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Ethnomedicinal uses of the local flora in Chenab riverine area, Punjab province Pakistan

Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201915:7

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-019-0285-4

  • Received: 5 November 2018
  • Accepted: 10 January 2019
  • Published:

Abstract

Background

Because of diverse topographical habitats, the Chenab River wetland harbors a wealth of medicinal and food plant species. This paper presents first quantitative assessment on the ethnobotanical use of plants by the local peoples residing in the Chenab riverine area.

Methods

The ethnobotanical data were collected from six parts of the Chenab River wetland: Mandi Bahuddin, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sargodha, and Sialkot during 2014 to 2015, using semi-structured interviews. Quantitative indices including informant consensus factor (FCI), relative frequency of citation (RFC), relative importance level (RIL), use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), and corrected fidelity level (CFL) were used to analyze the data.

Results

On the whole, 129 medicinal plant species belonging to 112 genera of 59 families were reported, with herbs as dominant life forms (51%). Poaceae was the leading family with 13 species, and leaves were the most frequently utilized plant parts (28%). Herbal medicines were mostly used in the form of powder or decoction, and were mainly taken orally. Withania somnifera, Solanum surattense, Solanum nigrum, Azadirachta indica, Ficus benghalensis, Morus nigra, Morus alba, Polygonum plebeium, and Tribulus terrestris were among the highly utilized plant species, with highest UV, RFC, RIL, FL, and CFL values. The reported ailments were grouped into 11 categories based on FCI values, whereas highest FIC was recorded for gastrointestinal diseases and glandular diseases (0.41 and 0.34, respectively). The use report (UR) and frequency of citation (FC) depicted strong positive correlation (r = 0.973; p = 0.01). The value of determination (r2 = 0.95) indicating 95% variation in UR can be explained in terms of the FC.

Conclusion

The significant traditional knowledge possessed by local communities depicts their strong relation with phytodiversity. Reported data could be helpful in sustainable use and protection of plant species in the Chenab wetland, with special emphasis on medicinal plants. Furthermore, screening of plant-borne active ingredients and in vivo/in vitro pharmacological activities could be of interest for novel drug synthesis.

Keywords

  • Ethnobotany
  • Medicinal plants
  • Quantitative analysis
  • Chenab riverine
  • Pakistan

Background

In traditional health care system, botanical or herbal medicines are based on plant extracts or use of plant parts that may be ingested or applied externally. Herbal drugs are prepared as powders, decoctions, infusions, or as poultice, and are operated in a variety of methods [1]. Herbal medicine is very popular around the globe, with particular reference to South Asia, e.g., Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. The main reasons for the popularity of herbal medicines are (i) the belief that plants are close to nature, hence safer than modern synthetic drugs; (ii) easy accessibility; (iii) plants providing a cheaper method of treatment; and (iv) the idea that plants show less side effects or antagonistic reactions as compared to modern drugs [2]. Still today, the majority of the world population, especially rural people in developing countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, or Nepal, partially or entirely rely on herbal medicine [3].

Ethnobotanical studies are important for the discovery of novel medicines from plant species, which are indigenous heritage of global importance [4]. Medicinal plants help in relieving human distress and are widely used as cosmetics, flavors, oil, bitters, spices, sweeteners, insecticides, and dying agents. About 50 thousands angiospermic plants are used as medicinal purpose [5], out of the total 422 thousands angiospermic plants reported around the globe [6]. An estimated 60% of total population in world, including 80% of the population in underdeveloped countries, use traditional phytomedicine to cure several ailments [7]. In Pakistan, about 2000 plant species have been documented to have biochemical properties. About 600 species are used in different Tibb-e Islami dawakhana (herbal drug markets) by general practitioners (GPs). Besides this, about 50,000 tabibs (GPs of Unani medicine), Ayurveda (GPs of folk medicine), and a number of unlicensed health practitioners spread in remote hilly and rural areas are using more than 200 plant species in herbal drugs [8].

Over the last few decades, there has been a considerable interest worldwide in traditional medicine, specifically in herbal medicines. The World Health Organization (WHO) also described the main role of herbal medicines in preventive, promotive, and curative healthcare system, especially in underdeveloped countries [9]. National Center of Complementary and Alternative medicine (NCCAM), U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), classifies complementary and traditional therapies into five major catagories such as whole body system (Unani, Homeopathy, Ayurveda, Chinese medicine); body-mind medicine (mental healing, mediation, prayers); bio-based practices (vitamins, herbs, food); therapeutic and alternative body massages (osteopathy, chiropractic); and bio-field therapies [10]. In Pakistan, herbal drugs have been a strong part of our traditional culture and could have played an important role in providing health care to a large part of the population. In the last few years, mainly three categories, i.e., Ayurveda, Tibb-e-Unani, and homeopathy, are in vogue, whereas Chinese traditional medicine (CTM), aromatherapy, and acupuncture have been introduced in different areas of Pakistan [11].

Chenab River is one of the largest rivers of the Indus basin, spanning a length of 960 km. It is an important wetland of the Punjab, with a flora characteristic of tropical thorn forest [12]. This wetland is rich in biodiversity of vegetables, fodder species, fruits, and medicinal plants. In the Chenab revirine area, the caste system is hundreds of years old and still dominates the social structure of the local communities. For a long time, the people of the Hinjra and Aheer castes have settled in the research area. However, before the partition of Pakistan and India, Bhatti, Kharal, and Tarar were the major castes. Though Muslims always were in the majority, Hindus (Barhaman, Khatri, Kapur, Arorah, Khama, and Chopra), Sikh, and Jatt were also common inhabitants and had great influence on the socio-economic setup. The majority of Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India after partition. Presently, the Chenab riverine area is mainly populated with Muslims, which are divided into Awan, Syyeds, Chattha, Tarar, Kharal, Lodhi, and Hinjrah casts. The majority of the population speaks the Punjabi language, while Siraiki and Urdu are also spoken. Although the young generation is fond of modern culture, the majority of the population prefers Islamic traditions due to strong religious bonds.

The local inhabitants of this area possess significant traditional knowledge and are well aware of plant species used with the aim to treat various diseases. Though, Umair et al. [13], Umair et al. [14], and Mahmood et al. [15] reported ethnobotany of neighboring areas, i.e., Hafizabad, Head Khanki, and Gujranwala districts, but these studies were restricted to these three areas only. The local healers of the Chenab wetland hold knowledge about the utilization of native plant species, particularly to treat health disorders. Therefore, the present study was designed with the aim (i) to compile an inventory of the plant species with medicinal scopes; (ii) to document the traditional knowledge of local communities about medicinal plants along with methods of preparation, dosage, and applications; (iii) to compare the ethnobotanic uses for medicinal scopes with previous reports conducted in neighboring areas; and (iv) to compute importance and fidelity indices of ethnomedicinal uses, which could be helpful to evaluate species or preparations for further evidence-based pharmacological screenings.

Methods

The study site

The study was conducted on local communities from six districts of Punjab province, Pakistan viz. Hafizabad, Mandi Bahuddin, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sargodha, and Sialkot sited around the Chenab River (Fig. 1). The source of river Chenab is in Lahul and Spite district in Himachal Pradesh, India. It entered in Pakistan near Diawara town of district Sialkot at 77°–30° E and 32°–50° N (see Additional file 1). The total length of the river is 960 km. The study area spreads over 20,724 km2. Climate of this area is semi-arid with an annual average temperature from 48 °C during summer to 1 °C during winter [16]. The mean annual precipitation varies from 340 mm in the south to 780 mm in the upper reaches of Chenab River. The pH of the water is alkaline and averages from 7.9 to 8.1 [17]. The soil is fertile and rich in the medicinal plants diversity due to plain topography. Vegetation of the study area is dominated by grass lands and shrub land [15]. Prominent aquatic vegetation of the study area includes Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphaea lotus, Zannichellia palustris, Phragmites karka, Potamogeton crispus, Nelumbo nucifera, Typha angustata, Vallisneria spiralis, and Chara species. The natural vegetation of the surrounding plains includes Tamarix aphylla, Prosopis cineraria, Saccharum spontaneurn, Eleusine compressa, Dalbergia sissoo, and Ziziphus mauritiana. Most common weeds of the area are Tribulus terrestris, Xanthium strumarium Euphorbia prostrata, Parthenium hysterophorus, Achyranthes aspera, Cynodon dactylon, Amaranthus viridis, and Cannabis sativa [18]. There are about 13 million inhabitants in the study area, with a population density of 594 persons per km2. With the growth of human settlement over the centuries, Punjab has cleared most of its forest cover, and over a large part of the Chenab area, bush vegetation has succeeded trees as a result of this land conversion. Nonetheless, a high diversity of grass, herbs, and shrubs persist in this area, which play a key role in herbal medical system [15].
Fig. 1
Fig. 1

River Chenab and its surrounding areas–Pakistan

Documentation and identification of plant species

Field surveys were conducted from April 2014 to July 2015 in four seasons to collect traditional information on therapeutic uses of plant species. Prior consent and approval were taken from departmental ethical committee (Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Abbottabad Campus) before field survey. Moreover, ethical guidelines of the International Society of Ethnobiology (http://www.ethnobiology.net) were strictly followed during field survey. To collect ethnomedicinal data, questionnaires or semi-structured interviews were conducted with 321 informants (farmers, fishermen, traditional healers/hakeems, housewives, hunters, shopkeepers, and teachers) following the method adopted by Heinrich et al. [19]. Informants were selected on the base of their traditional knowledge on medicinal plants used in health practices. All interviews were conducted after obtaining prior informed consent from the participants (see Additional file 2).

Plant species having medicinal value were collected, dried, pressed, and mounted on herbarium sheets. Voucher specimens were deposited at the Herbarium of Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad (ISL). Plant species were preliminarily identified during collection, and the identifications were confirmed by expert taxonomist Prof. Dr. Rizwana Aleem Qureshi (Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad), and by using the Flora of Punjab and Flora of Pakistan [2022]. Furthermore, the International Plant Name Index (http://www.ipni.org), the Plant List (www.theplantlist.org), and Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/queries.pl) were used to verify scientific names of plant species, with the nomenclature of families following angiosperm phylogeny group (APG) [23].

Informant consensus factor

The informant consensus factor (FCI) value is used to describe consensus of informants on the consumption of medicinal plant species and evaluates variability in mode of utilization against reported diseases. All the reported ailments are broadly categorized into 11 categories that include gastrointestinal disorder (GIT), dermatological disorders, glandular disorders, respiratory diseases, sexual diseases, urinary disorders, muscles and skeletal disorders cardiovascular disorders, body energizers, nervous disorders, and ear/nose/eye/mouth diseases (ENEM). FCI values ranges from 0.00 to1.00. High FCI (approaching 1) of an ailment category is recorded when one or few species are reported to be used for that ailment by a large proportion of local people due to their authenticity regarding diseases, whereas a low FCI value indicates that the inhabitants use this species arbitrarily to treat reported ailments. The FCI value is calculated using the formula as described in previous studies [19]:
$$ \mathrm{FCI}=\frac{N_{ur}-{N}_t}{N_{ur}-1} $$

where “Nur” is the total number of use reports for each disease category and “Nt” indicates the number of species used in the said category.

