Open Access

Traditional use and management of NTFPs in Kangchenjunga Landscape: implications for conservation and livelihoods

  • Yadav Uprety1Email author,
  • Ram C. Poudel2,
  • Janita Gurung3,
  • Nakul Chettri3 and
  • Ram P. Chaudhary1, 4
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201612:19

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-016-0089-8

Received: 21 October 2015

Accepted: 3 April 2016

Published: 3 May 2016

The Erratum to this article has been published in Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2017 13:26

Abstract

Non-timber Forest Products (NTFPs), an important provisioning ecosystem services, are recognized for their contribution in rural livelihoods and forest conservation. Effective management through sustainable harvesting and market driven commercialization are two contrasting aspects that are bringing challenges in development of NTFPs sector. Identifying potential species having market value, conducting value chain analyses, and sustainable management of NTFPs need analysis of their use patterns by communities and trends at a regional scale. We analyzed use patterns, trends, and challenges in traditional use and management of NTFPs in the southern slope of Kangchenjunga Landscape, Eastern Himalaya and discussed potential implications for conservation and livelihoods. A total of 739 species of NTFPs used by the local people of Kangchenjunga Landscape were reported in the reviewed literature. Of these, the highest number of NTFPs was documented from India (377 species), followed by Nepal (363) and Bhutan (245). Though the reported species were used for 24 different purposes, medicinal and edible plants were the most frequently used NTFP categories in the landscape. Medicinal plants were used in 27 major ailment categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders. Though the Kangchenjunga Landscape harbors many potential NTFPs, trade of NTFPs was found to be nominal indicating lack of commercialization due to limited market information. We found that the unsustainable harvesting and lack of marketing were the major constraints for sustainable management of NTFPs sector in the landscape despite of promising policy provisions. We suggest sustainable harvesting practices, value addition at local level, and marketing for promotion of NTFPs in the Kangchenjunga Landscape for income generation and livelihood improvement that subsequently contributes to conservation.

Keywords

Traditional knowledge Medicinal plants Trade Potential species NTFP policy Sustainable use and management

Background

Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are the most important provisioning services people obtain from forest ecosystems [1]. The importance of NTFPs in rural livelihoods and forest conservation has been well recognized as they provide income generation opportunities to millions of people around the world [25], and they are also a major source of supplementary food, medicines, fibre, and construction materials [6, 7]. In developing countries, biological resources obtained from forests, mostly NTFPs, may contribute as much as 20–25 % of income to rural people [7]. However, the economic potential of NTFPs is highly contextual and depends on a combined set of socio-cultural, ecological, geo-political, and economic conditions. Nevertheless, access to market/commercialization of NTFPs and sustainable harvesting are two important aspects that need attention for sustainable development of the NTFP sector (also see [8]).

The ecological diversity of the Himalaya makes the area a habitat of a vast range of NTFPs. In the Himalayan region, harvesting NTFPs is a tradition that also contributes significantly to the local economy. Some NTFPs play an important role in traditional health care systems, while others have important cultural values and are sources of food and housing material [911]. Among all categories of NTFPs, medicinal plants have received much focus while the contribution of other categories of NTFPs has been overlooked. For example, the contribution of wild edible plants towards food security and income generation has been undervalued in Nepal [12].

Common threats to NTFPs in the Himalayan region include unsustainable harvesting and habitat loss due to land use change, deforestation and over-grazing [13, 14]. Several other challenges have also been identified for sustainable management of NTFPs, such as policies that are ambiguous or poorly implemented due to the lack of resources, lack of comprehensive information on the ecology of the species and its socio-ecological impacts, and poor infrastructure for bioprospecting [1517]. However, unsustainable harvesting is one of the major issues that affects ecological processes at many levels, from individual and population to community and ecosystem [2, 18]. Commercialization of NTFPs is another important aspect involving different processes such as production, collection, processing, storage, transport, marketing, and sale. Marshall et al. [19] found that product marketing and sale were the most important of all factors that constrained overall success of NTFPs commercialization. However, Ghate et al. [20] found a clear relationship between the degree of proximity to the market and NTFP dependence; remote places with low market access had high NTFPs dependency.

The demand for NTFPs is increasing not only in local markets, but also in international markets. Therefore, some important steps to facilitate integration of NTFPs into the development agenda that benefits local communities include identifying potential species having trade value and conducting research on their ecology and sustainable harvest levels; conducting analyses on value chain and use patterns; and analyzing trends and challenges in marketing and management [21]. Here we focus on these aspects of NTFPs in the Kangchenjunga Landscape within the Eastern Himalaya [22] and explore the implications for conservation and livelihoods.

Methods

Study area

The Kangchenjunga Landscape is a transboundary landscape shared by Bhutan, India, and Nepal. It is one of the richest landscapes in the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) in terms of cultural and biological diversity and forms part of the Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot, one of 34 global Biodiversity Hotspots [23]. It extends over 25,000 sq. km within 260 21′40.49″ to 2807′ 51.25″ North latitudes and 87030′30.67″ to 900 24′31.18″ East longitudes (Fig. 1). The altitude in the landscape ranges from 50 masl in the south to 8,586 masl, the height of Mount Kangchenjunga–the world’s third highest peak. Vegetation zones in the landscape is comprised of tropical, subtropical, temperate, subalpine, alpine, and nival.
Fig. 1

The Kangchenjunga Landscape in the Eastern Himalaya

The Kangchenjunga Landscape provides a range of ecosystem services that supports millions of people [24]. However, like many other landscapes worldwide, biodiversity and ecosystems within the landscape face threats mainly from anthropogenic pressures [25] and global climate change [26]. As a result, the people living in the landscape are economically, physically, and socially vulnerable [25, 27].

Recognizing the global and regional significances and challenges that lie within this landscape, the Kangchenjunga Landscape Conservation and Development Initiative (KLCDI) has been initiated by the governments of Bhutan, India and Nepal to achieve biodiversity conservation and sustainable development by applying ecosystem approaches to transboundary landscape management [22]. One of these priority areas is sustainable utilization of NTFPs in the Kangchenjunga Landscape. Several species of high value NTFPs that are also threatened are found in the landscape such as Chiraito (Swertia chirayita), Panch aunle (Dactylorhiza hatagirea), Kutki (Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora), Laghupatra (Podophyllum hexandrum) and Lauth salla (Taxus wallichiana).

Data collection and analysis

We reviewed scientific studies published in journals and books on traditional uses of NTFPs in the Kangchenjunga Landscape. Various online databases were used (ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar) using specific search terms such as ‘non-timber forest products’, ‘medicinal plants’, ‘wild edible plants’, and ‘Kangchenjunga Landscape’, ‘Nepal’, ‘India’, ‘Sikkim’, ‘Darjeeling’, and ‘Bhutan’. We also explored hard copies of relevant publications. We reviewed a total of 47 publications and one database to enumerate the NTFPs in the Kangchenjunga Landscape. The precision of species identification in this review was dependent on the original source. However, we verified currently accepted name(s) in online nomenclature sources (http://www.theplantlist.org and http://www.tropicos.org). Vernacular names when available have also been provided. A master list was produced providing Linnaean taxonomy, vernacular name(s), mode(s) of use, and reference(s) for each species (Table 1). We also collected trade data and reviewed policy documents on NTFPs of Bhutan, India and Nepal.
Table 1

NTFPs used by the local people of the Kangchenjunga Landscape, Eastern Himalaya

SN

Botanical name

Habit

Family

Vernacular name(s)

Distribution (Altitude in meter)

Part(s) used, Use(s), Location and Reference(s)*

 

Angiosperms

     

1

Justicia adhatoda L.

Shrub

Acanthaceae

Asuro (Np); Bashakha (Dz); Jantrashi (Me); Khateermu (Sh); Vasakdog (S)

500-1600

Roots: Extract taken to cure cholera and epilepsy (KL Nepal: [53]). Roots, bark and leaves: Used as insecticide, expectorant, and antispasmodic. Used as remedy for asthma, cough, fever, gonorrhea leprosy, and phthisis (Sikkim: Database)ǂ. Tender shoots: Used to treat asthma (Jhapa: [66]; Panchthar: [67]). Leaves: Extract given orally to cure wheezing in children (Jhapa: [68]). Decoction used in bronchitis, cold, and veneral diseases (Jhapa: [66]). Paste applied on abdomen and vagina just minutes before childbirth for easy delivery (Sikkim: [69]). Leaves and shoots: Taken orally against fever, headache and bodyache (Darjeeling: [52]). Flowers: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]) and also used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

2

Strobilanthes cusia (Nees) Kuntze

Herb

Acanthaceae

  

Leaves: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

3

Viburnum erubescens Wall.

Shrub

Adoxaceae

Asaray (Np)

2000-3500

Seeds: Edible (Darjeeling: [72]).

4

Trianthema portulacastrum L.

Herb

Aizoaceae

Seto Punarnava (Np)

150-300

Young shoots: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).

5

Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wangerin

Tree

Alanginaceae

Dhela (S); Asare (Np)

150-350

Bark: Paste used for abortion and antifertility (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

6

Achyranthes aspera L.

Herb

Amaranthaceae

Apamarga, Ulte kuro (Np)

800-2300

Whole plant: Juice taken in cough (Panchthar: [67]; Ilam: [73]), dropsy, piles, stomachache (Ilam: [73]) and diarrhoea (Panchthar: [67]).

7

Achyranthes bidentata Blume

Herb

Amaranthaceae

Ankhlay Jhar, Datiwan (Np)

200-2100

Roots and stem: Juice used as diuretic and also given in rheumatism (Darjeeling: [74]; Sikkim: [75]; Ilam: [73, 76, 77]) and hypertention (Ilam: [73, 76, 77]).

8

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC.

Herb

Amaranthaceae

Saranchi Saag (Np); Garundi (S)

200-2000

Roots: Pounded with seeds of Foeniculum vulgare and taken orally to cure piles (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves and twigs: Decoction taken to cure fever (Darjeeling: [78]).

9

Amaranthus spinosus L.,

Herb

Amaranthaceae

Janum arak (S); Lude (Np)

150-1200

Roots: Extract used as diuretic (KL Nepal: [53]). Decoction taken with warm water to check excessive bleeding at post delivery stage (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Eaten as curry to treat burns, boils and as laxative (Darjeeling: [74]).

10

Amaranthus spp.

Herb

Amaranthaceae

Zimtsi (Dz); Naam (Sh)

 

Whole plant: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).

11

Amaranthus tricolor L.

Herb

Amaranthaceae

 

200

Leaves: Used to stop diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Taken to cure gastric problems, fried beaten seeds with butter are given to pregnant women to lessen pregnancy pains (Sikkim: [11]).

12

Amaranthus viridis L.

Herb

Amaranthaceae

Gandhari (S); Lude (Np)

150-1200

Young shoots and leaves: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Juice with sugar taken to cure colic and as laxative (Darjeeling: [74]).

13

Celosia argentea L.

Herb

Amaranthaceae

Bhale Phul, Sahastrajadi (Li)

500-1600

Leaves: Juice administered orally in diarrhoea and dysentery (Sikkim: [79]).

14

Allium sp.

Herb

Amaryllidaceae

Lagok (Dz/Sh)

 

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

15

Allium wallichii Kunth

Herb

Amaryllidaceae

Wild Garlic (Eg); Palengu (Gr); Gokpa, Koje, Ri Gokpa (Km, Sh); Ban Lasun, Ban Pyaj, Jimbu, Jimbujhar (Np); Bathatuva (Ri)

2300-4800

Plant: Used in digestion (Sikkim: [69]). Bulbs and aerial parts: Used as spice (Sikkim: [10, 80], Database; Taplejung: [81, 82]; Sikkim: Database). Bulbs: Boiled, fried in clarified butter and taken in cholera and diarrhea; chewed to treat cough, colds, and altitude sickness (Taplejung: [83]). Bulbs and flowers: Use to treat gastric disorders (Sikkim: [75]).

16

Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) B. L. Burtt & A. W. Hill

Tree

Anacardiaceae

Nepali Hug Plum (Eg); Phindruwa (Li); Lapsi (Np); Amali (Nw); Pindumsi, Pintupsi (Ri); Nying Sho Sha (Tb)

1200-1900

Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Edible and also used to make pickle (Darjeeling: [80], Sikkim: [10, 47, 72, 95]; Ilam: [94]; Taplejung: [88]). Used to treat cough, cold, tonsillitis, diabetes, worm infestation, and heart ailment [87].

17

Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr.

Tree

Anacardiaceae

Doka (S)

100-1400

Bark: Paste applied around bone fracture to set bone (Jhapa: [66]).

18

Mangifera indica L.

Tree

Anacardiaceae

Thaijau (Me); Ul (Np)

300-700

Plant: Effective for jaundice patient (Darjeeling: [105]). Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Green unripe fruit skin crushed and drunk to get relief from stomachache (Jhapa: [68]). Bark: Given with bark of Anthocephalus chinensis, Madhuca longifolia and Gmelina arborea in diarrhea and dysentery (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Young leaves chewed during cough and sore throat (Sikkim: [79]).

19

Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.

Tree

Anacardiaceae

Chuchiam, Kathorkung (Lp)

 

Fruits: Used as laxative (Sikkim: [85]).Used to make sour pickle (Ilam: [94]).

20

Rhus chinensis Mill.

Tree

Anacardiaceae

Bhakimlo (Np); Chokashing (Dz); Roptangshing (Sh);

 

Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Flowers and fruits: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

21

Rhus javanica Miller

Tree

Anacardiaceae

Tibru, Tsakshing (Gr); Rushi (Km, Sh); Yaseba, Isewa (Li); Bhaki Amilo, Bhakimlo, Dudhe Bhalayo (Np); Mahada, Oksarempo, Osreksi (Ri); Bokumba, Thaksing (Sh); Tibi Sing (Tm); Da Trig (Tb)

1000-2700

Fruits: Edible and also used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery (Taplejung: [88]; Panchthar: [67]; Ilam: [73]) and stomach problems (Taplejung: [88]; Ilam: [73]). Dried and extract used in diarrhea, swellings and wounds (Sikkim: Database). Juice used as food preservative; juice boiled with water and mixed with raw egg and the mixture given to treat diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]) and dysentery (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11]). Juice administered orally during blood dysentery (Sikkim: [79]). Boiled and isolated vinegar used to make pickles (Ilam: [94]).

22

Semecarpus anacardium L.f.

Tree

Anacardiaceae

Soso (S); Rani bhalayo (Np); Bhalau (Me)

150-1200

Roots: Used to treat skin infection (Sikkim: [11, 75]). Bark: Decoction given to animals to remove worms (Sikkim: [11]). Latex: Used as antitetanus (Jhapa: [66]). Fruits: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). Also used to treat headache (Jhapa: [68]). Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Seed oil taken in cough and colds (Jhapa: [66]).

23

Spondias pinnata (L. f.) Kurz

Tree

Anacardiaceae

Amaro (Np)

300-1400

Flowers: Used to make curry and for flavoring (Ilam: [94]).

24

Toxicodendron hookeri (K.C. Sahni & Bahadur) C.Y. Wu & T.L. Ming

Tree

Anacardiaceae

Tarsishing (Sh)

 

Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

25

Annona squamata L.

Tree

Annonaceae

Saripha (Np); Mandargom (S)

500-900

Bark: Juice drunk to control fever (Jhapa: [68]). Leaves and seeds: Used to kill lice (Panchthar: [67]). Thalamus is used as antifertility (Jhapa: [66]). Seeds: Useful in abortion and menstrual disorders (Jhapa: [66]). Roots and seeds: Paste applied on forehead during headache (Sikkim: [79]).

26

Angelica cyclocarpa (C.Norman) M.Hiroe

Herb

Apiaceae

  

Roots: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

27

Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels

Herb

Apiaceae

  

Roots: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

28

Carum carvi L.

Herb

Apiaceae

Caraway (Eg); Chir (Gr-Mn); Ban Jeera (Np); Sushavi (Sn); Chhonyo, Khoda (Sh,Wi)

2500-5100

Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves: Used as vegetable (Taplejung: [87]).

29

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

Herb

Apiaceae

Ghortaapre, Gol patta, Gora taprey, Goltaprey (Np); Dalka chatumana (S)

500-2100

Plant: Used to cure heating and tenderness of limb skin (Jhapa: [68]). Juice taken orally to get rid of pneumonia, fever (Sikkim: [75]), asthma (Jhapa: [68]; Ilam: [76, 77]; Sikkim: Database, [69]), mental tension, urinary problems, and stomachache (Ilam: [76, 77]; Jhapa: [68]; Sikkim: [75]). Infusion massaged on the forehead to relieve from headache (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Used for skin disease and improving memory (Sikkim: Database). Leaves and young shoots taken to cure tonsil (Darjeeling: [52]). Aerial parts mixed with young shoots of Justicia adhatoda and taken against diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [86]).

30

Coriandrum sativum L.

Herb

Apiaceae

Dhaniya (Np)

1000-2500

Seeds: Used as spice (Ilam: [76]) and in flatulence (Darjeeling: [91]). Leaves: Used in flatulence (Darjeeling: [91]). Green leaves used to enhance aroma on food (Ilam: [76]). Plant: Used in cough, bronchitis, reheumatism and urinary problem (Ilam: [76]).

31

Cortia depressa (D.Don) C. Norman

Herb

Apiaceae

Nigale Sag (Np); Gholo, Ghundu, Kholo, Nhopchhema (Sh); Tangkyun (Sh, Tb); Ghundu (Wl)

3600-5100

Leaves: Tender leaves used as vegetable (Taplejung: [88]). Seeds: Used as spice (Taplejung: [81]).

32

Heracleum nepalense D. Don

Herb

Apiaceae

Sunaga, Habluwa (Km); Samben (Lp); Chimphing (Np); Bhote-Jeera, Nafo (Np-Dl); Chimping (Np-Tb); Phaki, Thar (Sh); Chimbing, Chimping (Sh, Wl); Chapho Karpo, Zira Goepa (Tb)

1800-3700

Plant: Used as good winter fodder (Taplejung: [81, 87]). Roots: Given to cattle as tonic; juice and roasted seeds taken in cough and diarrhoea (Panchthar: [67]; Ilam: [73, 77]). Flowers and fruit: Suggested to cure influenza and body ache (Sikkim: [75]). Fruit: Used as pickle and also in typhoid, nausea, and vomiting (Darjeeling: [78]). Seeds: Used in case of bodyache, headache, and faint (Panchthar: [67]; Ilam: [73]).

33

Heracleum wallichii DC.

Herb

Apiaceae

Chimphing (Np)

3600-4100

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).Used as tonic and aphrodisiac (Darjeeling: [78]). Juice taken to cure diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Taken in diarrhea and gastric disorders (Sikkim: [75]), used as chatni (Sikkim: [11]). Decoction of dried seeds taken in influenza (Darjeeling: [78]; Sikkim: [11]).

34

Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC.

Herb

Apiaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

35

Heracleum dissectifolium K.T. Fu

Herb

Apiaceae

  

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

36

Hydrocotyle himalaica P. K. Mukh.

Herb

Apiaceae

Golpata (Np)

1500-2500

Plant: Extract taken to cure pneumonia and throat infection (Sikkim: [75]).

37

Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb.

Herb

Apiaceae

Golpatta (Np)

 

Plant: Taken to cure throat problem (Sikkim: [75]).

38

Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam.

Herb

Apiaceae

Tike Ghor Tapre (Np)

600-2500

Plant: Useful in treatment of migrant and to improve memory (Panchthar: [67]).

39

Selinum wallichianum (DC.) Raizada & Saxena

Herb

Apiaceae

Sunaga (Km); Bhutkesh (Np); Bhatauri, Dhaneli, Kalo Chhetaro (Np-Dl); Tunak (Tb); Chyadukpa (Sh, Wl)

2700-4800

Roots and fruits: Used for cuts, wounds, colic, gastritis, and intestinal pain (KL Nepal: [83]). Roots: Smoke inhaled in case of faint, fever, and headche. Also used as fodder (Taplejung: [81]). Decoction taken to get relief from pain and fever (Ilam: [76]). Flowers and leaves: Smooked to treat headache (KL Nepal: [53]). Leaves: Leaves, aromatic, carminative. Fruits: Used in skin diseases and scabies (Sikkim: Database).

40

Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br.

Tree

Apocynaceae

Chhatiwan (Np); Chhatni (S)

100-1400

Bark: Used in malarian fever and also given to lactating mothers for increasing milk (Jhapa: [66]). Extract used to treat piles (KL Nepal: [53]). Filtered bark juice used to cure leanness in man (Jhapa: [68]). Powder mixed with common salt and given to cattle to cure fever (Sikkim: [97]). Bark, latex and flowers: Used as tonic and in fever and leucoderma (Sikkim: [97]).

41

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

Shrub

Apocynaceae

Barhamase Phool, Sadabahar (Np); Gofatbhiwar (Me)

150-1500

Plant: Anti cancer and antitumour (Sikkim: Database). Leaves: Used as diuretic (Sikkim: Database). Flowers: Eaten to maintain sugar level for diabetic patients (Jhapa: [68]).

