Open Access

Ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers in Phatthalung Province, Peninsular Thailand

  • Katesarin Maneenoon1Email author,
  • Chuanchom Khuniad1, 2,
  • Yaowalak Teanuan1, 3,
  • Nisachon Saedan1,
  • Supatra Prom-in1,
  • Nitiphol Rukleng1,
  • Watid Kongpool1,
  • Phongsura Pinsook1 and
  • Winyu Wongwiwat1
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201511:43

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-015-0031-5

Received: 4 May 2014

Accepted: 6 May 2015

Published: 30 May 2015

Abstract

Background

In rural communities of Thailand, traditional healers still play an important role in local health care systems even though modern medicine is easily accessible. Meanwhile, natural forests in Thailand which are important sources of materia medica are being greatly destroyed. This has led to an erosion of traditional Thai medicine. Furthermore, the concept of medicinal plant selection as medicine based on their tastes is still an important component of traditional Thai medicine, but no or little publications have been reported. Thus the aim of the present study is to collect ethnomedicinal data, medicinal plant tastes and relevant information from experienced traditional healers before they are lost.

Methods

An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information from nine experienced traditional healers on the utilization of medicinal plants in Phatthalung Province, Peninsular Thailand. Data were obtained using semi-structured interviews and participant observations. Plant specimens were also collected and identified according to the plant taxonomic method.

Results

A total of 151 medicinal plants were documented and 98 of these are reported in the study. Local names, medicinal uses, parts used, modes of preparation, and the relationship between ailments and tastes of medicinal plant species are presented.

Conclusions

This research suggests that traditional healers are still considered important for public health among Thai communities and that many people trust the healing properties of medicinal plants. In the future, it is hoped that traditional Thai medicine will be promoted and therefore will help reduce national public health expense.

Keywords

Medicinal plants Traditional healers Peninsular Thailand Phatthalung Traditional knowledge

Background

Thailand has its own healing system of traditional medicine commonly referred to as “traditional Thai medicine”. This system is deeply rooted, and has played a key role in Thai culture for many centuries. The diverse way of life and culture in each separate region of Thailand has led to a diverse local health care system. This medicine depends on the knowledge and practical experience of each individual healer with regard to diagnosing and treating ailments using naturally available materials. Nowadays, Thai traditional medicine is supported by the government. It has been incorporated into national health policy for reducing the use of Western medicine which is very expensive. In 2012, the Ministry of Public Health wanted its subdistrict-level medical facilities to make traditional medicine account for 10 % of their total costs of medicine. Meanwhile, increasing the use of traditional medicine in community hospitals should account for 5 %. Moreover, at least one doctor who specializes in traditional medicine will work at community hospitals [1]. To respond to the government policy and develop the body of knowledge of Thai traditional medicine by using scientific approaches, many academic institutes have set up a 4-year program and curriculum for producing graduates with a Bachelor’s degree. However, there are many crucial issues concerning the transfer of knowledge of traditional medicine which is continually declining. Firstly, highly experienced traditional healers are generally older people and they continue to pass away without recording or passing on their knowledge. Secondly, the younger generation of medical practitioners has a low regard for traditional medicine. They are drawn to other occupations because of the job security and higher salaries. Finally, the forests in Thailand are being destroyed and this means that the medicinal plants necessary for traditional healers are in short supply. Consequently, the knowledge of the traditional healers regarding utilization of medicinal plants is being diminished and could possibly be lost before being explored by systematic study. The present study was carried out to document the diagnosis of diseases in general, details of the utilization of medicinal plants and the criteria for selecting medicinal plants in terms of taste property of traditional healers. The present study is the first research carried out in this area and it shows the correlation between medicinal plant tastes and plant selection for making an effective prescription which has never been reported before. Additionally, this ethnomedicinal information was collected from nine highly experienced traditional healers and it will directly benefit people who are interested in traditional medicine and medicinal plant aspects.

Materials and methods

Brief introduction to the study area

Phatthalung is situated in southern Thailand. It is geographically located between latitude: 7° 05 to 7° 55 N and longitude: 99° 44 to 100° 25 E. The total area is 3424.473 km2. Most areas in Phatthalung can be classified into one of two classifications: 1) the eastern part is flood plain and some rolling terrain with an elevation that ranges between 0–15 m above sea level, 2) the western part is mountainous terrain covered by evergreen forest with an elevation that ranges between 50–1200 m above sea level [2]. It borders Nakhon Si Thammarat province to the north, Songkhla province to the south, Songkhla Lake to the east and Khaobanthad wildlife sanctuary to the west, which is covered with rich evergreen forest (Fig. 1). The annual average rainfall is 1800 mm. Rainfall distribution is divided into 2 periods, the long rains from September to January and the short rains from May to June. The average annual temperature is 28 °C [3]. Phatthalung is divided into 11 districts, Bang Kaeo, Khao Chaison, Khuan Khanun, Kong Ra, Mueang, Pa Bon, Pa Phayom, Pak Phayun, Si Banphot, Srinagarinda and Tamot. The population was approximately 514,492 in the year 2012. Most of the population is Buddhist followed by Muslim. Most people live in rural areas and their main occupation is in agriculture. The agriculture types include rubber, rice, pineapple, fruit orchards, cattle, poultry and fisheries. The way of life of the people still depends on natural products in their daily lives. Although the modern health care system is easy to access, many people still believe in traditional medicine. Therefore, traditional healers are important people in the communities. In the study area, there were various types of traditional healers such as herbalists, spiritual healers, midwives, massage practitioners and bone healers. The present study was focused only on herbalists who resided in rural areas.
Fig. 1

Location of the study sites in Phatthalung province, peninsular Thailand

Ethnobotanical data collection

The ethnobotanical survey was carried out in Phatthalung province from 2010 to 2012. With an emphasis on accurate information, different types of ethnographic method, such as semi-structured interviews, participatory observation and fieldnotes, were combined to collect data with traditional healers from different areas of Phatthalung province, peninsular Thailand. Before starting the ethnobotanical data collection, snowball sampling was used as a practical method for finding highly experienced traditional healers from Phatthalung provincial health office. Patients who were cured by traditional healers were sought, along with community leaders and also traditional healers who had a well-established network. All traditional healers were selected not only for their extensive experience of traditional treatments, but also because they still actively practised their treatment with patients, including highly respected people within the communities. According to intensive criteria, nine highly experienced traditional healers were chosen. They were all males and their ages ranged from 55 to 110. Their experience ranged from 20 to 70 years in the field of traditional medicine. Five were Muslim and the rest were Buddhist. In terms of educational level, five had attended primary school and four had attended high school. The majority worked in agricultural professions. Their knowledge of traditional medicine was inherited from ancestors and close relatives, and additionally they studied from other experienced traditional healers. The main method of healing was by using medicinal plants. Only one traditional healer treated an ailment with rituals if he thought that an ailment was caused by supernatural forces. The interviews sought to determine the vernacular name of the plant, purposes of utilization, parts used, diseases treated, modes of preparation, administration and taste of individual plants as well as places of collection. Before interviewing commenced, the aims of the study were clearly explained to traditional healers and their family members. Prior informed consent was obtained. A copy of the final report of the study was sent to all traditional healers. The accuracy of information was rechecked by repeatedly visiting all healers at least 4–5 times in different seasons. Observing their various activities and staying at their homes during data collection was also necessary. The interviews were supplemented by walking in the field with traditional healers while collecting plants and checking the habitat preference of plants. The plant specimens were photographed, collected and processed according to the plant taxonomic method [4]. The specimens were identified and the voucher specimens collected from the wild were deposited at the PSU Herbarium. In addition, cultivated and common species were deposited at the herbarium within the Traditional Thai Medicine Faculty, Prince of Songkla University. To analyze the utilization of medicinal plants they were divided into groups of diseases based on properties and applications that were mentioned by the traditional healers.

