eaten as dentifrice.
Root powder is used for toothache .
Carotene, coumarins, flavonoids, polyphenols, sterols .
Aqueous extract of the plant reduced germination of food crops .
♥⊗Carum carvi L. Apiaceae Caraway (E), Jangali jira (L), Kalo jira (N).
Syn. Apium carvi L.
Fruits are applied against swelling of breast and testicles.
Camphene, carvone, caryophyllene, limonene, myrcene, pinene, sabinene, scopoletin, umbelliferone .
Fruits are good for painful swelling . Carvone is anthelmintic  and antioxidative . Essential oil is antibacterial  and antitumeric . Aquous fruit extract is used against hypertension, gonorrhoea  and diabetes .
♥•⊗Aconitum spicatum (Bruhl) Stapf. Ranunculaceae Nepalese Aconite (E), Bikh (N), Bish (S), KU 07233.
Syn. A. ferox var. spicata Bruhl
Root juice is antipyretic and analgesic.
Bikhaconitine, caffeic acid, diterpenoids, lupenoic acid, pseudaconitine.
Caffeic acid of Aconitum species is antioxidative and anti-inflammatory .
♥•⊗Taxus wallichiana (Zucc.) Pilger Taxaceae Himalayan Yew (E), Kandeloto (L), Lothsalla (N), Madhuparni (S), 99/00.
Syn. T. baccata auct. non.
Leaf juice is used for cancer and bronchitis.
Dried leaves are considered to be useful for asthma, bronchitis, hiccough, epilepsy, diarrhea and headache .
Abeotaxane, baccatin, cephalomannin, docetaxol, paclitaxel, taxol .
♥•⊗Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. Fabaceae Cutch tree (E), Khair (N), Khadirah (S).
Syn. A. catechoides (Roxb.)
Wood is used as local tea for cough and cold.
Acacatechin, afzelchin, catechuic acid, catechutannic acid, cyanidanol, dimeric procyanidine, epicatechin, isorhamnetin, phlebotanin, quercetin, taxifolin, tryptamine, vernolic acid .
Cyanidanol, an active ingrediant of Acacia catechu, is claimed to be effective for treating liver diseases . Catechu has hypoglycaemic , antipyretic  and digestive properties . Taxifolin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities . Catechuic acid is valued for expectoration for chest infection .
⊗Engelhardia spicata Leschen. ex Blume Juglandaceae Mahuwa (N).
Syn. E. colebrookeana Lindl. ex Wall.
Flower juice is drunk for abdominal pain.
Bark is used as piscidal .
Engelhardtione, oleanolic acid.
Engelhardtione possesses antituberculer activities .
•Spondias pinnata (L.f.) Kurtz Anacardiaceae Bile tree, Wild mango (E), Amaro (L), Pitavraksha (S).
Syn. S. mangifera Willd.
Plant latex is applied for wounds and cuts.
Latex is demulcent .
Flavonoids of the plant have been known to inhibit intestinal motility and hydroelectrolytic secretion, which are known to be altered for diarrhoeal conditions .
⊗Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken Sapindaceae Macassar tree, Honey tree, Lac host tree (E), Kusum (N).
Syn. S. trijuga Willd
Fruits are eaten as an anthelmintic.
Seed oil is used for skin diseases .
Behemin, campesterol, gadoleic acid, oleic acid, oxalic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, tartaric acid .
Fruit juice stimulates hair growth .
Rhododendron campanulatum D.Don Ericaceae Chimal (N) 89/00.
Syn. R. wallichii Hook.f.
Flowers are used in body ache and throat pain. Seeds aid digestion.
Flowers are useful for skin diseases .
Leaf extract is used for rheumatism and syphilis .
♥Boehmeria platyplylla D.Don Urticaceae Chinese grass (E), Kamle (L), Gargalo (N).
Syn. B. macrostachya Wedd.
Root paste is applied on control bleeding.
Plant juice is poisonous to fish .
Acetophenone, cryptopleurine, secophenanthroqlinolizidine .
Leaf juice is applied on cuts and wounds .
♥•⊗Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees Acanthaceae Creat (E), Kitatikta, Kalmegh (N), Bhunimbah (S).
Syn. A. subspathulata Clarke.
Raw plant root juice is considered as antipyretic and effective against infections.
Plant is useful for curing malarial and intermittent fever, dysentery and liver disorders .
Andrographolide, caffeic acid, kalmeghin, neoandrographolide, panicolide.
Plant is immunostimulant , anti-inflammatory , antibacterial , analgesic  and antiprotozoal . Kalmeghin increases biliary flow and liver weight  and aids intestinal digestion  and liver protection [177, 178].
•Sapium insigne (Royle) Benth. ex. Hook. f. Euphorbiaceae Tallow tree (E), Khirro (N).
Milky latex is skin irritant and sprayed as fish poison in stream and tributaries.
Bark latex is used to dispel works and germs for livestock .
Latex is vesicant .
Corilagin, guijaverin, nicotiflorin, phorbol esters, quinic acid, rutin, scopolin .
Leaf extract is used for snake bite .
⊗Vitex negundo L. Verbenaceae Negunda Chaste tree (E), Simali (N), Nirgundhi (L), Shephali (S).
Syn. V. cannabilifolia Sieb. & Zucc.
Leaf juice is useful in stomachache.
Plant is used for fever and nerve defects .
Leaf extract shows antibacterial  and weak antifungal properties  and it is good for lowering blood glucose levels , cancer treatment  and acne control . It is useful for inhibition of edema [108, 109] and tracheal contraction .
♥⊗Skimmia anquetilia N.P. Taylor & Airy Shaw Rutaceae Chillo pate (L), Narpati (N).
Leaf infusion is taken for headache and for freshness.
Linalool could possess anxiolytic effect .
⊗Persicaria barbata (L.) Hara Polygonaceae Pirrhe (N).
Syn. Polygonum barbata Linn.
Stem juice is useful for boils and pimples.
Stem decoction is useful for ulcers .
♥•Bauhinia variegata L. Fabaceae Mountain ebony (E), Koiralo (N), Kachnar, Kovidarah (S).
Syn. B. candida Ait.
Flower and floral buds are eaten regularly to cure leucorrhoea and mumps.
Flowers are astringent and used for diarrhea and hemorrhage .
Butein, hentriacontane, lupeol, nicotiflorin, octacosanol, rhamnopyranoside.
Ficus religiosa Linn. Moraceae Peepal tree (E), Pipal (N), Aswatha (S).
Bark juice is applied for paralysis.
Bark is astringent, and used for hemorrhage and healing external wounds .
Phytosterolin, vitamin K, tannins.
•⊗Equisetum diffusum D. Don Equisetaceae Spreading horsetail (E), Ankhle jhar (L), Kurkure (N), 0555/00.
Plant stem juice is given for gonorrhea.
Plant is diuretic and useful for gonorrhea .
Methanolic plant extract shows good free radical scavenging activity .
♥⊗Parnassia nubicola Wall. Parnassiaceae Mamira (N), 205/00.
Root paste is applied for eye inflammation.
Methanolic root extract showed moderate anti-inflammatory effect .
•⊗Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Myricaceae Box myrtle Bay berry, (E), Kafal (N), Kumbhi, Kaidaryama (S), 567/00.
Syn. M. fraquhariana Wall.
Fruits are eaten for dysentery and bark decoction is given for bronchitis.
Bark decoction is useful for asthma, dysentery and lung affections .
Friedelin, myricanone, myricadiol, myricanol, myricitrin, taraxerol .
Methanolic root extract showed potent anti-inflammatory effect .
Arisaema flavum (Forsk.) Schott Araceae Banko (N), 562/00.
Rhizome juice is applied on earache and skin diseases. Young shoots are cooked as vegetable.
Alanine, ariseminone, asparagine, cysteine, glycine, norvaline, ornithine .
Methanolic tuber extracts revealed weak antiviral property .
♥•⊗Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Meliaceae Neem tree, Margosa tree (E), Neem (N), Aristha, Nimbah (S).
Syn. Melia azadirachta L.
Both raw and dried leaves are used for fever and blood disorders (no other information given).
Azadirachtin, gedunin, limonoids, linoleic acid, nimbin, nimbidin, oleic acid, stearic acid .
Nimbidin possesses anti-inflammatory , analgesic , antipyretic , antiulcer, anticholinergic, antihistaminic and antinicotinic effects . Bark extract is useful as antibacterial  and antisplasmodial . Leaf extract promotes wound healing, ulcer protective  and hypoglycaemic .
♥•⊗Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze Lamiaceae Malabar catmint (E), Ratocharpate (N), 167/00. Syn. A. ovata R.Br.
Leaf extract is useful for urinary complaints (no other information given).
Plant is taken for uterine affections .
Ovatodiolide and pedallitin of Anisomeles indica is good anti-inflammatory . Pre-flowering plant water extract is analgesic . Ethanolic leaf extract is strong antiviral  and anti HIV potential .