42

Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Wall. ex G. Don

Shrub

Apocynaceae

Ban Khirro, Khuria, Anley Khirrn, Madhese Khirro (Np); Hat (S)

100-1500

Plant: Powder or decoction taken to treat acute diarrhea and dysentery (Darjeeling: [86]; Sikkim: [11, 85]). Bark: Powdered with black pepper and taken to cure cough, cold, fever, diarrhea, and dysentery (Jhapa: [66]). Juice taken in amoebic dysentery (Sikkim: [11, 85]). Bark and seeds: Useful to treat gastric troubles and have anthelmintic property (Panchthar: [67]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Stem: Bark powder or decoction given to livestock to treat constipation, problems during stool passing and dysentery (Sikkim: [84]).

43

Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R. Br.

Climber

Apocynaceae

Dudilata (S); Dudelaharo (Np)

150-900

Leaves: Extraction used in stomach pain (Jhapa: [66]). Stem: Extraction used in toothache and gum swelling (Jhapa: [66]).

44

*Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz.

Herb

Apocynaceae

Kharokha (Me); God (S)

100-900

Young shoots: Extract given to cure pneumonia (Jhapa: [68]). Roots, stems and leaves: Used to treat fever (Panchthar: [67]). Roots: Extract used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Useful in insomnia (Sikkim: Database), high blood pressure, and snake bite (Jhapa: [66]; Sikkim: Database). Extract taken in stomach pain and intestinal worms (Jhapa: [66]). Powder administered orally as antidote to snake-bite (Sikkim: [84]).

45

Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik.

Herb

Apocynaceae

  

Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

46

*Acorus calamus L.

Herb

Araceae

Sweet Flag (Eg); Sadakppa (Li); Ruklop (Lp); Bojho (Np); Chhowas (Ri); Vacha (Sn); Chota, Jota (Gr-Mn); Suda, Syueda (Sh); Shete (Tm); Tshedak (Sh); Shudag (Tb)

1700-2300

Rhizomes: Used in treatment of epilepsy and other mental ailments, chronic diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [86]; Sikkim: [69]), colic pains and as a brain tonic (Sikkim: [69]). Used to cure cold, cough (Jhapa: [68]; Sikkim: [11, 79]; Ilam: [73]), sore throat, bronchitis, tonsil, toothache, headache (Jhapa: [68]; Ilam: [73]), bodypain (Jhapa: [66]), scabies, sinusitis (Panchthar: [67]) and also as vermifuge and antispasmodic (Sikkim: [75]). Used in skin disease (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11, 79, 89]), malaria and asthma (Darjeeling: [80, 89]). Juice used as insecticide (Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: [75]). Decoction taken as antipyretic (Sikkim: [11, 69]; Darjeeling: [78]) and also to treat rheumatism (Darjeeling: [78]). Pounded with the rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria and given in ulcers and abdominal pains (Jhapa: [66]). Extract taken to cure measles (Sikkim: [79]). Crushed and boiled with salt and decoction used to massage for fortnight (Darjeeling: [74]). Paste applied as ointment on wounds in cattle, also administered in indigestion in cattle (Sikkim: [84]).

47

Acorus gramineus Aiton

Herb

Araceae

Silijam (Dz), Bortsl (Sh)

 

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

48

Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G. Don

Herb

Araceae

Man kachui (S); Karkalo (Np).

100-800

Petioles and tuber: Edible as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Young petioles: Cooked with Colocasia esculenta and taken orally in cold and cough (Jhapa: [66]).

49

Alocasia spp.

Herb

Araceae

  

Tubers: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

50

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius C. Y. Wu ex H. Li, Y. Shiao & S. L. Tseng

Herb

Araceae

Pindo (S); Ol (Np)

100-800

Tubers and petioles: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).

51

Arisaema costatum (Wall.) Mart. ex Schott

Herb

Araceae

Glatli (Gr); Asek kaki (Li); Dhakayo, Jangali Makai (Np); Thwa (Sh)

1900-2800

Leaves: Dried leaves boiled and cooked as vegetable (Taplejung: [87]). Young shoots used to make curry and corn eaten after repeated boiling (Ilam: [94]).

52

Arisaema griffithii Schott

Herb

Araceae

Asek Makai, Yakla Khomba (Li); Dhokayo (Np); Doka Banko (Np-Dl); Thwa (Sh); Thwa (WI)

2400-3500

Leaves: Sundried, stored and consumed as vegetable in winter; dried leaves are also used to make Sinki (dried fermented leaves) (Sikkim: [98]; Taplejung: [81, 88]).

53

Arisaema intermedium Blume

Herb

Araceae

Sarpa Makai (Np)

2600-3400

Roots: Juice or paste taken in ulcer and fever (Ilam: [73, 77]).

54

Arisaema jacquemontii Blume

Herb

Araceae

Banko (Np)

2700-4700

Roots: Juice taken orally to treat menstrual disorders, toothache, and pain (Ilam: [73, 77]).

55

Arisaema sp.

Herb

Araceae

Dowo (Dz), Rungenengsae (Sh)

 

Bulbs: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

56

Caladium bicolor (Ait.) Vent.

Herb

Araceae

Dungasaru (S)

 

Rhizomes: Pounded and applied on body to relieve from bodyache (Jhapa: [66]).

57

Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott

Climber

Araceae

Kammare lahara (Np); Dari jappa (S)

200-300

Fruit: Pounded and applied on rheumatism and bodyache (Jhapa: [66]).

58

Typhonium trilobatum (L.) Schott

Herb

Araceae

Nirbish (S)

450

Rhizome: Paste applied externally to cure rheumatism (Jhapa: [66]).

59

Aralia cachemirica Decne.

Shrub

Araliaceae

Dal kabro (Np); Dumbak (Wl)

2400-4200

Plant: Powder contains high nutrient and generates heat in the body of animal (Taplejung: [81]). Roots: Used to treat cuts and contraction of muscles (Panchthar: [67]).

60

Brassaiopsis hainla (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Seem.

Tree

Araliaceae

Chuletro (Np, Li)

1000-1900

Roots: Administered orally in case of dysentery (Sikkim: [79]).

61

Hedera nepalensis K. Koch

Shrub

Araliaceae

Ivy (Eg); Dudela (Np)

2000-3200

Plant: Juice taken orally as antispasmodic (Sikkim: [85]).

62

Helwingia himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson ex C. B. Clarke

Shrub

Araliaceae

 

2100-2700

Fruits: Enhance fertility (Sikkim: [75]).

63

Macropanax undulatus (Wallich ex G. Don) Seemann

Tree

Araliaceae

Chenday (Np)

400-2200

Bark: Administered against diabetes (Darjeeling: [52]).

64

Merrilliopanax alpinus (C. B. Clarke) C. B. Shang

Tree

Araliaceae

  

Young shoots: Useful in gastric disorders (Sikkim: [75]).

65

Panax pseudo-ginseng subsp. himalaicus H. Hara

Herb

Araliaceae

Mangan, Panchpattery (Np)

 

Roots: Taken to reduce fever, indigestion, and vomiting; also used as tonic (Sikkim: [75], Database).

66

Panax pseudo-ginseng Wall.

Herb

Araliaceae

Panchapattey (Np)

 

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as stimulant, combating general debility, headache, vomiting, expectorant, carminative, tonic, in blood pressure (Sikkim: [69]) and weakness (Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: [69]). Juice given to cure liver disorders, colic, fever and menstrual disorders (Darjeeling: [74]).

67

Pentapanax leschenaultii (DC.) Seem.

Tree

Araliaceae

Chinde (Np)

1600-3700

Leaves:Tender leaves after boiling used as curry (Ilam: [94]).

68

Areca catechu L.

Tree

Arecaceae

  

Fruit/seed: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

69

Borassus flabellifer L.

Herb

Arecaceae

Tari (S)

 

Flowers: Juice taken to quench the thurst (Jhapa: [66]).

70

Calamus acanthospathus Griff.

Climber

Arecaceae

Cane (Eng)

 

Shoots: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Edible and also used as a substitute for rope, as cable for suspension bridges, for wickerwork, baskets, and containers. Thicker cane used for makingfurniture frames, walking sticks and umbrella handles (KL Bhutan: [100]).

71

Calamus erectus Roxburgh

Climber

Arecaceae

  

Shoots: Edible (Bhutan: [99]).

72

Calamus latifolius Roxb.

Climber

Arecaceae

 

600

Shoots: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Leaves: Juice used to cures eye diseases (Sikkim: [11]).

73

Calamus tenuis Roxb.

Climber

Arecaceae

Cane (Eng)

 

Shoot: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Used to make household items, such as mats, screens and furnitures (KL Bhutan: [100]).

74

Caryota urens L.

Tree

Arecaceae

Rangbhang (Np)

 

Stem and buds: Inner core pith and terminal bud consumed as vegetable (Ilam: [94]).

75

Phoenix acaulis Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham.

Tree

Arecaceae

Betgera (Np)

1400

Fruits: Raw fruits used to make vegetable curry (Ilam: [94]).

76

Phoenix sylvestris Roxb.

Tree

Arecaceae

Thakal (Np)

150-1500

Stem: Soft pith eaten raw (Ilam: [94]).

77

Plectocomia himalayana Griffith

Herb

Arecaceae

Patsha (Bhut)

1500-2500

Young shoots: Taken as vegetable (Bhutan: [99, 102])

78

Aristolochia griffithii Hook.f. & Thomson ex Duch.

Climber

Aristolochiaceae

  

Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

79

Aristolochia indica L.

Climber

Aristolochiaceae

Godh (S)

 

Roots and leaves: Paste applied in stomachache and as an antidote in snake bite and scorpion sting (Jhapa: [66]).

80

Asclepias curassavica L.

Herb

Asclepiadaceae

Khorsani Kose Phul (Np)

700-1500

Roots: Used to treat cancer, warts, and snake bite (Panchthar: [67]).

81

Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand.

Shrub

Asclepiadaceae

Ankh (Np); Gogando-bimtang (Me); Akona (S)

100-1000

Latex and Leaves: Used in sprain and swelling (Jhapa: [66]; Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: Database). Roots: Extraction given in fever and applied on chest and abdomin to relieve pains (Jhapa: [66]). Latex: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Applied on burns (Jhapa: [66]) and for ring worm (Jhapa: [68]).

82

Hoya longifolia Wall. ex Wight

Shrub

Asclepiadaceae

Wax Plant (Eg)

1400-2300

Leaves: Applied on burns (Panchthar: [67]).

83

Marsdenia roylei Wight,

Climber

Asclepiadaceae

Baahuni Lahara (Np)

1400-2400

Plant: Used for cooling and alternative effect in gonorrhea (Sikkim: Database). Roots, leaves and fruit: Decoction used to relieve burning sensation of the genitals (Sikkim: [11]).

84

Marsdenia tenacissima Weight & Arn.

Climber

Asclepiadaceae

Bahuni Lahara, Sunamari (Np), Kamtiongrik (Lp)

 

Roots: Juice taken daily as purgative (Sikkim: [85]).

85

Marsdenia tinctoria R. Br.

Climber

Asclepiadaceae

Kali Lahara, Ryom (Np)

 

Leaves: Juice taken for stomachache (Sikkim: [85]).

86

Campylandra aurantiaca Baker

Herb

Asparagaceae

Nakima (Np)

1900-2900

Roots: Stocks given orally in case of food poisoning (Darjeeling: [52]). Inflorescence: Powdered and taken with water to relieve body pain (Sikkim: [11]). Given in food poisoning (Darjeeling: [74]). Flowers: Used as appetizer and taken in diabetes (Sikkim: [69, 79], Database). Taken as curry (Sikkim: [89]).

87

Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker

Herb

Asparagaceae

Turam (S)

500-1200

Roots: Powder taken to relieve from body weakness (Jhapa: [66]).

88

Eucomis regia (L.) Aiton

Herb

Asparagaceae

Lily (C)

 

Bulb: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

89

Tupistra nutans Wall. ex Lindl.

Herb

Asparagaceae

Nakima (Np)

 

Flower: Taken as appetizer and in diabetes (Sikkim: Database). Inflorescence: Powdered and taken to relieve from body pain (Sikkim: [11]).

90

Acmella calva (Candolle) R. K. Jansen

Herb

Asteraceae

Mareti (Np)

1000-1900

Fruit: Juice taken orally for headache and stomachache [66, 77], toothache (Darjeeling: [74]; Ilam: [73, 77]) and sore mouth (Darjeeling: [74]).

91

Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M. King & H. Rob.

Herb

Asteraceae

Banmara (Np)

850-2500

Plant: Juice applied on fresh cut (Darjeeling: [74]; Ilam: [73]; Sikkim: [11, 75]) and also taken orally in fever (Ilam: [73]). Leaves: Taken orally in dysentery (Darjeeling: [52]).

92

Ageratum conyzoides L.

Herb

Asteraceae

Ilamejhar (Np)

200-2000

Whole plant: Used as antidote (KL Nepal: [53]). Leaves: Juice applied on wound (Sikkim: [11]; Panchthar: [67]) and also used as anthelmintic (Panchthar: [67]). Decoction used as antipyretic (Darjeeling: [78]), and also in diarrhea, dysentery, colic, and flatulence (Sikkim: [11]).Tenders chewed to cure diarrhoea and dysentery. Flowers: chewed to treat throat pain (Sikkim: [79]).

93

Ajania tibetica (Hook.f. & Thomson) Tzvelev

Shrub

Asteraceae

  

Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

94

Anaphalis adnata Wall. ex DC.

Herb

Asteraceae

Buki phul (Np)

800-3200

Leaves: Juice applied on fresh cuts and wounds (Ilam: [73, 77]).

95

Anaphalis triplinervis (Sims) C. B. Clarke

Herb

Asteraceae

Bhukiphul (Np)

100-2300

Flower: Paste applied regularly to cure skin problems (KL Nepal: [53]).

96

Artemisia dubia Wall. ex Besser

Herb

Asteraceae

Pati, Titepati, Titaypati (Np); Sibuma, Sungmara (Ri); Chhaphung (Sh); Khenpa (Tb); Sangsin Khemba (Wl)

1200-3400

Whole plant: Used in ritual ceremony (Sikkim: [11]).

Leaves: Used to treat pains and possess anthelmintic properties (Panchthar: [67]).Crushed fresh leaves uesd to open decongestant sinuses and to stop nasal bleeding (Taplejung: [81]; Sikkim: [11], Database). Extract used on cuts and bruises (Sikkim: [11], Database). Supposed to possess detergent effect and used as cleansing agent (Sikkim: Database). Taking bath of leaves juice cures skin allergies and leaves chewed to treat mouth ulcer (Sikkim: [11]). Used as deobstruent, antispasmodic, obstructed menses and hysteria (Darjeeling: [80]).

97

Artemisia indica Willd.

Herb

Asteraceae

Namyohoba (Li); Tuknil (Lp); Titepati (Np); Tompe (Sh)

300-2400

Tender shoots and leaves: Used to treat inflammation (Taplejung: [87]). Leaves and flowers: Juice used to treat injuries (Sikkim: [75]). Juice taken in asthma, gastritis and skin disease (Ilam: [76, 77]).

98

Artemisia nilagirica (C.B. Clarke) Pamp.

Herb

Asteraceae

Titepati (Np)

 

Shoots and leaves: Used to cure mouth ulcer; paste applied externally on forehead during dizziness and headache (Darjeeling: [52]).

99

Artemisia sieversiana Ehrh.ex Willd.

Shrub

Asteraceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

100

Artemisia vulgaris L.

Herb

Asteraceae

Titepati (Np); Titeypati (Li)

1500-3800

Leaves: Used to treat nose bleeding (Sikkim: [69, 79, 91]) nervous and spasmodic affections, asthma and the disease of the brain (Sikkim: [69]). Tender leaves chewed cures mouth ulcers; crushed leaves mixed with water and taken bath cures skin allergy. Juice used as anti-leech, besides its religious values (Sikkim: [79]). Used as deobstruent, antispasmodic, obstructed menses and hysteria (Sikkim: [89]). Crushed and extract applied externally on skin to treat itching in cattle; fresh leaves grounded, sap extracted and used as nasal drop to stop nose bleeding in cattle (Sikkim: [84]).

101

Aster neo-elegans Grierson

Shrub

Asteraceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

102

Aucklandia costus Falconer

Herb

Asteraceae

Kapisful, Kuth (Np)

 

Plant: Believed to cure bronchitis, vomiting, epilepsy, headache, and hysteria (Sikkim: Database).

103

Bidens pilosa L.

Herb

Asteraceae

Kuro (Li)

500-2500

Leaves: Juice applied to eyes and ears to reduce pain (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves and roots: Extract used in cut and jaundice (KL Nepal: [53]).

104

Bidens spp.

Herb

Asteraceae

Zumphirobu (Sh)

 

Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

105

Blumea hieraciifolia (D. Don) DC.

Herb

Asteraceae

Sahasrabooti (Np)

900-1800

Leaves: Dried and taken smell to treat asthma (Darjeeling: [74]).

106

Blumea lacera (Burf. f.) DC.

Herb

Asteraceae

Gangansu (Me); Rando, Ghar nagharni (S)

150-350

Roots: Paste sticked on and around swelling region to prevent cutaneous infection (Jhapa: [68]). Decoction given in urinary infections, and also with decoction of Plumeria acuta given in gonorrhoea and spermatorrhoea (Jhapa: [66]).

107

Calendula officinalis L.

Herb

Asteraceae

 

2600-4400

Leaves and flowers: Used as antiseptic, antifungal, diaphoretic, stimulant, antispasmodic and in small pox; also used in healing wounds, ulcers, and burns (Sikkim: Database).

108

Chrysanthemum indicum L.

 

Asteraceae

Godawari (Li)

100-2900

Flowers: Dried flowers chewed during stomachache (Sikkim: [79]).

109

Cirsium sp.

Herb

Asteraceae

  

Whole plant/flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

110

Cremanthodium humile Maxim.

Herb

Asteraceae

  

Whole plant/flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

111

Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.

Herb

Asteraceae

Bhringaraj (Np); Khetkeshari (S)

200-1200

Roots: Used in treatment of snake and scorpion bite (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves and tender shoots: Used to treat cut and wounds and jaundice (Panchthar: [67]). Leaves: Infusion used in catarrhal (Jhapa: [66]).

112

Elephantopus scaber L.

Herb

Asteraceae

Sahsra Jari (Np); Dadari (Me)

200-1500

Roots: Paste applied on the muscular pain (Jhapa: [68]). Fruits: Used as tonic (Jhapa: [66]).

113

Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl. ex DC.) Benth. ex C.B. Clarke

Herb

Asteraceae

  

Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

114

Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng.

Herb

Asteraceae

Banmara (Np)

850-2500

Plant: Juice applied on fresh cut (Sikkim: [75]; Ilam: [73]) and also taken in fever (Ilam: [73]).

115

Eupatorium cannabinum L.

Herb

Asteraceae

Banmara (Np)

1000-2000

Stem and Leaves: Extract used on cut and bruises to stop bleeding and infection (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11], Database).

116

Eupatorium odoratum L.

Herb

Asteraceae

Aule banmara (Np); Daubanthu (Me)

400-1500

Leaves: Juice applied on cut and injury as haemostatic and to check nasal bleeding, extract dropped in nose to cure severe headache (Jhapa: [68]). Extract also used in cuts and wounds (Sikkim: Database).

117

Gnaphalium affine D. Don

Herb

Asteraceae

Pahelo Bukey (Np)

600-3700

Plant: Whole plant crushed and given orally to infants suffering from diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [52]).

118

Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Poir.

Herb

Asteraceae

Chot Bhidimyan (S)

150

Aerial parts: Pounded together with Sphaeranthus indicus and taken orally as well as inhaled a few drops to restore consciousness during epileptic fit (Jhapa: [66]).

119

Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) DC.

Shrub

Asteraceae

Golden Samphire, Sheep's Year (Eg); Bakhrikane, Gaitihare, Kanpate, Tihare- Phul (Np); Basita, Machram (Ri).

1000-2500

Roots: Juice used in fever, indigestion, and other stomach disorders (Taplejung: [81]).

120

Inula helenium L.

Herb

Asteraceae

  

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

121

Ixeridium gracile (DC.) Pak & Kawano

Herb

Asteraceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

122

Leontopodium jacotianum Beauverd

Herb

Asteraceae

Bhuke Phul, Jhulo (Np-Dl); Tawa Thokar, Tawa Thokar Yungpa (Tb)

2700-4900

Plant: Used as incense (Taplejung: [81]).

123

Leontopodium monocephalum Edgew.

Herb

Asteraceae

Bhuke Phul, Jhulo (Np-Dl); Tawa Thokar goepa (Tb).

4600-5600

Plant: Used as incense (Taplejung: [81]).

124

Leontopodium sp.

Herb

Asteraceae

  

Rhizomes: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

125

Lorentea sp.

Herb

Asteraceae

Khainingroo or Rumplung (Sh)

 

Leaves: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

126

Pulicaria insignis Drumm. ex Dunn

Herb

Asteraceae

  

Whole plant/flowers:Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

127

Pulicaria sp.

Herb

Asteraceae

  

Flowers: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

128

Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch.

Herb

Asteraceae

  

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

129

Saussurea gossypiphora D.Don

Herb

Asteraceae

Bhutkesh, Kapase Phool (Np-Tp); Yazembawa (Wl)

3500-5700

Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]). Fibres: Used for various purposes (Taplejung: [81]).