Results and discussion

Diagnostic methods

Based on the study, all traditional healers indicated that illness is caused by the imbalance of the four body elements, soil, water, wind and fire, known as “Tard chao ruan” in Thai. For precise illness diagnosis, several procedures are integrated such as checking the patient’s medical history, physical examinations and pulse - taking. The principal history of patients includes behavioral issues, such as consumption, sleepiness and bowel movements. Feeling body parts is important for physical examination, as is close observation of the skin, eyes, tongue and hair. The taking of the pulse is common with highly experienced traditional healers. They say that they look for the duration between pulses. Different pulse characteristics are used to determine the deficiency of body elements and levels of severity. This procedure is very important and if the traditional healer has sufficient skill, it can give a precise diagnosis. However, very few traditional healers have the necessary pulse - taking skills, especially among the younger generation. After they have ascertained the cause of the illness, traditional prescriptions and treatments are assigned. Prescribing the correct use of medicinal plants is another important skill, which is explained further in the section of this document about medicinal plant tastes.

Diversity of medicinal plants

According to the study, 151 species of medicinal plants, belonging to 126 genera in 60 families were documented for various disease treatments. The largest number of medicinal plants were eudicots (76 %) followed by monocots (19 %), ferns (3 %) and gymnosperms and magnoliids (1 % each) (Fig. 2). Of the eudicots, the most represented family was Fabaceae (nine species), followed by Lamiaceae (six species). The most dominant family of monocots was Zingiberaceae (ten species). Other families with low numbers included 30 families which represented only one species. This result was in agreement with the previous study, which mentioned that the most dominant family was Fabaceae [57]. As documented here, 98 species were presented which were cited by more than half of the traditional healers (Table 1).
Fig. 2

Groups of medicinal plants

Table 1

List of major uses of medicinal plants cited by more than five traditional healers

Scientific name/voucher number

Local name

Taste

Ailments treated / uses

Parts used / form of administration

Magnoliids

    

Annonaceae

    

1. Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. f. & Thomson (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 096)

Chingdokdiao

hot

alleviates body pain, flatulence, suffers from general fatigue

root / decoction / int

Piperaceae

    

2. Piper chaba Hunt (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 099)

Di pli

hot

flatulence, strengthens the body elements

fruit / decoction / int

3. Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 048)

Cha phlu

hot

flatulence, strengthens the body elements, paralysis

root / decoction / int

Eudicots

    

Acanthaceae

    

4. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees/(N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 008)

Fa thalai chon

bitter

fever

whole plant/juice, decoction/int

5. Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 006)

Phaya yo

bland

poisonous animal bites, antidote, canker

leaf/ juice, decoction / ext

6. Justicia adhatoda L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 024)

Sa niat

bitter

eliminates sputum, cough, fever

leaf /juice, decoction / int

7. Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 004)

Thongphanchang

nauseating

skin diseases, eczema, scabies

leaf/ paste / ext

8. Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl.

Rang chuet

bland

antidote, skin irritation

leaf / juice / int, ext

Amaranthaceae

    

9. Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) G. Nicholson (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 090)

Phak pet daeng

bland

arthritis, improves blood circulation, emmenagogue, menstrual cramps

whole plant/ decoction / int

Apiaceae

    

10. Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 063)

Bua bok

bitter

thirst, fever, skin swelling

whole plant / paste / int, ext

Asteraceae

    

11. Acmella oleracea (L.) R. K. Jansen (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 010)

Phak khrat hua wan

hot

toothache

fruit / juice / int

12. Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 014)

Nat yai

aromatic

promotes blood flow, flatulence, itching

leaf/ decoction / int

13. Chromolaena odoratum (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 008)

Sap suea

nauseating

stops bleeding, peptic ulcer

leaf/paste, decoction /int, ext

14. Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 088)

Ka meng

nauseating

stops bleeding, skin diseases, cervical diseases

whole plant /paste, decoction / int

15. Elephantopus scaber L. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 097)

Do mai ru lom

bland

tonifies the muscles

whole plant / decoction / int

16. Pluchea indica (L.) Less. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 025)

Khlu

bland

diuretic

leaf/ decoction / int

17. Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 009)

Ya dok khao

bland

smoking cessation, alleviates body pain, fever

whole plant /smoking, decoction / int

Capparidaceae

    

18. Capparis micracantha DC. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 019)

Chingchi

bitter

fever, strengthens the body elements

root / decoction / int

Clusiaceae

    

19. Garcinia mangostana L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 020)

Mang khut

astringent

skin diseases, intestinal infection

pericarp / juice, decoction / ext, int

Cucurbitaceae

    

20. Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 111)

Tamlueng

bland

poisonous animal bites, fever

leaf / juice / ext

21. Gymnopetalum chinense (Lour.) Merr. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 094)

Kadom

bitter

fever, tonifies the liver

fruit / decoction / int

22. Momordica charantia L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 095)

Mara khinok

bitter

fever, appetizer, tonifies the liver

fruit / decoction / int

Euphorbiaceae

    

23. Croton roxburghii N. P. Balakr. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 102)

Plao yai

hot

alleviates body pain, flatulence, prevention of fever after parturition

wood / decoction / int

24. Croton tiglium L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 071)

Salot

hot

diuretic, hemorrhoids, constipation

root, seed oil / decoction / int

25. Croton stellatopilosus Ohba (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 011)

Plao noi

hot

flatulence, peptic ulcer, stomachache

wood / decoction / int

26. Excoecaria oppositifolia Griff. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 023)

Fai duean ha

hot

menstrual problems

wood / decoction / int

27. Shirakiopsis indica (Willd.) Esser (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 025)

Samo thale

sour

constipation

fruit / decoction / int

Fabaceae

    

28. Abrus precatorius L. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 026)

Ma klam khruea

sour

fever, sore throat

root / decoction / int

29. Albizia myriophylla Benth. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 096)

Cha em thai

sweet

strengthens the body in general, sore throat

root, wood / decoction / int

30. Cassia fistula L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 100)

Ratcha phruek

sweet

fever, constipation, eliminates sputum (mixed with bitter salt for constipation)

fruit, pulp / decoction / int

31. Caesalpinia major (Medik.) Dandy & Exell (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 126)

Sa wat

nauseating

expels worms

leaf / decoction / int

32. Derris scandens (Roxb.) Benth. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 027)

Thaowanpriang

nauseating

alleviates body pain

wood / decoction / int

33. Mimosa pudica L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 014)

Maiyarap

bland

fever, measles, chickenpox

whole plant / decoction / int

34. Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 028)

Chumhet thet

nauseating

skin diseases, constipation

leaf / paste / ext; inflorescence / decoction / int

35. Senna tora (L.) Roxb. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 029)

Chumhet thai

nauseating

constipation, skin diseases, appetizer, insomnia

whole plant / decoction / int

36. Tamarindus indica L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 147)

Ma kham

sour

eliminates sputum, improves blood flow, constipation, cold in children

fruit / decoction / int

Gentianaceae

    

37. Fagraea fragrans Roxb.

Kan krao

bitter

fever

wood / decoction / int

Lamiaceae

    

38. Clerodendrum petasites (Lour.) S. Moore (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 137)

Mai thoa yai mom

bitter

fever, constipation

root / decoction / int

39. Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 022)

Ak khi thawan

bitter

hemorrhoids, itching

leaf / decoction / int

40. Ocimum americanum L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 116)

Mang lak

aromatic

flatulence, increases milk production

leaf / decoction / int

41. Ocimum basilicum L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 117)

Horapha

aromatic

flatulence, increases milk production

leaf / decoction / int

42. Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 115)

Ka phrao daeng

aromatic

flatulence, dizziness, asthma in children

leaf / decoction / int, ext

43. Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 152)

Ya nuat maeo

bland

diuretic

whole plant / decoction / int

Lythraceae

    

44. Punica granatum L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 139)

Thap thim

astringent

dysentery, diarrhea

pericarp / decoction / int

Malvaceae

    

45. Sida rhombifolia L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 028)

Khat mon

fat

severe fever, liver diseases, alleviates body pain

whole plant / decoction / int

Menispermaceae

    

46. Tiliacora triandra (Colebr.) Diels (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 092)

Yanang

bland

fever, antidote

root / decoction / int

47. Tinospora crispa (L.) Miers ex Hook. f. & Thomson (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 016)

Bora phet

bitter

promotes blood flow, appetizer, fever, diabetes, reduces body heat, thirst

wood / decoction / int

Opiliaceae

    