Relative frequency of citation

Relative frequency of citation (RFC) presents the local importance of each species in a study area [24]. To calculate RFC, number of respondents citing a useful species (FC) is divided by total number of respondents in the field survey (N) as explained in previous work [25]. RFC value varies from 1 (when all the respondents refer to a plant as a useful one) to 0 (when nobody refers to a plant as a valuable species). RFC was calculated from the following formula:
$$ \mathrm{RFC}=\frac{\mathrm{FC}}{N}\ \left(0<\mathrm{RFC}<1\right) $$

Relative importance level

The relative importance level (RIL) presents the level of prominence of each species in a study site. The RIL value was calculated using the method described by Friedman et al. [26]. This index is obtained by dividing the number of respondents mentioning a useful species (FC) with total number of respondents of all species (FCt). A correction scale (CS) is therefore used, in which all the reported plant species are separated into important and unimportant classes. The relative importance level (RIL) varies from 0 to 1.0, with “1” being full importance of a medicinal plant for particular diseases and “0” no ailment cured by a plant species. When all plant species are frequently used to treat some major ailments, relative importance index would be maximum (1.0); then decrease toward zero as the relative importance of the species diverge away from important side. The RIL index value is logically chosen to equal unity for popular plants (i.e., RIL = 1).
$$ \mathrm{RIL}=\frac{\mathrm{FC}}{{\mathrm{FC}}_t}\ \left(0<\mathrm{RIL}<1\right) $$

Use value

Use value (UV) is a numerical method that proves the relative importance regarding medicinal uses of plant species and is obtained using the following formula:
$$ {\mathrm{UV}}_i=\frac{\Sigma {U}_i}{n_i} $$

1here UVi indicates use value of ith species, Ui is the number of uses recorded for ith species, and ni shows the number of respondents who mentioned that species.

Fidelity level

The fidelity level is the percentage of respondents mentioning the uses of a specific plant to treat particular disease. The fidelity level (FL) index was obtained using the given formula [26, 27]:
$$ \mathrm{FL}\ \left(\%\right)=\frac{{\mathrm{FC}}_P}{\mathrm{FC}}\times 100 $$

where FCp is the frequency of citation for a particular disease and FC is the total frequency of citation for any particular disease. A high FL index indicates high frequency and popularity of plant utilization for curing a specific disease by the inhabitants of a study site.

Corrected fidelity level

The corrected fidelity level (CFL) of plant species is used as correction factor to accurately rank the plant species with different FL and RIL values. The CFL is derived from FL, by multiplying FL with RIL values. The CFL index was obtained by the given formula [26, 28].
$$ \mathrm{CFL}=\mathrm{FL}\times \mathrm{RIL} $$

Pearson correlation coefficient

The Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) also called as bivariate correlation measures the strength and statistically quantifies the reason of the linear association between two component variables. The data obtained in the interviews were arranged, presented into numeric codes, and subjected to analyses with SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Pearson correlation analysis was analyzed between the frequency of citation (FC) and use reports (UR); the r2 was also measured to calculate species variability and cross relation in term of FC described by variance in UR.

Results and discussion

Demographic features of respondents

A total of 321 local informants which is made up of 265 males and 56 females were interviewed. Based on demographic data, these informants were classified into different classes as given in Table 1. In general, traditional healing is a gender-based practice in which both men and women perform this practice [29]. We found a predominance of male participants in survey (82.55%). Such a frequency is likely due to caution of females to converse with male strangers (the interviewers). It was found that among 321 respondents interviewed, 86% were indigenous peoples (IPs) compared to only 14% of traditional health practitioners (THPs). The indigenous peoples were farmers, fishermen, traditional healers/hakeems, housewives, hunters, shopkeepers, and teachers. The age of informants ranged from 18 to 80 years. Maximum informants (23%) were 60 to 80 years old have significant traditional knowledge, whereas little information was provided by young informants. In view of the fact is that traditional knowledge is passed on from one generation to another over time [30]. Approximately, 64 informants (19.94%) were illiterates; other informants had different level of education as follows: < 5 years’ education (18.38%), 8 years’ education (16.82%), 10 years’ education (14.95%), 12 years’ education (11.84%), 14 years’ education (10.28%), and > 16 years’ education (7.79%). This specifies that a certain proportion of people do make a living from using medicinal plants. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 80% of the world’s people depend on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare needs [9]. THPs have important information on the medicinal uses of plant species to treat different diseases. The maximum numbers of respondents of THPs having more than 20 years’ experience were 14 (Table 1). This may be due to a close relation and wide interaction of indigenous peoples with plant species. Similar distributions were indicated for other areas in Bangladesh [31] and Turkey [32, 33].
Table 1

Demographic data of respondents (DDI) from study area

S. #

Variable

Categories

No. of persons

%

1

Gender

Female

56

17.45

Male

265

82.55

2

Informant category

Traditional health practitioners

45

14.02

Indigenous peoples

276

85.98

3

Age

≤ 20 years

33

10.28

20–30 years

42

13.08

30–40 years

50

15.58

40–50 years

56

17.45

50–60 years

65

20.25

≥ 60 years

75

23.36

4

Educational background

Illiterate

64

19.94

≤ 5 years

59

18.38

8 years

54

16.82

10 years

48

14.95

12 years

38

11.84

14 years

33

10.28

≥ 16 years

25

7.79

5

Experience of THPs

< 2 years

5

11.11

2–5 years

6

13.33

5–10 years

12

26.67

10–20 years

8

17.78

> 20 years

14

31.11

Taxonomic classification

Overall, 129 medicinal plant species belonging to 112 genera and 59 families were reported (Table 2). Poaceae was the most dominant family with the largest number of species (13), followed by Asteraceae (12), Fabaceae (11), Moraceae (7), Euphorbiaceae (6), Chenopodiaceae and Malvaceae (5 species each), Amaranthaceae, and Solanaceae (4 species each), whereas other families contributed with only 2 or less species (Table 3). The utilization of plant species belonging to Poaceae was similar in ethnobotanical reports from Pakistan and Bangladesh [34, 35].
Table 2

Medicinal plant species used by the local communities of River Chenab and its surrounding areas

S.#

Plant species and accession number

Family

Local name

Common name

Life Habits/ Life formsa

Part(s)/mode of utilizationb

Application mode

Therapeutic uses

Quantitative indicesc

Previously usedd

FC

RFC

UR

UV

RIL

FL

CFL

1.

Justicia adhatoda L.

ISNI-RC-86

Acanthaceae

Baykr

Vasak

P

S

W

LE. powder, decoction, juice; FL. decoction; RT. decoction

Oral, Gargle

Malaria, diabetes, asthma, abortion, toothache

43

0.13

28

0.65

0.91

83.7

75

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦89♦10■1112♦13♦14♦15■16♦17♦18■19♦20♦21♦22♦

2.

Trianthema portulacastrum L.

ISNI-RC-88

Aizoaceae

Itst

Horse parslane

P

H

W

WP. powder; RT. powder, decoction; LE. extract

Oral

Anthelmintic, liver infection, asthma, diuretic, jaundice,

27

0.08

11

0.41

0.57

63.0

35

1■2♦3■4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13■14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

3.

Achyranthes aspera L.

ISNI-RC-01

Amaranthaceae

Puth kanda

Prickly-Chaff flower

P

H

W

WP. decoction, extract; ST. powder; LE. paste, powder; RT. decoction; RT. juice

Topical, Oral and as Toothbrush

Kidney stone, pneumonia, chest pain, puncture wounds, ulcer, dysmenorrhea, aerodontalgia, asthma

42

0.13

26

0.62

0.89

83.3

73

1♦2■3■45♦6■78♦9♦10■11♦12♦13♦1415♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20■21♦22♦

4.

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC.

ISNI-RC-128

Amaranthaceae

Waglon

Alligator weed

A/P

H

W

LE. juice, cooked, juice; WP. paste; RT. decoction; ST. decoction

Topical, Oral

Eye pain, galactagogue, leucorrhea, snake bite, diarrhea

25

0.08

10

0.40

0.53

56.0

29

1♦234♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

5.

Amaranthus spinosus L.

ISNI-RC-02

Amaranthaceae

Gnar

Spiny Pigweed

A

H

W

LE. cooked, juice, extract; RT. juice, decoction; SD. powder; BA. decoction

Gargle, Oral

Vermifuge, dyspepsia, diuretic, odontalgia, cataract, constipation

27

0.08

12

0.44

0.57

59.3

33

1♦23♦4■56♦7■89♦10♦11♦12■13♦14♦15♦16■17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

6.

Amaranthus viridis L.

ISNI-RC-03

Amaranthaceae

Ganhar

Slender amaranth

A

H

W

LE. extract, cooked, juice, paste; SD. powder; RT. decoction

Oral and Topical

Painful urination, eye pain, constipation, piles, snakebite, cough and asthma

35

0.11

19

0.54

0.74

68.6

50

1♦23♦45♦67■8♦9♦10■1112■13■14■15♦16■17♦1819♦20♦21♦22■

7.

Mangifera indica L.

ISNI-RC-04

Anacardiaceae

Aamb

Mango

P

T

C

BA. and LE. latex; LE. decoction, paste, infusion; FR. juice; SD. extract

Topical, Oral

Heel fissures, dysentery, febricity, hypoglycemia, blood pressure, snake bite

29

0.09

14

0.48

0.61

62.1

38

1♦23♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9■10♦11♦12♦1314■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22■

8.

Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Hook.f. & Thomson *

ISNI-RC-25

Annonaceae

Ultha ashok

Mast Tree

P

T

C

BA. juice, decoction; LE. Paste

Topical, Oral

Stomachache, body pain, fever, liver tonic

35

0.11

18

0.51

0.74

71.4

52

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

9.

Anethum graveolens L.

ISNI-RC-82

Apiaceae

Sowa

Dil

A/P

H

W/C

SD. powder; LE. infusion, powder

Oral

Gastritis, chronic bronchitis, carminative

39

0.12

22

0.56

0.82

74.4

60

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10■11♦12♦13■14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21■22♦

10.

Nerium oleander L.

ISNI-RC-87

Apocynaceae

Kunair

Oleander

P

S

W

RT. powder; ST.; LE. Juice

Oral, Toothbrush and as Eardrops

Aborficient, toothache, ear infection

41

0.13

25

0.61

0.87

85.4

73

12♦345♦6■7♦8♦9♦10♦1112♦13♦14♦15■16♦17♦1819■20■21■22♦

11.

Pistia stratiotes L.*

ISNI-RC-127

Araceae

Sabs booti

Water lettuce

P

H

W

WP. decoction; LE. juice, extract; RT. paste

Topical, Oral and as Anal

Painful urination, piles, swelling joint, eczema and leprosy, cough and asthma

37

0.12

22

0.59

0.78

73.0

56

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

12.

Schefflera arboricola (Hayata) Hayata ex Merr. *

ISNI-RC-89

Araliaceae

Choti chatri

Dwarf schefflera

P

H

C

FR.; RT. extract; RT. paste; WP. decoction

Topical, Oral

Ingestion, blood circulation, cut and wounds, abdominal pain

33

0.10

21

0.64

0.70

69.7

48

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

13.

Calotropis procera W.T.Aiton

ISNI-RC-05

Asclepiadaceae

Akh

Milk weed

P

S

W

LE. extract, paste, poultice. Latex; ST. and LE. decoction; ST. latex

Topical, Oral and as Inhale

Cut and wounds, asthma, odontalgia, hepatitis, T.B., malaria, skin burns, lice-infestation

44

0.14

28

0.64

0.93

86.4

79

1■2■3■4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦10■1112■13■1415■16♦1718♦19♦20■21■22■

14.

Caralluma edulis Benth. ex Hook.f.

ISNI-RC-90

Asclepiadaceae

Chonga

Caralluma

P

H

W

LE. juice, extract; WP. powder

Oral

Anthelmintic, diuretic, diabetes

31

0.10

17

0.55

0.66

67.7

44

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10■11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

15.