130

Senecio cappa Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Herb

Asteraceae

Bakhrakane (Np)

 

Roots and leaves: Infusion used in fever and boils (Ilam: [73, 76]).

131

Senecio chrysanthemoides DC.

Herb

Asteraceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

132

Sonchus arvensis L.

Herb

Asteraceae

Ban-rayo (Np)

 

Roots: Paste applied to reliefe from toothache (Darjeeling: [74]).

133

Sonchus wightianus DC.

Herb

Asteraceae

  

Roots: Taken in jaundice (Sikkim: [75]).

134

Soroseris hookeriana (C.B.Clarke) Stebbins

Herb

Asteraceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

135

Sphaeranthus indicus L.

Herb

Asteraceae

Bad Bhidimyan (S)

200-800

Shoots: Paste applied on breast of women to cure swelling and wounds (Jhapa: [66]).

136

Tagetes erecta L.

Herb

Asteraceae

Demal-bhiwar (Me)

1800-2000

Leaves: Juice drunk to cure pneumania and chest pain (Jhapa: [68]). Flowers: Useful in pneumonia, piles, and jaundice (Panchthar: [67]).

137

Tagetes patula L.

Herb

Asteraceae

Sayapatri (Np)

900-2000

Flowers: Chewed to cure sore throat, cough and mouth ulcer (Sikkim: [79]).

138

Tanacetu matkinsonii (C.B.Clarke) Kitam.

Herb

Asteraceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

139

Tanacetum tatsienense (Bureau & Franch.) K. Bremer & Humphries

Herb

Asteraceae

  

Whole plant/flowers:Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

140

Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg.

Herb

Asteraceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

141

Taraxacum sikkimense Hand.- Mazz.

Herb

Asteraceae

Wakhur (Sh); Tuki Phool (Np); Khurmang, Wakhur (Tb)

3600-4700

Plant: Used as vegetable. Flowers and leaves: Used as galactagogue for human and cattle (Taplejung: [87]).

142

Taraxacum tibetanum Hand.-Mazz.

Herb

Asteraceae

Khenpa-karpo (Dz/Sh/B)

 

Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

143

Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd.

Herb

Asteraceae

Sauraj (S)

1200-2000

Fruits: Pounded and taken to remove intestinal worms and to cure stomachache (Jhapa: [66]).

144

Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.

Herb

Asteraceae

Jurishuri (S)

100-2300

Leaves: Decoction given in fever (Jhapa: [66]).

145

Waldheimia glabra (Decne.) Regel

Herb

Asteraceae

Gang Poe (Tb), Ghanga-Setik (Wl).

4100-5400

Plant: Used as incense (Taplejung: [87]).

146

Impatiens balsamina L.

Herb

Balsaminaceae

Tiuri (Np)

1200-1900

Plant: Decoction used to cure burns and urinary problems (Ilam: [73, 76]).

147

Basella alba L.

Climber

Basellaceae

Purne arak (S); Poi sag (Np)

200

Young shoots: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).

148

Begonia picta Sm.

Herb

Begoniaceae

Begonia (Eg); Magar Kanche (Np); Shovaparnee (Sn)

600-2800

Plant: Juice taken in headache and conjunctivitis (Ilam: [73, 76]). Stalks: Extracts from stalks used for venereal disease (Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Juice applied as an anti-leech agent (Taplejung: [88]). Shoots and leaves: Used to make pickle and jam (Ilam: [94]).

149

Berberis angulosa Wall. ex Hook. f. & Thomson

Shrub

Berberidaceae

Chutro (Np)

3400-4500

Stem: Decoction taken orally in blood dysentery and jaundice (Darjeeling: [52]).

150

Berberis aristata DC.

Shrub

Berberidaceae

Berberry (Eg); Karya (Gr-Mn); Kyarbukung (Lp); Chutro, Musa Lede (Np); Chotto (Np-Dl); Kyerwa, Kyerkar (Km, Tb); Chompairaim (Ri); Daruharidra, Rasanjan (Sn); Kerpatsang (Dz)

1800-3500

Roots and bark: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).Used in jaundice, malaria, fever, and diarrhea; also used externally to cure eye disease (Sikkim: Database). Leaves, flowers and bark: Used in eye disease, bile disorders, lympy disorder, jaundice, malarian fever, swelling, and dysentery (Ilam: [73]; Panchthar: [67]). Stem: Extract used for hypoglycemic activities (Sikkim: [96]). Fruit: Eaten raw (Ilam: [73]; Panchthar: [67]), also used to cure rabies (Sikkim: [75]).

151

Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC

Shrub

Berberidaceae

Berberry (Eg); Toksong, Pirima (Li); Chutro, Musa Lede (Np); Chotto (Np-Dl); Daruharidra, Thakti-Layem (Ri)

1200-2500

Bark: Decoction used to treat conjunctivitis, eye inflammation, and also used as laxative and tonic (KL Nepal: [83]). Roots: Source of dye (KL Nepal: [83]).Bark and root decoction administered orally in jaundice and fever (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit: Eaten raw (Taplejung: [82, 87]). Fruit and leaves: Juice taken in diarrhoea and dysentery (Sikkim: [79]).

152

Berberis nepalensis Spreng.

Shrub

Berberidaceae

  

Bark: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

153

Mahonia acanthifolia D.Don

Shrub

Berberidaceae

Chutro (Np)

 

Stem: Decoction taken to treat blood dysentery, diarrhoea and jaundice (Darjeeling: [52]).

154

Mahonia napaulensis DC.

Shrub

Berberidaceae

Mahonia (Eg); Samlikhe, Samjikhe (Li); Chutro, Jamane Mandro (Np); Khlusa (Ri); Daruharidra, Kanchan (Sn); Kerbe (Tm); Kerpa (WI)

1400-2900

Plant: Used for fencing (Taplejung: [81, 82]). Fruit: Used in the treament of urinary disorders (Taplejung: [81, 82]). Ripe berries eaten raw (Taplejung: [81]). Bark: Juice applied in eyes (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit and bark: Decoction taken to treat dysentery, diarrhoea (Ilam: [73, 76]; Sikkim: [86]), and urinary disorders (Ilam: [73, 76]).

155

*Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S.Ying

Herb

Berberidaceae

Himalayan May Apple (Eg); Balulu, Balugu (Km); Laghu Patgra (Np); Meme Gudruk (Np-DI); Upala, Bamasisi, Ramasisi (Sh, WI); Wolmose (Tb); Goegabetapi (Sh)

2400-4500

Plant: Useful for typhoid fever, mental disorder, and plague (Sikkim: Database). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Roots: Used as purgative, hepatic stimulant, bile expellant, bitter tonic and in skin diseses (Sikkim: [69]). Decoction used in ulcer and liver troubles (Taplejung: [81]). Crushed and applied externally on hoof to treat infection; decoction used for cattle to treat indigestion (Sikkim: [84]). Roots and fruit: Used as anticancer remedy (Sikkim: [75]), taken in fever and diarrhea (Taplejung: [81]; Sikkim: [75], Database). Fruit: Ripe fruits eaten raw; used in gynecological diseases, menstrual disorders, kidney disease, skin disease, and cough (Taplejung: [81]).

156

Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Tree

Betulaceae

Saur (Np)

1200-2600

Bark: Paste applied on snake bite (Sikkim: [75]). Chewed as a substitute of betel nut (Ilam: [94]).

157

Betula cylindrostachya Lindley

Tree

Betulaceae

Saru (Np); Taghyam (Bh)

1400-2800

Leaves: Buds used as substitute for tea leaves (Sikkim: [72]).

158

Betula utilis D. Don

Tree

Betulaceae

Himalayan Silver Birch (Eg); Bhojpatra, Bhujpata, Bhojpatra (Np); Bhuj, Bhujpat (Np-Dl); Tag-Pa Tak-Pa (Km, Sh, Tb, Wl); Bhurjha, Bhurjapatra (Sn).

2700-4300

Branch: Used during marriage ceremony (Taplejung: [81]). Bark: Crushed and applied on injuries of cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Boiled and used for cleaning wounds as antiseptic (Sikkim: [79]).

159

Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz

Tree

Bignoniaceae

Totala, Tatelo (Np); Totalabimfang (Me)

400-1400

Plant useful in jaundice (Darjeeling: [105]). Roots, bark and fruit: Used in fever, bronchitis, dysentery, and asthma (Sikkim: [85]). Root bark: Improves appetite, taken in vomiting, asthma, and bronchitis (Darjeeling: [80, 89]). Bark and seeds: Powder used to treat dropsy, sprains, asthma, urinary disorders (Ilam: [73, 76, 77]), high fever and pneumonia (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]). Endosperms eaten to cure pneumonia (Jhapa: [68]). Bark: Powder applied on chronic wounds (Jhapa: [68]) and also used to treat burns, boils (Panchthar: [67]), and diarrhea (Darjeeling: [86]; Panchthar: [67]). Flowers:Usedas medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]). Edible (Darjeeling: [80]). Flowers: Edible (Darjeeling: [80]; Ilam: [94]; Sikkim: [89]).

160

Stereospermum chelonoides (L. f.) DC.

Tree

Bignoniaceae

Pader (S)

150-250

Fruit: Tied as an amulet to cure migrain (Jhapa: [66]).

161

Bombax ceiba L.

Tree

Bombacaceae

Edel (S); Simal (Np); Pemgeyser (Sh)

500-1500

Roots and bark: Used as emetic (Panchthar: [67]) and also used to treat diarrhea and dysentery (Darjeeling: [86]; Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: Database). Roots: Decoction given in urinary infection, also with decoction of Plumaria acuta given in gonorrhoea and spermatorrhoea (Jhapa: [66]). Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Buds cooked as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Pickled and eaten twice daily to get relief from diarrhea and dysentery (Jhapa: [68]). Paste applied externally on small pox in children (Sikkim: [79]). Exude used as gum (KL Bhutan: [70]).

162

Heliotropium indicum L.

Herb

Boraginaceae

Hatisude (S)

100

Young stem: Used with bulb of onion to cure rabies (Jhapa: [66]).

163

Onosma hookeri C. B. Clarke

Herb

Boraginaceae

Laljari (Np); Bemu (Bhu); Muktsi (Sh)

3000-4700

Roots: Oil used externally as hair tonic (Sikkim: [49]). Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

164

Brassica campestris L. var cumifolia Roxb.

Herb

Brassicaceae

Rayo (Np)

2500

Whole plant: Used to make fermented material called 'Gundruk' (Darjeeling: [108]; Sikkim: [101]). Used in fever, indigestion and irritation (Ilam: [76]).

165

Brassica sp.

Herb

Brassicaceae

Yoongkar (Dz)

 

Seed: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

166

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

Herb

Brassicaceae

Shepherd's Pursa (Eg); Chamsure Jhar, Tori Ghans, Tori Jhar (Np); Chhyamachhyaru (Sh, Wl)

1400-4500

Plant: Used as green vegetable (Taplejung: [87]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves: Juice used in malarian fever (Darjeeling: [78]).

167

Cardamine hirsuta L.

Herb

Brassicaceae

Simrayo (Np)

500-3000

Shoot: Extract taken to low blood pressure and in cardiac problems (Darjeeling: [74]; Sikkim: [75]).

168

Cardamine macrophylla Willd.

Herb

Brassicaceae

Chhurukpa (Sh, Wl)

2500-4500

Plant: Used as vegetable (Sikkim: [98]; Taplejung: [87])and also made fermented vegetables (North-East India: [101]).

169

Erysimum hieraciifolium L. f.

Herb

Brassicaceae

Chhasey (Dz); Kharshing (Sh); Phaledo (Np)

 

Seed: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

170

Lepidium sativum L.

Herb

Brassicaceae

Chamsur (Np)

200-3000

Plant: Consumed as vegetable; useful in piles, asthma, cough, syphilis and bodyache (Ilam: [76]).

171

Malcolmia sp.

Herb

Brassicaceae

  

Whole plant:Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

172

Nasturtium officinale R. Brown

Herb

Brassicaceae

  

Aerial parts: Decoction given to relieve body pain; young shoots taken as salad (Ilam: [76, 94]; Sikkim: [11, 79]). Plant: Juice given in indigestion and urinary disorder (Ilam: [76]).

173

Raphanus sativus L.

Herb

Brassicaceae

Mula (Np)

 

Whole plant: Used to make fermented material called 'Sinki' and 'Gundruk' (Darjeeling: [101, 108]). Used in indigestion, liver and gall bladder troubles, urinary complaints and ear pain (Ilam: [73, 76]).

174

Thlaspi arvense L.

Herb

Brassicaceae

Jay-kha (Dz)

 

Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

175

Canarium sikkimense King

Tree

Burseraceae

Poskar shing (Sh)

 

Exude or resin used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

176

Garuga pinnata Roxb.

Tree

Burseraceae

Aule Dabdabe, Dubdabey (Np)

300-1200

Bark: Root bark used for curing skin disease; juice applied to treat dislocated bones and to heal wounds (Sikkim: [85]). Fruit: Taken to improve digestion (Sikkim: [85])

177

Codonopsis foetens Hook.f. & Thomson

Climber

Campanulaceae

Gaytangru (Sh)

 

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

178

Lobelia angulata G. Forst.

Herb

Campanulaceae

  

Plant: Decoction given to treat throat pain and fever. Tender shoots: Juice applied externally to treat boils and inflammation (Sikkim: [11]).

179

Lobelia pyramidalis Wall.

Herb

Campanulaceae

Eklebir (Np)

 

Leaves and flowers: Used as antispasmodic (Sikkim: [75]).

180

Pratia nummularia (Lam.) A. Br. & Asch.

Herb

Campanulaceae

Lanka Sanay (Np)

1000-2400

Leaves: Juice taken orally in dysentery and tonsillitis (Darjeeling: [74]).

181

Cannabis sativa L.

Herb

Cannabaceae

Gaja (Np); Gaja (S)

 

Leaves: Infusion taken to cure stomach pain and flatulence (Jhapa: [66]). Stem: Cut into small pieces and fed to livestock to treat inflammation; small pieces mixed with fodder to feed cattle as a tonic (Sikkim: [84]). Decoction given orally to treat severe diarrhoea (Sikkim: [75, 79]). Flowers: Dried flower paste taken in empty stomach to treat diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [86]). Seeds: Pounded and taken to relieve body pain (Sikkim: [75, 79]).

182

Canna indica L.

Herb

Cannaceae

 

900

Rhizomes: Edible and taken to treat fever (Sikkim: [11]). Extraction given to cure urinary troubles (Jhapa: [66]).

183

Capparis zeylanica L.

Shrub

Capparaceae

Asaria (S)

150

Fruits: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

184

Dipsacus atratus Hook.f. & Thomson ex C.B.Clarke

Herb

Caprifoliaceae

Yika (Dz), Pinsa (Sh),

 

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

185

Pterocephalus hookeri (C.B.Clarke) E.Pritz.

Herb

Caprifoliaceae

  

Flowers/whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

186

Viburnum cylindricum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Shrub

Caprifoliaceae

Arrow wood (Eg); Hanggase (Li); Gharaghuri, Ghar ghure, Ghode khari (Np)

1000-2500

Seeds: Oil used to treat burns (Panchthar: [67]) and also used for cooking purpose (Taplejung: [87]).

187

Carica papaya L.

Herb

Caricaceae

Mewa (Np)

100-1000

Latex: Mixed with salt and applied to cure ringworm (Jhapa: [66]). Fruits: Eaten raw and also eaten to cure jaundice (Sikkim: [79]).

188

Arenaria densissima Wall. ex Edgew. & Hook.f.

Herb

Caryophyllaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

189

Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex. Roem. & Schult.

Herb

Caryophyllaceae

Abhijalo (Np); Hachiya-gara-gamso (Me)

2200-4300

Plant: Burned and inhaled for antipyretic effect (Darjeeling: [78]). Paste useful to treat fever, cold and cough (Darjeeling: [78]) also used for dog bites (Sikkim: Database), headache and sore throat (Sikkim: [11]). Paste applied externally on fractured bone and bandaged with the help of cotton cloth; decoction administered to animal to treat mouth ulcer (Sikkim: [84]). Above ground parts: Steamed and smelled during sinus trouble (Darjeeling: [52, 78, 80]; Sikkim: [11]; Panchthar: [67]). Leaves: Pasted with Urena lobata applied for cutaneous infections (Jhapa: [68]). Useful in diarrhea and dysentery (Panchthar: [67]).

190

Drymaria diandra Blume

Herb

Caryophyllaceae

Avijalo (Np)

700-2000

Plant: Juice useful in cough, cold and sinusitis (Ilam: [73, 76]) and peptic ulcer (Ilam: [76]).

191

Drymaria villosa Cham. & Schlecht.

Herb

Caryophyllaceae

Abijalo (Np)

 

Shoots: Given to treat pneumonia and sinusitis (Sikkim: [75]).

192

Celastrus paniculatus Willd.

Shrub

Celastraceae

Kujur (S)

150-300

Plant: Juice taken in fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Fresh juice cures sores of throat (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11]) and lungs (Jhapa: [66]). Bark and oil: Applied externally to treat acute stomach pain (Jhapa: [66]). Shoots: Juice taken to treat gastritis and constipation (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Juice used as eye drops to cure eye infection. Paste reduces swelling and applied on wounds to heal (Jhapa: [66]). Given to cattle to treat loss of appetite (Sikkim: [84]). Seeds: Paste applied on the skin allergies and good for gout (Sikkim: [11]).

193

Chenopodium album L

Herb

Chenopodiaceae

Bethu Saag (Np)

 

Plant: Used as appetizer, laxative, and diuretic; also useful in treatment of eye diseases, throat troubles, piles, blood heart, and spleen diseases (Sikkim: Database). Cooked and eaten as vegetable to reduce bodypain especially back pain (Sikkim: [79]). Young shoots: Consumed as vegetable (Ilam: [94]).

194

Cleome gynandra L.

Herb

Cleomaceae

Junge Phool (Np); Seta kata arak (S)

300

Leaves: Eaten as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).

195

Garcinia cowa Roxb.

Tree

Clusiaceae

Egg tree (Eg); Kaphal (Np)

100-1300

Fruit: Sun dried and taken to treat dysentery (Sikkim: [85])

196

Hypericum uralum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Herb

Clusiaceae

Urillo (Np)

1200-3600

Bark: Juice applied on wound and bruises (Sikkim: [75]). Seeds: Aromatic and stimulant (Sikkim: Database).

197

Mesua ferrea L., Tree

 

Clusiaceae

Nageeswari (Np)

400-950

Bark: Orally administered in various skin diseases (mostly poxes) and in menstrual disorder (Sikkim: Database). Bark or stem paste applied or taken orally in hydrocele and on wound (Sikkim: [53]).

198

Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.

Tree

Combretaceae

Bhaayure (Me); Barro (Np); Lopong (S); Baru (Dz/Sh/T/B)

300-1100

Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and incense (KL Bhutan: [70]). Powder drunk to treat constipation (Jhapa: [68]). Useful in bronchitis (Jhapa: [66]; Sikkim: Database), asthma and respiratory trouble.Decoctionadministered to livestock for treatment of diarrhea and dysentery (Sikkim: [84]). Bark: Used for anemia and leucoderma (Sikkim: Database).

199

Terminalia chebula Retz.

Tree

Combretaceae

Silikhaa (Me); Aaru (Dz/Sh)

150-1100

Fruits: Edible (Sikkim: [47]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and incense (KL Bhutan: [70]). Used as tonic and also to cure eye, heart and bladder diseases (Sikkim: Database). Powder taken to recover from gastric (Jhapa: [68]). Consumed during cough and sore throat and mouth ulcers (Sikkim: [79]). Powder of dried fruits and bark given in diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [86]). Fruit and/or bark decoction administered with small amounts of rock salt to cattle to treat diarrhea and dysentery (Sikkim: [84]).

200

Terminalia myriocarpa Van Heurck & Mull. Arg.

Tree

Combretaceae

Pani saaj (Np)

100-1000

Bark: Juice applied externally on cuts and wounds (Sikkim: [79]).

201

Terminalia tomentosa Wight & Arn.

Tree

Combretaceae

  

Bark: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

202

Commelina benghalensis L.

Herb

Commelinaceae

Kane Jhar (Np)

900-1800

Leaves: Juice applied to treat conjunctivitis (Darjeeling: [74]).

203

Commelina paludosa Blume.

Herb

Commelinaceae

Bhaisen Jhar (Np)

300-3500

Root: Paste applied on boils (Darjeeling: [52]).

204

Streptolirion volubile Edgew.

Herb

Commelinaceae

 

1500-2400

Leaves: Crushed and applied on wounds of ear, nose and navel (Darjeeling: [52]).

205

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

Climber

Convolvulaceae

Dodder (Eg); Akash Beli, Akashveli, Amarbel, Indrabeli (Np); Chamjakhikwa, Jalisang (Ri); Alakjadi (S)

200-3100

Plant: Decoction used to treat jaundice (Taplejung: [88]; Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: [75]; Ilam: [73, 76]). Infusion taken in diarrhea, bronchitis (Panchthar: [67]; Ilam: [73, 76]), and also applied externally to treat body ache and skin infections (Jhapa: [66]). Shoots and seeds: Used to cure cough (Sikkim: [75]).