48. Lepionurus sylvestris Blume (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 018)

Mak mok

fat

strengthens the body in general, promotes blood flow, alleviates body pain, cervical problems

root / decoction / int

Phyllanthaceae

    

49. Bridelia ovata Decne. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 076)

Maka

bitter

constipation

leaf / decoction /int

50. Phyllanthus emblica L. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 015)

Ma kham pom

sour

promotes blood flow, eliminates sputum, cough, thirst, mixed with Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. for body tonic (Tri pha la)

fruit / decoction / int

51. Phyllanthus pulcher Wall. ex MÜll. Arg. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 094)

Thorani san

bland

fever

root/ decoction / int

52. Phyllanthus urinaria L.

Ya tai bai

bitter

alleviates body pain, fever

whole plant / decoction / int

53. Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 030)

Phak wan ban

bland

fever, increases milk production

leaf / decoction / in

Plumbaginaceae

    

54. Plumbago indica L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 120)

Chetta mun phloeng daeng

hot

strengthens the body elements, emmenagogue

root / decoction / int

55. Plumbago zeylanica L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 073)

Chetta mun phloeng khao

hot

strengthens the body elements, emmenagogue, improves blood flow

root / decoction / int

Rubiaceae

    

56. Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 012)

Kra thom

nauseating

dysentery, diarrhea, skin diseases

leaf / decoction / int/ext

57. Morinda citrifolia L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 078)

Yo ban

aromatic

dizziness

fruit / decoction / int

58. Morinda elliptica Ridl. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 024, 079)

Yo pa

hot

flatulence, women’s diseases

wood / decoction / int

59. Saprosma brunneum Craib (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 046)

Phahom ton

aromatic

strengthens the body in general, flatulence

whole plant / decoction / int

Rutaceae

    

60. Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa ex Roxb. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 110)

Matum

fat

strengthens the body elements

fruit / decoction / int

61. Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 132)

Manao

sour

cough, eliminates sputum

fruit / juice / int

62. Citrus hystrix DC. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 131)

Makrut

aromatic

flatulence, dizziness, eliminates sputum, improves blood flow

pericarp / decoction / int

63. Zanthoxylum cf. nitidum (Roxb.) DC. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 077)

Phakrut

aromatic

expels worms, diarrhea, toothache

wood / decoction / int

Sapindaceae

    

64. Cardiospermum halicacabum L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 042)

Khok kra om

bland

itching

whole plant / juice / ext

Sapotaceae

    

65. Mimusops elengi L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 043)

Phikun

aromatic

tonifies the heart, dizziness

flower / decoction / int

Simaroubaceae

    

66. Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 079)

Ratcha dat

bitter

malaria

whole plant / decoction / int

67. Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 111)

Pla lai phueak

bitter

alleviates body pain, fever, malaria

root / decoction / int

68. Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 037)

Khontha

bitter

fever

root / decoction / int

Solanaceae

    

69. Datura metel L. var. metel (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 130)

Lam phong

nauseating

skin diseases

leaf / paste / int

70. Solanum indicum L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 149)

Mawaeng ton

bitter

cough, eliminates sputum

fruit / juice / int

71. Solanum trilobatum L. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 038)

Mawaeng khruea

bitter

cough, eliminates sputum

fruit / juice / int

Thymelaeaceae

    

72. Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 001)

Kritsana

aromatic

tonifies heart, alleviates fatigue, promotes blood flow, fever, strengthens the body in general, dizziness

wood / decoction / int

Vitaceae

    

73. Cissus quadrangularis L. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 003)

Phet sangkhat

nauseating

hemorrhoids, sinusitis, intestinal infection

wood / capsule / int

Monocots

    

Acoraceae

    

74. Acorus calamus L. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 039)

Wan nam

aromatic

flatulence, strengthens the body elements

rhizome / decoction / int

Araceae

    

75. Amorphophallus cf. paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 057)

Buk

nauseating

habitual constipation, skin diseases

tuber / decoction / int

76. Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 057)

Phak nam

nauseating

habitual constipation, skin diseases

rhizome / decoction / int

Asparagaceae

    

77. Asparagus racemosus Willd. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 041)

Sam sip

fat

strengthens the body in general

root / decoction / int

Asphodelaceae

    

78. Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 042)

Wan hang chora khe

bland

peptic ulcer, poisonous animal bites, burns

leaf / juice / int, ext

Cyperaceae

    

79. Cyperus rotundus L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 151)

Haeo mu

aromatic

flatulence, strengthens the body elements

corm / decoction / int

Dioscoreaceae

    

80. Dioscorea hispida Dennst. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 011)

Kloi

nauseating

tuber: strengthens the body in general; stem: sinusitis

tuber, stem / decoction / int

81. Tacca chantrieri Andrê (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 017)

Khang khao dam

bland

sexual stimulants

rhizome / decoction / int

82. Tacca integrifolia Ker Gawl. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 052)

Wan nang khruan

bland

alleviates body pain, sexual stimulants

rhizome / decoction / int

Marantaceae

    

83. Donax grandis (Miq.) Ridl. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 025)

Khlum

bland

fever

rhizome/ decoction / int

84. Schumannianthus dichotomus (Roxb.) Gagnep. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 018)

Khla

bland

skin diseases, fever, reduces body heat

rhizome / decoction / int

Poaceae

    

85. Panicum repens L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 021)

Ya khrun

bland

diuretic

whole plant / decoction / int

Stemonaceae

    

86. Stemona tuberosa Lour. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 078)

Non tai yak

nauseating

kill parasites

root / juice / int, ext

Zingiberaceae

    

87. Amomum testaceum Ridl. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 045)

Krawan

aromatic

flatulence, promotes blood flow, asthma, menstrual problems

fruit / decoction / int

88. Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 113)

Kra chai

aromatic

strengthens the body in general, increases milk production, dysentery

root / juice / int

89. Curcuma comosa Roxb. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 022)

Wan chak motluk

astringent

discharge amniotic fluid after giving birth, treat postpartum uterine swelling

fruit / decoction / int

90. Curcuma longa L. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 023)

Khamin chan

astringent

peptic ulcer, intestinal infections, skin diseases

rhizome / paste / ext, int

91. Curcuma zedoaria (Berg) Roscoe (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 114)

Khamin oi

astringent

skin diseases

rhizome / paste / ext

92. Kaempferia galanga L. (W. Wongwiwat & S. Pinsook 028)

Pro hom

aromatic

flatulence

rhizome / juice / int

93. Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex. Baker (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 046)

Krachai dam

aromatic

strengthens the body in general, sexual stimulants

rhizome / extracted with alc. / int

94. Zingiber montanum (Koenig) Link ex Dietr. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 040)

Phlai

astringent

flatulence, alleviates muscle pain, strain, skin swelling (mixed with “Ya dam”, latex of Aloe vera L.)

rhizome / juice, decoction / int

95. Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 062)

Khing

hot

flatulence, appetizer

rhizome / juice, decoction / int

96. Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Sm. (Y. Teanuan & S. Prom- In 122)

Kra thue

bitter

flatulence, dysentery

rhizome / juice, decoction / int

Gymnosperms

    

97. Gnetum montanum Markgr. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 071)

Ma mueai

nauseating

alleviates muscle pain

wood / decoction / int

Ferns

    

Polypodiaceae

    

98. Drynaria quercifolia (L.) Sm. (N. Saedan & C. Khuniad 032)

Kratae tai mai

bland

diuretic

rhizome / decoction / int

The result of this study indicated that the majority of medicinal plants used by traditional healers are still harvested from the wild (Fig. 3). In the case of cultivated plants, the original habitats were wild and located far away from the traditional healers’ villages. For convenience, these medicinal plants were moved and planted in cultivated fields or home gardens and used whenever required. However, most traditional healers said that the current situation of medicinal plants is a concern. Some medicinal plant species have become rare or extinct because of overexploitation and continued deforestation. As a result, the shortage of medicinal plants has affected healing treatments. The result was in agreement with the study of Tabuti [7] and Wodah and Asase [8] who reported on the decrease of medicinal plants in northwest Ghana and Uganda. This study showed that shrubs were found to be the most used plants (48 species) followed by herbs (40 species), climbers (35 species) and trees (22 species) (Fig. 4). This result indicated that shrubs were common and easily harvested when compared to others. Furthermore, most of the study areas for this study were open areas suitable for shrub growing.
Fig. 3