Ageratum conyzoides L.

ISNI-RC-06

Asteraceae

Knar

Goat weed

A

H

W

LE. paste, juice, extract; FL. decoction; ST. powder; WP. juice; RT. juice

Topical, Oral and as Eye drop

Jaundice, wounds, febricity, cough, flu, sexual dysfunction,, hair fall, cataract, indigestion

40

0.12

19

0.48

0.85

72.5

60

1♦2■34♦56♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

16.

Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit.

ISNI-RC-91

Asteraceae

Chaou

Wormwood

B

H

W

LE. extract;WP. powder; FL.; SH. Decoction

Topical, Oral

Hair tonic, antidote, malarial fever, laxative

45

0.14

27

0.60

0.95

84.4

79

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦1011♦1213♦14♦15■16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21■22

17.

Carthamus oxyacantha M.Bieb.

ISNI-RC-92

Asteraceae

Pholi

Wild safflower

A

H

W

SD. oil; FL.

Oral

Jaundice, obesity, ulcer, male infertility, bronchitis, thrombosis

32

0.10

15

0.47

0.68

71.9

48

12♦3♦4♦5♦67♦8♦9♦1011♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

18.

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.

ISNI-RC-07

Asteraceae

Kandaal

Creeping thistle

P

H

W

LE. Juice; FL.; RT. decoction; ST.

Topical, Oral

Ringworm, hepatic ulcer, body tonic, cough, asthma

34

0.11

15

0.44

0.72

73.5

52

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦1718♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

19.

Conyza bonariensis L. Cornq.

ISNI-RC-08

Asteraceae

Gider booti

Hairy fleabane

A/P

H

W

WP. Extract; RT. decoction; LE. Infusion, juice

Oral

Irregular menstruation, diarrhea, rheumatoid, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, dysentery

38

0.12

19

0.50

0.80

76.3

60

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12■13♦14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19■20■21♦22♦

20.

Lepidium didymum L.

ISNI-RC-09

Asteraceae

Jangli halon

Swine cress

A/B

H

W

ST. powder; LE. infusion; WP. Juice; SH. extract; FL. decoction

Topical, Oral

Bone fracture, tumors, rheumatism, blood purifier, nerve tonic, cold, flu and fever

36

0.11

19

0.53

0.76

77.8

58

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

21.

Eclipta prostrata L.

ISNI-RC-10

Asteraceae

Sofed banghara

Trailing eclipta plant

P

H

W

WP. poultice, powder, decoction; LE. juice/tea, powder; RT. decoction

Topical, Oral

Blood purifier, malaria, skin burns, hepatic tumor, hair oil

30

0.09

14

0.47

0.63

70.0

44

1♦234♦5♦67■8♦9♦10♦11♦12■13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

22.

Launaea procumbens Roxb. Ramayya & Rajagopal

ISNI-RC-94

Asteraceae

Pili dodhak

Creeping launaea

P

H

W

LE. paste, extract, juice, decoction; WP. decoction

Topical, Oral and as Bath

Sexual disorder, skin infection, febricity, blood purification, renal disorder

25

0.08

9

0.36

0.53

52.0

27

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16■17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

23.

Parthenium hysterophorus L.

ISNI-RC-14

Asteraceae

Gandi boti

Feverfew

A/P

H

W

RT. Juice; FL. powder; WP. decoction, juice; LE. juice, extract

Oral

Laxative, emmenagogue odontalgia, anthelminthic, hyperglycemia, body tonic

29

0.09

12

0.41

0.61

58.6

35

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦67■8♦9♦10■111213■14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦192021♦22♦

24.

Sonchus asper Hill.

ISNI-RC-11

Asteraceae

Asgandh, Dodak

Spiny leaved Sowhistle

A

H

W

WP. powder; LE. paste; SH. decoction; RT. and L.E. decoction

Topical, Oral

Febricity, cough, bronchial asthma, purgative, wounds, indigestion

27

0.08

12

0.44

0.57

55.6

31

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13■14■15■16■17♦1819♦20♦21♦22

25.

Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund

ISNI-RC-93

Asteraceae

Peeli booti

Dandilion

A

H

W

LE. paste, powder, decoction; RT. decoction

Topical, Oral

Antidote, diabetes, constipation, liver disorder

28

0.09

11

0.39

0.59

57.1

33

1♦2♦3♦4♦56■7♦89♦1011♦12♦13♦14♦15♦1617♦18■19■20♦21♦22■

26.

Xanthium strumarium L.

ISNI-RC-13

Asteraceae

Chhota Dhatura

Cocklebur

A

H

W

RT. powder; FR. decoction; LE. powder, decoction

Topical, Oral and as Toothbrush

Malaria, skin ulcer,

spinal trauma, indigestion, small pox, scrofulous tumors, odontalgia

26

0.08

11

0.42

0.55

57.7

31

1♦2♦34♦5♦67■8♦9♦10♦11♦1213♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21■22■

27.

Heliotropium strigosum Willd.

ISNI-RC-95

Boraginaceae

Gorkh paan

Hairy heliotrope

A/P

H

W

WP. powder, extract; LE. extract

Oral

Blood purifier, urinary tract infection, liver tonic

31

0.10

16

0.52

0.66

71.0

46

12♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10■11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

28.

Trichodesma indicum (L.) Lehm.

ISNI-RC-96

Boraginaceae

Kulfa

Tricodescum

A

H

W

LE. decoction, extract, paste

Topical, Oral

Fever, diarrhea, antidote, rheumatism, diuretic

39

0.12

19

0.49

0.82

71.8

58

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15■16♦17♦18■192021♦22♦

29.

Brassica rapa L.

ISNI-RC-16

Brassicaceae

Sarsoon

Field mustard

B

H

C

SD. powder; WP. cocked; LE. decoction

Topical, Oral

Eczema, blood purification,

body tonic

33

0.10

16

0.48

0.70

78.8

54

12♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦1314♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

30.

Sisymbrium irio L.

ISNI-RC-15

Brassicaceae

Khoob Kalan

London rocket

A

H

W

SD. poultice; FR. powder, decoction, infusion; WP. juice

Topical, Oral

Ophthalmia, indigestion, mumps and measles, skin ulcer, wounds

37

0.12

17

0.46

0.78

78.4

60

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦1011♦1213■14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21■22♦

31.

Cannabis sativa L.

ISNI-RC-83

Cannabaceae

Bhang

Marijuana

P

S

W/C

LE. paste, extract, infusion; WP. powder; SD. decoction; LE. and SD. juice

Inhale,Topical and as Oral

Constipation, dysentery sedative, snake bite intoxicant, lice infestation, diuretic, purgative, asthma,

46

0.14

29

0.63

0.97

82.6

79

12♦3♦4♦5♦6■789♦10■11♦12■13■14♦15♦16♦17♦1819♦20♦21■22■

32.

Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew

ISNI-RC-18

Capparidaceae

kerda, kair

Caper plant

P

T

W

LE. paste; ST. and FL. powder; SH. decoction; BA. powder; SD and FL. decoction; FR.; RT. powder

Topical, Oral

Male sexual dysfunction, hemolytic anemia, anthelminthic, indigestion, hepatic disorder, boils, sciatic and joint pain

35

0.11

17

0.49

0.74

77.1

56

1♦2♦3♦45♦6♦7■8♦9■10■11■12♦13♦14■15♦16♦17■18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

33.

Stellaria media (L.) vill.

ISNI-RC-19

Caryophyllaceae

Gandhar

Chickweed

A

H

W

LE. paste, poultice, extract WP. decoction; SD.

Topical, Oral

Bone fracture, constipation, itching, wounds, joint pain

30

0.09

14

0.47

0.63

70.0

44

1♦2♦3♦4♦56♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16■17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

34.

Ceratophyllum demersum L.*

ISNI-RC-129

Ceratophyllaceae

Kind-e-Hill

Common contail

P

H

W

LE. juice, decoction, paste

Topical, Oral

Gastric ulcer, diarrhea

Biliousness, scorpion stings

40

0.12

27

0.68

0.85

87.5

73

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

35.

Chenopodium album L.

ISNI-RC-20

Chenopodiaceae

Bathu

Lamb’s quarter

A

H

W/C

SH. and FL. juice; WP. cooked; RT. decoction; LE. juice, infusion

Oral

Purgative, indigestion, hepatic disorder, urodynia, rheumatic pain, anthelminthic

47

0.15

31

0.66

0.99

80.9

79

12■3♦4♦5♦6■78♦9■10■11♦12■13■14■15♦16■17■18♦19♦20♦21■22■

36.

Chenopodium ambrosioides L.

ISNI-RC-21

Chenopodiaceae

Chandan bathwa

Sweet pigweed

A/P

H

W

SH. and FL. juice; WP. juice; LE. decoction, powder, infusion

Topical, Oral

High blood pressure, irregular menstruation, piles, odontalgia, laxative, indigestion

32

0.10

15

0.47

0.68

71.9

48

1♦23♦4♦56♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22■

37.

Chenopodium murale L.

ISNI-RC-22

Chenopodiaceae

Karund

Australian-spinach

A

H

W

SD. powder; ST. and LE. paste; WP. decoction; LE. powder, decoction

Topical, Oral and as Snuff

Indigestion, backbone pain, cold and cough, sexual dysfunction, anthelminthic

38

0.12

17

0.45

0.80

76.3

60

12♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9■10♦1112■1314■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

38.

Bassia indica (Wight) A.J.Scott

ISNI-RC-24

Chenopodiaceae

Boi

Indian bassia

A/B

H

W

LE. oil, decoction; FR.

Gargle, Oral

Heart oil, urodynia, odontalgia, tumors

36

0.11

16

0.44

0.76

77.8

58

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦10♦1112♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

39.

Suaeda vermiculata Forssk. ex J.F.Gmel.

ISNI-RC-23

Chenopodiaceae

Khaari

Akali seepweed

P

S

W

WP. decoction; ST. ash, decoction; LE. decoction, juice

Topical, Oral

Urodynia, blood purifier, hepatic tumor, snakebite, kidney and bladder stone, hair oil

34

0.11

17

0.50

0.72

79.4

56

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦1011♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

40.

Convolvulus arvensis L.

ISNI-RC-25

Convolvulaceae

Lehli/Vahri

Deer’s Foot

A/P

H

W

LE. paste, juice; WP. extract, cooked; RT.

Topical, Oral

Laxative, blood purifier, joint pain, hair oil, ulcer

29

0.09

9

0.31

0.61

65.5

40

12♦3♦4♦5♦67■8♦9■1011■121314■1516♦1718♦19♦20♦21■22♦

41.

Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken

ISNI-RC-97

Crassulaceae

Zakhm-i-hayat

Air Plant

P

H

C

LE. extract, paste, juice; RT. infusion

Topical, Oral

Wound healing, dysentery, kidney and pancreatic stone, epilepsy

27

0.08

9

0.33

0.57

63.0

35

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10■11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

42.

Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.

ISNI-RC-98

Cucurbitaceae

Tuma

Bitter apple

P

H

W

FR.; SD. oil

Topical, Oral

Laxtive, amenorrhea

Stomachaches, hair tonic constipation, jaundice

25

0.08

8

0.32

0.53

60.0

31

1■2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9■10■11♦12♦13■14■15♦16♦17■18♦19♦20♦21■22

43.

Cucumis melo L.

ISNI-RC-99

Cucurbitaceae

Jangli Kharboza

Pickling melon

A

H

W

FR. decoction; LE. paste; FR.