206

Cuscuta sinensis Lam.

Climber

Convolvulaceae

Bayding/dukpoo-ru (Sh)

 

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

207

Evolvulus alsinoides L.

Herb

Convolvulaceae

Sankha Pushpi (Np)

550-1100

Plant: Used as febrifuge and aphrodisiac (Panchthar: [67]).

208

Evolvulus nummularius (L.) L.

Herb

Convolvulaceae

Chhatbatiza (S)

150-910

Plant: Applied on scorpion sting, cut, wounds and burns (Jhapa: [66]).

209

Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.

Climber

Convolvulaceae

Karmi (S); Lahore pani sag (Np)

300-1500

Leaves and twigs: Eaten as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Stem: Necklace prepared and put round the neck of jaundice patient (Darjeeling: [105]).

210

Maianthemum purpureum (Wall.) LaFrankie

Herb

Convolvulaceae

Khhiringlo, Khirro, Sikari-Sag (Np); Lekh Daro (Np-Dl)

2600-4300

Young leaves and tender shoots: Cooked as vegetables (Taplejung: [88]).

211

Merremia umbellata subsp. orientalis (Hallier f.) Ooststr.

Herb

Convolvulaceae

 

300-480

Stem: Extraction taken to enhance lactation (Jhapa: [66]).

212

Cornus capitata Wall.

Tree

Cornaceae

PhastiINamimpluse (Sh), Poitsi (Dz)

 

Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

213

Cornus macrophylla Wall.

Tree

Cornaceae

ChapoiIBaminpa (Sh), Boray poitsi (Sh), Poitsi (Dz)

 

Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

214

Griselinia lucida (J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) G.Forst.

Shrub

Cornaceae

  

Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

215

Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken

Herb

Crassulaceae

Patharkuchi (Np)

 

Leaves: Paste applied on wound, bruises, swelling and insect bites (Sikkim: [69]).

216

Kalanchoe integra (Medikus) Kuntze

Herb

Crassulaceae

Hatnokane (Np)

 

Leaves: Juice taken orally as purgative (Sikkim: [85]).

217

Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt

Climber

Cucurbitaceae

Gol Kankri (Np); Tilkocha (S)

200-900

Fruit: Unripe fruits used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).

218

Cucurbita pepo L.

Climber

Cucurbitaceae

Pharsi (Li)

 

Seeds: Powdered and taken orally for its vermifuge potency in children (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

219

Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey

Climber

Cucurbitaceae

Kabubotke (S)

200-1500

Leaves: Decoction used in eye infections (Jhapa: [66]).

220

Herpetospermum pedunculosum (Ser.) Baill.

Climber

Cucurbitaceae

Ban Karela (Np); Serkyi Metog (Tb); Mendok Sepu (Wi)

1500-3600

Fruit: Inner par used in stomachache and to treat bile diseases (Taplejung: [81]).

221

Momordica charantia L.

Climber

Cucurbitaceae

Tite Karela (Np, Li)

300-2100

Fruit: Juice taken as blood purifier and also helps to control diabetes (Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: [79, 96]) and treat opthalmia and bleeding (Ilam: [76]). Used as vegetable (Ilam: [76]). Leaves and fruit: Useful in gastric troubles (Darjeeling: [91]).

222

Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour.

Climber

Cucurbitaceae

Indreni (Np)

1200-2300

Roots and fruit: Extract used to treat gonorrhea, asthma, earache, and hemicrania (Ilam: [73, 76, 77]). Roots: Used in lung diseases of cattle. Fruit: Taken to cure asthma (Sikkim: Database). Leaves: Tender shoots used for vegetable (Ilam: [94]).

223

Daphniphyllum himalense (Benth.) Mull. Arg.

Tree

Daphniphyllaceae

Chandan (Np)

1200-2500

Plant: Plant has religious and aesthetic value (Sikkim: [72]).

224

Dillenia indica L.

Tree

Dilleniaceae

Ramphal (Np)

150-250

Fruit: Juice with sugar used as cooling beverage in fever and cough (Sikkim: [11], Database). Bark and leaves: Taken to cure diarrhea and dysentery (Sikkim: [11], Database).

225

Dillenia pentagyna Roxb.

Climber

Dilleniaceae

Sahad (S); Tatar (Np)

150-1500

Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

226

Dioscorea alata L.

Climber

Dioscoreaceae

Ghartarul (Np)

600-1200

Roots: Used in fever, rash and itch, constipation, intestinal worms, leprosy, piles, and gonorrhoea. (Sikkim: Database). Eaten raw to treat throat pain (Sikkim: [11]).

227

Dioscorea bulbifera L.

Climber

Dioscoreaceae

Kaching (Lp); Ban tarul, Gittha, Kukurtarul (Np); Bengo nari (S); Tshemakewa(Dz), Borang-Joktang/Fantang (Sh)

150-2100

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Tubers: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Used as aphrodisiac, stomachic, appetizer (Sikkim: Database), tonic and to cure ulcer (Sikkim: [75]). Boiled and eaten after submerging them whole night in cold water (Jhapa: [92]; Darjeeling: [80]; Ilam: [94]; Sikkim: [89, 107], Database) and also used for washing clothes, to kill lice and fish and as contraceptive pills (Sikkim: Database).

228

*Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb.

Climber

Dioscoreaceae

Ban Tarul, Kukur Tarul (Np); Kamanduki Saplokha (Ri)

450-3100

Tubers: Cooked as vegetable; juice taken as oral contraceptives and also used in lice problems (Ilam: [76]; Taplejung: [82]).

229

Dioscorea pentaphylla L.

Climber

Dioscoreaceae

Kusok (Lp); Aser, Bantarul, Bhyakur (Np)

600-1500

Tubers: Boiled and eaten after submerging them whole night in cold water (Jhapa: [92]). Boiled and taken orally as anthelmintic and wormifuge especially against tapeworm (Darjeeling: [52]).Tubers and shoots: Used as tonic and can also cure swelling (Sikkim: [75]).

230

Shorea robusta Gaertn.

Tree

Dipterocarpaceae

Sal (Np); Sasing (Li)

150-1500

Used to extract oil (KL Bhutan: [91]). Exude used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]). Bark: Paste applied on wound and bone fracture (KL Nepal: [53]).

231

Drosera peltata Thunb.

Herb

Droseraceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

232

Diospyros lotus L.

Tree

Ebenaceae

Gundum (Dz), Amdebu (Sh)

 

Fruit:Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

233

Diospyros montana Roxb.

Tree

Ebenaceae

Gada tarul (S)

500

Fruit: Pulp applied on cracks of feet (Jhapa: [66]).

234

Elaeagnus infundibularis Momiy.

Shrub

Elaeagnaceae

Bastard-Oleaster (Eg); Pirima (Li); Guenlo, Maldhendo, Madilo (Np); Tikun (Tm)

1500-2500

Fruit: Used to make alcohol (Taplejung: [81]).

235

Elaeagnus latifolia L.

Tree

Elaeagnaceae

 

700-2300

Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]; Sikkim: [47]).

236

Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson

Tree

Elaeagnaceae

  

Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

237

Hippophae salicifolia D.Don

Shrub

Elaeagnaceae

Seabuckthorn (Eg), Achuk, Dale Chuk (Np)

2200-3500

Bark and fruit: Useful in lung dieases, skin eruptions, and irritations (Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Edible (Sikkim: [95]; KL Nepal: [83]) and also used to make vinegar (KL Nepal: [83]). Used in toothache, joint pain, liver, lungs, and phlegm diseases, menstrual disorders, dysentery, gum infection, blood disorders, diabetes and intestinal parasities (KL Nepal: [83]). Roots: Fresh root nodules chewed to stop vomitting and also to remove bad smell of mouth (Darjeeling: [49]).

238

Hippophae tibetana Schlecht.

Shrub

Elaeagnaceae

Seabuckthorn (Eg); Bhui Chuk (Np)

3800-4500

Fruit: Edible and also used to obtain yellow dye (KL Nepal: [83]).

239

Elaeocarpus sikkimensis Masters

Tree

Elaeocarpaceae

 

1500-2100

Fruit: Edible (Ilam: [92]; Sikkim: [95]).

240

Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Gaertn.) K. Schum.

Tree

Elaeocarpaceae

Rudraksh (Np)

700-1700

Fruit: Used in vata and kapha disease of head and epileptic fits (Sikkim: Database). Edible (Sikkim: [89]). Seed: Paste administered to cure cough (Sikkim: [79]).

241

Elaeocarpus varunua Buch.-Ham. ex Mast.

Tree

Elaeocarpaceae

Gasha-thungsey (Sh)

 

Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

242

Agapetes serpens (Wight) Sleumer

Shrub

Ericaceae

Bandare Khorsani (Np)

1500-2600

Flowers: Edible (Sikkim: [80, 89]).

243

*Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall.

Shrub

Ericaceae

Wintergreen (Eg); Singjang, Singjhangma (Li); Dhasingare, Patpate (Np); Limbuni Phool (Np-Tp); Lamchassi (Ri); Chhyaro (Sh,Wi)

1200-2600

Leaves: Used as antiseptic (Sikkim: [75]), fodder and in ritual ceremony; warm juice used to treat inflammation and swellings (Taplejung: [87]). Leaves and fruit: Decoction used to treat reheumatism (KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: [75]) and worms (KL Nepal: [83]; Ilam: [73]). Fruit: Ripe fruits are eaten raw (KL Nepal: [87]).

244

Gaultheria procumbens L.

Shrub

Ericaceae

  

Leaves: Used to extract oil (KL Bhutan: [93]).

245

Gaultheria sp.

Shrub

Ericaceae

Chanze kam (Dz); Shogshingma shing (Sh)

 

Whole plant: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

246

Gaultheria trichophylla Royle

Shrub

Ericaceae

Ani Gnonzing (Sh, Wi), Sanchanchewa (Tm)

2700-4500

Fruit: Ripe fruits eaten raw (Taplejung: [81]; Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]).

247

Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude

Tree

Ericaceae

Lyonia (Eg); Tapeba (Li); Angeri (Np); Rangkhilayem (Ri) Dhobang (Sh); Sangemi Dongbu, Syanggomba (Wi).

1300-3300

Leaves: Dried and used as cigarette wrapper (Ilam: [81]). Infusion taken to treat scabies and dog bite (Ilam: [73, 76]).

248

Pieris formosa (Wall.) D.Don.

Tree

Ericaceae

Balu (Np); Kekphel (Li)

2000-3300

Roots: Dust applied to treat rheumatism (KL Nepal: [53]).

249

Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don

Shrub

Ericaceae

Fragrant Rhododendron (Eg); Sunpati (Np); Balu (Dz/B/Sh)

3500-5100

Aerial parts: Used as incense and snuffed to induce sneezing (Sikkim: Database). Leaves and flowers: Used for stomach, liver, and lung disorders, indigestion, sore throat, and as appetizer and in vomiting (Darjeeling: [98]; KL Nepal: [83]). Used as incense (Sikkim: Database). Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used to cure blood dysentery (Sikkim: [75]). Whole plant: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

250

Rhododendron arboreum Smith

Tree

Ericaceae

Porota (Gr); Tokphekalaphun, Thukphewa (Li); Gurans, Laliguras (Np); Dakbun, Tokse (Ri); Pullasa (Sn); Ladukpa, Sendok Dongbu (Wi).

1400-3600

Flowers and young leaves: Useful in dysentery (Darjeeling: [80]; Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: [11, 85]; KL Nepal: [83]), diarrhea and headache (Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: [85]). Flowers: Used to treat headache (Panchthar: [67]). Powder taken to stop bleeding in female. Flower petals clear throat choking due to fish or chicken bone (Darjeeling: [52]; Sikkim: [11]). Used to make alcohol; paste applied around eyes for good sight (Taplejung: [81]). Used to make local wine (Darjeeling: [108]; Ilam: [94]). Crushed with water and administered to livestock to treat diarrhea and dysentery (Sikkim: [97]).

251

Rhododendron campanulatum D. Don

Tree

Ericaceae

Syapu (Gr); Chimal, Nilo Chimal, Seti Chimal (Np); Kalma (Sh); Takma Singya (Tb); Khama, Saje Medok (Wl).

2800-4400

Wood: Dried and infusion taken in fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Leaves: Used to wrap tobacco (Taplejung: [81]). Flowers: Nectar edible (Taplejung: [81]).

252

Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don

Shrub

Ericaceae

Bhale sunpati (Np)

2100-4700

Leaves and flowers: Paste used for bile and lung disease, cold, and blood disorders (KL Nepal: [83]). Leaves: Used for incense (KL Nepal: [83]).

253

Rhododendron setosum D. Don

Shrub

Ericaceae

Sunpatay (Np); Sulo (Dz/Sh/B/T)

3700-5600

Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves: Local Buddhist uses leaf as incense (Sikkim: [89]). Whole plant: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

254

Vaccinium gaultheriifolium (Griff.) Hook. f. ex C. B. Clarke

Shrub

Ericaceae

Chyansi (Np-Tp); Khapusekma (Li)

1500-2300

Fruit: Eaten raw or pickled; juice used to treat diarrhea and dysentery (Taplejung: [81]).

255

Antidesma acidum Retz.

Shrub

Euphorbiaceae

Archal (Np)

150-1200

Bark and leaves: Used to treat cholera (Panchthar: [67]). Fruit: Consumed raw (Ilam: [94]).

256

Baccaurea ramiflora Lour.

Tree

Euphorbiaceae

 

250-1300

Fruits: Edible (Sikkim: [95]).

257

Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Mull. Arg.

Shrub

Euphorbiaceae

Danti (S)

300-910

Seeds: Used in gastric disorders, gouts, and rheumatism (Jhapa: [66]).

258

Bischofia javanica Blume

Tree

Euphorbiaceae

Kainjal (Np)

150-1200

Leaves: Chewed to cure sore throat (Sikkim: [11]). Bark: Juice taken to cure diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]).

259

Bridelia retusa (L.) A. Juss.

Tree

Euphorbiaceae

Gayo (Li)

100-1400

Bark: Paste prepared from the bark of Bridelia retusa and Schima wallichiiapplied externally on cuts and wounds (Sikkim: [79]).

260

Croton roxburghii N. P. Balakr.

Tree

Euphorbiaceae

Guti (S)

300-750

Bark: Pounded and mixed with little amount of oil of Varanus sp. and massage on the body to relieve from measles, chicken pox, and boils (Jhapa: [66]). Roots and bark: Used as purgative (Jhapa: [66]).

261

Euphorbia griffithii Hook.f.

Herb

Euphorbiaceae

  

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

262

Euphorbia hirta L.

Herb

Euphorbiaceae

Aankle Jhar (Np); Gofatkhalakhachri (Me); Sangadare, pusitoa (S)

150-1500

Plant: Extraction given to lactating mother to increase the milk prodcution. Root: Given to stop vomitting (Jhapa: [66]). Young shoots: Used to treat excessive bleeding during menstruation and also in gonorrhea (Jhapa: [68]). Latex: Applied on pimples and old wounds (Jhapa: [68]) and also to treat warts and cuts (Darjeeling: [74]).

263

Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch

Shrub

Euphorbiaceae

 

800-1200

Latex: Applied on toothache (Sikkim: [11]).

264

Euphorbia royleana Boissier

Shrub

Euphorbiaceae

Siundee (Np); Sijau (Me)

1100-1200

Latex: Applied to cure swelling of skin due to cutaneous and sub-cutaneous infection (Jhapa: [68]). Used to cure cuts and stop bleeding, to relieve from earache, cough, and asthma (Sikkim: Database).

265

Euphorbia sieboldiana C.Morren & Decne.

Herb

Euphorbiaceae

  

Tuber/roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

266

Euphorbia sikkimensis Boiss.

Herb

Euphorbiaceae

  

Tubers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

267

Glochidion lanceolarium Voigt.

Shrub

Euphorbiaceae

Bangikath (Np)

 

Bark: Juice to taken in stomach complaints (Sikkim: [85]).

268

Homonoia riparia Lour.

Shrub

Euphorbiaceae

Khola ruis (Np); Mongthel-Kung (Lp)

 

Roots: Decoction taken as laxative (Sikkim: [85]).

269

Jatropha curcas L.

Shrub

Euphorbiaceae

Aanda (Me); Kaden, Hathi-kane, Sjaiwan (Np); Bhernada (S); Ngera-kharshing (Sh)

500-1200

Latex: Applied to treat toothache and swelling testicules (Jhapa: [68]). Used to stop bleeding from wounds; also applied to treat burns, eczema, ringworm (Sikkim: Database) and scabies (Jhapa: [66]). Bark: Chewed to cure mouth sores (Jhapa: [66]). Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

270

Mallotus philippinensis Muel. Arg.

Tree

Euphorbiaceae

Sindure (Np); Rora (S)

 

Seeds: Dried and powder applied on the wound of cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Given to pigs along-with food to kill intestinal worms, rushed and applied externally to cure wound, injuries and skin infection (Sikkim: [84]). Fruit: Powder of glandular hairs of fruits applied in sores and wounds (Jhapa: [66]). Bark: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Flowers and fruit: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

271

Ricinus communis L.

Shrub

Euphorbiaceae

Aadi (Me); Iradam (S); Chamlingshing (Sh)

150-2400

Roots: Used for skin diseases. Tied as an amulet on neck of children to stop vomiting (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Juice used to cure headache, boils, and dysentery; paste used to cure jaundice (Sikkim: Database). Warmed with mustard oil and massaged on the body of post delivery women to cure body pain (Jhapa: [66]). Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Endosperm applied as cream on dryness of skin to cure cracking heels (Jhapa: [68]).

272

Tragia involucrata L.

Climber

Euphorbiaceae

Ban Sisnu (Np); Sangelsim (S)

400

Leaves: Paste applied on local swelling of hands and feet ([66]).

273

Abrus precatorius L.

Climber

Fabaceae

Lalgedi (Np); Karmet (S)

300-1100

Roots and fruits: Extract taken orally for abortion (KL Nepal: [53]) and also taken for tonsil and pneumonia (Sikkim: Database). Roots: Paste usedto treat urinary troubles and skin disease (Ilam: [76]) and also in cough, cold and menstrual troubles and also applied to cure wounds (Jhapa: [66]). Powder taken to treat urinary troubles and skin disease (Ilam: [76]). Leaves: Juice taken orally to relieve urinary complaints (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Chewed or fresh root juice administered orally during throat pain (Sikkim: [79]).

274

Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd.

Tree

Fabaceae

Toeja (Dz); Jasenshing (Sh)

 

Stem: Heartwood extract used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [70, 71]) and gum (KL Bhutan: [70]). Stem and roots: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

275

Acacia intsia (L.) Willd.

Shrub

Fabaceae

Kondru (S)

900-1100

Root: Paste used in fever, cough and cold, and also applied against snake and scorpion sting (Jhapa: [66]). Stem: Paste with pepper taken orally to cure blood dysentery (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Paste applied on sores and itches (Jhapa: [66]).

276

Acacia pennata (L.) Willd.

Climber

Fabaceae

Arare (Li)

200-1100

Leaves: Chewed with sugar and cumin during bleeding gums; juice administered orally in indigestion in infants (Sikkim: [79]).

277

Aeschynomene indica L.

Herb

Fabaceae

Tal Khukuri (Np); Sola (S)

200-1300

Plant: Juice and cumin seeds used in reducing fever (Jhapa: [66]).

278

Albizia julibrissin Durazz.

Tree

Fabaceae

Padke Siris (Np)

1000-3000

Bark: Extract or paste used to treat dandruff (KL Nepal: [53]).

279

Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.

Tree

Fabaceae

Harasiris (Np)

 

Leaves and flowers: Used to cure boils, piles, and diarrhea (Sikkim: [75]).

280

Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.

Tree

Fabaceae

Seti Siris (Li)

300-1100

Bark: Crushed into paste and applied on forehead during fever (Sikkim: [79]).

281

Astragalus yunnanensis Franch.

Herb

Fabaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

282

Atylosia scarabaeoides (L.) Benth.

Climber

Fabaceae

Jangali bhatmase jhar (Np); Birhorec (S)

400-1200

Plant: Paste orally administered to treat body swelling (Jhapa: [66]).

283

Bauhinia purpurea L.

Tree

Fabaceae

Tanki (Np)

300-1600

Plant used against animal bite;useful as maturant for boils and ebcesses (Sikkim: Database). Roots: Used as carminative (Sikkim: Database, [79]). Paste applied on boils (Sikkim: [79]). Bark: Used to control diarrhea (Sikkim: Database). Flowers: Used as laxative (Sikkim: Database). Leaves: Used as fodder (Ilam: [73]). Shoots: Used as vegetable (Ilam: [94])

284

Bauhinia semla Wunderlin

Tree

Fabaceae

  

Exude: Used as gum (KL Bhutan: [70]).

285

Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn.

Climber

Fabaceae

Makrik (Lp); Verla, Baro Lara, Bhorla (Np)

200-1300

Bark: Useful in skin disease (Sikkim: Database) and diarrhea (Sikkim: Database, [74]). Leaves: Used as demulcent (Sikkim: Database). Paste applied in factured bone (Sikkim: [97]). Seeds: Used as tonic and aphrodisiac, and also given to treat snake bite (Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: Database). Roasted and consumed (Ilam: [92]). Seeds and leaves: Given in dysentery and used as laxative (Sikkim: [75]).