Sources of medicinal plants

Fig. 4

Habits of medicinal plants

Plant parts used

Among the different parts of medicinal plants used by traditional healers, the underground parts (root, rhizome, tuber, corm) were most frequently used to make the prescriptions for healing treatments, while the whole plant and leaves were second and third respectively (Fig. 5). The study was in agreement with the study of Tabuti [7], Cheikhyoussef [5] and Wodah and Asase [8]. Interestingly, Tabuti [7] mentioned that the uses of root and tuber parts can threaten medicinal plant populations or species viability. This observation was in agreement with this study, most traditional healers said that some species such as Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. f. & Thomson, Capparis micracantha DC. and Gnetum montanum Markgr. are becoming rare because of overexploitation without sustainability. On the other hand, the result of this study was not in agreement with other studies which reported that leaves [9, 10], the whole plant [11] and the stem [12] were the most used parts.
Fig. 5

Parts used of medicinal plants

Tastes of individual medicinal plants

Tastes of individual medicinal plants play a key role for plant selection when used as medicine in the traditional Thai medicine system. Different tastes are associated with curing properties and applications. Based on traditional Thai medicine concepts, tastes are divided into ten types i.e., astringent, sweet, nauseating, bitter, hot, fat, salty, sour, aromatic and bland (tasteless). The idea of taste is in agreement with the Ayurvedic system [13] and traditional uses of plants by tribal communities [14, 15]. The result of this study showed that all medicinal plants were classified into nine groups by their tastes (Table 2). The most frequently found taste was bland (20 species) followed by bitter (18 species) and aromatic and nauseating (16 species each). Bland plants were clearly found to be used for fever (six species) and for their diuretic properties (four species). They were generally used as ingredients together with bitter plants for making remedies for the treatment of fever. Traditional healers explained that bitter plants can kill pathogens while bland plants decrease body temperature by urine excretion. The result of the study was not accordant with Ankli [14], who reported that Maya of the Yucatan peninsula (Mexico) used bland plants (tasteless) for women’s diseases whereas bitter plants were used to treat animal bites and dermatological conditions. Aromatic and hot plants were generally used to treat gastrointestinal diseases (16 species and 12 species, respectively), especially flatulence. Flatulence was the most prominent symptom that occurred in most people, therefore it has various medicinal plants for treatment. Likewise, Ankli [14] reported that aromatic plants were used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Nauseating plants were related with various illnesses such as gastrointestinal diseases (six species), skin conditions (seven species), muscle pain (two species), women’s diseases and bleeding (one species each).
Table 2

Medicinal plant tastes and medicinal applications (cited by more than five traditional healers)

Groups of ailment

Ailment

Aromatic

Astringent

Bitter

Bland

Hot

Nauseating

Sour

Sweet

Fat

Total

Gastrointestinal system

flatulence

11

   

4

    

15

(34 species)

canker

   

1

     

1

 

peptic ulcer

 

1

  

1

    

2

 

intestinal infections

 

1

1

  

1

   

3

 

laxative, constipation

  

2

 

1

2

2

1

 

8

 

hemorrhoids

     

2

   

2

 

expel worms

     

1

   

1

 

toothache

1

   

1

    

2

Respiratory system (6 species)

eliminate sputum, cough, sore throat

  

2

   

3

1

 

6

Fever, malaria (19 species)

   

12

6

    

1

19

Skin conditions

eczema, scabies, abscess

 

2

   

6

   

8

(12 species)

animal bites, itching

   

2

     

2

 

skin swelling, burns

  

1

1

     

2

 

stop bleeding

     

1

   

1

Female problems (5 species)

women’s diseases

   

1

2

1

  

1

5

Antidote (2 species)

    

2

     

2

Musculoskeletal system (8 species)

  

1

 

3

1

2

  

1

8

Nephrological system (4 species)

diuretic

   

4

     

4

The heart and circulatory system

dizziness, tonifies heart

3

        

3

(3 species)

           

Miscellaneous (4 species)

improve body elements

1

   

2

   

1

4

 

total

16

5

18

20

12

16

5

2

4

98

The most interesting group was the one related to skin conditions. Skin conditions were treated using a combination of nauseating, astringent, bland and bitter plants. The preferred treatment for various infections used nauseating and astringent tasting plants, whereas the preferred option for swellings was bitter and bland plants. In the case of chronic skin diseases, all four tastes of plants were combined to make remedies. Astringent plants were also used to treat intestinal infections such as dysentery, diarrhea and peptic ulcer. This result was similar to the study of Leonti [16], which revealed that diarrhea and dysentery were treated with astringent plants, for example pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L., an astringent plant which is used for its anti-inflammatory activity [17] and extracts of Garcinia mangostana L. and Punica granatum L. which exhibit antibacterial activity [18]. Curcuma longa L., an astringent plant, has long been used in traditional medicine and as a food additive. Its rhizome has played a key role in traditional medicine for treating various diseases such as flatulence, peptic ulcer, intestinal infection, and skin conditions. It was scientifically confirmed in various aspects such as antioxidant activity [19, 20], anti-inflammation [19, 21], antibacterial activity [22] and anti-ulcer activity [23]. The curing properties of other tastes are represented in Table 2. However, this study suggested that the selection of medicinal plants to be used as medicines and the efficacy of treatments derives from a combination of the experience of individual healers as well as medicinal plant selection. This study was in agreement with Casagrande [15] who reported that taste should not be allowed to predict the properties of medicinal plants of the Tzeltal Maya alone, but it should be combined with the experience of each traditional healer. However, Ankli [14] mentioned that taste and secondary products of medicinal plants are relative and traditional knowledge can help healers to distinguish between medicinal and non-medicinal plants.

A greater understanding of the medicinal plant tasting concept is necessary for medicinal plant selection so that more efficient traditional prescriptions can be made. Additionally, the relationship between plant tastes and biological activities have been scientifically confirmed (Table 3). Some common medicinal plants have been used for a long time in traditional medicine such as Curcuma longa L.; it is used for wound healing, peptic ulcer and various skin diseases. These activities were already confirmed by scientific validation and were accordant with traditional uses, including other medicinal plant species such as Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f., Amomum testaceum Ridl., Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees, Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf., Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., Cissus quadrangularis L., Eurycoma longifolia Jack, Punica granatum L., Solanum trilobatum L., Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl., Tiliacora trianda (Colebr.) Diels, Zingiber montanum (Koenig) Link ex Dietr. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. These have all been scientifically confirmed.
Table 3

The relationship between ailment and taste of some medicinal plant species

Ailment

Tastes of plant species

Example

Pharmacological activity

Gastrointestinal system

   

- flatulence, peptic ulcer

hot, aromatic

Acorus calamus L.

anti-ulcer activity [43]

  

Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf.

anti-ulcerogenic property [44]

  

Cyperus rotundus L.

cytoprotective effects [45]

  

Kaempferia galanga L.

against gastric mucosal [46]

  

Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex. Baker

anti-Helicobacter pylori [47]

  

Ocimum basilicum L.

anti-ulcer activity [48]

  

Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

antimicrobial activity [49]

  

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

anti-ulcerogenic effect [50]

- intestinal infections

astringent

Curcuma longa L.

antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities [51], antibacterial activity [22] antibacterial and mycobacterial activities [20]

  

Curcuma zedoaria (Berg) Roscoe

antimicrobial activity [51], anti-inflammation [52]

- diarrhea, dysentery

bitter

Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Sm.

antimicrobial activity [53], antinociceptive [54]

 

astringent

Punica granatum L.

antidiarrheal activity [55], anti-inflammatory effect [56]

- laxative, constipation

sour

Tamarindus indica L.

antioxidative effect [57]

 

sweet

Cassia fistula L.

pediatric functional constipation [58], laxative effect [59]

 

hot

Croton tiglium L.

gastrointestinal effect [59]

- hemorrhoids

nauseating

Cissus quadrangularis L.

efficacy and side effects of acute hemorrhoids [60] analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities [61]

- toothache

hot

Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC.

anti-inflammation [62, 63] antibacterial activity [62], analgesic activity [64]

Fever, malaria

bitter

Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees

antimalarial activity [65], antibacterial activity [66], anti-inflammation [67], antiviral activity [68]

  

Brucea javanica (L.) Merr.

antimalarial activity [69], antiplasmodial activity [70]

  

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity [71], anti-allergic activity [72]

  

Clerodendrum petasites S. Moore

antipyretic activity [61]

  

Eurycoma longifolia Jack

antiplasmodial activity [73], antiparasitic activity [74]

  

Momordica charantia L.