♥⊗Lichen species Lichen Lichen (E), Jhyau (N), KU 07267.
Lichen extract and decoction is applied to treat moles.
Paste is used as ointment and antibiotic for cuts and wounds .
Lichen is cardiac tonic .
Atranorin, barbatic acid, norstictic acid, usnic acid, vulpinic acid .
•⊗Abies spectabilis (D.Don) Mirb. Pinaceae Himalayan Silver Fir (E), Gobre Salla (L,N), Talispatra (N,S).
Syn. Pinus tinctoria Wallich ex D. Don
Leaves are sniffed for cough and cold.
Plant is considered to be used for asthma, bronchitis, cough, rheumatism, anorexia, abdominal lump, indigestion and tuberculosis .
♥⊗Quercus lanata Sm. Fagaceae Wooly oak (E), Latyaz (L), Baanjh (N).
Syn. Q. lanuginosa D.Don
Heart wood is taken as tea and it is laxative in nature.
Cyclobalanone, friedelin, pelagonodin, sitosterol, tannins .
Solena heterophylla Lour. Cucurbitaceae Ban kankri (N) KU 07255.
Syn. Melothria heterophylla L.
Fruits are eaten for common cold and pneumonia of child.
Fruits are useful for throat pain and fever .
Root juice is useful for dysuria and spermatorrhoea .
Behemic acid, columbin, lignoceric acid .
Plant extract is hepato-protective and plant coumarin and flavonoids inhibit platelet aggregation .
⊗Osmanthes fragrans Lour. Oleaceae Tree Jasmine (E), Siringe (N), KU 07244.
Syn. O. acuminatus (Wall.) Nakai
Leaf juice is taken for fever and cold.
Leaf juice is tonic .
Caffeic acid, catechin, gallic acid, leuropin, ligustroside, luteolin, oleanolic acid, phillyrin, succinic acid .
♥⊗Fragaria nubicola Lindl. Rosaceae Alpine strawberry (E), Bhuikafal (N), KU 07242.
Syn. F. vesca L.
Fruit paste heals skin diseases and wounds.
Fruits are astringent and diuretic .
Carotenoids, ellagic acid, flavonoids .
♥Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. Zingiberaceae Zeodory, Turmeric (E), Sathi, Kachur (L), Haldi (N) Ban haldi, Haridra, Harita (S) KU 07259.
Syn. C. longa L.
Rhizome paste is externally applied for paralysis.
Rhizome paste is externally applied to bruises, pains and injuries .
Curcumin is anti-inflammatory [78–80], antiviral , antifungal , antispasmodic  and hepato-protective . It is also useful for AIDS [90, 91] control blood pressure . Plant extract is antimutagenic .
•Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) Linn. Fabaceae Aankuri phul (N), Visnukravita (S).
Decoction of plant is taken for increase memory.
Plant is brain stimulant, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic and antidysenteric .
β sitosterol, betaine, evolvine, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid .
Sterculia villosa Roxb. Sterculiaceae Sterculia, Odaal tree (E), Odaal (N).
Syn. Firmiana fulgens (Wall. Ex Master) Corner
Stem bark is considered as an astringent. It is used for cooking breads.
White exudes of the tree is used for throat infection. Root infusion is taken as food adjunct .
Plant extract is useful for skin disease .
⊗Pyracantha crenulata (D. Don) M. Roem. Rosaceae Nepali white thorn (E), Ghangaru (N).
Fruits are eaten for dysentery.
Pyracrenic acid, sorbitol, tannin .
Pyracrenic acid is anti-inflammatory .
♥⊗Phytolacca acinosa Phytolaccaceae Pokeberry (E), Jaringo (N).
Syn. P. latbenia (Moq.) H. Walter
Vegetable is consumed for body ache (no other information given).
Plant is narcotic and purgative in properties .
Smilax aspera Wall. Smilacaceae Rough birdweed (E), Chopchini (L), Kukurdaina (N), 101/00.
Syn. S. capitata Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don
Root decoction is used for venereal disease.
♥⊗Ficus auriculata Lour. Moraceae Eve's apron (E), Timila (N).
Syn. F. roxburghii Wall
Stem juice is considered effective against diarrhea and fruits are consumed for dysentery.
β sitosterol, epifriedelanol, friedelin .
Tannins of the bark extract may reveal anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities .
♥•⊗Euphorbia hirta Linn. Euphorbiaceae Snake weed, Asthma weed (E), Dudhi jhar (N), Pusitoba (S). Syn. E. pilulifera L.
Plant latex is applied for cuts. Plant juice is applied in asthma and diarrhea.
It is useful for cardiovascular complaints, asthma and spleen disorders .
Galloylquinic acid, Phorbol acid, leucocyanidol, quercitol, camphol, quercetin, chlorophenolic acid, shikimic acid .
Plant alkaloid is effective in broncho-dilation , and used as an antispasmodic, antiasthmatic, expectorant, anticatarrhal [74, 232]. The methanol extract of flowers has antibacterial activity .
⊗Jurinea dolomiea Bioss. Asteraceae Bhutkes (N) KU 07266.
Syn. Carduus macrocephalus Wall.
Root decoction is taken in stomachache and diarrhea.
Vasicine exhibited strong respiratory stimulant, moderate hypotensive, cardiac-depressant and abortifacient .
♥•⊗Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr. Menispermaceae Heart leaved Moonseed (E), Gurjo (N), Guduchi, Amritavali (S).
Syn. T. cordifolia auct. non L.
Dilute stem juice is drunk for diabetes.
Berberine, choline, cordifol, isocolumbin, jatrorhizine, magnoflorine, palmatine, tembeterine, tinosporin, tinosporide .
Water extract (berberine) is antipyretic  and antidiabetic  due to berberine  but higher doses may be antagonistic . Plant extract is hepato-protective , hypoglycaemic  and immunostimulant .
♥⊗Betula utilis D.Don Betulaceae Himalayan Birch (E), Bhuj pat (L), Bhojpatra (N), Bhurjah, Lekhyapatrak (S), 556/00.
Syn. B. bhojpattra Lindl.
Bark decoction is useful for sore throat.
Bark is astringent and its fume is used for easy delivery and placenta expels .
Betulin, karachic acid, leucocyanidin, lupenone, lupeol, oleanolic acid.
♥•⊗Aesculus indica (Colebr. ex Cambess.) Hook. Hippocastanaceae Horse chesnut (E), Panger, Karu (N), Naaru (S), Horse 563/00.
Seed oil is valued for joint pain and skin problems (no other information given).
Bark is used for dislocated joints and seed oil is considered to be used for rheumatism .
Aescin, aesculuside, astragalin, β sitosterol, catechol, decanoic acid, epicatechin, quercetin, rutin, saponins .
♥⊗Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Thymelaeaceae Nepali paper plant (E), Gore, Baruwa (L), Lokta, Kagaj pate (N).
Syn. D. cannabina Lour. ex Wall.
Seeds are taken for stomachache and anthelmintic.
Root extract is used for intestinal disorder and powered seeds are taken as an anthelmintic .
Daphnoside, daphnetin, genkwanin, luteolin, taraxerol .
Bark decoction is given to treat fever. Root juice is anthelmintic .
The results obtained support prior observations, pharmacology and Ayurvedic uses concerning the following species: the crude extracts of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes. This probably explains the use of these plants by indigenous people against a number of infections as transcend from transcultural environment with following home herbal remedy, Ayurveda and Baidhya systems. It is known that the families Rutaceae and Meliaceae are among the richest and most diverse sources of secondary metabolites among the angiosperms , and the species of Meliaceae are known to have intense antimalarial characters due to highly oxygenated terpenoids . Use of leaves of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) as antipyretic is widely used in study area (Table 1) and throughout Nepal  was substantiated by the nimbidin flavonoids [47, 48]. Oleic acid and gedunin of A. indica are also reported to be an in vitro antimalarial [49–51]. Other species contributed as antipyretic in home herbal remedy in study area were Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae), Aconitum spicatum (Ranunculaceae) and Osmanthes fragrans (Oleaceae).
Andrographolide and neoandrographolide from Andrographis paniculata own anti-inflammatory activity [52, 53]. Its diterpene exhibits antioxidant and hepato-protective properties [54–57]. Immunostimulant , antibacterial , analgesic  and antiprotozoal  characteristics of A. paniculata extract have also been demonstrated. These values probably explain the use of A. paniculata by the indigenous people against a number of infections and fever. Crude root extract of Podophyllum hexandrum (Berberidaceae) was used as hepato-protective, despite the hepatotoxic character reported due to its lignans . Podophyllotoxin has manifested antimitotic activity and capability of inhibiting DNA, RNA and protein synthesis . There were seven species in study area exhibiting hepato-protective effects. Among them, six were pharmacology based and three were folkloric. Plant extracts of P. hexandrum and Andrographis paniculata showed hepato-protective characters consistent with the folk use and pharmacology.