286

Bauhinia variegata L.

Tree

Fabaceae

Koiraalo, Koirala, Takki (Np)

150-1900

Root: Dried root and bark administered orally in diarrhea (Darjeeling: [86]). Decoction given to expel placenta of cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Bark: Juice taken as tonic in toothache (Sikkim: [11]). Paste taken to cure swelling, leprosy, cough, and menstrual disorder (Ilam: [73, 76]; Sikkim: [79]). Flower: Juice taken to cure dysentery, diarrhea, and stomach pain (Sikkim: Database). Buds taken for skin disease and ulcer, dried buds chewed to treat bleeding piles (Sikkim: [11]). Cooked as curry (Darjeeling: [80]; Ilam: [73, 76]; Sikkim: [89]). Fruit: Used for blood purification (Sikkim: Database).

287

Butea minor Buch.-Ham. ex Baker

Shrub

Fabaceae

Bhujetro (Np)

300-2000

Seeds: Used as anthelmintic (Panchthar: [67]).

288

Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze

Shrub

Fabaceae

Palans (Np); Marup (S); Flamingo tree (Eng)

150-1200

Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Roots: Used in tuberculosis (Jhapa: [66]).

289

Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.

Shrub

Fabaceae

Sugrong-bithai (Me)

400-500

Seeds: Fried to black with coconut oil, crushed and paste applied on scalp with the help of cock's feather for baldness (Jhapa: [68]).

290

Cassia fistula L.

Tree

Fabaceae

Raj Brichhya (Np); Mukhralaudhi (Me); Noormui Mirfu Baha (S); Dongkoshing (Sh)

150-1400

Leaves: Used for treating skin diseases, extraction taken orally taken to purify blood, and also used as laxative (Jhapa: [66]). Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as diuretic, purgative, and laxative (Panchthar: [67]). Used for asthma, diabetes, and eczema (Sikkim: Database). Paste used to treat the whopping cough (Jhapa: [68]).

291

Cassia occidentalis L.

Herb

Fabaceae

Thulo Tapre (Np)

200-1400

Flowers and seeds: Paste applied in minor skin infection and inflammation (Jhapa: [68]).

292

Cassia sophera L.

Shrub

Fabaceae

Tapre (Np); Chakora (S)

700-1000

Bark and seeds: Infusion given in diabetes (Jhapa: [66]).

293

Cassia tora L.

Herb

Fabaceae

Tapre (Np); Chakora, Bhede deren (S)

450-1300

Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves: Extraction applied on ringworm and itch (Jhapa: [66]).

294

Crotalaria pallida Aiton

Herb

Fabaceae

Chhinchhinne (Np)

200-1750

Roots: Juice drunk to cure body-swelling problems (Jhapa: [68]).

295

Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC.

Shrub

Fabaceae

 

300-1000

Roots: Used in snake and scropion bite (Jhapa: [66]).

296

Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC

Herb

Fabaceae

Sano Chameli (Np)

600-2300

Leaves: Juice consumed to treat diarrhoea and dysentery (Darjeeling: [74]).

297

Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr.

Climber

Fabaceae

Pangra (Np), Kolokpu-sae (Sh)

350-1600

Seeds: Used as astringent and emetic (Panchthar: [67]; Sikkim: Database) and also useful to treat dandruff (Panchthar: [67]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

298

Entada pursaetha subsp. sinohimalensis Grierson & D. G. Long

Climber

Fabaceae

 

400-1500

Bark: Juice applied externally to cure skin disease (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Paste applied to treat mumps; powder acts as antidandruff agent (Sikkim: [11]).

299

Erythrina arborescens Roxb.

Tree

Fabaceae

Phaledo (Np); Gyesey Kung (L)

1500-3000

Leaves and bark: Curative efficacies for skin diseases (Sikkim: [75]). Seed: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

300

Erythrina stricta Roxb.

Tree

Fabaceae

Phaledo (Np); Chhasey (Dz); Kharshing (Sh)

1000-1600

Bark and leaves: Paste given in rheumatism, fever, asthma, and epilepsy (Ilam: [73]). Seed: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

304

Erythrina suberosa Roxb.

Tree

Fabaceae

Phaledo (Np); Buru marar (S)

900-1200

Bark: Grinded with bark of Oroxylum indicum and given as antidote (Jhapa: [66]).

302

Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Merr.

Shrub

Fabaceae

Barvasi (Np)

700-1700

Plant: Decoction given to cattle to cure blood dysentery (Sikkim: [97]).

303

Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

Herb

Fabaceae

Jethimadhu (Np)

 

Roots: Given in cough, fever, dysentery, and chronic hepatitis (Sikkim: Database).

304

Indigofera sp.

Tree

Fabaceae

  

Leaves: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

305

Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.

Tree

Fabaceae

Gahat (Li)

450-2800

Seeds: Decoction used to remove stone developed in kidney (Sikkim: [79]).

306

Mimosa pudica L.

Herb

Fabaceae

Lazzawathi (Np); Jhapani (S)

200-1200

Plant: Juice given to relieve from diarrhoea (Ilam: [73]; Darjeeling: [86]), dysentery, and in treatment of hydrocele (Ilam: [73]). Roots and leaves: Paste used in case of piles (Darjeeling: [91]; Sikkim: [11], Database) and kidney problems (Sikkim: Database). Roots: Used in treating asthma, fever, cough, dysentery, vaginal and uterine complaint (Sikkim: Database). Paste applied externally to treat boils (Sikkim: [11]). Juice taken to cure epilepsy and sexual weakness also used to cure eye troubles (Jhapa: [66]). Powder used to clean tooth (Darjeeling: [74]).

307

Moghania strobilifera (L.) J. St.-Hil. ex Kuntze

Shrub

Fabaceae

Barakaulijhar (Np)

300-2300

Roots: Juice taken in indigestion, insomnia and epilepsy (Darjeeling: [74]).

308

Mucuna macrocarpa Wall.

Shrub

Fabaceae

  

Seeds: Powder taken as anthelmentic (Sikkim: [11]).

309

Mucuna monosperma Wall.

Shrub

Fabaceae

Baldengra (Np, Li)

 

Seeds: Act as expectorant in cough (Sikkim: [79]).

310

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.

Herb

Fabaceae

Kauso (Np); Etka (S)

100-1700

Leaves: Paste used in boils, blisters, and ulcers (Jhapa: [66]). Roots and seeds: Used as antipyretic and aphrodisiac (Panchthar: [67]). Roots: Used in delirium (Jhapa: [66]). Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

311

Oxytropis japonica Maxim.

Herb

Fabaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicinal (KL Bhutan: [71]).

312

Tamarindus indica L.

Tree

Fabaceae

Jojo (S) Imli, Titri (Np), Titri (Me)

200-900

Bark: Decoction given in paralysis, ulcers, and inflammations. Infusion along with bark of Ziziphus mauritiana, Anthocephalus chinensis, Shorea robusta, Streblus asper and black salt given to cure flatulence in cattle (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). Used for cough and blood disorders (Sikkim: Database). Seeds: Paste eaten to cure stomachache (Jhapa: [68]).

313

Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.

Herb

Fabaceae

Bir ghangra (S)

 

Tubers and seeds: Eaten as vegetable (Jhapa: [68]).

314

Castanopsis hystrix Miq.

Tree

Fagaceae

Patle Katus (Np)

1800-2400

Fruit: Eaten raw (Darjeeling: [80]; Ilam: [94]; Sikkim: [72, 89]).

315

Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq.

Tree

Fagaceae

Katoos (Np)

1200-2900

Fruit: Roasted and consumed (Ilam: [94]).

316

Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm.) A. DC.

Tree

Fagaceae

Musure Katus (Np)

450-2300

Fruit: Edible (Sikkim: [89]).

Leaves: Good ingredients for compost (Sikkim: [89]).

317

Quercus glauca Thunb.

Tree

Fagaceae

Phalat (Np); Yahi (Li)

 

Bark: Paste applied on bone fracture (KL Nepal: [53]).

318

Quercus griffithii Hook.f. & Thomson ex Miq.

Tree

Fagaceae

Sisi (Dz); Benangshing (Sh)

 

Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

319

Gynocardia odorata Roxburgh

Tree

Flacourtiaceae

Gantay (Np)

800-1000

Fruit: Used to extract oil (KL Bhutan: [93]). Juice taken or eaten raw in fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Seeds: Seed oil applied on skin diseases and leprosy (Sikkim: [75]), also used for massage purpose for infants (Sikkim: [79]). Ripen seeds roasted and the oil extracted to use in various purposes (Ilam: [94]).

320

Gentiana grandiflora Laxm.

Herb

Gentianaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

321

Gentiana stylophora C.B.Clarke

Herb

Gentianaceae

  

Floral parts: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

322

Gentiana urnula Harry Sm.

Herb

Gentianaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

323

Gentiana veitchiorum Hemsl.

Herb

Gentianaceae

Gangi- Pangenmotok (Dz)

 

Whole plant/flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

324

Halenia elliptica D.Don

Herb

Gentianaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

325

Swertia angustifolia Buch. Ham. ex D. Don

Herb

Gentianaceae

Vaale Chirayito (Np)

600-3300

Plant: Extract used to treat fever, cough, and cold (Ilam: [73]).

326

Swertia bimaculata (Sieb. & Zucc) C. B. Clarke

Herb

Gentianaceae

Chiraito, Tite (Np)

900-3700

Plant: Used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, and fever (Taplejung: [81]).

327

*Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten

Herb

Gentianaceae

Tikta (Km, Sh, Wi); Sungkhinwa (Li); Chiraito, Chiraita, Tite (Np); Khalu (Nw); Kuple (Ri); Kirattikta (Sn); Timda (Tm); Gya-Tig, Tigta (Tb)

1200-3000

Plant and seeds: Plant infusion and crushed seeds considered most effective in treating fever (Taplejung: [81]; KL Nepal: [83, 103]; Ilam: [73, 76]), asthma, cold, and cough (Darjeeling: [80]; Taplejung: [81, 87]; KL Nepal: [83, 103]; Sikkim: [11]; Ilam: [73, 76]). Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used to treat ulcer, asthma, inflammation, and piles (Darjeeling: [80]). Taken as tonic and also in leucoderma and skin diseases (Darjeeling: [69, 78, 80]). Decoction taken to cure cold, cough, diarrhea, and stomachache (Darjeeling: [69]; Sikkim: [11, 79]). Shoots: Taken in dyspepsia (Sikkim: [75]). Leaves: Mixed with young stem of Achyranthes aspera and stem bark of Phyllanthus emblica and decoction given to cure fever and cholera (Jhapa: [66]).

328

Swertia multicaulis D. Don

Herb

Gentianaceae

Sharma Guru (Np, Tm); Sepu Gundum (Sh, WI)

4000-4900

Roots: Decoction used to treat fever, cough, bodyache, and internal injuries; paste applied to prevent bleeding and infection from cuts and wounds (Taplejung: [81, 82, 87, 88]).

329

Swertia nervosa (G. Don) C. B. Clarke

Herb

Gentianaceae

Chiraito, Bhale Chiraito, God Tito (Np)

700-3000

Roots: Used to treat fever, cough, and cold (Taplejung: [82, 88]).

330

Geranium donianum Sweet

Herb

Geraniaceae

Ragatgeri (Np)

3200-4800

Plant:Juice consumed in renal complications and dysentery (Darjeeling: [74]).

331

Geranium lambertii Sweet

Herb

Geraniaceae

  

Roots:Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

332

Geranium nepalense Sweet

Herb

Geraniaceae

Bhanda (Np)

 

Whole plant: Used as astringent (Sikkim: [75]).

333

Aeschynanthus parviflorus (D.Don) Spreng.

Shrub

Gesneriaceae

  

Roots: Decoction used to treat fever (Darjeeling: [78]).

334

Didymocarpus villosus D.Don

Herb

Gesneriaceae

Kumkum (Np)

900-2400

Leaves: Smoked for its laxative action (KL Nepal: [53]).

335

Dichroa febrifuga Lour.

Shrub

Hydrangeaceae

Aseru, Basauli, Bhahak, Pahare Basak, Vasak (Np); Khasrte, Patre, Polokamji (Gr); Kiplisang (Ri), Dharmen (Tm); Borang-yangshabu (Sh)

900-2500

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as tonic (Sikkim: [75]). Decoction taken to treat malarial fever (Ilam: [76]; Taplejung: [87]; Sikkim: [91], Database). Roots and leaves: Decoction taken for cough and fever (Darjeeling: [78, 80]; Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: [11, 89]). Fruit: Used as febrifuge (Panchthar: [67]). Ink prepared from berries (Sikkim: [11]).

336

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.

Herb

Hypoxiadaceae

Kalo musali, Musali Kanda (Np); Gahot (S)

500-1100

Roots/rhizomes: Taken in stomachache, physical weakness (Jhapa: [66]), jaundice, cholera, and diarrhea (Darjeeling: [49]; Panchthar: [67]). Rhizome paste used against skin complaints, stomach ulcer, white discharge in women and dyspepsia (Darjeeling: [49]). Infusion used in gastritis and piles (Darjeeling: [49]).

337

Belamcanda chinensis (L.) Redoute

Herb

Iridaceae

Tarware phool (Np)

100-2200

Rhizomes: Freshly collected and eaten in stomachache and also taken orally as antidote to food poisoining (Darjeeling: [52]).

338

Iris decora Wall.

Herb

Iridaceae

  

Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

339

Engelhardia spicata Lesch. ex Blume

Tree

Juglandaceae

Yakpohama (Li), Mauwa (Np), Bokto, Oksipou (Ri)

400-2500

Bark: Used in diarrhea and dysentery; paste used in bone fracture (Taplejung: [88]).

340

*Juglans regia L.

Tree

Juglandaceae

Okhar (Np)

1000-2000

Bark: Used for dye and acts as detergent (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]). Juice taken to get rid from intestinal worms (Darjeeling: [86]; Sikkim: [11, 79]). Stem bark: Decoction taken to cure arthritis, rheumatism, skin diseases and toothache (Sikkim: [79]). Bark and leaves: Juice used as fish poison (Sikkim: [11]). Leaves: Paste applied on the hoof diseases of cattle (Sikkim: [97]) Fruit: Oil used for headache (Darjeeling: [80]). Used in rheumatism (Darjeeling: [91]). Nuts: Edible (Darjeeling: [80]; Ilam: [94]; Sikkim: [89]). Shell crushed and obtained black color (Sikkim: [11]).

341

Juglans regia var kamaonia L.

Tree

Juglandaceae

Himalayan Walnut (Eg); Akhor (Gr); Katutung, Takshing, Koto (Gr-Mn); Khayusin, Khesik (Li); Okhar, Hande Okhar (Np); Khaisi (Ri); Akshotak (Sn)

1200-3000

Bark: Paste used for poisoning fish. Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Boiled in water to extract dye. Used to treat pneumonia and wounds (Panchthar: [67]). Seeds: Eaten as tonic or to treat throat pain; hard cover of the fruit applied on gout or to treat throat and chest pain (Taplejung: [87, 88]).

342

Juncus grisebachii Buchenau

Herb

Juncaceae

Juncus (C)

 

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

343

Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze

Herb

Lamiaceae

Nirepati, Jhusule, Rato Charpate, Rato Pat (Np); Jinting (Sh)

200-2400

Roots: Juice taken to cure fever, soar throat, diarrhea, and dysentery (Taplejung: [88]).

344

Clerodendrum infortunatum L.

Shrub

Lamiaceae

Chitu (Np)

 

Leaves: Used as anthelminthic, fresh juice used as tonic and febrifuge (Sikkim: Database).

345

Clerodendrum viscosum Vent.

Herb

Lamiaceae

Rajbeli (Np); Lakhanaat (Me); Varni (S)

100-1500

Plant: Infusion boiled in water along with the leaves of Azadirachta indica and bath to treat scabies and skin diseases (Jhapa: [66]). Roots: Paste used as anti-poison (Jhapa: [68]). Leaves: Paste used as hair tonic (Jhapa: [66]). Leaf juice consumed to treat leucoderma and hydrophobia (Darjeeling: [74]).

346

Clinopodium umbrosum (M.Bieb.) C. Koch

Climber

Lamiaceae

Suparnasa (Np)

180-3400

Leaves: Juice used to treat cuts and burns (Panchthar: [67]).Eaten as vegetable to maintain good health (Darjeeling: [74]).

347

Colebrookea oppositifolia Sm.

Herb

Lamiaceae

Dhursuli (Np); Dhusor (Me)

250-1700

Leaves: Paste applied in wounds and inflammation of skin (Jhapa: [68]). Juice used to treat cuts and bruises (Panchthar: [67]).Juice taken in dysentery (Sikkim: [79]). Bud extract applied in opthalmic problems (KL Nepal: [53]).

348

Elsholtzia blanda (Benth.) Benth.

Herb

Lamiaceae

Jungali Tulsi, Ban Silam (Np)

 

Roots: Powder paste with mustard oil applied on the scabies affected area of cattle (Sikkim: [84]). Leaves: Juice given in diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [74]). Shoots: Taken in gastritis (Sikkim: [75]).

349

Elsholtzia fruticosa (D.Don) Rehder

Shrub

Lamiaceae

Chhinik (Np); Aamgora, Kansata (Sh); Jirug Serpo (Km, Tb); Furmi (Wl)

1800-4200

Plant: Religious value (Taplejung: [81]). Leaves and spikes: Used as incense (Taplejung: [81]). Roots: Given against tonsilitis (Darjeeling: [52]).

350

Eriophyton wallichii Benth.

Herb

Lamiaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

351

Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.

Shrub

Lamiaceae

Arridari (S)

150-1000

Plant: Paste applied on skin infections (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Juice warmed and applied over lice and parasities infected area (Darjeeling: [74]).

352

Isodon coetsa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Kudô

Herb

Lamiaceae

Mire (Np)

600-3400

Leaves and shoots: Used to treat cuts and wounds (Panchthar: [67]).

353

Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng.

Herb

Lamiaceae

Drona puspi (Np); Gante Jhar (Np)

150-2400

Plant: Used to treat pneumonia and wounds (Panchthar: [67]) Leaves: Decoction given in menstrual disorders (KL Nepal: [53]).

354

Leucas indica (L.) R. Br. ex Vatke

Herb

Lamiaceae

Khaangkareh (Me); Gummi (Np); Durup (S)

70-1000

Leaves: Crushed with Euphorbia hirta and let to inhale for sinusites and nasal infection (Jhapa: [68]). Decoction massaged on forehead to relieve headache; drops poured in nostril to cure sinusitis and earache; juice taken in asthma, and also applied in geneital organs to cure venereal diseases (Jhapa: [66]).

355

Leucosceptrum canum Sm.

Herb

Lamiaceae

Cheeongkung (L)

1000-2600

Roots and leaves: Used for epilepsy and wound (Sikkim: [75]).

356

Melissa axillaris (Benth.) Bakh. f., Herb

 

Lamiaceae

Sugandhi (Np)

 

Leaves: Juice taken with honey to cure fever (Darjeeling: [78]).

357

Mentha arvensis L.

Herb

Lamiaceae

Padina (Np, Li)

1200-2000

Leaves: Juice given to treat rheumatism, fever, weakness, ulcer, wounds, jaundice, cough, asthma and cuts (Ilam: [76]). Fresh leaves chewed during gastritis and acidity (Sikkim: [79]).

358

Mentha piperita L.

Herb

Lamiaceae

Pudhina (Np)

 

Plant: Paste taken in bodyache (Darjeeling: [52]). Leaves: Juice, paste or oil taken in painful urination, stomach problems and indigestion (Ilam: [76]).

359

Mentha sp.

Herb

Lamiaceae

  

Leaves: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).

360

Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

Herb

Lamiaceae

Tulasipatta (S)

400-900

Leaves: Leaves are pounded and given with unboiled rice in cough and bronchitis (Jhapa: [66]). Chewed to cure mouth ulcers (Sikkim: [79]). Juice given in cardiopathy, asthma, bronchitis, snake bite, urinary disorders (Ilam: [76]).

361

Orthosiphon incurvus Benth.

Herb

Lamiaceae

Tite (Np)

 

Plant: Juice given to cure tooth decay, diarrhoea, wounds, and cuts (Ilam: [73, 76]).

362

Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton

Herb

Lamiaceae

Silam (Np, Li)

600-2400

Seeds: Dried seeds chewed to cure cough and nausea (Sikkim: [79]).

363

Phlomoides rotata (Benth. ex Hook.f.) Mathiesen

Herb

Lamiaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

364

Pogostemon amarantoides Benth.

Herb

Lamiaceae

Solomon, Namnam (Bhu)

900-2100

Young leaves: Used as vegetables (Bhutan: [102]).

365

Pogostemon benghalensis(Burm. f.) Kuntze

Shrub

Lamiaceae

Rudilo (Np)

150-1300

Young shoots: Grounded and given to treat sores of mouth and tounge (Jhapa: [66]).

366

Salvia campanulata Wall. ex Benth.