Antibacterial and antifungal activities [75]

  

Phyllanthus urinaria L.

anti-inflammation [76], anti-HSV [77]

  

Tinospora crispa crispa (L.) Miers ex Hook. f. & Thomson

antimalarial activity [78], antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities [79]

 

bland

Tiliacora trianda (Colebr.) Diels

antimycobacterial activity [80]

  

Vernonia cinerea (L. ) Less.

antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities [81], antibacterial activity [82], antimalarial activity [83]

Skin conditions

   

- eczema, scabies, abscess itching, measles, skin diseases, poisonous animal bites,

nauseating

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson

anti-inflammatory activity [84]

  

Datura metel L.

antimicrobial activity [85], antimycotic activity [86]

  

Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth.

antioxidant and antibacterial activities [87], anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities [88]

  

Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz

antimicrobial activity [89], antiallergic activity [90], antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities [91]

  

Senna alata (L. ) Roxb.

antiallergic activity [92], antifungal activity [93]

  

Senna tora (L. ) Roxb.

antioxidant and antibacterial activities [94] antibacterial activity

  

Stemona tuberosa Lour.

antibacterial activity [95]

- burns, skin swelling

bland

Aloe vera (L.) Burn. f.

antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities [96] wound healing property [97]

- stop bleeding

nauseating

Chromolaena odoratum (L.) R. M. King & H. Roxb.

hemostatic and wound healing properties [98]

Respiratory system

   

- eliminates sputum, cough,

sour

Abrus precatorius L.

anti-inflammatory and antiallergic activity [99]

sore throat

 

Albizia myriophylla Benth.

antibacterial activity [100]

  

Phyllanthus emblica L.

anti-inflammatory activity [101], anti-Coxsackie Virus B3 [102]

  

Tamarindus indica L.

antimicrobial activity [103]

 

bitter

Solanum trilobatum L.

antimicrobial activity [104], anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities [105]

Female problems

fat

Sida rhombifolia L.

antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities [106]

Nephrological system

   

- diuretic

bland

Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq.c

anti-inflammatory activity [107]

  

Pluchea indica (L. ) Less.

anti-inflammatory activity [108], antimicrobial activity [109]

However, there are many medicinal plants which have been commonly used in the area. The activities of these medicinal plants which are accordant with traditional uses have been unproven such as, Aquilaria malaccensis Lam., Baliospermum solanifolium (Burm.) Suresh, Bridelia ovata Decne., Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Capparis micracantha DC., Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon, Donax grandis (Miq.) Ridl., Drynaria quercifolia (L.) Sm., Excoecaria oppositifolia Griff., Fagraea fragrans Roxb., Gnetum montanum Markgr., Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. f. & Thomson, Gymnopetalum chinense (Lour.) Merr., Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites, Lepionurus sylvestris Blume, Panicum repens L., Saprosma brunneum Craib, Schumannianthus dichotomus (Roxb.) Gagnep. and Shirakiopsis indica (Willd.) Esser.

Groups of ailments and medicinal plants

One hundred and fifty one medicinal plants were divided into 16 ailment groups (Fig. 6). The largest number of medicinal plants were found to be used for treating the gastrointestinal system, such as flatulence, toothache, canker, stomachache, constipation, diarrhea, dysentery, peptic ulcer and liver diseases, for which 67 species were used, for example Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Sm. for flatulence and dysentery, Baliospermum solanifolium (Burm.) Suresh for hemorrhoids and constipation and Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon for hemorrhoids. Neamsuvan [24] mentioned that gastrointestinal disorders were frequently found in southern Thailand because of climate and food consumption culture and also reported that Senna alata (L.) Roxb. was predominantly used for constipation, which was in agreement with the present study. The second largest group of ailments was found to be with the respiratory system, such as asthma, elimination of sputum, coughs, sore throats and sinusitis, for which 41 species were used, for example Justicia adhatoda L. for the elimination of sputum and coughs, Millingtonia hortensis L. f. for sinusitis and asthma. The third largest group of ailments was fever for which 36 species of plants were found, such as Capparis micracantha DC., Clerodendrum petasites (Lour.) S. Moore, Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr. and Tiliacora trianda (Colebr.) Diels. These plants constitute the ingredients of a traditional Thai formula which is called “Ya-Ha-Rak” and it has been routinely used for fever treatment. Furthermore, Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr. was reported that its aqueous extract showed the highest activity against HIV-1 IN [25]. Other interesting plant species for the treatment of fever include Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees, Donax grandis (Miq.) Ridl., Gymnopetalum chinense (Lour.) Merr., Panicum repens L., Tinospora crispa (L.) Miers ex Hook. f. & Thomson and Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. Interestingly, these plants are bitter and bland. According to the belief of traditional Thai healers, bitter plants have the potential to reduce body temperature and kill microorganisms, whereas bland plants are used as diuretics which decrease body heat. In Sating Phra, peninsular Thailand, Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less was used for wound healing [26]. This particular usage differed from examples in this study. Additionally, Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less was well known for smoking cessation. Interestingly, Chromolaena odoratum (L.) R. M. King & H. Roxb. was commonly used for wound bleeding. [2629]. The study of Pandith [30] confirmed that hemostatic and wound healing activities were related with the expression of genes, heme oxygenase-1, thromboxane synthase and MMP-9. The smallest number of medicinal plants were used to treat malaria and as antidotes. For malaria treatment, two plant species were found, i.e., Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. and Eurycoma longifolia Jack. The taste of both species is bitter. Based on traditional Thai medicine, malaria is a type of fever which is frequently treated with bitter medicinal plants. Maneenoon [31] reported that Eurycoma longifolia Jack was used by the Sakai tribe, a minority of southern Thailand, to treat fevers as well as malaria. In northern Thailand, the whole plant of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr was used to treat itching, whereas malaria was treated with Phyllanthus urinaria L. [27]. As recorded here Phyllanthus urinaria L. was used for treating normal fever or body pain caused by fever. Tiliacora trianda (Colebr.) Diels and Thunbergia laurifolia L. were used for their antidotal properties. Both species have been widely used by Thai traditional healers for treating food poisoning and environmental toxicants. Furthermore, Tiliacora trianda (Colebr.) Diels has been added to traditional Thai formulas to lessen the toxicity of the formula. Similarly, Thunbergia laurifolia L. was widely used as an antidote by Tai Yai [27], Karen [29] and Buddhist and Muslim Thais in southern Thailand [32]. Pharmacological activities of both plants have been scientifically confirmed, especially the properties of Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl., which has been proven effective in the detoxification of insecticide residues [33]. It is used for its antimutagenic activity [34], in the treatment of drug addiction [35], for its antioxidant activity and in the detoxification of cytotoxicity [36], against Pb(NO3)2 toxicity in Nile tilapia [37], against chronic toxicity [38], for protection against oxidative stress and cell death in brain tissues caused by lead exposure [39] and for prevention of renal toxicity induced by cadmium [40].
Fig. 6

Groups of ailments

The accepted use of Tiliacora trianda (Colebr.) Diels is as a detoxifying agent as well as a fever reducing treatment. The result was in agreement with Upho [32], which indicated that this plant species was used as a refrigerant. Saiin & Markmee [41], reported that the extracts of Tiliacora trianda (Colebr.) Diels and Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr. inhibited Plasmodium falciparum, which is the cause of malaria. Moreover, Sireeratawong [42] mentioned that the water extracts of Tiliacora trianda (Colebr.) Diels did not cause acute or subchronic toxicities in rats. Based on traditional uses, the consumption of leaf juice of Tiliacora trianda (Colebr.) Diels decreases body temperature, but it must not be consumed continuously for longer than seven days.