Alkaloids are most common in flowering plants, especially in Fabaceae, Ranunculaceae and Solanaceae . Some alkaloids (aconitine, anisodamine, berberine, charantine, leurosine) show antidiabetic effects . Berberine of Tinospora sinensis (Menispermaceae) is antidiabetic [66–68], but higher doses may be antagonistic , which strongly support the folkloric use of the plant extract. According to Marles and Farnsworth , there are about 1,000 species of plants that can act as an antidiabetic and approximately 80% of these are used in folk herbal medicine. Antidiabetic reports of Azadirachta indica, Carum carvi, Tinospora sinensis and Vitex negundo stated in the present communication were pharmacologically rationale and that of A. indica and T. sinensis was folk-based.
Euphorbiaceae species are generally characterized by milky latex , and sticky saps are co-carcinogenic, and can cause severe skin irritation and are toxic to livestock and humans . They are rich in active compounds including terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolics and fatty acids, having ethnopharmaceutical uses . Sapium insigne (Euphorbiaceae) is skin irritant, and commonly used as fish poison in study area and throughout Nepal . Both the water and methanol extracts of Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae) are antibacterial [74, 75] and effective as expectorant [76, 77] and broncho-dilator , which is consistent with the folkloric use in treatment of respiratory complaints.
Pharmacologically, curcumin of Curcuma species (Zingiberaceae) acts as an anti-inflammatory [78–80], antibacterial , antiviral , antifungal , antitumor [84, 85], antispasmodic , and hepato-protective . The oxygen radical scavenging activity of curcumin has been implicated in its anti-inflammatory effects [88, 89] thus curcumin may prove useful as a drug for arthritis, cancer, HIV [90–92] and high blood pressure . Wide range of pharmacological reports including antibacterial and antiviral complements the folk use to treat paralysis. Rhizome extract of the plant was widely used for skin diseases (bruises, injuries, etc.) in west Nepal  and in the Ayurveda .
The folk use of Acacia catechu (Fabaceae) wood tea as an expectorant fairly corroborated the pharmacological properties because the tannin and cyanidanol [94, 95] of the plant impart astringent activity which helps to recuperate diarrhea. Tannins are also known as antimicrobial  and triterpenoids are beneficial for inflammation and cancer . The hepato-protective and hypoglycemic properties of A. catechu could be attributed to the quercetin  and epicatechin  respectively. Leaf extracts of Taxus wallichiana (Taxaceae) inhibit pregnancy in rats , vitiate blood disorders  and control tumor growth . In the study area, Taxus leaf juice is used for treatment of cancer and bronchitis.
Lectins of Cannabis sativa (Cannabaceae) possess haema-gluttinating properties  which corroborate the indigenous use of the leaf extract to control bleeding. Crude leaf extract of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae) is recommended as antitussive and anti-asthma , antibacterial , antifungal , hypoglycemic , anti-cancer , acne control , inhibitor of edema [108, 109] to tracheal contraction . However, it did not corroborate the folk use for stomachache but was partially complemented by earlier observations [30, 111]. The unlike uses of the species after thorough scrutiny, under different medical systems and comparisons pose more research scopes. Several instances are rational behind a certain function of a phytomolecule sometimes inconsistent to the pharmacology and ethnopharmacology. Moreover, while advocating herbal medicine as alternative therapy, toxicity of plants should be borne in mind.
Lichens and their metabolites have manifold biological activity: antiviral, antibiotic , antitumor, allergenic, plant growth inhibitory, antiherbivore, ecological roles and enzyme inhibitory [113, 114]. Usnic acid and vulpunic acid (produced by mycobiont) of lichens are mitotic regulators  and own antibiotic properties . Parmelia sulcata lichen manifests antibacterial and antifungal activities [117, 118]. Use of Parmelia species to treat warts  is analogous to its folk use. Folk use of wood tea of Quercus lanata (Fagaceae) as a laxative may verify the actions of tannin. Tannins reveal activities against central nervous system disorders  and inflammation [121, 122]. Further pharmacological evaluation of the extracts of those species which reveal weak pharmacological validities are needed before they can be used as therapeutic potentials.
The compounds which contribute to the antioxidative properties are polyphenols , vitamin C , β carotene , anthocyanins , and flavonoids . Ellagic acid of Fragaria nubicola (Rosaceae) is also responsible for antioxidant activity . Antioxidants are associated with reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases  and many other ailments . Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of Fragaria fruit extracts [101, 131] are consistent with the folkloric use as remedy for skin diseases and wounds. The usage of root powder of Potentilla fulgens (Rosaceae) as a dentifrice is common in the study area and throughout Nepal [132, 133] and it is in accord to the Ayurvedic uses. However, the usage is yet to be verified pharmacologically.
Aconitum spicatum (Ranunculaceae), taken alone is poisonous, so it is never used alone by the local communities. A paste made from its roots is applied as antipyretic and analgesic after mixing with Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae). Folk use of root extract of A. spicatum as an analgesic is consistent to the anti-inflammatory activity of caffeic acid found in the plant extract . About 80% of plant alkaloids possesses anti-inflammatory properties and among them isoquinoline (berbamine, berberine, cepharanthine and tetrandine) was the most active [139, 140]). Diterpenoid alkaloids, commonly isolated from the plants of Ranunculaceae family, are commonly found to have antimicrobial properties . Folk uses as antipyretic and analgesic of A. spicatum root extract are validated by the in vitro antimicrobial properties. In some cases, multi-component therapy has been practiced and considered as effective as Kareru et al.  observed in Kenya, but the present assessment considered only the primary one to discuss. We believe that the associate plants must also be considered as excellent candidates for future studies to determine the mechanisms of their activity, as well as for the isolation and identification of active constituents [143, 144]. Thus, traditional herbal medicine renders primary health care needs of two thirds of the rural population of the Nepalese, represents a largely unexplored source for potential development of new drugs [145, 146].
Validation of the ethnomedicinal uses of 48 Nepalese medicinal plants using comparative assessment with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings showed that the folk uses of only about 50%, 70% and 40% of plant species respectively exhibited affinity. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings, as well as common Ayurvedic and earlier uses. However, the frequent folk uses of Arisaema flavum, Ficus religiosa, Rhododendron campanulatum, Smilax aspera, Solena heterophylla and Sterculia villosa of study area repudiated at all. The preliminary results obtained from the present assessment indicate that further investigation of ethnopharmacology is worthwhile. The validity assessment from the present research provided the potential to identify, research, and use which plants and their ingredients are the most significant for treatment of particular diseases.
The authors wish to thank the Canadian Center for International Studies and Co-operation (CECI), Kathmandu, International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Lalitpur, Water Resource Consult, Lalitpur, and Resource and Environmental Conservation Society, Kathmandu for providing facilities for field studies and data analysis. Thanks are also due to Laxmi Kunwar, Meera Pandey, CM Burlakoti, P Budha, and CL Chowdhary for their support.