Herb

Lamiaceae

  

Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

367

Salvia moorcroftiana Wall. ex Benth.

Herb

Lamiaceae

 

2000-3000

Whole plant: Given against diabetes (Darjeeling: [52]).

368

Salvia sp.

Herb

Lamiaceae

  

Flower: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

369

Siphocranion macranthum (J. D. Hooker) C. Y. Wu

Herb

Lamiaceae

 

1300-3200

Shoots: Taken in gastric (Sikkim: [75]).

370

Holboellia latifolia Wall.

Tree

Lardizabalaceae

Golfa (Np)

2400-3200

Roots: Effective for rheumatism (Sikkim: [75]). Fruit: Edible (Darjeeling: [72, 80]; Sikkim: [89]). Stem: Used to make bangles, which are believed to give from orthopedic problems (Darjeeling [80]).

371

Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) Sweet

Tree

Lauraceae

Bhalay Linkauli (Np)

600-1800

Bark: Used as condiment (Sikkim: [72]).

372

*Cinnamomum glaucescens (Nees) Hand.-Mazz.

Tree

Lauraceae

Phagpanengshing (Sh)

 

Wood: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

373

Cinnamomum impressinervium Meisn.

Tree

Lauraceae

Sisi (Np)

1220-1830

Seeds: Edible (Darjeeling: [80]). Leaves: Used as a substitute of bay leaf (Sikkim: [72]).

374

*Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm.

Tree

Lauraceae

Sinkauli, Tejpat (Np); Pinge (Gur); Pataarangkhi (Rai); Shishi (She)

450-2000

Bark: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Given in gonorrhea (Sikkim: Database).Extract used in stomach disorders (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves: Used as stimulant in rheumatism, and also in colic and diarrhea (Sikkim: Database). Rubbed on the body to cure scabies (Sikkim: [11]), throat allergy and to increase appetite (Jhapa: [68]). Used as condiments (KL Bhutan: [70]). Ilam: [94]).

375

Cinnamomum verum J.Presl

Tree

Lauraceae

  

Leaves: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

376

Lindera neesiana (Wall ex Nees) Kurz

Tree

Lauraceae

Gutum Phopri (Gr-Mn); Waregpa (Li); Sil Timmur, Phenlo Khapate (Np); Kongkochi (Ri); Kutumba (Tm)

1800-2700

Bark and fruit: Used as aromatic and carminative (Sikkim: [85]). Fruit: Used in cough, cold, fever, and cholera; fried in butter and used during gastritis; also used in pickle (Taplejung: [87, 88]). Given to treat headache (Panchthar: [67]). Seeds: Powder taken to stop vomiting (Sikkim: [11]).

377

Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.

Tree

Lauraceae

Siltimur (Np); Tanghaercherkerng (L)

 

Flowers: Used in stomach disorders (Sikkim: [11, 75], Database). Fruit: Taken orally as carminative (Sikkim: [85]). Used to make chutney (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11]). Dried fruits used in nausea and giddiness (Darjeeling: [80]).

378

Litsea glutinosa Lour.

Tree

Lauraceae

Kawala, Suppatnyok (Np)

 

Leaves and bark: Decoction taken to treat dysentery (Sikkim: [79]).

379

Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers.

Tree

Lauraceae

Ratmanti, Sunyokkung (Np)

 

Bark: Decoction taken to treat diarrhea (Sikkim: [85]).

380

Machilus edulis King.

Tree

Lauraceae

Pumpsi, Lapche Kaulo, Lapchephal (Np)

 

Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]; Ilam: [94]; Sikkim: [47, 89]). Leaves: Used as fodder (Sikkim: [89]).

381

Machilus sp.

Tree

Lauraceae

  

Bark: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

382

Persea odoratissima (Nees) Kostermans

Tree

Lauraceae

Lalikaulo (Np)

1000-2000

Fruit: Edible (Sikkim: [89]). Leaves: Good fodder (Sikkim: [89]).

383

Careya arborea Roxb.

Tree

Lecythidaceae

Khumbhi (S)

200-600

Bark: Grounded with cumin seeds and given to treat indigestion and flatulence (Jhapa: [66]).

384

Leea macrophylla Roxb. ex Hornem.

Shrub

Leeaceae

Galeni, Galoni (Np)

1500-1700

Root: Used to cure snake bite (Panchthar: [67]). Seeds: Chewed to treat viral fever. Wrapped by cloths and tied around the neck of the children to cure stomach pain (Sikkim: [11]).

385

Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.

Herb

Liliaceae

Ghiu kumari (Np)

1200-1400

Plant: Used for antihypergycemic effect (Sikkim: [96]). Purgative (Sikkim: Database) and used on burns and skin complaints (Jhapa: [66]; Panchthar: [67]; KL Nepal: [53]; Sikkim: Database, [79]). Leaves: Chewed to cure skin and uterine disorder and jaundice (Jhapa: [68]; Ilam: [73, 76]). Used as stomachic, tonic, purgative and anthelmintic. Juice put on head in high fever to reduce body temperature (Sikkim: [69]).

386

*Asparagus racemosus Willd.

Herb

Liliaceae

Kurilo (Np); Kedar nari (S); Ngalalkom (Sh); Ngakhacho (Dz)

300-2200

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Useful for diabetes, jaundice and urinary disorder (Sikkim: Database). Extract used in diabetes and tuberculosis (Darjeeling: [52]) and applied externally on bone fracture and joint dislocation (Darjeeling: [52]). Also used as diuretic, demulcent, aphrodisiac, refrigerant, tonic, expectorant, astringent, and appetizer (KL Nepal: [83]; Darjeeling: [52]; Panchthar: [67]). Powder taken to enhance lactation for mothers and also useful in anemia and diarrhoea (Ilam: [73, 76, 77]). Grounded with root of Musa paradisiaca and drunk to cure gonorrhea; decoction given in fever (Jhapa: [66]). Mixed with hay or grain to feed the cattle for fortnight to increase milk-yield (Sikkim: [84]). Paste administered orally in fever, cough and cold. Fruit: Eaten to treat pimples (Sikkim: [79]). Shoots: Cooked as vegetable (Taplejung: [82]; KL Nepal: [83]; Panchthar: [67]).

387

Disporum cantoniense (Lour.) Merr.

Herb

Liliaceae

Mhajari (Np)

700-3000

Roots: Used to treat sprains (Panchthar: [67]).

388

Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don

Herb

Liliaceae

Snake's head fritillary (Eg); Ban lasun, Kakolee (Np)

3000-4600

Bulb: Boiled and eaten (KL Nepal: [83]). Used in tuberculosis (Sikkim: [75]) and to treat asthma (KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: [75]), bronchitis, and bleeding during cough (Sikkim: [75]).

389

Fritillaria delavayi Franch.

Herb

Liliaceae

Tsika (Dz)

 

Bulb: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

390

Gloriosa superba L.

Herb

Liliaceae

Langarey Tarul (Np)

400-2200

Roots and flowers: Useful in chronic ulcers, leprosy, piles, and abdominal pains (Sikkim: Database).

391

Lilium nepalense D. Don

Herb

Liliaceae

Ban Lasun (Np)

2300-3400

Plant: Powder used to flavouring dishes; juice taken as tonic (Ilam: [73]). Bulb: Used to treat scabies and boils (Panchthar: [67]).

392

Paris polyphylla Smith

Herb

Liliaceae

Love Apple (Eg); Satuwa (Gr); Tangma (Km); Satuwa, Tintale Banko (Np); Haimavati (Sn); Natar Dhap (Tm)

1800-3500

Roots: Used as antidotes (Sikkim: [75]) and in stomachache (Taplejung: [81, 82]) and fever (Taplejung: [81, 82]; Sikkim: [75]). Powder applied to heal wound (Darjeeling: [49]; Taplejung: [81]; KL Nepal: [83]). Infusion taken as tonic and also used in diarrhea, dysentery (KL Nepal: [83]; Ilam: [73]) and fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Infusion taken to treat respiratory disorders and worms (Ilam: [76]).

393

Polygonatum hookeri Baker

Herb

Liliaceae

Ranye (Km), Pangi Ranye (Tb)

2900-5000

Roots: Eaten raw (Taplejung: [87]).

394

Smilax bracteata C. Presl subsp. verruculosa (Merrill) T. Koyama

Climber

Liliaceae

Kukurdine (Np)

1900

Stem: Used for brushing teeth to cure pyorrhoea and gingivitis (Darjeeling: [52]).

395

Smilax ovalifolia Roxb. ex. D. Don

Climber

Liliaceae

Kukurdaino (Np)

200-1000

Roots and fruit: Juice used to cure veneral diseases, rheumatism, and wounds (Ilam: [73, 76]). Leaves and shoots: Used as curry (Ilam: [94]).

396

Buddleja asiatica Lour.

Shrub

Loganiaceae

Bhinsenpatee (Np); Pndam (L)

350-2000

Stem, leaves and flowers: Used in skin complaints and as abortificant (Sikkim: [75], Database).

397

Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Etting.

Herb

Loranthaceae

Mandargon banda (S); Aijeru (Np)

150-900

Leaves: Paste applied externally to treat skin diseases (Jhapa: [66]).

398

Scurrula elata (Edgew.) Danser

Shrub

Loranthaceae

 

1600-2700

Leaves: Used for making tea leaf for local suja (Bhutan: [99]). Bark: Paste applied on bone fracture (KL Nepal: [53]).

399

Viscum articulatum Burm.f.

Shrub

Loranthaceae

Hadchur (Np); Hadjor, Kathkomjunga (S)

200-1700

Plant: Used to treat bone fracture (Jhapa: [66]; Panchthar: [67]); also given in ulcers, epilepsy, muscular pains (Sikkim: Database), injuries, and fracture (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11, 79], Database). Stem: Used in body pain, fracture, and fever (Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: [75]). Paste used in sprain and rheumatism (Jhapa: [66]).

400

Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz

Shrub

Lythraceae

Dhairo (Np); Icha (S)

200-1800

Bark: Used for gastric trouble.

Bark and flowers: Used in burns, dysentery, and fracture (KL Nepal: [53]; Panchthar: [67]). Flower: Dried and taken in piles, liver complaints. Honey like secretion consumed (Ilam: [94]). Leaves: Given to cattle to cure ulcer (Sikkim: [97]). Decoction taken in malarian fever (Jhapa: [66]).

401

Michelia champaca L.

Tree

Magnoliaceae

Chanpak (Eg); Oulichamp (Np)

 

Flowers: Taken for stomachache (Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: [85]) and as carminative in the treatment of dyspepsia (Sikkim: [85]). Flowers and fruit: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

402

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.

Shrub

Malvaceae

Jawa Kusum (Np)

900-1400

Flowers: Young flowers given against tonsillitis. Leaves and flowers: Juice used to cure dandruff and hair problems (Darjeeling: [52]).

403

Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

Herb

Malvaceae

Bel Chandan (Np); Maharetha (Me)

1000-1500

Leaves: Paste with leaves of Lawsonia inermis applied on the foot to cure wound caused by muddy water during rainy season (Jhapa: [68]).

404

Malva verticillata L.

Shrub

Malvaceae

Halemetok (Dz)

 

Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

405

Sida acuta Burm. f.

Shrub

Malvaceae

Khareto (Np)

250-3700

Stem: Paste applied on bone fracture (Darjeeling: [74]).

406

Sida cordifolia L.

Shrub

Malvaceae

Bamonmara (Np)

500-1100

Roots: Half cup root juice and half-tablespoon sugar candy mixed together is given once daily till cured (Darjeeling: [105]).

407

Sterculia villosa Roxb.

Tree

Malvaceae

Odal (Np)

 

Bark: Used to make ropes (KL Bhutan: [100]).

408

Urena lobata L.

Herb

Malvaceae

Samthai (Me)

200-1300

Leaves: Paste with aerial part of Drymaria cordata applied to cure skin infection and eczema (Jhapa: [68]).

409

Melastoma malabathricum L.

Shrub

Melastomataceae

Augeri, Chulesi (S & Np)

200

Leaves: Used in fever; decoction given to cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). Stem and roots: Bark paste applied on wounds and skin disease (Darjeeling: [74]).

410

Osbeckia nepalensis Hook.

Herb

Melastomataceae

Angeri, Lattey (Np)

450-2300

Roots: Decoction given in urinary complaints and diabetes. Leaves: Extract of young leaves or tender shoots applied on forehead and to treat pneumonia, fever and common cold (Darjeeling: [74]). Leaves and flowers: Paste used in foot sores of cattle (Darjeeling: [49]).

411

*Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

Tree

Meliaceae

Meemee (S); Neem (Np); Nimbilai (Me)

60-1200

Plant: Used as an antiseptic and febrifuge. Useful in treatment of small pox, and as tooth brush, prophylactic for mouth and teeth (Sikkim: Database). Leaves: Cooked with rice and eaten during the name giving ceremony of newly born child. Boiled in water and bath taken with warm water to cure scabies and eczema. Dried leaf power taken as blood purifier (Jhapa: [92]). Juice taken for blood purification and intestinal worms, also applied externally on wounds, sores, blisters, ans skin diseases (Jhapa: [66]). Fresh/dried leaves chewed to control diabetes (Sikkim: [79, 96]). Bark powder used as insecticide (Sikkim: [79]).

412

Dysoxylum hamiltonii Blume.

Tree

Meliaceae

Sipochikang (Np)

 

Bark: Decoction taken orally to treat stomachache (Sikkim: [85]).

413

Melia azedarach L.

Tree

Meliaceae

Bakaina (Np); Bokom Bana (S)

700-1100

Roots: Used as astringent, and in biliousness, heart pain, vomiting, and leucoderma. Leaves: Juice taken orally as anthelmintic (Sikkim: [85]). Bark: Used as anthelmintic (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Used in leprosy (Jhapa: [66]).

414

Toona ciliata M. Roem.

Tree

Meliaceae

Tooni (Np); Toon (S)

200-1700

Bark: Pounded and given to cure toothache (Jhapa: [66]; Sikkim: [79]). Flowers and fruit: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]). Fruit: Used for chestpain, fever and measles (Sikkim: [79]).

415

Trichilia connaroides (Wight & Arn.) Bentv.

Tree

Meliaceae

Aankha Taruwa (Np)

700-2400

Leaves: Decoction taken to treat cholera (Sikkim: [85]). Leaves and fruit: Useful to treat cholera (Panchthar: [67]).

416

Cissampelos pareira L.

Climber

Menispermaceae

Batulpate (Np); Tejomala (S)

500-1000

Plant: Extract given to treat diarrhea (Jhapa: [66]; Sikkim: [11]), dysentery, urinary disorders, and indigestion (Jhapa: [66]). Roots: Used as antidote; paste taken orally in stomach pain, malarian fever, and cold (Jhapa: [66]). Decoction consumed in empty stomach to cure diabetes (Darjeeling: [74]). Extract given to treat blood in urine (Sikkim: [84]). Leaves: Paste applied on wound and juice taken to cure stomach pain (Sikkim: [11]). Roots and leaves: Useful in cough, gastric troubles, and sore throat (Panchthar: [67]).

417

Stephania glabra (Roxb.) Miers

Climber

Menispermaceae

Tamarke (Np)

1000-2500

Tubers: Powder used in diabetes, tuberculosis, asthma, and fever (Darjeeling: [49, 78]). Oil used externally in the treatment of leucoderma, leprosy and other skin complaints (Darjeeling: [49]). Stem: Bark used to extract fibres (Darjeeling: [49]). Plant: Useful in jaundice (Darjeeling: [105]).

418

Stephania glandulifera Miers

Climber

Menispermaceae

Tamarkay (Np)

 

Tubers: Eaten in jaundice (Sikkim: [75]).

419

Stephania japonica(Thunb.) Miers

Climber

Menispermaceae

  

Root: Dipped in water and sprinkled in poultry farm to prevent from birld flu. Leaves: Paste applied on boils for opening (Sikkim: [11]).

420

*Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr.

Climber

Menispermaceae

Garjo, Gurjo (Np); Sarasatilata (S)

 

Roots: Useful in diabetic. Extract used in menstruation disorders and piles (KL Nepal: [53]). Stem and roots: Infusion given in fever (Darjeeling: [69, 78]). Used to make broom (KL Bhutan: [100]). Leaves: Warmed and wrapped around the fractured and painful joints (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Boiled in milk and drunk to get rid from tuberculosis (Darjeeling: [74]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

421

Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

Tree

Moraceae

Rukh Kathar (Li)

1000

Latex: Applied on the boils and on the fractured bone (Sikkim: [79]).

422

Artocarpus lakoocha Wall. ex Roxb

Tree

Moraceae

Badahar, Barar (Li)

100-1000

Latex: Applied on boils and on fractured bone (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Raw fruits used as vegetable and ripen fruits eaten raw (Ilam: [94]).

423

Ficus auriculata Lour.

Tree

Moraceae

Nimaro, Nibaro (Np)

250-1700

Roots and fruit: Chewed in constipation and warts (Ilam: [73]). Fruit: Consumed (Ilam: [94]).

424

Ficus benghalensis L.

Herb

Moraceae

Banidare (S); Bar (Np)

500-1200

Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). Also given in fever (Jhapa: [66]).

425

Ficus elastica Roxb. ex Hornem.

Tree

Moraceae

Brongshig (Sh)

 

Exude used as gum (KL Bhutan: [70]).

426

Ficus hirta Vahl

Tree

Moraceae

 

900

Root: Decoction used to treat food poisoning (Sikkim: [11]).

427

Ficus hispida L.f.

Tree

Moraceae

Setapodo (S); Khasreto (Np)

450-1100

Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

428

Ficus racemosa L.

Tree

Moraceae

Loa (S); Gular Dumri (Np)

300m

Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]). Also taken to enhance lactation (Jhapa: [66]). Latex: Applied on boils and blisters (Jhapa: [66]).

429

Ficus religiosa L.

Tree

Moraceae

Peepal (Np)

150-1500

Latex: Applied on the boils on the tongue (Ilam: [73]).

430

Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.

Tree

Moraceae

Khasrey, Khaneu, Khaniu (Np)

200-2700

Bark and latex: Applied on boils to check infection (Sikkim: [11], Database). Latex: Applied on fresh cut (Panchthar: [67]). Fruit: Edible (Ilam: [94]; Jhapa: [92]).

431

Ficus subincisa Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.

Herb

Moraceae

Lute Khaneu (Np)

400-2400

Latex: Freshly collected and applied externally on boils (Darjeeling: [52]).

432

Ficus virens Dryand.

Tree

Moraceae

Kabra (Np)

500

Leaf buds: Young unopened leaf buds boiled and used as pickle (Ilam: [94]).

433

Morus alba L.

Tree

Moraceae

  

Leaves, stem and roots: Contains active phytochemical to lower blood glucose level (Sikkim: [96]). Leaves: Tender leaves chewed in curing inflammation of vocal cord and hoarse voice (Sikkim: [11]). Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]; Sikkim: [95]). Used to make jam, jellies and drinks (Ilam: [94]).

434

Morus australis Poir.

Shrub

Moraceae

Kodaz (S); Kimu (Np)

900-2400

Bark and leaves: Decoction used to cure sore throat (Sikkim: [11]). Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]; Jhapa: [92]; Sikkim: [11]). Seeds: Extract applied to treat foot cracks (Sikkim: [11]).

435

Morus macroura Miq.

Tree

Moraceae

Kimbu (Np); Tshendey (Dz); Sengdengshing (Sh)

 

Stem: Extract from heartwood used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70])

436

Streblus asper Lour.

Tree

Moraceae

Khaksi (Np); Sada (S)

100-500

Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [68]). Latex: Used to stop bleeding from freshly cut wound (Jhapa: [66]).

437

Moringa oleifera Lam.

Tree

Moringaceae

Munga (S); Sajiwang, Sajana (Np); Sajanamakharia (Me)

150-1100

Leaves, flowers and fruit: Used as vegetable Ilam: [94]; Jhapa: [92]). Cooked vegetable taken to control blood pressure (Jhapa: [68]). Bark: Paste mixed with black goat's milk and taken to cure tuberculosis (Jhapa: [66]). Stem: Paste used by women for long hairs (Jhapa: [66]).

438

Musa balbisiana Colla

Herb

Musaceae

Bankera (Np)

200-600

Fruit: Green fruits used as vegetable after boiling and spath for pickle (Ilam: [94]).

439

Musa paradisiaca L.

Herb

Musaceae

Kera (Np)

 

Root bark: Pounded together with stem bark of Mango, Jack fruit, Ziziphus mauritiana, Shorea robusta and Azadirachta indica and taken to cure diarrhea and dysentery (Jhapa: [66]). Sap: Taken to cure fever (Sikkim: [11]).

440

Musa sp.

Herb

Musaceae

Bankera (Np)

 

Leaves: Used in house construction, roofing, and for making temporary sheds, also used as fodder. Flowers and fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70, 100]).

441

Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Tree

Myricaceae

Box Myrtle (Eg); Kaphal (Np, Gr); Katphala (Sn); Lalisa (Lm); Chakchansi, Jheremsi (Ri)

1200-2300

Bark: Powder mixed with tobacco and snuffed to treat sinusitis (Panchthar: [67]); mixture also given to livestock to cure worm infestation (Taplejung: [87, 88]). Paste applied to fix fractured bone and cure internal injuries (Taplejung: [87, 88]). Paste applied on the chest to get relief from cough and bronchitis (Ilam: [76]; Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Ripen fruits consumed (Ilam: [73, 94]).