Interesting medicinal plants that are promoted to cure common diseases in rural areas and new properties of some medicinal plants

Many medicinal plants and traditional prescriptions referred to in the present study have been strongly promoted in rural areas for self-healing. Their healing properties, as confirmed by scientific approach, have proven to be consistent. For example, Thunbergia laurifolia L. is strongly promoted for chemical detoxification in agriculturist. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees, Phyllanthus urinaria L., Ya-Ha-Rak (composed of five roots of Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr., Capparis micracantha DC., Tiliacora triandra (Colebr.) Diels, Clerodendrum petasites (Lour.) S. Moore and Ficus racemosa L.) and Tri-Pha-La (composed of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.) are used for treating fever, especially Tri-Pha-La, which is widely used not only for reducing fever but also for tonifying the body elements. Pulp of Cassia fistula L. is mixed with bitter salt and Ya-Dam (latex of Aloe vera L.) to increase the efficacy for the treatment of constipation. Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau, Garcinia mangostana L., Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. are appropriate for treating skin disorders, and many members of Zingiberaceae are suitable for gastrointestinal disorders. Local health care compliance officers should promote these plants to rural people, including advice on their planting and conservation in local communities. The main advantages which rural people gain from these plants are reduced expenses and the avoidance of side effects from chemical drugs.

The present study found new properties of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. and Zingiber montanum (Koenig) Link ex Dietr. Normally, both plants are well known for treating flatulence. In addition, the latter is widely used for the treatment of muscle pain. Furthermore, the leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are crushed and the extract is anointed on the chest and back of children for the treatment of asthma. An extract of rhizome of Zingiber montanum (Koenig) Link ex Dietr is mixed with Ya-Dam and placed on swollen areas for the treatment of bruises.

Conclusions

The study concluded that even though conventional medicine is available, many people in rural communities still continue to depend on traditional Thai medicine, and highly experienced traditional healers are still important to the communities. Unfortunately, the rapid disappearance of traditional medicine and natural resources due to urbanization suggests that unrecorded data may be lost forever. Therefore, further study will be needed for systematic documentation of traditional Thai medicine including scientific confirmation through biological activities. Clinical studies will also be required.

Declarations

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by a grant from the Research and Development Office, Prince of Songkla University (fiscal research budget: TTM530090S). We are grateful to all the traditional healers who provided valuable information and to their families for the friendship and hospitality during the fieldwork. We would also like to thank our staff for their assistance in plant collection, in particular Mr. Phil Lattimore and Dr. Alan Frederick-Geater for language correction.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Faculty of Traditional Thai Medicine, Prince of Songkla University
(2)
Faculty of Health and Sports Science, Thaksin University
(3)
Faculty of Science and Technology, Songkhla Rajabhat University

