Open Access

Ethnomedical survey of plants used by the Orang Asli in Kampung Bawong, Perak, West Malaysia

  • Anbu Jeba Sunilson John Samuel1, 2Email author,
  • Anandarajagopal Kalusalingam1,
  • Dinesh Kumar Chellappan1,
  • Rejitha Gopinath1,
  • Suraj Radhamani1,
  • Hj Azman Husain3,
  • Vignesh Muruganandham1 and
  • Proom Promwichit1
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine20106:5

https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-6-5

Received: 10 July 2009

Accepted: 7 February 2010

Published: 7 February 2010

Abstract

Background

A qualitative ethnomedical survey was carried out among a local Orang Asli tribe to gather information on the use of medicinal plants in the region of Kampung Bawong, Perak of West Malaysia in order to evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants used in curing different diseases and illnesses.

Methods

Sixteen informants ranging in age from 35 to 65 years were interviewed. A total of 62 species of plants used by Orang Asli are described in this study based on field surveys and direct face to face communication. These plants belonged to 36 families and are used to treat a wide range of discomforts and diseases.

Results

The results of this study showed that majority of the Orang Asli, of Kampung Bawong are still dependent on local plants as their primary source of medication. As the first ethnomedical study in this area, publishing this work is expected to open up more studies to identify and assess the pharmacological and toxicological action of the plants from this region.

Conclusions

Preservation and recording of ethnobotanical and ethnomedical uses of traditional medicinal plants is an indispensable obligation for sustaining the medicinal and cultural resource of mankind. Extensive research on such traditional plants is of prime importance to scientifically validate their ethnomedical claims.

Background

The study of tribal knowledge of plants is an imperative facet of ethnomedical research. People healed themselves with traditional herbal medicines and ancient remedies from time immemorial [1, 2]. Human beings have found remedies within their habitat, and have adopted different strategies depending upon the climatic, phyto-geographic and faunal characteristics, as well as upon the peculiar culture and socio-structural typologies [3]. Most of such information is passed on to the following generations by traditional healers through oral communication and discipleship practice [4]. Moreover, the World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that about 80% of the world population relies on traditional medicine to cure ailments [5, 6]. Plants play a major role in the treatment of diseases and still remain the foremost alternative for a large majority of people [79]. This knowledge, if wisely utilized, could draw out promising herbal leads [10].

Perak, (Fig. 1) (5.02 N latitude and 101.08 E longitude), in Malaysia is one such area where traditional healing systems are still in practice among the local natives, especially the 'Orang Asli' tribes. Till date, no literature is available regarding the ethnomedical knowledge of this area, though there are ethnomedical reports on few other regions in Malaysia [1113]. The 'Orang Asli', which means 'first people', are considered to be the original natives of peninsular Malaysia. There are about 150, 000 Orang Asli people of which 60% still live in the rain forests. There are 19 sub-groups among them, like Semai, Temiar, Lanoh and Jah Hut to name a few [14]. Many of the Orang Asli practitioners use local plant parts and plant juices to cure ailments and this practice is still in use [15]. Yet, little attention has been given to their traditional expertise to incorporate their knowledge in modern medicine. This study is an attempt to identify and document the use of traditional medicine among the local Orang Asli along the Kampung Bawong region in Perak.
Figure 1

Map of the Kampung Bawong region where the ethnomedical field survey was conducted.