442

Myrica nagi Thunb.

Tree

Myricaceae

Tsutsusey (Sh)

 

Fruit:Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).

443

Horsfieldia kingii (J. D. Hooker) Warburg

Tree

Myristicaceae

Ramgua (Np)

300-1200

Fruit: Used to make pickle (Ilam: [94]).

444

Knema angustifolia Roxb.

Tree

Myristicaceae

Ramguwa (Np)

 

Fruit: Powder taken orally to treat diarrhea (Sikkim: [85]).

445

Ardisia macrocarpa Wall.

Tree

Myrsinaceae

 

1500-2400

Fruit: Edible (Sikkim: [47]).

446

Ardisia solanacea Roxb.

Tree

Myrsinaceae

Gulaich (S)

200-1100

Bark: Macerated with flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and taken to purify the blood and also to arrest bleeding (Jhapa: [66]).

447

Embelia ribes Burm.f.

Shrub

Myrsinaceae

Buibidans (Np)

 

Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Powdered with milk and given to dog for anthelmintic efficacies (Sikkim: [84]). Fruit: Crushed and given to pigs to kill tapeworm; also used as appetizer for cattle (Sikkim: [84]).

448

Maesa chisia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Shrub

Myrsinaceae

Bilaune (Np); Purmu Kung (L)

 

Roots and leaves: Used as insecticide and anthelmintic (Sikkim: [75]).

449

Eugenia kurzii Duthie

Tree

Myrtaceae

Ambakay (Np)

500

Fruit: Pulps consumed (Ilam: [94]).

450

Eugenia sp.

Tree

Myrtaceae

Mantsisey (Sh); Nasi or Nyasey (Dz)

 

Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

451

Psidium guajava L.

Tree

Myrtaceae

Amba (Np); Aprisam (S)

450-1200

Bark: Pounded with bark of mango and given to cure piles (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Tender shoots chewed during cough and sore throat (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit and bark: Semi ripe fruits and bark eaten to cure diarrhoea (Darjeeling: [86]).

452

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

Tree

Myrtaceae

Sokod (S); Jamun (Np); Jamun (Me), Bjee (Sz), Dangbelingsae (Sh), Ngasi (Dz)

300-1200

Bark: Juice drunk in dysentery (Jhapa: [66, 68]) and diarrhea (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Extraction massaged on forehead of children for cooling and given orally to increase appetite (Jhapa: [66]). Fruits: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

453

Euryale ferox Saliab.

Herb

Nymphaeaceae

Poraini (S); Maknana (Np)

3000-4000

Seeds: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

454

Fraxinus floribunda Wall.

Tree

Oleaceae

Lankuri (Np); Payjew (L)

 

Bark: Boiled and applied on gout (Sikkim: Database). Applied on bone fracture (Sikkim: [75]).

455

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

Shrub

Oleaceae

Parijat (Np); Badibaha, Jhanti (S)

200-1200

Bark: Paste used for dislocated bones. Leaves: Boiled and decanted water taken to control malaria fever. Flowers: Offered to god and goddesses (Sikkim: Database). Leaves and flowers: Pounded with warm water and given to woman to ease expulsion of placenta (Jhapa: [66]).

456

Epilobium angustifolium L.

Herb

Onagraceae

Rosebay (Eg); Bahankot (Km); Seja (Sh, Wl); Char Pan, Chu Tsi (Tb)

3300-4000

Leaves: Dried and used as tea; given as fodder (Taplejung: [81, 88]).

457

Bulbophyllum affine Lindl.

Herb

Orchidaceae

  

Plant: Ornamental value (Bhutan: [99]). Flowers: Edible (Bhutan: [99]).

458

Calanthe plantaginea Lindley

Herb

Orchidaceae

Wangpeimo (Bhu)

1800-2500

Plant: Cooked and eaten as vegetable (Bhutan: [102]).

459

Coelogyne cristata Lindl.

Herb

Orchidaceae

Chaandi gaava (Np)

1000-2000

Bulbs: Paste used in sores and boils (Ilam: [76]).

460

Coelogyne occultata Hook.f.

Herb

Orchidaceae

Churchurbu (Sh)

 

Bulb/stem: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

461

Cymbidium longifolium D. Don

Herb

Orchidaceae

 

2100-2500

Plant: Used as ornamental (Bhutan: [99]).

462

*Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soo

Herb

Orchidaceae

Wangpo Lagpa (Km, Sh, Wl); Nahasihukchok (Li); Panch Aunle (Np); Hathejara (Np-Dl); Munjataka (Sn); Lovha (Sh); Wang Lag, Wangpo Lagpa (Tb)

2800-4200

Tubers: Used as tonic and given in dysentery (Sikkim: Database) and chronic fever (Darjeeling: [78]; Sikkim: Database). Decoction used to treat fever, diabetes (Ilam: [73, 76]) and diarrhoea (Ilam: [73, 76]; Sikkim: Database). Paste applied on cuts and bruises; extract taken orally to cure body ache (Darjeeling: [52, 80]). Paste taken in gastric complaints, jaundice, body ache, bone fracture, and in the formation of bone marrow (Darjeeling: [49]). Young leaves and shoots: Eaten as vegetable (KL Nepal: [83]). Roots: Used as nervine tonic and aphrodisiac (Sikkim: [69]).

463

Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.) C.E.C.Fisch.

Herb

Orchidaceae

  

Stem: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

464

Eulophia dabia (D. Don) Hochr.

Herb

Orchidaceae

Hattipaila (Np)

 

Tubers: Juice taken orally as appetizer (Sikkim: [85]).

465

Gymnadenia crassinervis Finet

Herb

Orchidaceae

Wanglak (B)

 

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

466

Ponerorchis chusua (D. Don) Soo

Herb

Orchidaceae

Ongri (Sh); Wangla, Marpo, Wanglag Mempa (Tb)

2400-4900

Tubers: Rosted and eaten (Taplejung: [87]).

467

Pedicularis anas Maxim.

Herb

Orobanchaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

468

Pedicularis decorissima Diels

Herb

Orobanchaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

469

Pedicularis longiflora Rudolph

Herb

Orobanchaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

470

Pedicularis oederi Vahl

Herb

Orobanchaceae

  

Plant used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

471

Oxalis corniculata L.

Herb

Oxalidaceae

Chari Amilo (Np); Tandi, chatumarak, Kedumarajan (S)

300-2900

Plant: Juice used to treat indigestion, diarrhoea, piles, anemia, and eye problems (Ilam: [73, 76]). Chewed raw as appetizer and also checks boils (Sikkim: [11]). Pounded with cumin seeds and taken to cure dysentery and diarrhea. Paste applied on forehead to treat headache. Paste mixed with rhizome of Drymaria quercifolia and applied on bone fracture (Jhapa: [66]). Roots: Used in infamation (Sikkim: [75]). Leaves: Juice taken to cure dysentery (Sikkim: [11], Database) and fever, anemia, and for digestion (Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Consumed to cure throat pain (Sikkim: [11]). Leaves: Used as vegetable (Ilam: [94]; Jhapa: [92]).

472

Pandanus nepalensis St. John

Shrub

Pandanaceae

  

Leaves: Young leaves chewed as breath sweetener. Fresh leaves acts as cockroach repellant. Used to make mats, carry bags, fishing bags and thatching purpose (Ilam: [94]). Fruit: Used to make pickle (Ilam: [94]).

473

Argemone mexicana L.

Herb

Papaveraceae

Thakal (Np); Dhamoi (S)

150-1400

Leaves: Juice applied on cut, wounds, blisters, and burns (Jhapa: [66]). Latex: Used in opthalmic infections (Jhapa: [66]). Roots and leaves: Paste or juice used in skin disease, constipation, cough and fever (Ilam: [76]).

474

Corydalis chaerophylla DC.

Herb

Papaveraceae

  

Fruits: Taken in stomachache (Sikkim: [75]).

475

Corydalis crispa Prain

Herb

Papaveraceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

476

Corydalis dubia Prain

Herb

Papaveraceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

477

Dicentra scandens (D. Don) Walp.

Climber

Papaveraceae

 

2200-3000

Roots: Crushed and used to stop excessive bleeding in females (Sikkim: [11]).

478

Hypecoum erectum L.

Herb

Papaveraceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

479

Hypecoum leptocarpum Hook. f. & Thomson

Herb

Papaveraceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

480

Meconopsis grandis Prain

Herb

Papaveraceae

Upal Ngongpo (Sh, Tb); Upa Gnono (Wl)

3000-5200

Plant: Used as fodder for goat (Taplejung: [81, 87]). Seeds: Edible (Taplejung: [81, 87]).

481

Meconopsis horridula Hook. f. & Thomson

Herb

Papaveraceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

482

Meconopsis paniculata Prain

Herb

Papaveraceae

Kheldar, Langur (Np-Dl); Upa Sepu (Wl)

3000-4400

Young twigs: Used as fodder for goat; young stems eaten raw (Taplejung: [81, 87]).

483

Meconopsis simplicifolia (D. Don) Walp.

Herb

Papaveraceae

Upal Mentook (Bhu)

3300-4500

Rhizomes: Powder or decoction used as tonic in renal complaints (Darjeeling: [49]). Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

484

Passiflora foetida L.

Climber

Passifloraceae

Sano Jhar (Np)

100-1200

Leaves: Infusion consumed to cure insomnia, hysteria, epilepsy and as painkiller (Darjeeling: [74]).

485

Passiflora nepalensis Wall.

Climber

Passifloraceae

Garendal (Np)

 

Roots: Decoction taken in fever (Darjeeling: [78]).

486

Sesamum orientale L.

Shrub

Pedaliaceae

Siwing (Me)

600-2400

Seeds: Chewed and applied on skin for sunburns and ringworm (Jhapa: [68]).

487

Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels

Tree

Phyllanthaceae

Atummeral (S); Amala (Np)

 

Bark: Infusion taken to cure stomatitis and aphthous (Jhapa: [66]).

488

*Phyllanthus emblica L.

Tree

Phyllanthaceae

Amala (Np); Meral (S); Chhorgengsoi (Sh)

150-1400

Fruit and leaves: Juice taken to cure jaundice, dyspepsia, cough, and asthma (Panchthar: [67]; Ilam: [73, 76]). Fruit: Edible and also used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Good for burning sensation of heat and urinary discharge, liver complaint, and eye trouble (Sikkim: Database). Edible (Jhapa: [92]; Sikkim: [11]) and eaten raw to treat cough, dysentery and diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]). Used as tonic (Jhapa: [66]). Used to make pickle (Ilam: [94]). Flowers and fruit: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

489

Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir.

Shrub

Phyllanthaceae

Smeldam (S)

400-770

Leaves: Paste applied on burns and boils (Jhapa: [66]).

490

Phyllanthus urinaria L.

Herb

Phyllanthaceae

Kanthad (S)

770-1700

Leaves: Paste applied in wounds and sores (Jhapa: [66]).

491

Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.

Herb

Phytolaccaceae

Jaringe Sag, Jarko Sag (Np); Zalmathangru (Sh)

2200-3200

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Decoction used in jaundice (Taplejung: [88]). Juice dropped in the nose to cure sinusitis (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves: Effective in high blood pressure (Darjeeling: [74]; Sikkim: [75]). Fresh juice applied on cuts and wounds to stop bleeding and infection (Sikkim: Database). Decoction taken to cure body ache and diarrhea (Sikkim: [11]). Seeds and leaves: Used in indigestion and eye problems (Ilam: [73, 76]).

492

*Piper longum L.

Climber

Piperaceae

Chhimpri-gupai (Me)

200-800

Roots: Used as anthelminthic, improves appetite, and abdominal pain (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]). Paste given to treat pneumonia in adults (Jhapa: [68]). Powder given to treat cold (Sikkim: [11]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Taken to cure diarrhea, dysentery, piles, and leprosy (Darjeeling: [80]). Dried unripe fruits used as alternative and tonic. Ripe fruits, aromatic, stomachic and carminative. Infusion of dried fruit taken in cough (Darjeeling: [78]; Sikkim: [11]) and fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Seeds: Powder applied to reduce strains (Darjeeling: [80]).

493

Piper nigrum L.

Herb

Piperaceae

  

Fruit: Used as spices and medicine (KL Bhutan: [70]).

494

Hemiphragma heterophyllum Wall.

Herb

Plantaginaceae

Kanakmala (Li)

2600-4100

Fruit: Juice administered orally to treat sore throat (Sikkim: [79]).

495

Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.

Herb

Plantaginaceae

Puti-shing (Dz), Kutki (N)

 

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Fresh root paste applied to cuts, wounds, bruises, and injuries (Sikkim: [91]).

496

Plantago asiatica subsp. erosa (Wall.) Z. Yu Li

Herb

Plantaginaceae

Isagbul (Np)

400-3800

Leaves: Taken to cure toothache (Sikkim: [75]). Paste applied to treat wounds. Seeds: Powder taken to treat diarrhea and dysentery (Sikkim: [11]).

497

Plantago depressa Willd.

Herb

Plantaginaceae

Tsa-shokum (Sh)

 

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

498

Plantago major L.

Herb

Plantaginaceae

Jibray Jhar (Np)

 

Plant: Decoction taken to cure fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Leaves: Juice consumedin the case of throat pain. Flowers and fruit: Juice applied on cuts and wounds (Darjeeling: [74]). Roots: Paste applied externally on cuts and wounds for quick healing (Sikkim: [84]).

499

Plumbago zeylanica L.

Shrub

Plumbaginaceae

Chitu (Np); Chitigni (S)

100-1300

Roots: Used in antifertility (Jhapa: [66]). Used to make traditional yeast or starter called 'Marcha' to make local wine (Darjeeling and Sikkim: [108]). Roasted with potatoand taken orally in jaundice (Darjeeling: [105]).

500

Arundinaria intermedia Munro

Herb

Poaceae

Malingo (Np)

2000-3000

Plant: Used to make mats, baskets and to construct temporary huts (Sikkim: [89]). Leaves: Used as fodder (Ilam: [73]). Young shoots: Used as vegetables (Ilam: [73]).

501

Arundinaria maling Gamble

Herb

Poaceae

Himalayan bamboo (Eg); Malingo (Np)

1500-3500

Young shoots: Cooked as vegetable or pickled and eaten (Ilam: [94]; KL Nepal: [83]). Leaves: Used as fodder (KL Nepal: [83]). Mixed with black pepper and feed with little salt to cattle to treat diarrhea and dysentery (Sikkim: [84]). Roots: Ash mixed with mustard oil and paste applied externally on ringworm in cattles (Sikkim: [84]).

502

Arundinaria sp.

Herb

Poaceae

Bans (Np)

 

Shoots: Used for fencing and to make food and drink containers, hats arrows and quivers. Young shoots edible (KL Bhutan: [100]). Leaves: Used as fodder (KL Bhutan: [100]).

503

Bambusa nutans Wall. ex Munro

Herb

Poaceae

Mala Bans (Np)

700-1700

Plant: Used to support prayer flags by Buddhist (Sikkim: [89]).

504

Bambusa sp.

Herb

Poaceae

Bans (Np)

 

Shoots: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Split and woven mats (KL Bhutan: [100]).

505

Bambusa tulda Roxb.

Herb

Poaceae

Kanda Bans (Np); Mal Bans (S)

 

Plant: Burnt ash of seedlings applied in leprosy (Jhapa: [66]). Young shoots: Chopped and fermented in tight bamboo or glass bottles to make sour pickle locally called 'Mesu' (Darjeeling: [108]; North-east India: [101]).

506

Coix lachryma-jobi L.

Herb

Poaceae

Jargedi (S); Bhirkraulo (Np)

900-2100

Fruit: Juice drunk regularly for a long time to cure tuberculosis (Jhapa: [66]).

507

Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) W.Watson

Herb

Poaceae

Solubang (Sh)

 

Leaves: Used to extract essential oil (KL Bhutan: [93]). Extract used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

508

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

Herb

Poaceae

Dubo (Np); Dubu (S)

100-2000

Plant: Juice taken orally to cure scabies, cut, wound, epilepsy, piles (Ilam: [73, 76]), and juice along with garlic and warm mustard oil used to rub on body to relieve bodypain (Jhapa: [66]). Roots: Juice used in piles; paste used to heal cuts and wounds (Sikkim: [11]). Freshly prepared juice taken to cure liver cirrhosis (Darjeeling: [52]). Roots and leaves: Decoction used to cure diarrhea and dysentery (Sikkim: [11]).

509

Dendrocalamus hamiltonii var. hamiltonii Nees & Arn. ex Munro

Herb

Poaceae

Choya Bans, Tama (Np)

 

Young shoots: Chopped and fermented in tight bamboo or glass bottles to make sour pickle locally called 'Mesu' (Darjeeling: [101, 108]; Ilam: [94]). Used to make water pipes, water vessels, in house construction and also consumed as vegetable (Sikkim: [89]).

510

Dendrocalamus hookeri Munro

Herb

Poaceae

Chilley Bans (Np)

 

Shoots: Used in making baskets and in fencing (Sikkim: [89]).

511

Dendrocalamus sericeus Munro

Herb

Poaceae

Bans (Np)

 

Shoots: Used to makedomestic and agricultural implements, such as water containers, baskets, trays, mats, etc. Young shoots edible (KL Bhutan: [100]). Leaves: Used as fodder (KL Bhutan: [100]).

512

Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf

Herb

Poaceae

Kush (Np)

170-500

Roots: Astringent and galactagogue (Panchthar: [67]).

513

Drepanostachyum sp.

Herb

Poaceae

Bans (Np)

 

Shoots: Used to makebaskets, trays, mats, sieves, livestock shelters and temporary dwellings. Yound shoots edible (KL Bhutan: [100]).

514

Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.

Herb

Poaceae

Kodo (Np)

1100-2200

Seeds: Used to make local wine called 'Jnard' (Darjeeling: [108]).

515

Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) C.E. Hubb.

Herb

Poaceae

Babiyo (Np)

2000-1000

Plant: Whole plant dust applied to treat skin allergy (KL Nepal: [53]).

516

Fargesia grossa T. P. Yi

Herb

Poaceae

  

Culms: Used to make mats, bags and baskets (Bhutan: [99]).

517

Himalayacalamus hookerianus (Munro) Stapleton

Herb

Poaceae

Pareng (Np)

 

Plant: Used to make basket and hut construction (Darjeeling: [89]). Young shoots: Consumed as vegetable (Darjeeling: [89]).

518

Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauvois

Herb

Poaceae

Siru (Np)

200-1200

Roots: Juice taken in diarrhoea and dysentery (Ilam: [73]), taken during cough, cold and fever (Darjeeling: [91]; Sikkim: [79]). A piece of root tied in hair to ease delivery (Jhapa: [66]). Paste applied on boils (Darjeeling: [91]; Sikkim: [79]).

519

Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière) J. Houzeau

Herb

Poaceae

Kattabans (Np)

1000-1600

Shoots: Young shoots used to make curry and pickles (Ilam: [94]).

520

Saccharum spontaneum L.

Herb

Poaceae

Kash (Np); Kashim (S)

 

Roots: Extract taken to kill intestinal worms and also relieving for fever and bodyache (Jhapa: [66]).

521

Thamnocalamus sp.

Herb

Poaceae

Bans (Np)

 

Shoots: Used forroofing, mats and fencing (KL Bhutan: [100]).

522

Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze

Herb

Poaceae

Amriso (Np)

100-2000

Roots: Extract used in boils and worms (Ilam: [73, 76, 77]; Sikkim: [79]). Paste applied on boils (Darjeeling: [52]). Decoction of young roots taken in case of bronchial problem (Darjeeling: [49]). Leaves: Used as abortifacient (Panchthar: [67]). Flowers: Poultic of young flowers used in rheumatic pain and skin swelling (Darjeeling: [49]). Inflorescence: Used to make broom (KL Bhutan: [100]).

523

Polygala arillata Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Shrub

Polygalaceae

Yellow milkwort, Red eye (Eg); Cleem-soon-creem, Karima, Marcha, Michepnor-kung (Np)

600-1800

Roots: Juice taken for its laxatic and emetic actions (Sikkim: [85]). Plant: Used to make marcha (Darjeeling: [80]).

524

Bistorta vivipara (L.) Gray

Herb

Polygonaceae

Pantsa Ramba, Rambu (Sh); Pangram, Rmbu Godpa (Tb)

3300-5000

Plant: Used as fodder (Taplejung: [87]).

525

Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

Herb

Polygonaceae

Phapar (Li)

1800-4100

Leaves: Juice taken orally during stomachache and gastritis (Sikkim: [79]).

526

Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill

Herb

Polygonaceae

Mountain Sorrel (Eg); Boke (Np)

2400-5000

Plant: Used as fodder (Taplejung: [87]).

527

Persicaria barbata (L.) H. Hara

Herb

Polygonaceae

Bish (Np); Bareputuli (Me)

200-2500

Leaves: Paste with cloves of Allium sativum applied on ringworm after slightly scouring the wound by warm salt-water (Jhapa: [68]).

528

Polygonum coriaceumSam.