References

  1. Thai Trade Centers, USA: Ministry of Public Health Promotes Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine in Hospitals Nationwide. [http://www.thaitradeusa.com/home/?p=10322]
  2. Phatthalung province. [http://www.phatthalung.go.th/position]
  3. Pensuk A, Shrestha R. Linking land use change and rural livelihoods: a case study of Phatthalung watershed in Southern Thailand. APJORD. 2008;18(2):143–64.Google Scholar
  4. Bridson D, Forman L. The herbarium handbook. UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew; 1992.Google Scholar
  5. Cheikhyoussef A, Shapi M, Matengu K, Ashekele HM. Ethnobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plant use by traditional healers in Oshikoto region, Namibia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2011;7:1–11.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Prasitpuriprecha C, Sripanidkulchai B, Lulitanond V, Saguansermsri J. Studies on the utilization of medicinal plants as immunomodulators in Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand. KKU Res J. 2005;10:31–41.Google Scholar
  7. Tabuti JRS, Lye KA, Dhillion SS. Traditional herbal drugs of Bulamogi, Uganda: plants, use and administration. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;88:19–44.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Wodah D, Asase A. Ethnopharmacological use of plants by Sisala traditional healers in northwest Ghana. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:807–15.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Kashanipour RA, McGee RJ. Northern Lacandon Maya medicinal plants use in the communities of Lacanja Chan Sayab and Naha, Chiapas, Mexico. JEA. 2004;8:47–66.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  10. Mahmood A, Mahmood A, Mujtaba G, Mumtaz MS, Kayani WK, Khan MA. Indigenous medicinal knowledge of common plants from district Kotli Azad Jammu and Kashmir Pakistan. J Med Plants Res. 2012;6:4961–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  11. Au DT, Wu J, Jiang Z, Chen H, Lu G. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Hakka in Guangdong, China. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;117:41–50.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Chotchoungchatchai S, Saralamp P, Jenjittikul T, Pornsiripongse S, Prathanturarug S. Medicinal plants used with Thai Traditional Medicine in modern healthcare services: a case study in Kabchoeng hostpital, Surin province, Thailand. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141:193–205.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Joshi K, Hankey A, Patwardhan B. Traditional phytochemistry: identification of drug by taste. eCam. 2006;4:145–8.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ankli A, Sticher O, Heinrich M. Yucatec Maya medicinal plants versus non-medicinal plants: indigenous characterization and selection. Hum Ecol. 1999;27:557–80.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Casagrande DG. Human taste cognition in Tzeltal Maya medicinal plant use. JEA. 2000;4:57–69.Google Scholar
  16. Leonti M, Sticher O, Heinrich M. Medicinal plants of the Popoluca, Mexico: organoleptic properties as indigenous selection criteria. J Ethnomharmacol. 2002;81:307–15.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Reanmongkol W, Wattanapiromsakul C. Evaluation of the analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. in experimental animals. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol. 2008;30:739–45.Google Scholar
  18. Voravuthikunchai S, Kitpipat L. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of Thai medicinal plants against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol. 2005;27:525–34.Google Scholar
  19. Ramsewak RS, Dewitt DL, Nair MG. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Curcumins I-III from Curcuma longa. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;7:303–8.Google Scholar
  20. Cikrikci S, Mozioglu E, Yilmaz H. Biological activity of Curcuminoids isolated from Curcuma longa. Rec Nat Prod. 2008;2:19–24.Google Scholar
  21. Wu NC. Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of Curcumin: a component of Tumeric (Curcuma longa). J Altern Complem Med. 2003;9:161–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Naz S, Jabeen S, Ilyas S, Manzoor F, Aslam F, Ali A. Antibacterial activity of Curcuma longa varieties against different strains of bacteria. Pakistan J Bot. 2010;42:455–62.Google Scholar
  23. Tuorkey M, Karolin K. Anti-ulcer activity of curcumin on experimental gastric ulcer in rats and tis effect on oxidative stress / antioxidant, IL-6 and enzyme activities. Biomed Environ Sci. 2009;22:488–95.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. Neamsuvan O, Tuwaemaengae T, Bensulong F, Asae A, Mosamae K. A survey of folk remedies for gastrointestinal diseases from Thailand’s three southern border provinces. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;144:11–21.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. Bunluepuech K, Tewtrakul S. Anti-HIV-1 integrase activity of Thai Medicinal Plants. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol. 2009;31:289–92.Google Scholar
  26. Neamsuvan O, Singdam P, Yingcharoen K, Sengnon N. A survey of medicinal plants in mangrove and beach forests from sating phra peninsula, Songkhla Province, Thailand. J Med Plants Res. 2012;12:2421–37.Google Scholar
  27. Khuankaew S, Srithi K, Tiansawat P, Jampeetong A, Inta A, Wangpakapattanawong P. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Tai Yai in Northern Thailand. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;151:829–38.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  28. Junsongduang A, Balslev H, Inta A, Jampeetong A, Wangpakapattanawong P. Karen and Lawa medicinal plant use: uniformity or ethnic divergence. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;151:517–27.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  29. Tangjitman K, Wongsawad C, Winijchaiyanan P, Sukkho T, Kamwong K, Pongamornkul W, et al. Traditional knowledge on medicinal plant of the Karen in northern Thailand: a comparative study. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;150:232–43.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  30. Pandith H, Zhang X, Liggett J, Min KW, Gritsanapan W, Baek SJ. Hemostatic and wound healing properties of Chromolaena odorata leaf extract. ISRN Dermatol. 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/168269.
  31. Maneenoon K. Ethnobotany of Sakai tribe at Banthad range, Master thesis. Peninsular Thailand: Prince of Songkla University, Biology Department; 2001.Google Scholar
  32. Upho U. Ethnobotany of Buddhist and Muslim Thais in some locations in the lower part of southern Thailand. PhD thesis. Chiangmai University, Biology Department; 2005.Google Scholar
  33. Tejasen P, Thongthapp C. The study of the insecticide antitoxicity of Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. Chiang Mai Bull. 1979;19:105–14.Google Scholar
  34. Saenphet K, Kantaoop P, Saenphet S, Aritajat S. Mutagenicity of Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw & Suvatabandhu and antimutagenicity of Thunbergia laurifolia L. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005;36:238–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Thongsaard W, Marsden CA, Morris P, Prior M, Shah YB. Effect of Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl., a Thai natural product used to treat drug addiction, on cerebral activity detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging in the rat. Psychophamocol. 2005;180:752–60.Google Scholar
  36. Oonsivilai R, Ferruzzi MG, Ningsanond S. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of Rang Chuet (Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl.) extracts. J Food Ag-Ind. 2008;1:116–28.Google Scholar
  37. Palipoch S, Jiraungkoorskul W, Tansatit T, Preyavichyapugdee N, Jaikua W, Kosai P. Protective efficiency of Thunbergia laurifolia leaf extract against lead (II) nitrate-induced toxicity in Oreochromis niloticus. J Med Plant Res. 2011;5:719–28.Google Scholar
  38. Chivapat S, Chavalittumrong P, Attawish A, Bansiddhi J, Padungpat S. Chronic toxicity of Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. extract. J Thai Trad Altern Med. 2009;7:17–24.Google Scholar
  39. Tangpong J. Anti-neurodegenerative effect of Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. on lead-mediated neuroapoptosis. Nakhon Si Thammarat: Walailak University; 2010.Google Scholar
  40. Chattaviriya P, Morkmek N, Lertprasertsuke N, Ruangyuttikarn W. Drinking Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. leaf extract helps prevent renal toxicity induced by cadmium in rats. Thai J Toxicol. 2010;25:124–32.Google Scholar
  41. Saiin C, Markmee S. Isolation of anti-malaria active compound from Yanang (Tiliacora triandra Diels.). Kasetsart J Nat Sci. 2003;37:47–51.Google Scholar
  42. Sireeratawong S, Lertprasertsuke N, Srisawat U, Thuppia A, Ngamjariyawat A. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from Tiliacora triandra (Colebr.) Diels in rats. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol. 2008;30:611–9.Google Scholar
  43. Rafatullah S, Tariq M, Mossa JS, Al-Yahya AL. Anti-secretagogue, antiulcer and cytoprotective properties of Acorus calamus in rats. Fitoterapia. 1994;1:19–23.Google Scholar
  44. Abdelwahab SI, Mohan S, Abdulla MA, Sukari MA, Abdul AB, Taha MME, et al. The methanolic extract of Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. And its major compound pinostrobin induces anti-ulcerogenic property in vivo: Possible involvement of indirect antioxidant action. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137:63–970.Google Scholar
  45. Zhu M, Luk HH, Fung HS, Luk CT. Cytoprotective effects of Cyperus rotundus against ethanol induced gastric ulceration in rats. Phytother Res. 1998;11:392–4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  46. Nie Y, Kinghua L, Evacuasiany E. The effect of Kencur’s rhizome ethanol extract (Kaempferia galanga L.) against gastric mucosal to Swiss Webster mice in induce by asetosal. J Medika Planta. 2012;2:77–84.Google Scholar
  47. Chaichanawongsaroj N, Amonyingcharoen S, Pattiyathanee P, Vilaichone R, Poovorawan Y. Anti-Helicobacter pylori and anti-internalization activities of Thai folk remedies used to treat gastric ailments. J Med Plant Res. 2012;6:1389–93.Google Scholar
  48. Singh S, Majumdar DK. Evaluation of the gastric antiulcer activity of fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum (Holy Basil). J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;65:13–9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  49. Sharma A, Meena A, Meena R. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts of Ocimum tenuiflorum. Int J Pharm Tech Res. 2012;4:76–180.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  50. Zaman SU, Mirje MM, Ramabhimaiah S. Evaluation of the anti-ulcerogenic effect of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) root in rats. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2014;3:347–54.Google Scholar
  51. Bugno A, Nicoletti MA, Almodovar AAB, Pereira TC. Auricchio MT, antimicrobial efficacy of Curcuma zedoaria extract as assessed by linear regression compaired with commercial mouthrinses, Brazillian. J Microbiol. 2007;38:440–5.Google Scholar
  52. Kaushik M, Jalalpure SS. Anti-inflammatory efficacy of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc root extracts. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2011;4:90–2.Google Scholar
  53. Kader G, Nikkon F, Rashid A, Yeasmin T. Antimicrobial activities of the zhizome extract of Zingiber zerumbet L. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011;1:409–12.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  54. Khalid MH, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Perimal EK, Akira A, Israf DA, et al. Antinociceptive effect of the essential oil of Zingiber zerumbet in mice: possible mechanism. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137:345–51.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  55. Qnais EY, Elokda AS, Ghalyun YYA, Abdulla FA. Antidiarrheal activity of the aqueous extract of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) Peels. Pharm Biol. 2007;45:715–20.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  56. Lee CJ, Chen LG, Liang WL, Wang CC. Anit-inflammatory effects of Punica gratum L. in vitro and in vivo. Food Chem. 2010;118:315–22.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  57. Mozaffarpur SA, Naseri M, Esmaeilidooki MR, Kamlinejad M, Bijani A. The effect of Cassia fistula emulsion on pediatric functional constipation in comparison with mineral oil: a randomized, clinical trial. DARU J Pharm Sci. 2012;20:1–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  58. Agrawal K, Ghildiyal S, Gautam MK, Joshi VK, Goel RK. Studies on laxative effect of extract of dried fruit pulp of Cassia fistula. J Nat Remedies. 2012;12:119–28.Google Scholar