Topical, Oral

Dysuria, leucorrhea

Eczema, purgative

28

0.09

8

0.29

0.59

64.3

38

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10■11♦12♦1314♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

44.

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

ISNI-RC-100

Cuscutaceae

Neeli Taar

Giant dodder

A

H

W

SD.; WP. decoction, paste; ST. decoction

Topical, Oral

Urinary disorder, headache, carminative and anodyne, constipation

26

0.08

8

0.31

0.55

61.5

33

12■3♦4♦5♦6■7♦89♦1011♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦1718♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

45.

Cyperus rotundus L.

ISNI-RC-26

Cyperaceae

Daila

Nut grass

P

H

W/C

RH. paste, powder, decoction; LE. decoction, paste; RT. infusion

Topical, Oral

Urodynia, anthelminthic, dermatitis, indigestion, lactation, hypersplenism

47

0.15

32

0.68

0.99

80.9

79

1♦23♦4♦5♦6■789♦10■11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

46.

Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A.Juss.

ISNI-RC-27

Euphorbiaceae

Neeli Booti

Giradol

A

H

W

ST. juice; LE. extract decoction, juice

Eye drop, Oral

Indigestion, Throat ache, vomiting, eye redness

39

0.12

25

0.64

0.82

74.4

60

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

47.

Croton bonplandianus Baill.

ISNI-RC-32

Euphorbiaceae

Ban tulsi

Herbel piment

P

H

W

WP. juice, decoction; RT. powder; LE. juice, decoction, poultice; ST. juice

Topical, Oral

Bone Fracture, gastric ulcer, hemorrhage, hair tonic, dermatitis, dengue fever, cardiac tonic

31

0.10

21

0.68

0.66

67.7

44

1♦23♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

48.

Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.

ISNI-RC-31

Euphorbiaceae

Bamburi

Dragon spurge

A/P

H

W

FR. juice; LE. powder, paste, juice

Topical, Oral

Lice infestation, head ache, snakebite, skin parasites, epilepsy

35

0.11

23

0.66

0.74

71.4

52

1♦2♦3♦45♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

49.

Euphorbia helioscopia L.

ISNI-RC-28

Euphorbiaceae

Chhatri Dodak

Sun euphorbia

A

H

W

WP. powder, latex, juice; SH.; RT.; SD.

Topical, Oral

and as Eye drop

Anthelminthic, athlete’s foot, eye sores, asthma, constipation, cholera

39

0.12

23

0.59

0.82

74.4

60

1♦2♦3♦45♦6♦7■8♦9■10■1112■13■14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19■20■21♦22♦

50.

Euphorbia pilulifera L.

ISNI-RC-29

Euphorbiaceae

Aam dodak, Doddak

Asthma weed

A

H

W

WP. juice, latex, decoction; SD.and FL. powder; LE. juice

Topical, Oral and as Eye drop

Cough, bronchial asthma, indigestion, diarrhea, eye pain, skin burns, cut and wounds

33

0.10

22

0.67

0.70

66.7

46

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦1213♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

51.

Euphorbia prostrate Aiton.

ISNI-RC-30

Euphorbiaceae

Doodi Buti

Creeping spurge

P

H

W

LE. infusion, latex, decoction; WP. extract

Topical, Oral

Dysentery, hepatic ulcer, eczema, blood purifier, hyperglycemia, bladder stone, diarrhea

37

0.12

22

0.59

0.78

67.6

52

1♦23♦45♦67■89■10■11♦12♦13■14■15♦16♦17♦18■19♦20♦21♦22♦

52.

Acacia modesta Wall.

ISNI-RC-42

Fabaceae

Phulai

Amritsar gum

P

T

W

ST. extract, gum; ST. and LE. latex; LE. extract; BA. ash, powder

Topical, Oral and as Toothbrush

Aerodontalgia, flatulence, tonic, body tonic, joint pain, bronchitis

32

0.10

21

0.66

0.68

65.6

44

12♦3♦4♦5♦6■7■8♦9■10■11■12♦13■14♦15■16♦1718♦19♦20♦21■22♦

53.

Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile

ISNI-RC-41

Fabaceae

Kikar

Babul acacia

P

T

W

FL. powder; LE. decoction, paste; BA. powder, ash, decoction; ST. gum;

Oral, Anal and as Toothbrush

Hyperglycemia, indigestion, dysentery, backbone and joints pain, odontalgia, piles, jaundice

45

0.14

31

0.69

0.95

82.2

77

123♦4♦5♦6■78♦9■10■11■1213■14♦1516♦17■18■19♦20♦21♦22♦

54.

Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.

ISNI-RC-104

Fabaceae

Sharin

Lebbeck tree

P

T

W

FL.; SD.; ST. (Branches); FR. Decoction

Oral

Sexual disorders, impotency

tonic, diuretic, blood purifier, asthma

34

0.11

22

0.65

0.72

67.6

48

1♦2♦34♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10♦111213♦14♦15♦16♦17■18♦19■20■21♦22♦

55.

Alhagi maurorum Medik.

ISNI-RC-58

Fabaceae

Jawansa

Camel thorn

P

S

W

BA. decoction, powder; BA. ash; LE. decoction, paste; FL. powder; ST. gum

Oral, Toothbrush and as Anal

Hyperglycemia, indigestion, dysentery, backbone and joints pain, odontalgia, piles, jaundice

38

0.12

25

0.66

0.80

76.3

60

12♦3♦4♦5♦678♦9■1011♦12♦13♦14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21■22♦

56.

Cassia fistula L.

ISNI-RC-105

Fabaceae

Amaltas

Golden shower

P

T

W

SD. powder; FL. powder; RT. extract; LE. poultice

Topical, Oral

Gastric, diarrhea, hyperglycemia, pustule

46

0.14

29

0.63

0.97

87.0

83

1♦23■4♦5♦6♦789♦10♦11♦12■13■14♦1516♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22■

57.

Dalbergia sissoo DC.

ISNI-RC-57

Fabaceae

Tali

Indian rose wood

P

T

W

WP. decoction; RT. decoction; LE. decoction; FR. powder; RT. infusion; SD. powder

Topical, Oral

Bladder and kidney stone, laxative, piles, bronchial asthma, cough, rheumatism, skin burn, blood purifier

43

0.13

28

0.65

0.91

81.4

73

12♦34♦5♦678♦9■10111213■14■1516♦17■18♦19■20■21♦22♦

58.

Indigofera linifolia (L.f.) Retz.

ISNI-RC-107

Fabaceae

Gorakh pan

Common

Indigo

A

H

W

WP. decoction; LE. extract; RT. paste; SD.

Topical, Oral

Skin eruption, emollient, swelling joints, tonic

36

0.11

21

0.58

0.76

69.4

52

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦67♦8♦9♦10♦11♦1213♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

59.

Melilotus indicus (L.) All.

ISNI-RC-108

Fabaceae

Sinjahi

Sweet clover

A

H

W

LE. paste; WP. powder

Oral

Emollient, diarrhea swellings, bowl complaints, carminative, digestive, skin rash

20

0.06

6

0.30

0.42

40.0

17

1♦2♦3♦4♦5■6♦7♦8♦9■10♦11♦12■13♦14■15♦16■17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

60.

Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

ISNI-RC-56

Fabaceae

Such chain

Pongam oiltree

P

T

C

LE. powder; FL. powder; BA. decoction; RT. juice, SD. oil; ST.

Topical, Oral

Tooth pain, rheumatic pain, anthelminthic, flatulence, hyperglycemia, wounds and skin ulcer

30

0.09

12

0.40

0.63

60.0

38

1♦23♦4♦5♦6■7■8♦9♦10■11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

61.

Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce

ISNI-RC-43

Fabaceae

Jhand

Prosopis

P

S

W/C

FR. powder, paste; ST. decoction; BA. powder; FL. powder; LE. paste, juice

Topical, Oral and as Eye drop

Bladder stone, skin boils, scorpion sting, eye infection, leucorrhoea, dysentery, hepatic ulcer

28

0.09

9

0.32

0.59

57.1

33

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9■1011♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

62.

Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.

ISNI-RC-40

Fabaceae

Mosquet pod

Honey mesquite

P

T

W

BA. powder; LE. poultice, juice; FL. infusion; WP. decoction; ST.

Toothbrush, Topical and as Oral

Bladder stones, tooth pain, breast tumor, bronchial asthma, galactagogue, boils

26

0.08

9

0.35

0.55

53.8

29

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21■2♦

63.

Trifolium resupinatum L.

ISNI-RC-55

Fabaceae

Loosin

Reversed clover

A

H

W

FL. powder; WP. infusion, decoction

Gargle, Oral

Throat ache, cough, skin ulcer, sedative, liver tonic, indigestion

22

0.07

9

0.41

0.47

45.5

21

1♦2♦3♦4♦56♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

64.

Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley

ISNI-RC-101

Fumariaceae

Papra

Indian fumitory

A

H

W

WP. decoction; FL. decoction; FR. Juice; LE. Infusion, tea

Oral

Malaria, constipation, cancer, flu, blood purifier

24

0.07

9

0.38

0.51

50.0

25

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10■111213♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19■20■21■22■

65.

Najas graminea Delile*

ISNI-RC-12

Hydrocharitaceae

Naiad

Ricefield Waternymph

A

H

W

WP.; LE. paste

Topical

Goiter and boils, anticancer

29

0.09

16

0.55

0.61

55.2

33

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

66.

Vallisneria spiralis L.*

ISNI-RC-122

Hydrocharitaceae

Sawala

tape grass

P

H

W

WP.; LE. paste

Topical, Oral

Leucorrhea, rheumatism

27

0.08

16

0.59

0.57

51.9

29

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

67.

Lemna minor L.*

ISNI-RC-17

Lemnaceae

Cheetri

Duck weed

A

H

W

LE. poultice; WP. decoction, powder

Topical, Oral

Skin rashes, antipyretic, diuretic

23

0.07

9

0.39

0.49

47.8

23

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

68.

Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet.

ISNI-RC-102

Malvaceae

Pelae

Indian mallow

A/B

H

W

LE. paste, decoction; SD.; WP. powder

Topical, Oral

Syphilis, laxative, piles,

bronchial asthma

40

0.12

26

0.65

0.85

82.5

69

1♦2■34♦5♦67♦8♦9♦1011♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

69.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.

ISNI-RC-37

Malvaceae

Gurhal

Rose mallow

P

S

C

RT. powder; LE. tea, juice, paste; FL. juice, powder; FL.

Topical, Oral

Sexual dysfunction, leucorrhoea, asthma, skin ulcer, cardiac pain, carminative, diarrhea

41

0.13

25

0.61

0.87

80.5

69

1♦23♦4♦5♦67■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13■14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

70.

Malva parviflora L.

ISNI-RC-34

Malvaceae

Sonchal

Cheese-weed

A

H

W

SH. and SD. decoction; SH.; LE. decoction, extract, poultice

Topical, Oral

Constipation, abortifacient, sore throat, cough, febricity, scorpion bite

25

0.08

7

0.28

0.53

44.0

23

12♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10■1112♦1314♦15♦16■17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

71.

Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke

ISNI-RC-35

Malvaceae

Dhamni Buti

False mallow

A

H

W

WP. powder; LE. poultice, decoction, paste

Topical, Oral

Skin sores, eczema, wounds, diarrhea, asthma

40

0.12

23

0.58

0.85

42.5

35

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12■1314♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19■20■21♦22♦

72.

Malvaviscus arboreus Cav.