- Farnsworth NR, Soejarto DD: Global importance of medicinal plants. The conservation of medicinal plants. Edited by: Akerelev O, Heywood V, Synge H. 1991, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 25-51. full_text.Google Scholar
- Bhattarai NK: Traditional phytotherapy among the Sherpa of Helambu, Central Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1989, 27 (1/2): 45-54. 10.1016/0378-8741(89)90076-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kamboj VP: Herbal medicine. Current Science. 2000, 78 (1): 35-39.Google Scholar
- Ghimire SK, McKey D, Aumeeruddy-Thomas Y: Conservation of Himalayan medicinal plants: harvesting patterns and ecology of two threatened species Nardostachys grandiflora and Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora. Biological Conservation. 2005, 124: 463-475. 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.02.005.Google Scholar
- Burlakoti C, Kunwar RM: Folk herbal medicines of Mahakali watershed Area, Nepal. Medicinal Plants in Nepal: An Anthology of Contemporary Research. Edited by: Jha PK, Karmacharya SB, Chettri MK, Thapa CB, Shrestha BB. 2008, Ecological Society, Kathmandu, Nepal, 187-193.Google Scholar
- Bussmann RW: Ethnobotany and biodiversity conservation. Modern Trends in Applied Terrestrial Ecology. Edited by: Ambasht RS, Ambasht NK. 2002, Kluwer publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 345-362.Google Scholar
- Patwardhan B, Warude D, Pushpangadan P, Bhatt N: Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A comparative overview. eCAM. 2005, 2 (4): 465-473.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goswami S, Annalakshmi C, Panda N, Banerjee S, Sahu NP, Achari B, Das PK: Preclinical experimental evidence for anti gastric ulcer activity in an Indian medicinal plant. Abstract presented in the 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Biomedical and Therapeutic Sciences. 2005, Bundelkhand University, IndiaGoogle Scholar
- Khan S, Balick MJ: Therapeutic plants of the Ayurveda: a review of selected clinical and other studies for 166 species. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2001, 7 (5): 405-515. 10.1089/10755530152639729.Google Scholar
- Kunwar RM, Nepal BK, Kshetri HB, Rai SK, Bussmann RW: Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2006, 2: 27. 10.1186/1746-4269-2-27. [http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/2/1/27]Google Scholar
- Bailey CJ, Day C: Traditional plant medicines as treatment for diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1989, 12: 553-564. 10.2337/diacare.12.8.553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Keen RW, Deacon AC, Delves HT, Moreton JA, Frost PG: Indian herbal remedies for diabetes as a cause of lead poisoning. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 1994, 70: 113-114. 10.1136/pgmj.70.820.113.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Taylor RSL, Edel F, Manandhar NP, Towers GHN: Antimicrobial activities of southern Nepalese medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1996, 50: 97-102. 10.1016/0378-8741(95)01335-0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kunwar RM, Uprety Y, Burlakoti C, Chowdhary CL, Bussmann RW: Indigenous use and ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants in Far-west Nepal. Journal of Ethnobotany Research & Applications. 2009, 7: 5-28.Google Scholar
- Bhattarai NK: Medical ethnobotany in Karnali zone, Nepal. Economic Botany. 1992, 46 (3): 257-261. 10.1007/BF02866624.Google Scholar
- Kala CP: Current status of medicinal plants used by traditional Baidhyas in Uttaranchal, India. Journal of Ethnobotany Research & Applications. 2005, 3: 267-278.Google Scholar
- Kunwar RM, Bussmann RW: Medicinal, aromatic and dye plants of Baitadi and Darchula districts, Nepal Himalaya: status, uses and management. Biodiversitat und Naturausstattung im Himalaya III. Edited by: Hartmann M, Weipert J. 2009, Naturekunde Museum, Erfurt, Germany, 43-49.Google Scholar
- Cunningham AB: Applied ethnobotany, people, wild plant use and conservation. 2001, Earthscan publishing limited. London and Sterling VA, 300-Google Scholar
- Stainton A, Polunin O: Flowers of the Himalaya. 1984, Oxford University Press, New Delhi-India, 580-Google Scholar
- Stainton A: Flowers of the Himalaya, a supplement. 1988, Oxford University Press, New Delhi-India, 86-Google Scholar
- Bajracharya MB: Ayurvedic medicinal plants and general treatment. 1979, Piyusavarsi Ausadhalaya Mahaboudha, Kathmandu, Nepal, 230-Google Scholar
- Dash B, Gupta K: Materia medica of Ayurveda based on Mandanapala's Nighantu. 1994, B Jain Publishers, New Delhi, India, 780-Google Scholar
- Warrier PK, Nambiar VPK, Ramankutty C, (eds): Indian medicinal plants: A compendium of 500 species. 1994, Orient Longman Publishers, Kottakkal, India, 1-5.Google Scholar
- Dey AC: Indian medicinal plants used in Ayurvedic preparation. 1998, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, IndiaGoogle Scholar
- Rajbhandari TK, Joshi NR, Shrestha T, Joshi SKG, Acharya B: Medicinal plants of Nepal for Ayurvedic Drugs. 1995, Government of Nepal, Department of Plant Resources, Thapathali, Kathmandu, 387-Google Scholar
- Sapkota CR, Adhikari SM: Ayurvedic pharmacology (Bheshaja Guna-Vijnana). 2001, Singhadurbar Vaidyakhana Vikas Samiti. Anamnagar, Kathmandu, NepalGoogle Scholar
- Joshi SG: Medicinal plants. 2006, Oxford & IBH Publishing. New Delhi, India, 491-Google Scholar
- Rajbhandari KR: Ethnobotany of Nepal. 2001, Ethnobotanical Society of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal, 189-Google Scholar
- Lama YC, Ghimire SK, Thomas YA: Medicinal plants of Dolpo: Amchis' knowledge and conservation. 2001, People and Plants program and WWF Nepal, Kathmandu, 150-Google Scholar
- Manandhar NP: Plants and People of Nepal. 2002, Timber Press, Portland, Oregon USA, 599-Google Scholar
- IUCN Nepal: National Register of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Revised & updated). 2004, The World Conservation Union, Nepal, 202-Google Scholar
- Watanabe T, Rajbhandari KR, Malla KJ, Yahara S: A handbook of medicinal plants of Nepal. 2005, Ayur Seed Life Environmental Institute, Japan, 262-Google Scholar
- Baral SR, Kurmi PP: A compendium of medicinal plants in Nepal. 2006, Mrs Rachana Publishers, Kathmandu, Nepal, 534-Google Scholar
- Manandhar NP: Native phytotherapy among the Raute tribe of Dadeldhura district, Far-west Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1998, 60: 199-206. 10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00150-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kunwar RM, Bussmann RW: Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2008, 4: 24-10.1186/1746-4269-4-24. [http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/4/1/24]PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dhar U, Manjkhola S, Joshi M, Bhatta A, Bisht AK, Joshi M: Current status and future strategy for development of medicinal plant sector in Uttranchal, India. Current Science. 2002, 83 (8): 956-964.Google Scholar
- Bhattarai NK: Folk medicinal uses of indigenous aromatic plants of Nepal. Supplement to cultivation and utilization of aromatic plants. Edited by: Handa SS, Kaul MK. 1997, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India, 469-483.Google Scholar
- Bhattarai S, Chaudhary RP, Quave CL, Taylor RSL: The use of medicinal plants in the Trans-Himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2010, 6: 14-10.1186/1746-4269-6-14.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kunwar RM, Acharya RP, Bussmann RW: Medicinal plants in Nepal Western Himalaya: status, trade, use and community management. Journal of Ethnobotany Research & Applications. 2010, 9, ,Google Scholar
- Shirwaikar A, Verma R, Lobo R, Shirwaikar A: Phytotherapy - safety aspects. Natural Product Radiance. 2009, 8: 55-63.Google Scholar
- Gillam S: The traditional healer as village health worker. Journal of Institute of Medicine. 1989, 11: 67-76.Google Scholar
- WRI: World Resources - 2005. The wealth of the poor: managing ecosystems to fight poverty. World Resource Institute, USA. 2005, [http://www.wri.org/publication/world-resources-2005-wealth-poor-managing-ecosystems-fight-poverty]Google Scholar
- Joshi KR: Ethnomedicinal uses of plants: a case study from Sharmoli VDC, Darchula district, Nepal. Medicinal Plants in Nepal: An Anthology of Contemporary Research. Edited by: Jha PK, Karmacharya SB, Chettri MK, Thapa CB, Shrestha BB. 2008, Ecological Society, Kathmandu, Nepal, 178-187.Google Scholar
- Farnsworth NR, Morris RW: Higher plants - the sleeping giant of drug development. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 1976, 148: 46-52.Google Scholar
- Connolly DL: Chemistry of limonoids of the Meliaceae and Cneoraceae. Chemistry and chemical taxonomy of the Rutales. Edited by: Waterman PG, Grundon MF. 1983, Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Bhattarai S, Chaudhary RP, Taylor RSL: Ethnomedicinal plants used by the people of Nawalparasi district, Central Nepal. Our Nature. 2009, 7: 82-89.Google Scholar
- Farnsworth NR: Biological and phytochemical screening of plants. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 1966, 55: 225-10.1002/jps.2600550302.Google Scholar
- Wall ME: Antimutagenic agents from natural products. Journal of Natural Products. 1992, 55: 1561-1568. 10.1021/np50089a002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Khalid SA, Farouk A, Geary TG, Jensen JB: Potential antimalarial candidates from African plants: an in vitro approach using Plasmodium falciparum. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1986, 15: 201-209. 10.1016/0378-8741(86)90156-X.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Phillipson JD, Wright CW: Can ethnopharmacology contribute to the development of antimalarial agents?. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1991, 32: 155-165. 10.1016/0378-8741(91)90113-R.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Krugliak M, Deharo E, Shalmiev G, Sauvain M, Moretti C: Antimalarial effects of c18 fatty acids on plasmodium. Experimental Parasitology. 1995, 81: 97-105. 10.1006/expr.1995.1097.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Madhav S, Tandan SK, Lal J: Anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide. Fitoterapia. 1996, 67: 452-458.Google Scholar