  59. Pillai NR. Gastrointestinal effects of Croton tiglium in experimental animals. Ancient Sci Life. 1999;18:205–9.Google Scholar
  60. Panpimanmas S, Sithipongsri S, Sukdanon C, Manmee C. Side effects of Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae) to Daflon (Servier) and Placebo in the treatment of acute hemorrhoids. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010;93:1360–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Panthong A, Supraditaporn W, Kanjanapothi D, Taesotikul T, Reutrakul V. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects of Cissus quadrangularis L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;110:264–70.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  62. Bhattacharya S, Haldar PK, Zaman K. Anti-inflammatory activity and antioxidant role of Zanthoxylum nitidum bark. Orient Pharm Exp Med. 2011;11:271–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  63. Chen JJ, Lin YH, Day SH, Hwang TL, Chen IS. New benzenoids and anti inflammatory constituents from Zanthoxylum nitidum. Food Chem. 2011;125:282–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  64. Hu J, Zhang WD, Liu RH, Zhang C, Shen YH, Li HL, et al. Benzophenanthridine Alkaloids from Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC., and their Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Chem Biodivers. 2006;3:990–5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  65. Dua VK, Ojha VP, Roy R, Joshi BC, Valecha N, Devi CU, et al. Anti-malarial activity of some xanthones isolated from the roots of Andrographis paniculata. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;95:247–51.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  66. Leelarasamee A, Trakulsomboon S, Sittisomwong N. Undetectable anti-bacterial activity of Andrographis paniculata (Burma) wall. ex ness. J Med Assoc Thai. 1990;73:299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Sheeja K, Shihab PK, Kuttan G. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory acitivities of the plant Andrographis paniculata Nees. Immunopharm Immunot. 2006;28:129–40.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  68. Wiart C, Kumar K, Yusof MY, Hamimah H, Fauzi ZM, Sulaiman M. Antiviral properties of ent-labdene diterpenes of Andrographis paniculata nees, inhibitors of herpes simplex virus type1. Phytother Res. 2005;19:1069–70.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  69. Melanie JO, Dorothy HB, Peter B, Kit LC, Phillipson JD, David CW, et al. Plants as sources of antimalarial drugs, part 4: active of Brucea javanica fruits against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and against Plasmodium berghei in vivo. J Nat Prod. 1987;50:41–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  70. Sriwilaijaroen N, Kondo S, Nanthasri P, Auparakkitanon S, Suzuki Y, Wilairat P. Antiplasmodial effects of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. and Eurycoma longifolia Jack extracts and their combination with chloroquine and quinine on Plasmodium falciparum in culture. Trop Med Health. 2010;38:61–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  71. Somchit MN, Sulaiman MR, Zuraini A, Samsuddin L, Somchit N, Israf DA, et al. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Centella asiatica. Indian J Pharmacol. 2004;36:377–80.Google Scholar
  72. George M, Joseph L. Anti-allergic, anti-pruritic, and anti-inflammatory activities of Centella asiatica extracts. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2009;6:554–9.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Chan KL, Choo CY, Abdullah NR, Ismail Z. Antiplasmodial studies of Eurycoma longifolia Jack using the lactate dehydrogenase assay of Plasmodium falciparum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;92:223–7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  74. Suratwadee J, Santisopasri V, Murakami A, Kawanaka M, Kawanaka H, Gasquet M, et al. In vitro anti-tumor promoting and anti-parasitic activities of the quassinoids from Eurycoma longifolia, a medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;82:55–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  75. Jagessar RC, Mohamed A, Gomes G. An evaluation of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Nat Sci. 2008;6:1–14.Google Scholar
  76. Fang SH, Rao YK, Tzeng YM. Anti-oxidant and inflammatory mediator’s growth inhibitory effects of compounds isolated from phyllanthus urinaria. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;116:333–40.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  77. Yang CM, Cheng HY, Lin TC, Chiang LC, Lin CC. Acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of Phyllanthus urinaria inhibit HSV-2 infection in vitro. Antiviral Res. 2005;67:24–33.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  78. Rahman NNNA, Furuta T, Kojima S, Takane K, Mohd MA. Antimalarial activity of extracts of Malaysian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;64:249–54.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  79. Sulaiman MR, Zakaria ZA, Lihan R. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Tinospora crispa in various Animal models. Int J Trop Med. 2008;3:66–9.Google Scholar
  80. Sureram S, Senadeera SP, Hongmanee P, Mahidol C, Ruchirawat S, Kittakoop P. Antimycobacterial activity of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Tiliacora triandra against multidrug –resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:2902–5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  81. Iwalewa EO, Iwalewa OJ, Adeboye JO. Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory effects of methanol, chloroform and ether extracts of Vernonia cinerea Less leaf. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;86:229–34.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  82. Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Manikandan L, Haldar PK, Bhattacharya S, Kandar CC. Antibacterial activity of Vernonia cinerea. Fitoterapia. 2003;74:148–50.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  83. Chea A, Hout S, Long C, Marcourt L, Faure R, Azas N, et al. Antimalarial activity of sesquiterpene lactones from Vernonia cinerea. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006;54:1437–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  84. Shankhajit D, Nandan DY, Kumar GA. Anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius and its possible mechanism. Int J Pharma Bio Sci. 2010;1:1–8.Google Scholar
  85. Vadlapudi V, Kaladhar DSVGK. Antimicrobial study of plant extracts of Datura metel L. against some important disease causing pathogens. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2012;2:94–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  86. Akharaiyi FC. Antibacterial, phytochemical and antioxidant activities of Datura metel. Int J PharmTech Res. 2011;1:473–83.Google Scholar
  87. Parthasarathy S, Azizi J, Ramanathan S, Ismail S, Sasidharan S, Said MIM, et al. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial activity of aqueous, mathanolic and alkaloid extracts from Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae family) leaves. Molecules. 2009;14:3964–74.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  88. Mossadeq WMS, Sulaiman MR, Mohamad TAT, Chiong HS, Zakaria ZA, Jabit ML, et al. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of Mitragyna speciosa Korth methanolic extract. Med Princs Pract. 2009;18:378–84.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  89. Puttarak P, Charoonratana T, Panichayupakaranant P. Antimicrobial activity and stability of rhinacanthins-rich Rhinacanthus nasutus extract. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:323–7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  90. Tewtrakul S, Tansakul P, Panichayupakaranant P. Anti-allegic principles of Rhinacanthus nasutus leaves. Phytomedicine. 2009;16:929–34.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  91. Siripong P, Wongseri V, Piyaviriyakul S, Yahaufai J, Chanpai R, Kanakmedakul K. Antibacterial potential of Rhinacanthus nasutus against clinically isolated bacteria from Thai cancer patients. MU J PHARM. 2006;33:15–22.Google Scholar
  92. Singh B, Nadkarnil JR, Vishwakarma RA, Bharate SB. The hydroalcoholic extract of Cassia alata L. leaves and its major compound rhein exhibits antiallegic activity via mast cell stabilization and lipoxygenase inhibition. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141:469–73.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  93. Wuthi-udomlert M, Kupittayanant P, Gritsanapan W. In vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of anthraquinone derivatives of Senna alata. J Health Res. 2010;24:117–22.Google Scholar
  94. Nasir US, Eunus A, Nazma Y. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Senna tora Roxb. Am J Plant Physicol. 2008;3:96–100.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  95. Lin LG, Yang XZ, Tang CP, Ke CQ, Zhang JB, Ye Y. Antibacterial stilbenoids from the roots of Stemona tuberosa. Phytochemistry. 2008;69:457–63.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  96. Yagi A, Kabash A, Okamura N, Haraguchi H, Moustafa SM, Khalifa TI. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects of aloesin derivatives in Aloe vera. Planta Med. 2002;68:957–60.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  97. Davis RH, Donato JJ, Hartman GM, Haas RC. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Asso. 1994;84:77–81.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  98. Pandith H, Zhang X, Liggett J, Min KW, Gritsanapan W, Baek SJ. Hemostatic and wound healing properties of Chromolaena odorata leaf extract. ISRN Dermatol. 2013;2013:1–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  99. Kuo SC, Chen SC, Chen LH, Wu JB, Wang JP, Teng CM. Potent antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory and antiallergic isoflavanquinones from the roots of Abrus precatorius. Planta Med. 1995;61:307–12.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  100. Joycharat N, Thammavong S, Limsuwan S, Homlaead S, Voravuthikunchai SP, Yingyongnarongkul B, et al. Antibacterial substance from Albizia myriophylla wood against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. Arch Pharm Res. 2013;36:723–30.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  101. Vormisto AI, Summanen J, Kankaanranta H, Vuorela H, Asmawi ZM, Moilanen E. Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica. Planta Med. 1997;63:518–24.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  102. Liu Q, Wang YF, Chen RJ, Zhang MY, Wang YF, Yang CR, et al. Anti-coxsackie Virus B3 norsesquiterpenoids from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:969–72.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  103. Doughari JH. Antimicrobial activity of Tamarindus indica Linn. Trop J PharmRes. 2006;5:597–603.Google Scholar
  104. Latha PS, Kannabiran K. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemicals of Solanum tribatum Linn. Afr J Biotechnol. 2006;5:2402–4.Google Scholar
  105. Pandurangan A, Khosa RL, Hemalatha S. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of root extract of Solanum trilobatum Linn. IJPR. 2008;7:217–21.Google Scholar
  106. Venkatesh S, Reddy YSR, Suresh B, Reddy BM, Ramesh M. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of Sida rhomboidea leaves. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;67:229–32.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  107. Hsu CL, Hong BH, Yu YS, Yen GC. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Orthosiphon aristatus and its bioactive compounds. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:2150–6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  108. Sen T, Chaudhuri AKN. Antiinflammatory evaluation of a Plucea indica root extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 1991;33:135–41.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  109. Chaiyasit S. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Plucea indica aqueous extract: the potential for urinary tract infection treatment. J Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;4:87–90.View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Maneenoon et al. 2015

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.