ISNI-RC-36

Malvaceae

Max mallow

Sleeping hibiscus

P

S

C

LE. juice, decoction; FL. infusion, decoction

Topical, Oral

Throat ache, diarrhea, febricity, Skin eruption

30

0.09

17

0.57

0.63

40.0

25

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■89♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

73.

Marsilea minuta L.*

ISNI-RC-103

Marsiliaceae

Chopatti

Water clover

P

F

W

LE. juice, decoction; FL. infusion, decoction

Topical, Oral

Throat ache, diarrhea, febricity, lice-infestation

38

0.12

21

0.55

0.80

76.3

60

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

74.

Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

ISNI-RC-39

Meliaceae

Neem

Neem

P

T

W/C

LE. decoction, infusion, paste; SD. oil; ST; BA. decoction; LE. paste

Oral, Toothbrush and as Topical

Hyperglycemia, malarial fever, Blood purifier, vermifuge, headache, small pox, aerodontalgia, hepatic ulcer, rheumatic pain

82

0.26

61

0.74

1.00

100.0

100

1■2■34♦5♦6♦789♦10♦11♦1213■14♦15♦16♦17■18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

75.

Melia azedarach L.

ISNI-RC-38

Meliaceae

Dhraikh

Chinaberry

P

T

W/C

ST. decoction; BA. powder; LE. juice, decoction, paste, infusion, extract

Topical, Oral and as Bath

Malaria, itching, wound healing, urinary stones, hypertension, hyperglycemia, blood purification

32

0.10

18

0.56

0.68

75.0

50

1♦23♦4♦5♦6789♦10■11■12■13■14♦15■16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22■

76.

Ficus benghalensis L.

ISNI-RC-106

Moraceae

Bohr

Banyan tree

P

T

W

ST. latex; LE. decoction

Oral

Premature ejaculation, syphilis and gonorrhea, male sexual power

73

0.23

53

0.73

1.00

95.9

96

1■23♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦1011♦1213■14♦15♦16♦1718♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

77.

Ficus benjamina L.

ISNI-RC-44

Moraceae

Kabar

Weeping Fig

P

T

W

ST. decoction; BA. and LE. cocked; LE. decoction; FR.; WP. powder

Topical, Oral

Stomachache, skin ulcers, flatulence, rheumatic pain, blood purification

36

0.11

19

0.53

0.76

66.7

50

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦15

78.

Ficus racemosa L.

ISNI-RC-45

Moraceae

Gular

Cluster tree

P

T

W/C

ST. latex; FR.; BA. decoction, powder; LE. juice

Topical, Oral and as Anal

Diarrhea, adiposity, flatulence, piles, ulcer and boils

34

0.11

16

0.47

0.72

64.7

46

1♦2■3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

79.

Ficus religiosa L.

ISNI-RC-46

Moraceae

Pipal

Sacred Fig

P

T

W

RT. extract; ST. powder; FR. powder; LE. infusion, paste, decoction

Topical, Oral

Body tonic, bronchial asthma, heart blockage, leucorrhea, ulcer, hypoglycemia

31

0.10

15

0.48

0.66

67.7

44

1♦23♦4♦5♦6♦78♦910♦11♦12■1314■15♦16♦1718♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

80.

Ficus virens Aiton

ISNI-RC-47

Moraceae

Palakh

White Fig

P

T

W

ST. latex; BA. infusion; FR. powder

Oral

Hyperglycemia, ulcer, breast tumor

39

0.12

20

0.51

0.82

74.4

60

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

81.

Morus alba L.

ISNI-RC-48

Moraceae

Shahtoot

White mulberry

P

T

C

LE. and BA. decoction; WP. decoction; ST. latex; LE. juice; FR. juice, decoction

Topical, Oral

Cough, constipation, hepatic ulcer, tonsils, snake bite, hypoglycemia

74

0.23

54

0.73

1.00

94.6

95

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9■10■11♦12■13■14■15■16♦1718■19♦20♦21■22■

82.

Morus nigra L.

ISNI-RC-49

Moraceae

Kala toot

Black mulberry

P

T

C

RT. Powder; LE. infusion, decoction; FR. juice, decoction; WP. decoction

Gargle, Oral

Sore throat, cough, asthma, flu, aerodontalgia, hypoglycemia, constipation, vermifuge, carminative

75

0.23

52

0.69

1.00

97.3

97

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦67■8♦9♦10■1112♦13■14♦15■16♦17♦18■19♦20♦21♦22■

83.

Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.

ISNI-RC-51

Myrtaceae

Safaida

River red-gum

P

T

W

LE. oil, extract, juice, decoction

Gargle, Oral

Sinusitis, sore throat, cold, cough, febrifuge, flu

37

0.12

18

0.49

0.78

73.0

56

1■2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10■11♦12♦1314♦15♦16♦17■18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

84.

Psidium guajava L.

ISNI-RC-50

Myrtaceae

Amrud

Guava

P

S

C

FL. decoction; LE. extract, decoction, infusion; FR.

Gargle, Oral

Diarrhea, hyperglycemia, urodynia, carminative, cough, vermifuge, aerodontalgia, febricity, flu

33

0.10

15

0.45

0.70

69.7

48

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■89♦10■11♦12♦13■14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

85.

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.*

ISNI-RC-118

Nelumbonaceae

Sacred lotus

Kanwal

P

H

W

RT. paste; FL. Juice; LE. paste; RH. paste

Oral, Topical

Piles, diarrhea, headache, ring worm, cardio-tonic

35

0.11

18

0.51

0.74

71.4

52

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

86.

Boerhavia diffusa L.

ISNI-RC-52

Nyctaginaceae

Itsit

Horse-purslane

A/P

H

W

RT. powder, decoction; LE. paste; WP. infusion

Topical, Oral

Dysmenorrhea, cough, snake bite, bronchial asthma, kidney failure, flu

21

0.07

6

0.29

0.44

38.1

17

12♦3■4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

87.

Nymphaea lotus L.*

ISNI-RC-119

Nymphaeaceae

Kamiyan

Lotus

P

H

W

LE. and BA. decoction; WP. powder; RT.

Oral

Malarial fever, diuretic, enteritis

29

0.09

13

0.45

0.61

51.7

31

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

88.

Jasminum officinale L.

ISNI-RC-53

Oleaceae

Malti

Poet’s jasmine

P

S

C

LE. extract; FL. decoction; WP. extract; ST. extract, juice

Topical, Oral

Febricity, cough, anthelmintic, scabies, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, heart burn

47

0.15

28

0.60

0.99

85.1

83

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15■16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

89.

Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait.

ISNI-RC-54

Oleaceae

Motia

Arabian jasmine

P

S

C

RT. decoction; LE. paste, juice, decoction, extract; FL. juice

Topical, Oral

Conjunctivitis, wound and cuts, emmenagogue, febricity, breast cancer, ulcer, insomnia

45

0.14

26

0.58

0.95

86.7

81

1♦2■3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

90.

Oxalis corniculata L.

ISNI-RC-33

Oxalidaceae

Khatti Buti

Clover sorrel

P

H

W

RT. decoction; WP. powder, decoction; LE. paste, cooked

Topical, Oral and as Eye drop

Diarrhea and dysentery, hepatitis C, wounds, eye inflammation, vermifuge, sexual dysfunction

21

0.07

9

0.43

0.44

42.9

19

1♦2♦34♦56789♦10■11♦1213■1415■161718■19♦20♦21♦22

91.

Argemone mexicana L.

ISNI-RC-109

Papaveraceae

Stianasi

Mexican poppy

P

H

W

FL. powder; LE. extract

Topical, Oral

Sexual problems, premature ejaculation, spermatoria, emollient, purgative

44

0.14

24

0.55

0.93

86.4

79

1♦2♦34♦56■7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

92.

Avena sativa L.

ISNI-RC-110

Poaceae

Jungli jai

Common oat

A

G

W

WP. powder; LE. infusion

Oral

Nerve tonic, antispasmodic, diuretic

25

0.08

9

0.36

0.53

48.0

25

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9■10♦11♦1213■14■15♦16♦1718♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

93.

Cenchrus pennisetiformis

Hoschst. & Steud.

ISNI-RC-60

Poaceae

Cheetah gha

White buffel grass

A/P

G

W

ST. juice; FR. decoction; LE. infusion, juice, extract

Topical, Oral

Eczema, cough, T.B., asthma, skin irritation, epilepsy, piles

27

0.08

11

0.41

0.57

51.9

29

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

94.

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

ISNI-RC-61

Poaceae

Khanbal gha

Bermuda grass

P

G

W

RT. infusion; WP. juice, paste, decoction; RH. Decoction, oil

Topical, Oral and as Eardrops

Stomachache, bladder stones, eye inflammation, high blood pressure, itching, earache

23

0.07

11

0.48

0.49

47.8

23

1♦23♦4♦5♦67■89■101112■1314♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

95.

Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd.

ISNI-RC-62

Poaceae

Madhana gha

Crow’s foot grass

A

G

W

WP. paste; RT.; SD.

Topical, Oral

Uterine prolapse, kidney stones, indigestion, ulcer and wounds

30

0.09

14

0.47

0.63

46.7

29

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

96.

Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf

ISNI-RC-63

Poaceae

Murgha gha

Ringed dichanthium

P

G

W

ST. and LE. decoction; ST. powder; LE. juice, infusion, paste;

Topical, Oral

Abortifacient, diarrhea, indigestion, piles, antispasmodic, scabies

22

0.07

7

0.32

0.47

40.9

19

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9■10♦11♦12♦13♦1415♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

97.

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

ISNI-RC-64

Poaceae

Madhani

Goose grass

A

G

W

LE. juice; RT. powder; RH. extract; WP. decoction, tea, infusion

Topical, Oral

Febricity, dysentery, irregular menstruation, hyperglycemia, hair tonic, food poisoning

26

0.08

10

0.38

0.55

42.3

23

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦1213♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦15

98.

Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.

ISNI-RC-65

Poaceae

Dabh gha

Cogon grass

P

G

W

RT. decoction; RH. decoction; LE. paste; SH. and LE. paste

Topical, Oral

Body tonic, hypertension, wounds and cuts, urodynia, febricity

24

0.07

9

0.38

0.51

50.0

25

1♦2♦34♦5♦6♦7■89♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

99.

Panicum antidotale Retz.

ISNI-RC-123

Poaceae

Sonali

Giant panic

A

G

W

ST. decoction; LE. juice, infusion

Topical, Oral

Respiratory tract infection, appetite, gonorrhea, skin diseases

28

0.09

13

0.46

0.59

46.4

27

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10■11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

100.

Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud.

ISNI-RC-120

Poaceae

Nur

Common reed

P

G

W

RT. paste; WP. decoction

Topical, Oral

broken bones, rheumatic pain, diaphoretic

41

0.13

25

0.61

0.87

48.8

42

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦1213♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

101.

Saccharum spontaneum L.*

ISNI-RC-124

Poaceae

Kahn

Wild cane

P

G

W

RT. decoction; WP. powder; LE. paste

Topical, Oral

Skin eruption, fever, body pain, vermifuge, wounds

35

0.11

19

0.54

0.74

71.4

52

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

102.

Setaria glauca (L.) P.Beauv.

ISNI-RC-66

Poaceae

Bajra

Yellow foxtail

A/P

G

W

SD.; LE. infusion, juice; ST. decoction

Topical

Wound healing, dermatitis, ring worm, tonic, hair tonic

31

0.10

17

0.55

0.66

77.4

50

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

103.

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.

ISNI-RC-67

Poaceae

Baru

Johnson grass

P

G

W

ST. juice; SD. powder; RT. decoction

Topical, Oral

Stomachache, emollient, boils, cough

33

0.10

19

0.58

0.70

69.7

48

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

104.