Methods

Regular field trips were made to the selected tribal localities in different seasons of the year 2008, conducted in rural area located in Kampung Bawong. The authors worked with a specific tribe of Orang asli called the 'semang' who fall under the group 'negrito' (Fig. 2, 3). Sixteen informants were involved in the interviews. All informants were in the age group of 35 to 65 years. All informants were male. 3 of them were practicing herbalists, and the rest 13 were individuals who gained knowledge on medicinal uses of plants from their parents and relatives who were historically using the plants with promising results. Interviews were conducted in a local dialect of Malay language. Interviewing individual informant was of fundamental importance to assure the reliability of the gathered information. Individual interviews were conducted with 7 informants (3 herbalists and 4 individual informants) and one group discussion involving the remaining 9 informants was also conducted. The interviews were built on trust with a common aspiration to improve the health situation in the country and to conserve and increase the knowledge on medicinal plants. The information was collected in the local dialect of Malay language. Special concern was taken in collecting information to steer clear of any unoriginal information by sources such as books and magazines were rejected. Some informants were repeatedly merited during field trips to confirm the information provided by them previously. Interpretation and translation of the information received into technical or medicinal terms was cautiously avoided during the interviews so as to obtain a genuine picture of customs and uses. All the plants were identified by Dr. Encik Sani, Botanist, Department of Botany, University Kebangsan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. Voucher herbarium specimens were prepared and deposited in the herbarium of Department of Pharmacognosy, Masterskill University College of Health Sciences, Selangor, Malaysia.
Figure 2

An Orang asli crossing the river on their own wooden boat (perahuk) for fishing and hunting.

Figure 3

An Orang asli using blow pipe made up of sewor bamboo for hunting.

Results and Discussion

The present ethnomedical field survey indicated that there are 62 medicinal plant species belonging to a total of 36 families which are used in Kampung Bawong (Table 1). Most of these species grow in the wild naturally and their medicinal properties are crucial in traditional medicine of the Orang Asli. Majority of the species reported in this paper are widely known throughout peninsular Malaysia and are employed for a large number of medical conditions.
Table 1

Plants used by Orang Asli in Kampung Bawong, Perak of West Malaysia

Botanical Family

Botanical name

Local Malay Dialect

Part Used

Medicinal Uses

Acanthaceae

Barleria lupulina Lindl

Penawar Seribu Bisa

Leaves

Fresh leaves are used to remove warts

 

Barleria prionitis Linn.

Hempedu landak

Leaves

Leaves are crushed and make into paste and applied over the inflamed area

 

Dipteracanthus repens (L.) Hassk.

Deras malam

Leaves

Powder of dried leaves is mixed in warm water and drink to remove kidney stones

 

Eranthemum borneense Hook f.

Sangsangkaruk

Leaves

Paste of leaves is applied to treat muscle cramps

 

Strobilanthes crispus Blume.

Bayam karang

Leaves

Fresh leaves are masticated and swallowed as such to enhance the immune system

Annonaceae

Annona muricata Linn.

Durian Makkah

Leaves

Leaves are used to treat to kill all types of lice

   

Fruits

Fruit juice is used to treat Stomach pain and hypertension

 

Uvaria sorsogonensis C.Presl.

Segombong

Leaves

Decoction of the leaves is used to cure stomach ulcer

Araliaceae

Arthrophyllum diversifolium Blume.

Ondolus

Roots

Roots are boiled with water and drink to relieve body pain

Asteraceae

Eupatorium odoratum Linn.

Pokok kapalterbang

Leaves

Decoction of leaves is used as diuretic

Asclepiadaceae

Hoya coronaria Blume.

Takop

Leaves

Crushed leaves are applied to cure cuts and wounds

Bombacaceae

Bombax ceiba Linn.

Kapok

Leaves

Leaves are soaked into water and the decoction is taken for bath to treat body pain

Caesalpiniaceae

Caesalpinia crista Linn.

Gorek

Seeds

Seeds are crushed and mixed with sambal for appetite

Caprifoliaceae

Sambucus javanica Reinw. ex Blume

Kerak nasi

Leaves

Crushed the leaves with water and applied on inflamed parts to reduce pain and inflammation

Clusiaceae

Garcinia mangostana Linn.

Mangusta

Fruit

Fresh juice is used as nutrient drink

   

Pericarp

Dried powder is used to heal the open wounds

Compositae

Artemisia argyi Levi. et Vant.

Ulam mak wan

Leaves

Fresh leaves are chewed in case of cough

 

Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr.

Daun dewa

Leaves

Fresh leaves are used for to control blood glucose level

Connaraceae

Agelaea macrophylla (Zoll.) Leenh.

Akar pinang kutai

Leaves

The paste of leaves is used to treat acne

 

Cnestis platantha Griff.