- Batkhuu J, Hattori K, Takano F, Fushiya S, Oshiman K, Fujimiya Y: Suppression of NO production in activated macrophages in vitro and ex vivo by Neoandrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2002, 25 (9): 1169-1174. 10.1248/bpb.25.1169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hikino H, Kiso Y: Natural products for liver diseases. Economic and medicinal plant research. 1988, Academic Press, London, 2: 39-72.Google Scholar
- Koul IB, Kapil A: Effect of diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata on antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 1994, 26: 296-300.Google Scholar
- Sharma M, Tripathi P, Singh VP, Tripathi YS: Hepato-protective and toxicological evaluation of Hepatomed, an Ayurvedic drug. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1995, 33: 34-37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Evans WC: An overview of drugs having antihepatotoxic and oral hypoglycaemic activities. Trease and Evans' Phamacognosy. 1996, UK, WD Sanders Company Ltd, 14Google Scholar
- Puri A, Saxena R, Saxena RP, Saxena KC: Immuno-stimulant agent from Andrographis paniculata. Journal of Natural Products. 1993, 56: 995-10.1021/np50097a002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Verma N, Vinayak M: Antioxidant action of Andrographis paniculata on lymphoma. Molecular and Biological Reproduction. 2008, 35: 535-540. 10.1007/s11033-007-9119-x.Google Scholar
- Chiou WF, Chen CF, Lin JJ: Mechanism of suppression of indictable nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 cells by andrographolide. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2000, 129: 1553-1560. 10.1038/sj.bjp.0703191.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gozalbes R, Gálvez J, García-Domenech R, Derouin F: Molecular search of new active drugs against Toxoplasma gondii. SAR QSAR Environmental Research. 1999, 10: 47-60. 10.1080/10629369908039165.Google Scholar
- Anderson LA, Phillipson JD: Mistletoe, the magic herb. Pharmacy Journal. 1982, 229: 437-439.Google Scholar
- Singh J, Shah NC: Podophyllum: A Review. Current Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 1994, 16: 53-83.Google Scholar
- Filho JMB, Piuvexam MR, Moural MD, Silval MO, Batista KV, Cunhal EVL, FEchine IM, Takemura OS: Anti-inflammatory activity of alkaloids: a twenty century review. Rev Bras Farmacogn. 2006, 16 (1): Jan./MarGoogle Scholar
- Li WL, Zheng HC, Bukura J, Kimpe ND: Natural medicines used in traditional Chinese medicines for diabetes mellitus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004, 92: 1-21. 10.1016/j.jep.2003.12.031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhao T, Wang X, Rimando AM, Che C: Folkloric Medicinal Plants: Tinospora sagittata var. cravaniana and Mahonia bealei. Planta Medica. 1991, 57: 505-506. 10.1055/s-2006-960188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kar A, Choudhary BK, Bandyopadhyay NG: Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003, 84: 105-108. 10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00144-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jagetia GC, Rao SK: Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in Ehrlich Ascites carcinoma bearing mice. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2006, 29: 460-466. 10.1248/bpb.29.460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Prince PSM, Menon PV, Gunasekharan G: Hypolipidaemic action of Tinospora cordifolia root in alloxane diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999, 64: 53-57. 10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00106-8.Google Scholar
- Marles RJ, Farnsworth NR: Anti-diabetic plants and their active constituents. Phytomedicine. 1995, 2: 137-189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mitich LW: Intriguing world of weeds. Tansy Weed Technology. 1992, 6: 242-244.Google Scholar
- Berry MI: Feverfew faces the future. Pharmacy Journal. 1984, 232: 611-Google Scholar
- Rizk AFM: The chemical constituents and economic plants of the Euphorbiaceae. Euphorbiales: Chemistry, Taxonomy and Economic Botany. Edited by: Jury SL, Reynolds T, Cutler TDF, Evans FJ. 1987, Academic Press Inc. London, 293-326.Google Scholar
- Abubakar El-Mahmood M: Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of Euphorbia hirta against some bacteria associated with enteric infections. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 2009, 3 (7): 498-505.Google Scholar
- Vijaya K, Ananthan S, Nalini R: Antibacterial effect of theaflavin, polyphenon 60 (Camellia sinensis) and Euphorbia hirta on Shigella spp. - a cell culture study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995, 49: 115-118. 10.1016/0378-8741(95)90039-X.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Adedapo AA, Shabi OO, Adedokun OA: Antihelminthic efficacy of the aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta (Linn.) in Nigerian dogs. Vet Arch. 2005, 75 (1): 39-47.Google Scholar
- Falodun A, Okunrobe LO, Uzoamaka N: Phytochemical screening and anti-inflammatory evaluation of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006, 5 (6): 529-531.Google Scholar
- Arora R, Basu N, Kapoor V: Anti-inflammatory studies on Curcuma longa (turmeric). Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1971, 59: 1289-1295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chandra D, Gupta S: Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of volatile oil of Curcuma longa (Haldi). Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1972, 60: 138-142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kohli K, Ali J, Ansari MJ, Raheman Z: Curcumin: a natural anti-inflammatory agent. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2005, 37: 141-147. 10.4103/0253-7613.16209.Google Scholar
- Negi PS, Jayaprakasha GK, Jagan Mohan Rao L, Sakariah KK: Antibacterial activity of turmeric oil: a byproduct from curcumin manufacture. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 1999, 47: 4297-4300. 10.1021/jf990308d.Google Scholar
- Bourne KZ, Bourne N, Reising SF, Stanberry LR: Plant products as topical microbicide candidates: assessment of in vitro and in vivo activity against herpes simplex virus 2. Antiviral Research. 1999, 42 (3): 219-226. 10.1016/S0166-3542(99)00020-0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Apisariyakul A, Vanittanakom N, Buddhasukh D: Antifungal activity of turmeric oil extracted from Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995, 49: 163-169. 10.1016/0378-8741(95)01320-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kuttan R, Sudheeran PC, Joseph CD: Turmeric and curcumin as topical agents in cancer therapy. Tumori. 1987, 73: 29-31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kawamori T, Lubet R, Steele VE: Chemopreventative effect of curcumin, a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent, during the promotion/progression stages of colon cancer. Cancer Research. 1999, 59: 597-601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Itthipanichpong C, Ruangrungsi N, Kemsri W, Sawasdipanich A: Antispasmodic effects of curcuminoids on isolated guinea-pig ileum and rat uterus. Journal of Medical Association of Thailand. 2003, 86: 299-309.Google Scholar
- Park EJ, Jeon CH, Ko G: Protective effect of curcumin in rat liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2000, 52: 437-440. 10.1211/0022357001774048.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Selvam R, Subramanian L: The anti-oxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995, 47: 59-67. 10.1016/0378-8741(95)01250-H.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kunchandy E, Rao MNA: Oxygen radical scavenging activity of curcumin. International Journal of Pharmacy. 1990, 58: 237-240. 10.1016/0378-5173(90)90201-E.Google Scholar
- Sui Z, Salto R, Li J, Craik C, Ortiz de Montellano PR: Inhibition of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases by curcumin and curcumin boron complexes. Bioorganic Medical Chemistry. 1993, 1: 415-422. 10.1016/S0968-0896(00)82152-5.Google Scholar
- Mazumder A, Wang S, Neamati N, Nicklaus M, Sunder S, Chen J: Antiretroviral agents as inhibitors of both human immunodeficiency virus type 1integrase and protease. Journal of Medical Chemistry. 1996, 39: 2472-2481. 10.1021/jm960074e.Google Scholar
- Kuttan R, Bhanumathy P, Nirmala K, George MC: Potential anti-cancer activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Cancer Letters. 1985, 29: 97-202. 10.1016/0304-3835(85)90159-4.Google Scholar
- Dikshit M, Rastogi L, Shukla R, Srimal RC: Prevention of ischaemia-induced biochemical changes by curcumin and quinidine in cat heart. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1995, 101: 31-35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Usher G: Acacia catechu Willd (Catechu, Dark catechu). A dictionary of plants. 1984, Delhi: CBS publishers and distributors, India, 1Google Scholar
- Rage N, Dahanukar S, Karandikar SM: Hepato-protective effect of cyanidanol against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage. Indian Drugs. 1984, 22: 556-560.Google Scholar
- Cowan MM: Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 1999, 12: 564-582. [http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/content/full/12/4/564]PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cipak L, Grausova L, Miadokova E, Novotny L, Rauko P: Dual activity of triterpenoids. Archieves of Toxicology. 2006, 80: 429-435. 10.1007/s00204-006-0072-6.Google Scholar
- Rajnarayana K, Reddy MS, Chaluvadi MR, Krishna DR: Bi-flavonoids classification, pharmacological, biochemical effects and therapeutic potential. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2001, 33: 2-16.Google Scholar
- Geetha BS, Mathew BC, Augusti KT: Hypoglycemic effects of Leucodelphinidin derivative isolated from Ficus bengalensis (Linn.). Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 1994, 38: 220-222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN: A compendium of medicinal plants. 1979, Central Drugs Research Institute, Lucknow and Publication and Information Directorate, New Delhi, 2: 833-Google Scholar