Triticum aestivum L.

ISNI-RC-59

Poaceae

Kanak

Wheat

A

G

C

SH. decoction; SD. decoction, paste, powder; RT. decoction

Topical, Oral

Colon cancer, wound healing, anemia, asthma, late puberty, hyperglycemia

37

0.12

21

0.57

0.78

59.5

46

12♦3♦4♦5♦6♦789♦10♦11♦12■13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

105.

Polygonum plebeium R. Br.

ISNI-RC-68

Polygonaceae

Hind rani

Small knotweed

A

H

W

RT. decoction, LE. extract; SH. decoction; WP. powder, paste

Topical, Oral

Eczema, galactagogue, pneumonia, liver-tonic, heartburn, regular bowl

70

0.22

50

0.71

1.00

91.4

91

1♦2♦34♦5♦67■8♦9♦1011♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

106.

Rumex dentatus L.

ISNI-RC-69

Polygonaceae

Jangli palak

Toothed dock

A

H

W

WP. decoction; LE. and RH. poultice; RT. powder, decoction

Topical, Oral

Eczema, wounds and cuts, constipation, body tonic

35

0.11

21

0.60

0.74

74.3

54

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14■15■16■17♦18♦19■20■21♦22■

107.

Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.

ISNI-RC-111

Pontederiaceae

Dasi Kulfa

Water-hyacinth

A

H

W

LE. infusion, paste; ST. powder

Topical, Oral

Piles, constipation, cold, flu, respiratory diseases, vermifuge, antiseptic

32

0.10

18

0.56

0.68

68.8

46

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦67♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

108.

Portulaca quadrifida L.

ISNI-RC-112

Portulacaceae

Kulfa

Common purslane

A

H

W

WP. powder, LE. infusion

Oral

Jaundice, liver and spleen problems

44

0.14

26

0.59

0.93

81.8

75

1♦2♦34♦5♦67♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦1617♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

109.

Anagallis arvensis L.

ISNI-RC-70

Primulaceae

Bilibooti

Scarlet pimpernel

A

H

W

ST. powder; LE. and FL. decoction; WP. juice, paste

Topical, Oral

Skin ulcer, leprosy, hepatitis C, epilepsy

36

0.11

20

0.56

0.76

63.9

48

1♦2♦34♦5♦6♦7■8♦910♦11♦12■13♦1415♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

110.

Ranunculus laetus wall. ex Hook. f. & J.W. Thomson*

ISNI-RC-113

Ranunculaceae

Sarsoon booti

Celery-leaved buttercup

A

H

W

LE. paste; FL. extract; SD.; RT. extract

Topical, Oral

Skin infection, conjunctivitis, body tonic, antirheumatic

38

0.12

20

0.53

0.80

73.7

58

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

111.

Ranunculus sceleratus L.

ISNI-RC-71

Ranunculaceae

Gul-e-ashrafi

Blister buttercup

A/B

H

W

WP. infusion, juice, decoction; RT. paste; SD.

Topical, Oral

Febricity, body tonic, asthma, muscle hamstring, urinary incontinence, anthelmintic

34

0.11

18

0.53

0.72

58.8

42

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

112.

Oligomeris linifolia (Vahl ex Hornmen) J.F. Macbr.*

ISNI-RC-114

Resedaceae

Shootk

Lineleaf oligomeris

A

H

W

SD.; WP. infusion, juice; LE. tea

Oral

Diarrhea, jaundice, throat pain and cough, menstrual problems

30

0.09

16

0.53

0.63

53.3

33

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

113.

Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. f.) Wight and Arn.

ISNI-RC-73

Rhamnaceae

baer

Jujube

P

S

W

LE. paste, decoction; BA. decoction; FR. powder

Topical, Oral

Body tonic, hyperglycemia, constipation, scabies, sore throat and cold

28

0.09

13

0.46

0.59

50.0

29

1♦2♦3■4♦5♦67■8♦9♦10■11■12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18■192021■22♦

114.

Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.

ISNI-RC-72

Rhamnaceae

bairi

Chinese apple

P

T

W

BA. and LE. decoction; BA. powder; LE. decoction, extract, juice; RT. decoction

Topical, Oral, Bath and as Gargle

Chicken pox, ulcers, diarrhea, asthma, toothache, jaundice

40

0.12

24

0.60

0.85

40.0

33

1♦234♦5♦6♦7■89♦10♦11121314♦15♦16♦17■18♦19♦20♦2122♦

115.

Murraya koenigii (L.) spreng.

ISNI-RC-74

Rutaceae

Kari patta

Curry leaf

P

T

C

LE. decoction, juice, infusion, paste; BA. powder; SD.

Topical, Oral

Hyperglycemia, skin eruption, diarrhea, rheumatic pain, eye inflammation, hair oil

38

0.12

21

0.55

0.80

65.8

52

1♦23■4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦1213♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

116.

Salvadora oleoides Decne.

ISNI-RC-115

Salvadoraceae

Pelo

Toothbrush tree

P

S

W

ST (Branches); FR.

Oral, Toothbrush

Tonic, stomachache, toothache

34

0.11

16

0.47

0.72

61.8

44

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9■10■11♦12♦13♦14■15♦16♦17■18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

117.

Veronica polita Fr.

ISNI-RC-75

Scrophulariaceae

Veroni

Greyfield speedwell

A

H

W

ST. and LE. cooked; LE. tea, juice; ST. and LE. decoction

Oral

Stomachache, blood purifier, nerve-tonic, cough

42

0.13

4

0.10

0.89

45.2

40

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

118.

Misopates orontium (L.) Raf.*

ISNI-RC-116

Scrophulariaceae

Kutta Phool

Snapdragon

A

H

W

WP. extract; LE. poultice, Juice

Topical, Oral and as Eye drop

Contusions, tumors and ulcers, eye inflammation

24

0.07

13

0.54

0.51

45.8

23

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

119.

Datura innoxia Mill.

ISNI-RC-79

Solanaceae

Datura

Thorn apple

P

S

W

WP. powder; SD. paste; LE. decoction, extract; FR.; ST. infusion; RT. decoction

Oral, Inhale and as Topical

Rabies, piles, cough, asthma, lice-infestation, premature ejaculation, purgative, narcotic and sedative

29

0.09

15

0.52

0.61

55.2

33

1♦2♦345♦67■8♦9♦10♦11■12♦1314♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

120.

Solanum nigrum L.

ISNI-RC-76

Solanaceae

Mako

Night shade

A

H

W

LE. powder, cocked, decoction; LE. extract; LE. and FL. juice; RT. pate; WP. Decoction

Topical, Oral and as Eye drop

Breast cancer, diarrhea, febricity, ulcer, chicken pox, hyperglycemia, piles, cardiac pain, sore eyes, cuts and wounds

85

0.26

69

0.81

1.00

100.0

100

1♦2345♦6789■10■11♦12♦13■14■15■16■17■18■19♦20♦21♦22■

121.

Solanum surattense Burm.f.

ISNI-RC-77

Solanaceae

Kundiari

Thorny nightshade

P

H

W

WP. cooked, decoction; FR. paste; RT. decoction; LE. and FR. decoction

Oral, Topical

Kidney stones, febricity, heel cracks, anthelmintic, asthma, wound healing, liver tonic, rheumatic arthritis

90

0.28

74

0.82

1.00

94.4

94

12345♦67■89■10■1112♦13♦14■15■16♦171819♦20♦21♦22

122.

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

ISNI-RC-78

Solanaceae

Asgandh

Winter cherry

P

H

W

LE. paste, decoction, powder; WP. powder; FR.; FL. powder; RT. powder

Oral, Topical and as Snuff

Malarial fever, stomachache, night mare, hyperglycemia, asthma, irregular menstruation, breast cancer, wounds

95

0.30

80

0.84

1.00

100.0

100

1■2♦3♦4■5♦6■7■8♦9■10■11■12■13■14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

123.

Pterospermum acerifolium (L.) Willd

ISNI-RC-80

Starculiaceae

Kanakchanpa

Maple-leaved Bayur tree

P

T

W/C

FL. paste, infusion, decoction; BA. powder

Topical, Oral

Piles, vermifuge, impotency, body tonic, swellings

25

0.08

12

0.48

0.53

40.0

21

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

124.

Tamarix aphylla (L.) H.Karst.

ISNI-RC-81

Tamaricaceae

Athel tamarisk

Rukh

P

T

W

LE. poultice, paste, decoction; BA. ash

Topical, Oral

Febricity, wound and boils eye infection, cough and cold

34

0.11

17

0.50

0.72

67.6

48

12♦3♦4♦5♦6♦78♦9■10■11♦12♦13♦14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

125.

Tamarix dioica Roxb. ex Roth

ISNI-RC-117

Tamaricaceae

Rukh

Tamarisk

P

S

W

BA. powder; LE.

Oral

Pile, tonic, cough, diarrhea, antiseptic, spleen disorder and liver problems

32

0.10

15

0.47

0.68

68.8

46

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17■18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

126.

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.*

ISNI-RC-126

Trapaceae

Singhara

Water chestnut

A

H

W/C

FR.; SD. powder, paste

Oral

Diarrhea and dysentery, dysuria, body energizer, menstrual disorder

37

0.12

19

0.51

0.78

73.0

56

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

127.

Typha angustata Bory & Chaub.

ISNI-RC-121

Typhaceae

Kundar

Long Cattails

P

H

W

RH. paste; FL.

Oral

Diarrhea and dysentery, mumps and measles, gonorrhea

33

0.10

18

0.55

0.70

69.7

48

1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦1112♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

128.

Lantana camara L.

ISNI-RC-84

Verbenaceae

Lantana

Lantana

P

S

W

RT. extract; FL. extract; LE. juice, decoction, paste

Topical, Oral

Ringworm, headache, aerodontalgia, malarial fever, rheumatoid arthritis, cuts and wounds, injuries, cough, cold,

43

0.13

25

0.58

0.91

81.4

73

1♦2♦3♦4♦56♦7■8♦9■10♦11♦12■13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

129.

Tribulus terrestris L.