Binsangut

Leaves

Young leaves are warmed and applied to treat high fever

Euphorbiaceae

Croton caudatus Geisel

Tapasan komudi

Roots

Roots are boiled and the infusion is used as Nutrition.

 

Euphorbia tirucalli Linn.

Mentulang

Latex

Latex is used to remove warts

 

Jatropha curcas Linn.

Jarak Belanda

Leaves

Paste of young leaf is applied to treat cuts and wounds

   

Roots

Roots are boiled and infusion is taken to treat diarrhea

 

Phyllanthus niruri Linn.

Dukung Anak

Whole plant

Decoction of whole plant is used to treat jaundice

Fabaceae

Parkia speciosa Hassk.

Petai

Seeds

Fresh seeds are cooked and used to treat kidney disorders

Gnetaceae

Gnetum leptostachyum Blume.

Langod-langod

Whole plant

The plant was boiled in water and drink for relieve fever and flu

Lauraceae

Cassytha filiformis Linn.

Cemara Puteri

Whole Plant

Concoction used for the treatment of impotency

Leguminosae

Archidendron ellipticum Blume.

Bulinat

Leaves

Leaves are used to kill lice

 

Bauhinia semibifida Roxb.

Daup-daup

Roots

Roots are boiled and the infusion is used to treat fatigue

 

Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC) K. Heyne

Cugah

Barks

Powdered barks are applied on the affected area to treat psoriasis

 

Pongammia pinnata Linn.

Kacang kayu laut

Leaves and Seeds

Fresh leaves and seeds are crushed and applied to repel insects

   

Barks

Decoction of barks is used to kill intestinal worms

Loranthaceae

Dendrophoetoe constricta Dans.

Salidan

Leaves

Paste of leaves is applied to treat headache

Malvaceae

Abutilon indicum Linn.

Kembang Lohor

Leaves

Poultice in the treatment of fever

 

Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn.

Bunga Raya

Root barks

Root barks is soaked in water for overnight and taken in empty stomach to treat ulcer

 

Hibiscus tiliaceus Linn.

Daun baru

Barks

Dried powder is used to cure all types of sexually transmitted diseases

Meliaceae

Aglaia odorata Lour.

Pacar cina

Flowers

An infusion is used to reduce fever

 

Trichilia trijuga Roxb

Kayu kaling

Barks

Fresh barks are crushed and the juice is applied to cure cuts and wounds

Menispermaceae

Tinospora crispa Linn.

Pokok patawali

Stem

Decoction of the stem is used to treat diabetes

Myrsinaceae

Ardisia colorata Roxb.

Pacar inai

Leaves

Decoction of the leaves is used to cure viral infections such as herpes zoster, measles

 

Ardisia crenata Sims.

Mata Ayam

Whole Plant

The crushed juice is used to treat earaches and fever

Myrtaceae

Syzygium cerina Hend.

Bagu

Roots

Roots are boiled with water and drink as an energizer

 

Syzygium samarangenese Blume.

Red Jambu

Leaves

Leaves are used to treat skin infections

Oleaceae

Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait

Kampupot

Leaves

Young leaves are soaked in cold water and drink to treat gallstones

   

Roots

Roots are boiled and the infusion is taken to treat diabetes mellitus

Oxalidaceae

Averrhoa bilimbi Linn.

Tulod-ulod

Leaves

A cocktail of the leaves along with the fruit is used to treat Syphilis

Orchidaceae

Bulbophyllum mutabile (Bl.) Lindl

Tatau

Leaves

Leaves are boiled and the decoction is used to treat fever

Poaeceae

Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.

Lalang

Whole plant

Dried powdered plant is applied over the wounds to prevent microbial infections

Portulacaceae

Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd.

Akar singsum

Flowers

Powder of dried flowers is mixed with tea and drink to treat asthma

Rubiaceae

Morinda citrifolia Linn.

Bingkudu

Fruits

Fruits juice is used to treat Jaundice

 

Oldenlandia diffusa (Willd.) Roxb.

Siku-siku

Leaves

Juice of fresh leaves is used as Sedative

Ruscaceae

Sansevieria trifasciatai Prain.