- van Wyk BE, Wink M: Medicinal plants of the World. 2004, Briza Publications, South Africa, 480-Google Scholar
- Cortes-Maramba NP, Dayrit FM, de Castro NF, Estrada HR, Lim-Sylianco CY, Lingao AL, Quijano RF, Quintana EG: Selection and scientific validation of medicinal plants for primary health care. 1991, Philippine Council for Health Research and Development, 42-43. Technical Report Series No. 12Google Scholar
- Samy RP, Ignacimuthu S, Sen A: Screening of 34 Indian medicinal plants for antibacterial properties. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1998, 62: 173-182. 10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00057-9.Google Scholar
- Kumar VP, Chauhan NS, Padh H, Rajani M: Search for antibacterial and antifungal agents from selected Indian medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006, 107: 182-188. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Villasenor IM, Lamadrid MRA: Comparative anti-hyperglycemic potentials of medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006, 104: 129-131. 10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Masilungan VA, Vadlamudi S, Goldin A: Screening of Philippine medicinal plants for anticancer agents using CCNSC protocols. Cancer Chemotherapy Reports. 1971, 2: 135-140.Google Scholar
- Amann W: Acne vulgaris and Agnus castus. Z Allgemeinmed. 1975, 51 (35): 1645-1648. (Published in German)PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Telang RS, Chaterjee S, Varshneya C: Study on anagelsic and anti-inflammatory activities of Vitex negundo. Genetic Pharmacology. 1999, 31 (5): 363-366.Google Scholar
- Singh AM, Malhotra S, Subban R: Anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents from Indian medicinal plants. International Journal of Integrative Biology. 2008, 3 (1): 57-72.Google Scholar
- Nair AM, Saraf MN: Inhibition of antigen and compound 48/80 induced contractions of guinea pig trachea by the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Vitex negundo Linn. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 1995, 27: 230-233.Google Scholar
- Bhattarai NK: Folk herbal medicines of Makwanpur District, Nepal. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1991, 29 (4): 284-295. 10.3109/13880209109082899.Google Scholar
- Page D, Baniya CB, Taylor RSL: Isolation of biologically active compounds from ethnobotanically important Nepalese lichens. Ecoprint. 2003, 10 (1): 1-6.Google Scholar
- Huneck S: The significance of lichens and their metabolites. Naturwissenschaften. 1999, 86: 559-576. 10.1007/s001140050676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aslan A, Güllüce M, Atalan E: A study of antimicrobial activity of some lichens. Bulletin of Pure and Applied Science. 2001, 20: 23-26.Google Scholar
- Karagoz A, Dougroz N, Zeybck Z, Aslan A: Antibacterial activity of some lichen extract. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2009, 3 (12): 1034-1039.Google Scholar
- Cocchietto M, Skert N, Nimis PL: A review on usnic acid, an interesting natural compound. Naturwissenschaften. 2002, 89: 137-146. 10.1007/s00114-002-0305-3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rankovic B, Misic M, Sukdolak S: Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the lichens Lasallia pustulata, Parmelia sulcata, Umbilicaria crustulosa and Umbilicaria cylindrica. Mikrobiologya. 2007, 76 (6): 817-821.Google Scholar
- Momoh MA, Adikwu MU: Evaluation of the effect of colloidal silver on the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the lichen Parmelia perlata. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2008, 2 (6): 106-109.Google Scholar
- Malhotra S, Subban R, Singh A: Lichens-role in traditional medicine and drug discovery. The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2008, 5 (2):Google Scholar
- Takahash RN, de Lima TC, Murato GS: Pharmacological actions of tannic acid; II. Evaluation of CNS activity in animals. Planta Medica. 1986, 4: 272-275. 10.1055/s-2007-969150.Google Scholar
- Mammela P, Savolainen H, Lindroos L, Kangas J, Vartiainen T: Analysis of oak tannins by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A. 2000, 89: 75-83. 10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00624-5.Google Scholar
- Erdelyi K, Kiss A, Bakondi E, Bai P, Szabo C, Gergely P, Erdodi F, Virag L: Gallotannin inhibits the expression of chemokines and inflammatory cytokines in A549 cells. Molecular Pharmacology. 2005, 68: 895-904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marinova D, Ribarova F, Atanassova M: Total phenolics and total flavonoids in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. Journal of University Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy. 2005, 40 (3): 255-260.Google Scholar
- Chanwitheesuk A, Teerawutgulrag A, Rakariyatham N: Screening of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds of some edible plants of Thailand. Food Chemistry. 2005, 92: 491-497. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.07.035.Google Scholar
- Lisiewska Z, Kmiecik W, Korus A: Content of vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls and polyphenols in green parts of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) depending on plant height. Journal of Food Composition Annals. 2006, 19 (2-3): 134-140. 10.1016/j.jfca.2005.04.009.Google Scholar
- Longo L, Vasapollo G: Extraction and identification of anthocyanins from Smilax aspera. Food Chemistry. 2006, 94: 226-231.Google Scholar
- Harborne JB, Williams CA: Advances in flavonoids research since 1992. Phytochemistry. 2000, 55: 481-504. 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00235-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Caragay AB: Cancer-preventative foods and ingredients. Food Technology. 1992, 46: 65-68.Google Scholar
- Willcox JK, Ash SL, Catignani GL: Antioxidants and prevention of chronic disease. Critical Review of Food Science and Nutrition. 2004, 44: 275-295. 10.1080/10408690490468489.Google Scholar
- Kumpulainen JT, Salonen JT: Natural Antioxidants and Anticarcinogens in Nutrition, Health and Disease. 1999, The Royal Society of Chemistry, UK, 178-187.Google Scholar
- van Wyk BE: Food plants of the World: identification, culinary uses and nutritional values. 2005, Briza Publication, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
- Joshi AR, Joshi K: Indigenous knowledge and uses of medicinal plants by local communities of the Kali Gandaki watershed area, Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2000, 73: 175-183. 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00301-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kunwar RM, Duwadee NPS: Ethnobotanical notes on flora of Khaptad National Park, far-west Nepal. Himalayan Journal of Sciences. 2003, 1: 25-30.Google Scholar
- Ma SC, Du J, But PP, Deng XL, Zhang YW, Ooi VE, Xu HX, Lee SH, Lee SF: Antiviral Chinese medicinal herbs against respiratory synctial virus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002, 79: 205-211. 10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00389-0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hui KM, Huen MS, Wang HY, Zheng H, Sigel E, Baur R, Ren H, Li ZW, Wong ZT, Xue H: Anxiolytic effect of Wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2002, 464: 1-8.Google Scholar
- CSIR: The Wealth of India: Raw Materials. 1998, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, India, 1-10:Google Scholar
- Lopez R, Pina MB, Estrada RR, Heinze G, Martinez VM: Anxiolytic effect of hexane extract of the leaves of Annona cherimolia in two anxiety paradigms: possible involvement of the GABA/Benzodiazepine receptor complex. Life Science. 2006, 78: 730-737. 10.1016/j.lfs.2005.05.078.Google Scholar
- Park KH, Park M, Choi SE, Jeong MS, Kwon JH, Oh MH, Choi HK, Seo SJ, Lee MW: The antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Caffeoyl derivatives from the roots of Aconitum koreanum. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2009, 32 (12): 2029-2033. 10.1248/bpb.32.2029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wong CW, Seow WK, Ocallaghan JW, Thong YH: Comparative effects of tetrandrine and berbamine on subcutaneous air pouch inflammation induced by interleukin 1, tumour necrosis factor and platelet-activating factor. Agents Actions. 1992, 36: 112-118. 10.1007/BF01991238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ono M: Inflammation Inhibitors Containing Cepharanoline or Berbamine. 1994, Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-06 211, 661-Google Scholar
- Omulokoli E, Khan B, Chhabra SC: Antiplasmodial activity of four Kenyan medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1997, 56: 133-137. 10.1016/S0378-8741(97)01521-3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kareru PG, Kenji GM, Gachanja AN, Keriko JM, Mungai G: Traditional medicines among the Embu and Mbeere peoples of Kenya. African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2007, 4: 75-86.Google Scholar
- Kunwar RM, Burlakoti CM, Chowdhary CL, Bussmann RW: Medicinal plants in far-west Nepal: Indigenous uses and pharmacological validity. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Technology 4 (Special issue 1). 2010, Global Science Books, UK,Google Scholar
- Rokaya MB, Munzbergova Z, Timsina B: Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants from the Humla district of western Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010, 130: 485-504. 10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kunwar RM, Bussmann RW: Medicinal plants and quantitative ethnomedicine: a case study from Baitadi and Darchula districts, far-west Nepal. Journal of Natural History Museum. 2009, 24: 73-82.Google Scholar