ISNI-RC-85

Zygophyllaceae

Gukhro

Puncture vine

A/B

H

W

FR. powder, decoction; LE. paste; WP. powder, decoction

Topical, Oral

Dysentery and diarrhea, urodynia, irregular menstruation, wounds, dyspepsia

61

0.19

41

0.67

1.00

90.2

90

1■2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9■10■11♦12♦13■14♦1516♦17■18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦

aLife habits/life forms: C cultivated, W wild, G grass, S shrubs, H herbs, T trees, P perennial, B biennial, A annual

bPlant parts: RH rhizome, BA bark, FL flower, SD seed, WP whole plant, SH shoot, ST stem, RT root, FR fruit, LE leaf

cQuantitative indices: FC frequency of citation, RFC relative frequency of citation, UR use report, UV use value, RIL relative importance level, FL fidelity level, CFL corrected fidelity level

*Plants species which are newly reported in this study

(■) = Plant with similar use(s); () = plant with dissimilar use (s); (♦) = plant not reported in previous study

Previously used: (1) Ullah et al. [62]; (2) Mollik et al. [79]; (3) Verma et al. [80]; (4) Rahman et al. [72]; (5) Chaitanya et al. [73]; (6) Mahmood et al. [15]; (7) Umair et al. [13]; (8) Luitel et al. [74]; (9) Ahmed et al. [75]; (10) Malik et al. [76]; (11) Murad et al. [46]; (12) Zahoor et al. [61]; (13) Rehman et al. [77]; (14) Ahmed et al. [78]; (15) Ahmed et al. [81]; (16) Abbasi et al. [82]; (17) Mussarat et al. [83]; (18) Rashid et al. [84]; (19) Amjad et al. [43]; (20) Shaheen et al. [85]; (21) Aziz et al. [86]; (22) Hussain et al. [87]

Table 3

Family wise distribution of medicinal plants in the study area

Families

No. of genera

% age contribution

No. of species

% age contribution

Poaceae

13

11.61

13

10.08

Asteraceae

12

10.71

12

9.30

Fabaceae

11

9.82

12

9.30

Moraceae

2

1.79

7

5.43

Euphorbiaceae

3

2.68

6

4.65

Chenopodicaeae

3

2.68

5

3.88

Malvaceae

5

4.46

5

3.88

Amaranthaceae

3

2.68

4

3.10

Solanaceae

3

2.68

4

3.10

Asclepiadaceae

2

1.79

2

1.55

Boraginaceae

2

1.79

2

1.55

Brassicaceae

2

1.79

2

1.55

Cucurbitaceae

2

1.79

2

1.55

Hydrocharitaceae

2

1.79

2

1.55

Meliacea

2

1.79

2

1.55

Myrtaceae

2

1.79

2

1.55

Oleaceae

1

0.89

2

1.55

Polygonaceae

2

1.79

2

1.55

Ranunculaceae

1

0.89

2

1.55

Rhamnaceae

1

0.89

2

1.55

Scharopholariaceae

2

1.79

2

1.55

Tamaricaceae

1

0.89

2

1.55

Acanthaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Aizoaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Anacardiaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Annonaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Apiaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Apocynaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Araceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Araliaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Cannabaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Capparidaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Caryophyllaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Ceratophyllaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Convolvulaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Crassulaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Cuscutaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Cyperaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Fumariaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Lemnaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Marsiliaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Nelumbonaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Nyctaginaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Nymphaeaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Oxalidaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Papaveraceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Pontederiaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Portulacaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Primulaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Resedaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Rutaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Salvadoraceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Starculiaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Trapaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Typhaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Verbenaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Zygophyllaceae

1

0.89

1

0.78

Total

112

100

129

100

The wild herbaceous flora constituted 51% of the reported plant species (Fig. 2). Perennial herbs were the most common life habit in the study area. Often, the medicinal plants indicated have perennial life cycles [36, 37]. Wild trees contributed to 13% of the medicinal flora; wild grass and shrubs 8% each; cultivated herbs, shrubs, and grasses 7%, 6%, and 5% respectively; and cultivated grass and wild ferns 1% each (Fig. 2). These findings were similar to previous reports [1, 35]. The common use of wild herbs may be due to their easy availability and efficiency in the treatment of different ailments compared to other life habit. The Engineers India Research Institute (EIRI) [38] reported that wild herbs are more efficient and effective for use in medicines than those grown in garden. Probably, traditional healers used mostly herbs and trees compared to other life forms as medicine due to their availability in nature [39]. Local people usually collected medicinal plants from roadsides, swamp or swamp edges, woodlots, wet grasslands, grassland, bush land, forest, forest edge, fallow land, home garden, and cropland. Species range limits are alienated by the species ecological niche [40], which are often found to be linked with spatial gradients in ecological factors (e.g., precipitation, temperature) and are explained by a set of factors, e.g., climate, habitat structure, and predators or competitors pairs [41]. According to the local informants, herb sellers often collect plants from the wild and supply to herbal market (Pansara) without paying any attention to their conservation. Although some of the listed plants are presented in the study area, some of them are rare due to harvesting or deforestation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Life forms and habits of medicinal plant species

Plant part(s) used

The use of plant parts in the preparation of recipes depends upon their availability and knowledge of local people. Leaves were the most frequently utilized plant part with 28% applications in traditional herbal medicine, followed by whole plant (15%), root (13%), stem (10%), seed and flower (8% each), fruit (7%), bark (6%), shoot (3%), and rhizome (2%) (Fig. 3). Leaves are commonly used in herbal medicines because they are rich in bioactive secondary metabolites. Leaves are the main photosynthetic organs and also act as storages for exudates or photosynthates; some of which defend the plants against destructive entities or are of medicinal values to the human body [24, 42]. In previous studies, leaves were also reported as the most frequently utilized plant part [13, 43]. Apart from leaves, the use of whole plants has also been reported in many studies [4446]. In some cases, the same plant part was used to treat different ailments, e.g., leaves of Withania somnifera were taken orally to treat asthma and malarial disease, and applied externally to heal wounds. Similar uses of plants parts of many other species are mentioned in Table 2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plant parts used in traditional recipes

Toxic plants

Some plant species such as Croton sparsiflorus, Datura innoxia, Lantana camara, Nerium oleander, Calotropis procera, Solanum spp., Euphobia spp., and Ranunculus sceleratus show toxic effects, if taken in excessive amount [13, 47]. Nerium oleander (Kunair) causes gastrointestinal disorder (laxative effect) and mental instability (hemorrhage) when used in excess. Likewise, Lantana camara (Lantana) is claimed to cause itchy feelings. The approach for drug development from plant species depends on several ways in which this can be done, including toxicity, chemical content, traditional use, randomized selection, or combination of several criteria. Beneficial or adverse effects of plant-based medicines depend on method of herbal drug preparation and its utilization in herbal medicine [48]. In general, the indigenous peoples of the study area use above-mentioned species in minimal quantities to avoid their poisonous effects, which suggest that they may have at least some empiric knowledge of their dangerousness.

Mode of preparation and application

Herbal medications were prescribed in different forms including powder, decoction, juice, extract, paste, poultice, infusion, ash, etc. (Fig. 4). Decoction was the most commonly used method of herbal preparation with 31%, followed by powder, juice, paste, and extract (19, 17, 14, and 4%, respectively), while the remaining preparations (infusion, poultice, latex, cooked food, oil, tea, ash, and gum) were used for less than 3% of indications. According to Umair et al. [13], decoction was the most used method for herbal preparations in Hafizabad region of Punjab province. Decoctions are often used as one of the major forms of preparations in traditional healthcare system, because they are easy to prepare by mixing herbs with water, tea, or soup [49, 50]. To make decoctions, plant parts are boiled in water until the original volume of the water is reduced to one-fourth [51], whereas plant extract is prepared by crushing or squeezing the plant parts before extraction [52].
Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Preparations used in herbal recipes

Usually, traditional recipes were based on a single plant species. However, in some cases, more than one plant species was used in drug preparation [53]. For instance, the treatment of cough and asthma was done by using a decoction prepared from S. surattense and Tinospora cordifolia. Yamamoto et al. [54] reported that a traditional herbal medicine prepared from eight medicinal plants (Dai-Saiko-to) is used to lower the lipid levels in human body suffering from diabetic hyperlipidemia. In most herbal preparations, water was used as a solvent; however, honey, oil, milk, or tea were also used to enhance the acceptability and hypothesizing their implication in the enhancement of the medicinal properties of the preparation, e.g., root powder of Boerhavia diffusa is commonly mixed with honey and used to treat cough, asthma, and flu.

In the present work, plant-based medications were most frequently utilized to treat different ailments including gastrointestinal disorders (stomachache, gastric ulcer, gas trouble, intestinal worms, vomiting, constipation, dysentery, diarrhea), respiratory problems (asthma, cough, flu, throat ache), skin infections (chicken pox, measles, eczema, rashes, cuts, and wounds), fever, diabetes, kidney problems, cancer, toothache, earache, eye pain, cardiac problems, jaundice, inflammation, menstrual disorders, piles, bone fracture, rheumatism, snake bite, scorpion sting, milk production, and general weakness. The most often utilized mode of administration was oral (48%), followed by topical (36%), as toothbrush (4%), eye drops and gargle (3% each), anal application (2%) and bathe, inhale, eardrops, and snuff (1% each) (Fig. 5). Similar modes of applications were reported in Hafizabad district [13].
Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mode of application of medicinal plants

It has been reported that oral mode of administration is the most preferred route (76%) among the communities of Gujranwala district, Pakistan [15]. The practice of oral administration may be linked to the use of some additives or solvents (milk, tea, hot coffee, fruit juice, and water) that are commonly believed to serve as a vehicle to transport the herbal medicines. The additives or solvents are also important to improve the taste, minimize soreness, and decrease adverse effects such as diarrhea, vomiting, and increase the efficacy and healing conditions [55]. These results are in agreement to other studies [31, 56]. Leaves of Melia azedarach and Zizyphus mauritiana were used in medicinal baths to treat skin diseases, i.e., allergy and chicken pox. Li et al. [57] reported that medicinal baths are an important traditional method to cure and prevent common ailments among the traditional Yao communities of Jinping County, China. Medicinal baths are commonly used to prevent and treat skin diseases, rheumatic diseases, injuries, and gynecological disorders.

Informant consensus factor

To determine the informant consensus factor (FIC), all the reported ailments were first grouped into 11 different disease categories on the basis of their use reports (Table 4). The uppermost FCI value is recorded for GIT diseases (0.41), followed by glandular diseases (0.34), dermatological disorder, and respiratory diseases (0.29). The mean FIC for all ailments categories was 0.17, which was similar to previously published studies reported from Pakistan [13, 58, 59]. Among the three major disease categories, GIT diseases were dominated with 154 use-reports, followed by dermatological disorders, and glandular complaints (120 and 103 use-reports, respectively) as mentioned in Table 4. Around 71.3% plant species were used to treat GIT disorders, followed by glandular complaints (65.9%), respiratory diseases (52.7%), ENEM diseases (40.3%), sexual diseases (31.0%), urinary problems, muscle and skeletal disorders (27.1% each), cardiovascular disorders (24%), body energizer (14%), and nervous disorders (7.8%). These results show that GIT and dermatological diseases are common in the study area. Similar findings have already been reported from other regions [31, 60]. Dermatological disorders with respect to FCI ranked as third category. The local people of the study area mostly prefer to use these plant-based treatments against skin diseases, insects bites, and scorpion sting.
Table 4

Informants consensus factor (FCI) by categories of ailments in the study area

Category of ailments

Nur.

% of use reports

Nt.

% of species

Nur-Nt

Nur-1

FCI

GIT diseases

154

23.2

92

71.3

62

153

0.41

Dermatological disorders

120

18.1

85

65.9

35

119

0.29

Glandular disorders

103

15.5

68

52.7

35

102

0.34

Respiratory diseases

73

11.0

52

40.3

21

72

0.29

ENEM diseases

43

6.5

40

31.0

3

42

0.07

Sexual diseases

42

6.3

35

27.1

7

41

0.17

Urinary disorders

36

5.4

35

27.1

1

35

0.03

Muscles and Skeletal disorders

32

4.8

28

21.7

4

31

0.13

Cardiovascular disorders

32

4.8

31

24.0

1

31

0.03

Body energizers

18

2.7

18

14.0

0

17

0.00

Nervous disorders

11

1.7

10

7.8

1

10

0.10

Mean FCI

0.17

Relative frequency of citation and use report

In our study, relative frequency of citation (RFC) of the encountered plant species varied from 0.30 to 0.06 (Table 2). Maximum RFC value was calculated for species W. somnifera (0.30) followed by Solanum surattense (0.28), Solanum nigrum and Azadirachta indica (0.26 for each), Ficus benghalensis, Morus nigra, M. alba (0.23 for each), Polygonum plebeium (0.22), and Tribulus terrestris (0.19). Melilotus indica has the lowest RFC (0.06) in the area while Zahoor et al. [61] reported that M. indica has the highest RFC (0.78) which is contrary to our results. It can be seen that plants with the highest RFC are the most frequent medicinal plant in that region and majority of the people agreed by its medicinal value [58]. Use report value varied from 4 to 80 in the present study. W. somnifera, S. surattense, S. nigrum, A. indica, M. alba, Ficus benghalensis, M. nigra, P. plebeium, and T. terrestris were the most used plant species. Bibi et al. [58] reported the lowest use report of S. nigrum and T. terrestris (2 UR). The differences may be due to variation in vegetation and geo-climate of the area.