Snake plant

Leaves

2 or 3 drops of fresh juice is instilled into ear to reduce pain and inflammation

Sapotaceae

Planchonella obovata (R. Br.) Pierre

Gombirat

Leaves

A paste of the leaves is applied on the forehead to relieve headache

Schizaeaceae

Lygodium circinnatum Burm.

Ribu-ribu

Leaves

Infusion of leaves is used to cure eye infection

Simaroubaceae

Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

Tongkat ali

Roots

Decoction of roots with tea is used as sexual stimulant

Solanaceae

Solanum nigrum Linn

Terong meranti

Fruits and Leaves

Fruits and leaves are chewed to treat upper respiratory tract infections

Umbeliferae

Centella asiatica Linn.

Pegaga

Leaves

Leaves are boiled and the infusion is used for mother who just give birth

Verbenaceae

Lantana camara Linn.

Bunga Tahi Ayam

Leaves

Leaves are boiled with water and spray to repel insects

 

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis Linn. Vahl.

Bunga malam

Whole plant

The whole plant was crushed with water and applied on the injured ligament to relieve the pain and inflammation

Zingiberaceae

Curcuma petiolata Roxb.

Temu Puteri

Rhizomes

Juice is used to cure stomach ache

 

Languas conchigera Burkill

Lengkuas Kecil

Rhizomes

Minced rhizomes are used for digestion

 

Kaempferia galanga Linn.

Cekur

Rhizomes

Juice of the rhizomes is used for the treatment of stomach pains and coughs

 

Zingiber ottensii Valeton

Kunyit Terus Hitam

Rhizomes

The juice of the rhizomes is used to cure all types of bacterial infections

The plants were often used by most of the informants more or less for the same purpose, and with only slight variations in recipes. The plants are usually collected from wild. All species were easily recognized by the informants with their respective local Malay dialect names. Some of the plants commonly used belong to the family Euphorbiaceae, Acanthaceae, Leguminosae, Zingiberaceae and Malvaceae. Most of these plants were used to relieve pain and to cure wound. Certain plants have specific use such as Strobilanthes crispus Blume., which is used to enhance the immune system and Eurycoma longifolia Jack., roots used as aphrodisiac. Results of this survey indicate that these plants were in use for a long time by the ethnic group.

Conclusions

This current ethnomedical field survey carried out among the Orang Asli living in the Kampung Bawong region of Perak, Malaysia reveals that many medicinal plants are still broadly used by the population in the area where the study was conducted for treating various diseases and ailments. It is believed that there are more than 100 species of traditional herbal medicines found in this region. Since many plant species are indicated as potential resource for treating various diseases, this should encourage further research in ethnomedicine. The informants' consensus in the treatment of the main reported diseases is quite high, giving more validity to the plants as a traditional remedy.

The current data will expand the genetic resources obtainable in the area of research and signify a potential source of natural products for treating various diseases. The preservation of these plant species is the gateway toward developing efficacious remedies for treating diseases. Due to lack of knowledge and interest among the younger generations, some of the traditional medical information was buried together with the previous generations. This implies that the local government and village authorities need to act fast to conserve the ethnomedical knowledge of Orang Asli in the village Kampung Bawong, and the medicinal plants require preservation in addition to the ethnobotanical and ethnomedical knowledge recording. The preservation of these herbs along with the traditional knowledge of how to use them is an indispensable obligation for sustaining traditional medicine as a medicinal and cultural resource. Thus a future extensive research of these plants in this locality is recommended to identify and assess their ethnomedical claim.

Declarations

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the management, Dato' Prof. Dr. Ishak Bin Tambi Kechik, Vice-Chancellor and Dato' Edmund Santhara, GCEO, Masterskill University College of Health Sciences, Malaysia, for their funding, continuous encouragement and support. The authors also acknowledge the efforts of Dr. Encik Sani, Botanist, Department of Botany, University Kebangsan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia and the Orang asli tribes of Kampung Bawong for their dedicated support.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
School of Pharmacy, Masterskill University College of Health Sciences
(2)
Honorary Associate, School of Pharmacy, La Trobe University
(3)
School of Biomedicine and Health, Masterskill University College of Health Sciences

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Copyright

© Samuel et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.