- Uprety Y, Asselin H, Boon EK, Yadav S, Shrestha KK: Indigenous use and bioefficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa district, Central Nepal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2010, 6: 3-10.1186/1746-4269-6-3. [http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/6/1/3]PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ambasta SP, Ramchandran K, Kashyapa K, Chand R: The useful plants of India. 1992, Council of Science and Industrial Research (CSIR), New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- Terada T, Fujimoto K, Nomura M, Yamashita J, Kobunai T, Takeda S, Wierzba K, Yamada Y, Yamaguchi H: Antitumor agents. I. DNA topoisomerase II inhibitory activity and the structural relationship of podophyllotoxin derivatives as antitumor agents. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 1992, 40: 2720-2727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goel HC, Prasad J, Sharma A, Singh B: Antitumour and radio-protective action of Podophyllum hexandrum. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1998, 36: 583-587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nazir T, Uniyal AK, Todaria NP: Allelopathic behavior of three medicinal plant species on traditional agriculture crops of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Agroforestry System. 2006, 69 (3): 183-187. 10.1007/s10457-006-9023-8.Google Scholar
- Kirtikar KR, Basu BD: Indian medicinal plants. 1981, International Book Distributors, India, II: 838-Google Scholar
- Kirtikar KP, Basu BD: Indian medicinal plants. 1935, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India, 1:Google Scholar
- Bhattacharjee SK: Handbook of medicinal plants. 2008, Pointer publishers, Jaipur, India, 494-5Google Scholar
- Aitzetmüller K: Antioxidative effects of Carum seeds. JAOCS. 1997, 74 (2): 185-Google Scholar
- Iacobellis NS, Lo CP, Capasso F, Senatore F: Antibacterial activity of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. essential oils. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 2005, 53: 57-61. 10.1021/jf0487351.Google Scholar
- Muthaiyan K, Kumaraswami D, Murugan S, Namasivayam N: Effect of dietary caraway (Carum carvi L.) on aberrant crypt foci development, fecal steroids, and intestinal alkaline phosphatase activities in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2006, 214: 290-296. 10.1016/j.taap.2006.01.001.Google Scholar
- Koelz WN: Notes on ethnobotany of Lahul, Punjab. Quarterly Journal of Crude Drug Research. 1979, 17 (1): 1-56.Google Scholar
- Eddouks M, Lemhadri A, Michel JB: Caraway and caper: potential anti-hyperglycemic plants in diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004, 94: 143-148. 10.1016/j.jep.2004.05.006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mc Laughlin JL, Miller RW, Powell RG, Smith CR: Hydroxy baccatin, deacetylcephalomannine and deacetyltaxol: new antitumor taxanes from Taxus wallichiana. Journal of Natural Products. 1981, 44 (3): 312-318. 10.1021/np50015a013.Google Scholar
- Deshpande VH, Patil AD: Flavonoids of Acacia catechu heartwood. Indian Journal of Chemistry. 1981, 20: 628-Google Scholar
- Singh KN, Mittal RK, Barthwal KC: Hypoglycemic activity of Acacia catechu, Acacia suma, Albizzia odoratissima seed diets in normal albino rats. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1976, 64: 754-757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ray DK, Thokchom IS: Antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, hypoglycaemic and hepato-protective activities of ethyl acetate extract of Acacia catechu in albino rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2006, 38: 408-413. 10.4103/0253-7613.28207.Google Scholar
- Jayasekhar P, Mohanan PV, Rathinam K: Hepato-protective activity of ethyl acetate extract of Acacia catechu. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 1997, 29: 426-428.Google Scholar
- Wang YH, Wang WY, Chang CC, Liou KT, Sung YJ, Liao JF, Chen CF, Chang S, Hou YC, Chou YC, Shen YC: Taxifolin ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats through its anti-oxidative effect and modulation of NF-kappa B activation. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2006, 13 (1): 127-141. 10.1007/s11373-005-9031-0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wallis TE: Cutch: text book of pharmacognosy. 1967, London: J & A Churchill Ltd, 5Google Scholar
- Chapagain DJ, Joshi SD, Jnawali SR: Indigenous use of medicinal plants by the Tharu community in the southern buffer zone of Bardia National Park, Nepal. Proceeding of IV National Conference on Science and Technology. 2004, 738-751.Google Scholar
- Lin WY, Peng CF, Tsai IL, Chen JJ, Cheng MJ, Chen IS: Antitubercular constituents from the roots of Engelhardtia roxburghiana. Planta Medica. 2005, 71 (2): 171-175. 10.1055/s-2005-837786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arif M, Zaman K, Fareed S, Hussain MS: Antibactetial, antidiarrhoeal and ulcer protective activity of methanolic extract of Spondias mangifera bark. International Journal of Health Research. 2008, 1 (4): 172-182.Google Scholar
- Tannert U: Shellac, a natural polymer for hair care products. Cosmetics Conference. Frankfurt, 4-6th March, Germany. 1992Google Scholar
- Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN: A compendium of medicinal plants. 1969, Central Drugs Research Institute, Lucknow and Publication and Information Directorate, New Delhi, 1: 497-Google Scholar
- Prakash D, Upadhyay G, Singh BN, Dhakarey R, Kumar S, Singh KK: Free Radical Scavenging activities of Himalayan Rhododendrons. Current Science. 2007, 92 (4): 526-532.Google Scholar
- Young HS, Lee CK, Park SW, Park KY, Kim KW, Chung HY, Yokozawa T, Oura H: Anti-tumorigenic effects of ursolic acid isolated from the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica. Natural Medicine. 1995, 49: 190-192.Google Scholar
- Kim KW: Anticancer activities of plant triterpenoids, ursolic acid and oleanoid acid. J Korean Assoc Cancer Prevention. 1997, 2: 38-44.Google Scholar
- Jain SK, Sinha BK, Gupta RC: Notable plants in ethnomedicine of India Deep Publications, New Delhi, India. 1991, 219-Google Scholar
- Nair CKN, Mohanan N: Medicinal plants of India with species reference to Ayurveda. 1998, NAG Publishers. Delhi, India, 501-Google Scholar
- Choudhary BR, Poddar MK: Andrographolide and kalmeg extracts; effects on intestinal brush border-membrane bound hydrolases methods. Findings of Experimental Clinical Pharmacology. 1985, 7: 617-Google Scholar
- Rana AC, Avadhoot Y: Hepato-protective effects of Andrographis paniculata against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage. Archieves of Pharmacy Research. 1991, 14 (1): 93-95. 10.1007/BF02857822.Google Scholar
- Visen PK, Shukla B, Patnaik GK, Dhawan BN: Andrographolide protects rat hepatocytes against paracetamol-induced damage. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1993, 40 (2): 131-136. 10.1016/0378-8741(93)90058-D.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Devkota HP, Basnet P, Yahara S: Diterpenes esters and phenolic compounds from Sapium insigne. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2009, 57 (11): 1289-1291. 10.1248/cpb.57.1289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Park IW, Hang C, Song X, Green LA, Wang T, Liu Y, Chen C, Yang B, Chen G, He JJ: Inhibition of HIV I entry by extract derived from traditional chinense medicinal herb plants. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2009, 9: 29-10.1186/1472-6882-9-29. [http://www.biomedcentral.com]PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Husain A, Virmani OP, Popali SP, Mishra LN, Gupta MM, Srivastava GN, Abraham Z, Singh AK: Dictionary of Indian medicinal plants. 1992, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP). Lucknow, IndiaGoogle Scholar
- Garcia-Argaez AN, Ramirez-Apan TO, Delgado HP, Velazquez G, Martinez-Vasquez M: Anti-inflammatory activity of coumarins from Decatropis bicolor on TPA ear mice model. Planta Medica. 2000, 66: 279-281. 10.1055/s-2000-14894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Foster S, Duke JA: A field guide to medicinal plants. 1990, Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co, ISBN. 0395467225Google Scholar
- Moermann D: Native American ethnobotany. 1998, Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, USA, 453-459.Google Scholar
- Parekh J, Chanda S: Antibacterial and phytochemical studies on twelve species of Indian medicinal Plants. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2006, 10: 175-181.Google Scholar
- Rajkapoor B, Jayakar B, Murugesh N: Antitumor activity of Bauhinia variegata on Dalton's ascitic lymphoma. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003, 89: 107-109. 10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00264-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vinutha B, Prasanth D, Salma K, Sreeja SL, Pratiti D, Padmaja R, Radhika S, Amit A, Ventakeshwarlu K, Deepak M: Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007, 109: 359-363. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.06.014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sreelekshmi R, Latha PG, Arafat MM, Shyamal S, Shine VJ, Anuja GI, Suja SR, Rajasekharan S: Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antilipid peroxidation studies on the stem bark of Ficus religiosa. Natural Product Radiance. 2007, 6 (5): 377-381.Google Scholar
- Agarwal V, Chauhan BM: A study of composition and hypolipidemic effect of dietary fibre from some plant foods. Plant Foods and Human Nutrition. 1988, 38 (2): 189-197. 10.1007/BF01091723.Google Scholar
- Mangrio SM, Dahot MU, Leghari SM: Chemical constituents of Equisetum debile. Pakistan Journal of Plant Science. 1995, 1 (1): 41-48.Google Scholar
- Pourmorad F, Hosseinimehr SJ, Shahabimajd N: Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoids contents of some selected Iranian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006, 5 (11): 1142-1145.Google Scholar
- KC SK, Muller K: Medicinal plants from Nepal: evaluation as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999, 64: 135-139. 10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00117-2.Google Scholar
- KC SK, Zieries K, Wiegrebe W, Muller K: Medicinal plants from Nepal. Evaluation as inhibitors of leukotriene bio-synthesis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2000, 70: 191-195. 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00203-8.Google Scholar