Use value and potential of medicinal plants

The use value (UV) index is a method of the types of uses attributed to specific plant species and families for a population. In the present study, UV of the encountered plant species ranged from 0.84 to 0.1 (Table 2). The use value of W. somnifera, S. surattense, S. nigrum, A. indica, M. nigra, F. benghalensis, P. plebeium, and M. alba were 0.84, 0.82, 0.81, 0.74, 0.73, 0.73, and 0.71 respectively. Zahoor et al. [61] reported the lowest UV of W. somnifera (0.0085), M. alba (0.02), and A. indica (0.03), which is contrary to our results. The low UV of Veronica polita, Malva parviflora, Cucumis melo, and B. diffusa may be due to poor availability and lack of knowledge. These results were comparable with previous reports from Gujranwala and Hafizabad district, Pakistan [13, 15]. However, differences in most of the mentioned species and their quantitative values were also observed. In a field survey carried out by Ullah et al. [62], Plantago ovata and Lawsonia inerm were the most important species with the highest use value (0.98), while Bibi et al. [58] reported that Berberis balochistanica and Citrullus colocynthis had maximum use value (0.18 each), followed by Descurainia sophia (0.15). These differences may be due to variation in geo-climate, vegetation, traditional knowledge of informants, and their culture.

In Pakistan, majority of the people rely on medicinal plants to find treatments for their minor and major diseases [63]. Medicinal plants are growing abundantly in the wild, or some are cultivated on farmlands in the Punjab, Sindh, KPK, Baluchistan, and Azad Kashmir [64]. W. somnifera is an important wild medicinal plant used in Pakistan from the old time by the herbalists in making different medicines [65]. Withanolides extracted from W. somnifera are reported to be effective in protecting against β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity [66]. In our study, leaves and berries of S. nigrum and Solanum xanthocarpum are commonly used for the treatment of gastric ulcers and cracked heel. Abbas et al. [67] assured the possible potential of antifungal as well as antimicrobial activity of fruit extracts of two Solanaceous plants (S. nigrum and S. xanthocarpum).

Relative importance level

The importance of a plant species increases as it is used to treat more infirmities by the informants. For species mentioned by 20 to 48 respondents, the relative importance level (RIL) value increases directly with the increase in number of respondents. The RIL value of plant species mentioned by 48 or more respondents does not accelerate with the increased number of respondents (Fig. 6). One hundred twenty-three plant species, which were mentioned by 47 or less respondents, were classified as unimportant, whereas the 6 plant species cited by 48 respondents or more were declared as important. W. somnifera, S. surattense, S. nigrum, A. indica, F. benghalensis, M. nigra, M. alba, and T. terrestris were the most significant plant species with 1.0 RIL (Table 2). Umair et al. [13] reported the high popularity of S. surattense, S. nigrum, and W. somnifera in Hafizabad district, Pakistan. It can be seen that plants with high RIL value may attributed to their high efficacy and the awareness of local peoples which specifies their use as herbal medicine. These results were in agreement with previous reports on the medicinal use of plant species, e.g., among the local peoples of Negev district, Israel [26] and Palestinian area [28]. The high RIL value of plant species might be attributed to a wider geographic distribution, cultural knowledge and informant’s awareness.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationship between numbers of informants and relative importance level (RIL). Numbers represent the plant names as they appear in Table 2

Fidelity level

The fidelity level (FL) index is used to notify plant species that are most favored by the indigenous peoples to treat certain diseases [68]. Plant species with highest medicinal uses in a given area have maximum value of FL, i.e., 100%. In the present investigation, the FL value of the 129 plant species varied from 14.3 to 100% (Fig. 7). Generally, the high fidelity level of a species shows the abundance of a particular disease in a specific area and the utilization of plant species by the local people to treat it [58, 69]. The fidelity levels calculated for M. nigra (asthma), F. benghalensis (male sexual power), M. alba (cough), S. surattense (kidney stones), P. plebeium (pneumonia), and T. terrestris (urodynia) were 97.3, 95.9, 94.6, 94.4, 91.4, and 90.2%, respectively (Table 2). The most commonly used medical plants in the study area with 100% FL were A. indica, S. nigrum, and W. somnifera, which were used as blood purifier, to treat breast cancer and as stomachache, respectively. Comparatively, fidelity levels of these species were very high than previous reports [13] against gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory tract infections, urinary disorders, cardiovascular diseases, fever, pain, inflammation, and urological disorders with almost similar fidelity level. Additionally, in the present study, same species were reported to treat more diseases compared to previous report [14]. Plant species having high FL are seen as particularly interesting for biological, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies to evaluate and prove their validity to introduce novel drugs and herbal products.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relationship between numbers of informants claimed use of certain plant for particular disease. Numbers represent the plant names as they appear in Table 2

Corrected fidelity level

The corrected fidelity level (CFL) index is used to properly rank the plant species with different FL and RIL values. The resultant RIL values given in Table 2 were used as correction factor (CF) to adjust the FL values. The measured level of CFL of each plant species is mentioned in Table 2. The CFL value of only nine species was above 90. W. somnifera, S. nigrum, and A. indica were the highest utilized species with maximum CFL = 100, followed by M. nigra, F. benghalensis, M. nigra, S. surattense, P. plebeium, and C. sativa (97, 96, 95, 94, 91, and 90, respectively). This was probably due to increasing popularity of traditional medicines among the local peoples of the study area. Additionally, the respondents of the rural areas had more interaction and information about medicinal uses of plant species compared to urban areas. These findings were analogous to previous results from Hafizabad district [13], Negev district, Israel [26], and Palestinian area [28].

Statistical analysis

The Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) measures the power of a linear association between two component variables. The PCC index between UR and FC was 0.973 at p = 0.01 level. This reflects a highly significant positive association between the number of informants mentioning certain plant species and the number of applications reported. Furthermore, this shows that frequent use of plant species by the inhabitants tend to rise the applications number of usable species (y = 0.9269x − 13.637; correlation coefficient r2 = 0.947). In the present investigation, the value of r2 was 0.95 which indicates that around 95% of the variation in UR could be described in terms of the FC (Table 5). The plant species with higher FC value most have higher UR, such as W. somnifera and S. surattense. The present results are in accordance with previous reports. For example, Amjad et al. [43], Bano et al. [70], and Vijayakumar et al. [71] reported Pearson correlation coefficient between RFC and UV of 0.732, 0.638, and 0.881, respectively, with r2 = 0.54, 0.41, and 0.77 in respective order.
Table 5

Correlation coefficient between frequency of citation (FC) and use reports (UR)

Correlations

Variables

UR

FC

UR

 Pearson Correlation

1

0.973**

 Sig. (two-tailed)

 

0.000

 N

129

129

FC

 Pearson Correlation

0.973**

1

 Sig. (two-tailed)

0.000

 

 N

129

129

**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (two-tailed)

r2 = 0.947

Novelty and future impact

To find the novelty index, data on ethnomedicinal uses of encountered species were compared with previous published reports from neighboring areas and Pakistan (Table 3). A total of 22 published studies were chosen for comparative analysis. W. somnifera shows maximum similarity with previously reported work from the surrounding areas [13, 15, 46, 61, 62, 7278]. The ethnomedicinal data recorded from the study site discloses significant variations in the herbal preparation, dosage, applications, and utilization of plant parts recorded from other neighboring areas. About 12.47% uses of encountered species were comparable to previous reports. Moreover, 47% uses of the reported species were similar to previous study conducted in Hafizabad district [13]. Notably, 78.82% uses of the documented medicinal plant species were not reported in the previous studies used for comparative and novelty index obtained by dividing no use reports with all use reports for species multiply by 100. The percentage of novel uses (8.77%) of encountered species with respect to previous reports was obtained by dividing dissimilar use reports with all use reports for species multiply by 100. The comparison with neighboring areas depicted significant resemblances due to the traditional knowledge and culture exchange, while farther study areas had lower similarities due to the difference in traditions and cultures.

The comparative analysis between the uses of medicinal plants confirms the reported data.

To best of our knowledge, medicinal uses of Polyalthia longifolia (fever), Pistia stratiote (painful urination), Schefflera arboricola (blood circulation), Ceratophyllum demersum (diarrhea), Najas graminea (goiter and boils), Vallisneria spiralis (rheumatism), Lemna minor (antipyretic), Marsilea minuta (diarrhea), Nelumbo nucifera (ring worm), Nymphaea lotus (malarial fever), Saccharum spontaneum (skin eruption), Ranunculus laetus (antirheumatic), Oligomeris linifolia (throat pain and cough), Misopates orontium (tumors), and Trapa bispinosa (body energizer) were documented for the first time. Therefore, new medicinal uses of encountered species with high RIL and CFL value are suggested to be evaluated for in depth screening of bioactive compounds and related pharmacological activities.

Conclusion

On the whole, 129 medicinal species used by the inhabitants of the investigation area to cure various diseases were reported. About nine plant species including Withania somnifera, Solanum surattense, S. nigrum, Azadirachta indica, Ficus benghalensis, Morus nigra, M. alba, Polygonum plebeium, and Tribulus terrestris were highly utilized with maximum UV, RFC, RIL, FL, and CFL values. A significantly positive correlation between UR and FC (r = 0.973 at p = 0.01) reflects strong association between the number of respondents mentioning a particular encountered species and uses reports. The determination value (r2) was 0.95, which indicates that 95% of variation in UR can be described in terms of the FC. Our findings revealed that the local people of the study area have close relation with their surrounding environment and still hold significant information on medicinal plant species. The comparative evaluation with published scientific reports exposed 10% resemblance and 14% dissimilarity to previous reported data; however, majority of the medicinal uses of the encountered plant species have rarely been reported before from this region. As metablomics and biomarker tools are increasingly used in drug discovery to understand the mechanism of disease pathology and improved the therapeutic strategies for upcoming challenges. Consequently, screening for biological active ingredients and in vivo/in vitro evaluation of pharmacological activities in reported medicinal plant species with high CFL and FL could be interesting for future drug discovery. Additionally, conservation measures should be taken to protect the flora of the River Chenab wetland, with special emphasis on medicinal plant species.

Declarations

Acknowledgements

We are appreciative to local informants for sharing the traditional knowledge.

Funding

We have not received any funding for this study, and thus also requested a full waiver of publication costs from the Editorial office of JEE.

Availability of data and materials

All data have already been included in the manuscript.

Authors’ contributions

MU conducted field work and prepare first draft, MA was involved in field survey and data collection, RWB contributed in final write up, and AMA was involved in data analysis, interpolation, and final write up. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

This study is based on a field survey rather than human or animal trails. So, ethical approval was not applicable. However, formal prior informed consent was taken from participants regarding data collection and publication. In addition, the ethical guidelines of the International Society of Ethnobiology (http://www.ethnobiology.net/) were strictly followed.

Consent for publication

Not applicable to our study.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

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Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Center for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China
(2)
Department of Zoology, Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Bagh, Pakistan
(3)
Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany and Bakuriani Alpine Botanical Garden, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia
(4)
Department of Environment Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad, Pakistan

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