- Rajbhandari M, Mentel R, Jha PK, Chaudhary RP, Bhattarai S, Gewali MB, Karmacharya N, Hipper M, Lindequest U: Antiviral activity of some plants used in Nepalese traditional medicine. eCAM. 2007, 6 (4): 517-522.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Siddiqui BS, Faizi S, Siddiqui G, Siddiqui S: Chemistry of Neem (Azadirachta indica), a sustainable source of natural pesticide. Neem and Environment. 1993, Oxford & IBH Publishing, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- Khanna N, Goswami M, Sen P, Ray A: Antinociceptive action of Azadirachta indica (neem) in mice: possible mechanisms involved. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1995, 33: 848-850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- CCRAS: Pharmacological investigation of certain medicinal plants and compound formulations used in Ayurveda and Siddha. Edited by: Pandey VN, Malhotra SC, Sharma DP. 1996, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- Fabry W, Okema PO, Ansorg R: Antibacterial activity of east African medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1998, 60: 79-84. 10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00128-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tahir AE, GMH Satti, Khalid SA: Antiplasmodial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis on Maytenus senegalensis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999, 64: 227-233. 10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00129-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dorababu M, Joshi MC, Bhawani G, Kumar MM, Chaturvedi A, Goel RK: Effect of aqueous extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves on offensive and defensive gastric mucosal factors in rats. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 2006, 50: 241-249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Halim EM: Lowering of blood sugar by water extract of Azadirachta indica and Abroma augusta in diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2003, 41 (6): 636-640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rao YK, Fang SH, Hsieh SC, Yeh TH, Tzeng YM: The constituents of Anisomeles indica and their anti-inflammatory activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2009, 121 (2): 292-296. 10.1016/j.jep.2008.10.032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dharmasiri MG, Ratnasooriya WD, Thabrew MI: Water extract of leaves and stems of pre-flowering but not flowering plants of Anisomeles indica possesses analgesic and antihyperalgesic activities in Rats. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2003, 41 (1): 37-44. 10.1076/phbi.126.96.36.19999.Google Scholar
- Wang YC, Huang TL: Screening of anti-Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology. 2005, 43 (2): 295-300.Google Scholar
- Shahidul AM, Quader MA, Rashid MA: HIV-inhibitory diterpenoid from Anisomeles indica. Fitoterapia. 2000, 71: 574-576. 10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00197-0.Google Scholar
- Rizzini CT: The uses of lichens in medicine. Bras Med. 1952, 66 (38-39): 589-596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh RK, Nath G, Goel RK, Bhattacharya SK: Pharmacological actions of Abies pindrow Royle leaf. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1988, 36: 187-191.Google Scholar
- Brown JP: A review of the genetic effects of naturally occurring flavonoids, anthroquinones and related compounds. Mutation Research. 1980, 75: 243-277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oliveira FA, Vieira-Junior GM, Chaves MH, Almeida FR, Florencio MG, Lima RC, Silva RM, Santos FA, Rao VS: Gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of resin from Protium heptaphyllum in mice and rats. Pharmacological Research. 2004, 49: 105-111. 10.1016/j.phrs.2003.09.001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN: A compendium of Indian medicinal plants. 1993, CDRI, Lucknow and Publications & Information Directorate, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- Iman RA, Priya BL, Chithra R, Shalini K, Sharon V, Chamundeeswari D, Vasantha J: In vitro antiplatelet activity-guided fractionation of aerial parts of Melothria maderaspatana. Indian Journal of Pharmacological Science. 2006, 68: 668-670. 10.4103/0250-474X.29646.Google Scholar
- Wu HC, Si HC, Fan NC, Ho JA: Antioxidant activity and melanogenesis inhibitory effect of the acetonic extract of Osmanthes fragrans: a potential natural and functional food flavor additive. Food Science and Technology. 2009, 42 (9): 1513-1529.Google Scholar
- Wang H, Gan D, Zhang X, Pan Y: Antioxidant capacity of the extracts from pulp of Osmanthes fragrans and its components. Food Science and Technology. 2010, 43 (2): 319-325.Google Scholar
- Lee HH, Lin CT, Ling YL: Neuroprotection and free radical scavenging effects of Osmanthes fragrans. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2007, 14 (6): 819-827. 10.1007/s11373-007-9179-x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Madhuri S, Pandey G: Some anticancer medicinal plants of foreign origin. Current Science. 2009, 96 (6): 779-783.Google Scholar
- Azuine MA, Kayal JJ, Bhide SV: Protective role of aqueous turmeric extract against mutagenicity of direct-acting carcinogens as well as benzo(a)pyrene-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology. 1992, 118: 447-452. 10.1007/BF01629428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mali RG, Mehta AA: A review on anthelmintic plants. Natural Product Radiance. 2008, 7 (5): 466-475.Google Scholar
- Achliya GS, Wadodkar SG, Dorle AK: Evaluation of CNS activity of Brahmi Ghrita. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2005, 37: 33-36. 10.4103/0253-7613.13853.Google Scholar
- Dash GK, Bijayini M, Panda A, Patro CP, Ganapaty S: Anthelmintic activity of Evolvulus numullarius. Indian Journal of Natural Products. 2003, 19: 24-26.Google Scholar
- Saini V, Kinger HK, Sharma DK, Ahuja N, Middha A, Gupta VB: Wound healing activities of Evolvulus nummullarius. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2007, 19: 5772-5774.Google Scholar
- Pavithra PS, Srividya N, Verma RS: Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Evolvulus nummullarius. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2009, 41: 233-236. 10.4103/0253-7613.58514.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bradley PR: British Herbal Compendium. 1992, BHMA, 1: ISBN No. 0-903032-09-0Google Scholar
- Otsuka H, Fujioka S, Komiya T, Goto M, Hiramatsu Y, Fujimura H: Studies on anti-inflammatory agents; a new anti-inflammatory constituents of Pyracantha crenulata. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 1981, 29 (11): 3099-3104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang KH, Lin RD, Hsu FL, Huang YH, Chang HC, Huang CY, Lee MH: Cosmetic applications of selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006, 106: 353-359. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.01.010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- WHO: WHO Regional publication western pacific series No.21. Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea. 1998, WHO Regional office Manila, 316-Google Scholar
- Shao F, Hu Z, Xiong YM, Huang QZ, Wang CG, Zhu RH, Wang DC: A new antifungal peptide from the seeds of Phytolacca americana: characterization, amino acid sequence and cDNA cloning. Biochem Biophys Acta. 1999, 1430: 262-268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Uckan FM, Rustamova L, Vassilev AO, Tibbles HE, Petkevich AS: CNS activity of pokeweed anti-viral protein (PAP) in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). BMC Infectious Diseases. 2005, 5: 9-10.1186/1471-2334-5-9.Google Scholar
- Buckingham J: Dictionary of Natural Products. 1994, Chapman and Hall 2-6 Boundary Row, London, UK, 7:Google Scholar
- Oran SA, Al-Eiwasi DM: Checklist of medicinal Plants in Jordan. Dirasat. Medical and Biological Sciences. 1998, 25: 84-112.Google Scholar
- Chen PN, Chu SC, Chiou HL, Kuo WH, Chiang CL, Hsieh YS: Mulberry anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside, exhibited an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of a human lung cancer cell line. Cancer Letters. 2006, 235: 248-259. 10.1016/j.canlet.2005.04.033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Okoli CO, Akals PA, Nwafor SV: Anti-inflammatory activities of Plants. Journal of Natural Remedies. 2003, 3 (1): 1-30.Google Scholar
- Burkill HM: The useful plants of west tropical African families MFT. 1994, Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, 4: 605-Google Scholar
- Justicia adhatoda. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justicia_adhatoda]
- Luheshi GN: Cytokine and fever. Mechanism and sites of action. Annals of New York Academy of Science. 1998, 856: 83-89. 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb08316.x.Google Scholar
- Rege NN, Javle H, Bapat RD: Antiendotoxic effect of Tinospora cordifolia: an experimental study in rats. Indian Journal of Surgery. 1998, 60: 303-305.Google Scholar
- Dahanukar SA, Thatte UM: Current status of Ayurveda in phytomedicine. Phytomedicine. 1997, 4: 359-368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Das J, Pal M, Saha BP: Studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera. Planta Medica. 1997, 63: 367-369. 10.1055/s-2006-957705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chakraborthy GS: Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of Aesculus indica. International Pharmaceutical Technical Research. 2009, 1 (2): 132-134.Google Scholar
- Prajapati ND, SS Purohit, AK Sharma, Kumar T: A handbook of medicinal plants: a complement source book. 2006, Agrobios India (reprint), 554-Google Scholar
- Go N: Bulletin of Department of Medicinal Plants No. 28. Medicinal Plants of Nepal. 2007, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Thapathali Kathmandu, Nepal, 402-Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (<url>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0</url>), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.