Herb

Polygonaceae

  

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

529

Polygonum molle D. Don.

Herb

Polygonaceae

Kandyeo-pam,, Patusua, Thotne, Tuknu (Np)

1300-4000

Plant: Juice taken to treat diarrhea (Ilam: [76, 77]; Sikkim: [85]). Used as astringent (Sikkim: Database). Young shoots: Used for curry (Ilam: [94]) and pickle (Ilam: [73, 94]; Sikkim: Database). Useful in diarrhoea (Ilam: [73]). Leaves: Used as fodder (Taplejung: [81, 87]).

530

Polygonum runcinatum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Herb

Polygonaceae

Ratnaulo (Np)

1600-3800

Whole plant: Used to make vegetable (Ilam: [94]).

531

Polygonum sp.

Herb

Polygonaceae

  

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

532

Polygonum verticillatum Biroli ex Colla

Herb

Polygonaceae

  

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

533

Polygonum viviparum L.

Herb

Polygonaceae

Ratnaula (Np)

1200-4500

Roots: Juice boiled with water and given in fever (Sikkim: [11], Database), recommended for jaundice (Sikkim: Database) and stomach trouble (Sikkim: [11], Database). Leaves: Paste applied on insect bite (Darjeeling: [74]).

534

Rheum acuminatum Hook. f. & Thoms. ex Hook.

Herb

Polygonaceae

Padamchal (Np); Bokya (Np-Dl); Khokkim (Np-Tp); Chhurta, Khokkim, Kyojung (Sh); Chum Tsa (Tb)

3200-4300

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Herbal tea prepared from rootstock used to treat body pain; paste applied on forehead during severe headache (Sikkim: [79]). Petioles: Eaten raw (Taplejung: [87]) and also as appetizer (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves: Juice from the shoot portion taken in dysentery and intestinal problems (Sikkim: [79]).

535

*Rheum australe D. Don

Herb

Polygonaceae

Himalayan Rhubarb (Eg); Chuk, Chulthi Amilo, Mire Chuk, Padamchal (Np); Khokkim (Np-Tp); Chhulama, Chhoyoma, Churcha (Sh); Amlaparni, Pitamulika (Sn); Chhucha (Wl)

3200-4200

Roots: Dried and used as tea (Darjeeling: [80]). Taken in constipation, skin eruption, and liver complaints (Sikkim: [75]). Decoction used as tea during internal injuries, body pain, and for blood purification. Rootstocks also yields dye for coloring wool (Taplejung: [81, 87]; KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: Database). Rhizome powder taken in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, constipation and ulcer (Ilam: [76]). Petiole: Young petioles and leaves used to cure cuts and wounds, sprains and bodyache (Sikkim: [90]). Fresh petioles eaten raw (Taplejung: [81, 87]; KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: Database).

536

Rheum nobile Hook. f. & Thoms.

Herb

Polygonaceae

Padamchal (Np); Kenjo, Chhulama (Sh, Wl); Chuka (Dz)

3600-5000

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).Effective in ulcer, bronchitis, and fever (Sikkim: [75]). Boiled and paste with flour and Tibetan salt applied on the fractured area. Boiled with rhizome of Begonia and paste applied externally on the fractured bone (Taplejung: [81, 87]). Decoction or infusion aken to treat rheumatism, arthritis, heart complaints and as tonic after delivery (Darjeeling: [49]). Used as anti emetic, diuretic, laxative, heating potency and for swelling (Darjeeling: [98]). Plant: Consumed as vegetable or pickle (Darjeeling: [80, 98]).

537

Rumex nepalensis Spreng.

Herb

Polygonaceae

Halhale (Np)

1200-4200

Roots: Extract used orally in hepatitis and loss of hair (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [11, 89], Database) and as dyes (Sikkim: Database). Infusion taken to treat ulcer, cuts, and sprains (Darjeeling: [91]; Ilam: [73, 76, 77]). Shoots: Used in skin diseases (Sikkim: [75]). Leaves and shoots: Juice applied on woundto heal (Darjeeling: [86]; Sikkim: [11]). Leaves: Cooked and taken as vegetable (Ilam: [94]). Leaf and root paste taken in stomachache and applied on wound (KL Nepal: [53]).

538

Portulaca oleracea L.

Herb

Portulacaceae

Kulfa Saag (Np)

300-1500

Young plants: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).

539

Androsace hookeriana Klatt

Herb

Primulaceae

  

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

540

Primula sikkimensis Hook.

Herb

Primulaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

541

Helicia nilagirica Bedd.

Tree

Proteaceae

  

Leaves: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

542

Aconitum ferox Wall. exSer.

Herb

Ranunculaceae

Indian Aconite (Eg); Bikh, Bish, Atisingua bish, Seto bikhma (Np)

2100-3800

Plant used as expectorant, febrifuge and in diabetes (Sikkim: [89]). Rhizomes: Used in malaria and other fevers, abdominal pains, diarrhoea and indigestion particularly for children (Darjeeling: [69]). Given in cough, skin disease (Sikkim: [11, 85], Database), asthma, leprosy and snakebite (Sikkim: Database). Decoction taken orally to treat abdominal disorders (Darjeeling and Sikkim: [69]; Sikkim: [85]; KL Nepal: [53]). Dried rhizome juice taken as antipyretic agent (Darjeeling: [78]; Sikkim: [11, 90]). Dried rhizome chewed in food poisoning, cold and cough (Sikkim: [79]). Chewed in headache, powder taken orally to cure nervousness and heart problems (Ilam: [76]; KL Nepal: [53]).

543

Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle

Herb

Ranunculaceae

Bikh, Atish (Np)

3200-3700

Rhizomes: Used as bitter tonic and antidote for snakebite (Darjeeling: [69]); taken orally against food poisoning (Darjeeling: [52]). Used as anti-fertility agent, tonic, stomachic, anti-periodic and given in hysteria, piles and throat diseases (Sikkim: Database). Dried rhizomes taken to cure body ache (Sikkim: [11]; Darjeeling: [52]), fever, cold, cough and nose discharge (Sikkim: [11, 91]).

544

Aconitum lethale Griff.

Herb

Ranunculaceae

Manchhen (Sh), Tsenduk (Dz)

 

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

545

Aconitum naviculare (Brühl) Stapf

Herb

Ranunculaceae

  

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

546

Aconitum orochryseum Stapf

Herb

Ranunculaceae

Bong-nga (Sh)

 

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

547

Aconitum palmatum D.Don

Herb

Ranunculaceae

Kuphora Bikhma (Li); Lungezee nyin (Lp); Bikhma, Nirmasi (Np); Bongmar, Bongser, Pomar (Sh); Bhungna (Wl)

3500-4500

Roots: Powder used to treat fever (Taplejung: [81, 88]; Sikkim: [75]), headache, stomachache (Taplejung: [81, 82, 87, 88]) and rheumatism (Sikkim: [75]).

548

*Aconitum spicatum (Bruhl) Stapf

Herb

Ranunculaceae

Seto Bikhuma (Np)

1800-4200

Rhizomes: Used for cholera, rheumatism (KL Nepal: [83]), and also to treat rabies and stomachache (KL Nepal: [53]). Paste given in diarrhea (Ilam: [73]). Buti (Amulet) prepared with tuber and tied on the body of a baby to keep far from bad spirit (Taplejung: [81]).

549

Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC.

Herb

Ranunculaceae

  

Fruits: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

550

Clematis acuminata DC.

Climber

Ranunculaceae

Pinasay Lahara (Np)

 

Roots: Given to treat sinusitis (Sikkim: [75]).

551

Clematis buchananiana DC.

Climber

Ranunculaceae

Tinpate Lahar, Pinasay Lahara (Np); Maha Gagri (Np-Tp); Bhwaresang, Thaknangjwa (Ri); Pipipma (Sh); Khondro Langdu (Tm); Imong-Karpi (Tb)

1800-3300

Roots: Juice or powder used in headache, sinusitis (Taplejung: [87]; Sikkim: [11, 75, 89], Database), half headache and to make fermenting agent (Taplejung: [87]). Fresh roots crushed and used to release effluvium through nose to cure sinusitis and nose blocks (Darjeeling: [52, 74, 80]).

552

Clematis montana Buch.-Ham. ex DC.

Climber

Ranunculaceae

Kaneshi Lahara (Np); Lanitokaru (Sh)

300

Roots: Taken to cure sinusitis (Sikkim: [75]). Seeds/flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

553

Delphinium brunonianum Royle

Herb

Ranunculaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

554

Delphinium cashmerianum Royle

Herb

Ranunculaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

555

Thalictrum chelidonii DC.

Herb

Ranunculaceae

Dampatey (Np)

2300-3500

Roots: Used as tonic and purgative (Sikkim: [75]).

556

Thalictrum foliolosum DC.

Herb

Ranunculaceae

Dampatey (Np)

1300-3400

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as tonic and purgative (Sikkim: [75]). Decoction taken in fever (Darjeeling: [78]).

557

Thalictrum reniforme Wall.

Herb

Ranunculaceae

 

2800-3300

Roots: Used to treat jaundice (Panchthar: [67]). Paste applied to cheek boils (Sikkim: [11], Database). Decoction used as gargle in case of bad breath and kills worms in stomaching on drinking (Sikkim: [11]).

558

Gouania leptostachya DC.

Climber

Rhamnaceae

  

Leaves: Paste applied to cure sores and inflammation (Sikkim: [11]).

559

Hovenia dulcis Thunberg

Tree

Rhamnaceae

Coral tree (Eg); Bangikath (Np)

200-1400

Seed: Powder taken to get relief from excessive drinking of alcohol (Sikkim: [85]).

560

Rhamnus napalensis (Wall.) M. A. Lawson

Shrub

Rhamnaceae

Archal (Np)

 

Roots: Used as purgative (Sikkim: [75]). Roots and leaves: Applied on fractured bone (Sikkim: [75]).

561

Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.

Tree

Rhamnaceae

Janum (S); Bayer (Np)

200-1200

Roots, seeds and bark: Useful in measles and pneumonia (Panchthar: [67]). Bark: Extract used in diarrhea; powder used for septic wounds (Jhapa: [66]). Fruit: Eaten raw (Jhapa: [92]).

562

Zizyphus rugosa Lam.

Shrub

Rhamnaceae

Sekra (S)

150-800

Fruit: Eaten raw (Jhapa: [92]).

563

Zizyphus spp.

Shrub

Rhamnaceae

Khankarisey, Khanglchalingsay (Sh)

 

Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

564

Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai

Shrub

Rosaceae

  

Flowers and fruit: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

565

Cotoneaster microphyllus Wall. ex Lindl.

Shrub

Rosaceae

 

2000-5000

Roots: Used as astringent (Sikkim: [75]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

566

Docynia indica (Wall.) Decne.

Tree

Rosaceae

Mayel (Np); Thungchurpu (Sh); Tong (Dz)

2000-3000

Fruit: Used to make jam and pickles (Ilam: [94]). Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

567

Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke

Herb

Rosaceae

Bhui Aiselu (Li)

1000-25000

Leaves: Paste applied on cut and wounds (Darjeeling: [74]).

568

Fragaria nubicola Lindl. ex Lacaita

Herb

Rosaceae

Bhui Aiselu (Li)

1600-4000

Roots: Paste applied externally to control bleeding; chewed in cough and cold (Sikkim: [79]). Juice taken in cough and cold, toothache, and high altitude sickness (Darjeeling: [74]). Fruit: Ripen fruits cosumed (KL Bhutan: [70]; Ilam: [94]). Leaves and fruit: Pounded and administered with lukewarm water to cattle to treat diarrhea and dysentery, also used as diuretic for cattle (Sikkim: [84]).

569

Potentilla fructicosa L.

Herb

Rosaceae

Teba, Pangsermendo (Gr-Mn); Pema, Pama, Pang Ser Metog (Km); Bhairung Pate, Jhwani (Np)

2700-4600

Roots: Used for breast disease, stomach and lung disorders, and indigestion; also used as incense (KL Nepal: [83]). Stem: Used as brooms (Taplejung: [87]). Leaves and flowers: Used in making tea (Taplejung: [87]).

570

Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook.

Herb

Rosaceae

Bajradanti (Np)

1600-4800

Plant: Juice taken to treat stomach trouble, cough, and cold. Decoction given to cattle to regulate fertility (Sikkim: [97]). Roots: Powder used to cure toothache and diarrhea (Sikkim: [75]) and pyorrhea. Juice used in throat and tooth infection, peptic ulcer, cough and cold (Ilam: [73, 76]). Root stock used to treat gastric troubles (Panchthar: [67]).

571

Prinsepia utilis Royle

Shrub

Rosaceae

Phekray (Np)

1500-2900

Seed: Oil consumed (Ilam: [94]).

572

Prunus cerasoides D. Don

Tree

Rosaceae

Payun, Aaru Patay (Np)

1300-2400

Bark: Crushed and applied on the injuries of cattle (Sikkim: [11, 97]). Decoction taken to treat fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Bark and stems: Applied on fractured bone and toothache (Sikkim: [75]). Fruit: Edible (Ilam: [94]; Sikkim: [11, 95]).

573

Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Tree

Rosaceae

Mayal (Np)

750-2600

Fruit and bark: Taken to cure menstrual disorders (Ilam: [73]). Fruit: Extract taken to cure dysentery (Darjeeling: [80]).

574

Rosa macrophylla Lindl.

Shrub

Rosaceae

Himalayan Rose (Eg); Jangali gulaf (Np)

1400-3300

Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used for fever, diarrhea, and bile disorders; edible and also used for making local wine (KL Nepal: [83]).

575

Rosa sericea Lindl.

Herb

Rosaceae

Sewa (Gr-Mn); Sewa Metog (Km); Sebimendo (Sh); Segue-Karpo, Seroga, Sewa (Tb); Setokpa (Wl)

2200-4600

Bark: Used in cases of poisoning and lymph fluid disorders (KL Nepal: [83]). Flower and ripe fruit: Used in liver, bile, wind and lung diseases and menstrual disorders. Ripe fruit: Eaten raw (Taplejung: [81]). Believed to have curative effects in headache, liver complaints, and constipation (Sikkim: [75, 79]). Leaves: Decoction used to wash wound (Sikkim: [79]). Flowers: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

576

Rubus ellipticus Sm.

Shrub

Rosaceae

Nepali Raspberry (Eg); Tinsek (Li); Kysyim (Lp); Aiselu, Aeiselu (Np); Ghees, Tudum (Ri); Chhilum, Nyaningma (Sh); Polang (Tm); Kandakari, Gah-Trah (Tb); Chhilum (Wl)

1700-2600

Roots and bark: Useful in gastric problem and diarrhea (Darjeeling: [49, 74]; Panchthar: [67]). Roots: Juice given in fever (Sikkim: [75]). Paste applied on forehead during severe headache (Sikkim: [11]) and applied to treat wounds (Sikkim: [11]). Root used for abortion (Darjeeling: [52]). Roots and young shoots: Used for colic pain (Sikkim: [11]). Young shoots: Chewed to stop sudden stomach pain (Darjeeling: [51, 91]; Sikkim: [11]), mouth allergy and paste of tender shoots applied as antidote to snake bite (Taplejung: [87]). Tender leaves and/or young stem shoots pounded and administered to livestock to treat cold and fever (Sikkim: [84]). Bark: Crushed and applied on injuries of cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Fruit: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]). Edible (Darjeeling: [80]; Ilam: [94]; Sikkim: [95]). Juice used to cure fever and cough; ripe fruits used to make local wine (Taplejung: [88]) and in dysentery and wounds (Ilam: [73]).

577

Rubus lineatus Reinw.

Shrub

Rosaceae

Suvuk (L)

 

Roots: Taken in food poisoining (Sikkim: [75]).

578

Rubus rugosus Sm.

Shrub

Rosaceae

Jogi Ainselu (Np)

1500

Root bark: Used as anthelmintic drug (Panchthar: [67]).

579

Anthocephalus chinensis (Lam.) A. Rich. ex Walp.

Tree

Rubiaceae

Kadam (S and Np)

290-800

Fruit: Ripe pseudocarps edible (Jhapa: [68]).Consumed during stomachache (Sikkim: [79]). Seeds: Roasted and oil consumed (Ilam: [94]).

580

Anthogonium gracile Wall. ex Lindl.

Herb

Rubiaceae

Bhui Sunakhari (Np)

1200-2300

Rhizomes and pseudobulbs: Paste applied externally to treat bone fracture and dislocation; pseudobulbs crushed to make paste and applied externally to cure boils (Darjeeling: [52]).

581

Cinchona officinalis L.

Shrub

Rubiaceae

Sinchona (Np)

 

Bark: Used as remedy for malaria (Sikkim: Database).

582

Galium aparine L.

Herb

Rubiaceae

Zangtsi-rokpu (Sh)

 

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

583

Haldina cordifolia (Roxburgh) Ridsdale

Tree

Rubiaceae

Pahenley (Np); Sinjo (S)

 

Bark: Decoction used for antipyretic actions (Darjeeling: [78]). Young shoots: Decoction applied in eye infections (Jhapa: [66]).

584

Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.

Herb

Rubiaceae

Piriengo (Np)

200-2400

Plant: Decoction taken orally to prevent gastric irritability and also act as an anthelmintic (Darjeeling: [74]; Sikkim: [85]).

585

Hedyotis scandens Roxb.

Herb

Rubiaceae

Bokre Lahara (Np); Kalhya (L)

400-1800

Whole plant: and roots are useful in eye diseases, sprains and boils (Sikkim: [75]). Roots: Useful in eye diseases, sprains, and boils (Sikkim: [75]).

586

Houstonia spp.

Herb

Rubiaceae

Nombareng (Sh)

 

Leaves: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).

587

Meyna pubescens (Kurz) Robyns

Shrub

Rubiaceae

 

200

Young leaves: Used as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]). Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

588

Mussaenda frondosa L.

Shrub

Rubiaceae

Dhotisara (Np)

 

Plant: Decoction given to treat fever, cough, and asthma (Sikkim: [11]). Leaves: Extract given in fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Roots: Juice given in jaundice (Darjeeling: [74]).

589

Mussaenda macrophylla Wall.

Herb

Rubiaceae

Tungbub (L)

 

Roots: Taken in jaundice (Sikkim: [75]). Juice taken in acidity, diabetes and fever (Ilam: [76]).

590

Mussaenda treutleri Stapf

Shrub

Rubiaceae

Tungbub (L)

 

Roots: Given in jaundice (Sikkim: [75]).

591

Paederia foetida L.

Climber

Rubiaceae

Barilahara (Np)

300-1800

Leaves: Decoction used as medicine (Darjeeling: [78]).

592

Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr.

Shrub

Rubiaceae

Pate biree (Np)

1400

Stem: Swollen part of the stem used to treat rheumatism (Panchthar: [67]). Fruit: Dried and paste applied around tooth to cure toothache and prevent tooth decay (Sikkim: [11]).

593

Pavetta indica L.

Tree

Rubiaceae

White Pavetta (Eg); Kangyphul, Takali, Sundok (Np)

 

Roots: Juice used for purgative action (Sikkim: [85]).

594

Randia sp.

Tree

Rubiaceae

Nertingaey (Sh)

 

Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

595

Rubia cordifolia L.

Herb

Rubiaceae

Majito

 

Roots and fruit: Taken in dysentery, uterian pains, and voice complexion (Sikkim: Database). Stem: Crushed, mixed with rice wash and given to cattle in post natal problem of cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Decoction of dried roots taken to treat fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Decoction used in urinary infection; paste applied on skin diseases (Darjeeling: [91]; Sikkim: [11]). Used as dye (Darjeeling: [72]; Sikkim: [11]). Paste applied on forehead to cure headache (Darjeeling: [52]). Paste also used as ointment to treat skin infection; decoction administered to cattle after delivery for quick recovery (Sikkim: [84]).

596

*Rubia manjith Roxb. ex Fleming

Climber

Rubiaceae

Majitho (Np)

1200-2100

Plant: Used as dye (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: Database). Decoction used to treat snake bite, desentery, leprosy, skin diseases (Darjeeling: [74]; Ilam: [73, 76]), diabetes, and arthritis (Ilam: [73, 76]). Roots: Used as alterative, astringent, and tonic. Used to obtain dye (KL Nepal: [83]). Used as tonic, alternative, astringent (Sikkim: Database). Stem: Used in scorpion bite (Sikkim: Database). Roots and fruit: Given to treat menstrual disorders (Darjeeling: [49]; Sikkim: [75]).

597

Rubia wallichiana Decne.

Climber

Rubiaceae

Vyem (L)

300-2600

Young shoots: Taken in jaundice and paralysis (Sikkim: [75]).

598

Spermadictyon suaveolens Roxb.

Shrub

Rubiaceae

Ban Champ (Np)

 

Roots: Paste applied externally to relieve from joint pain (Sikkim: [11]).

599

Tamilnadia uliginosa (Retz.) Tirveng. & Sastre

Tree

Rubiaceae

Pendra (S); Pidar (Np)

500

Bark: Decoction taken orally to treat diarrhea and dysentery (Sikkim: [85]). Fruit: Unripe fruits eaten as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]).

600

Uncaria sessilifructus Roxb.

Climber

Rubiaceae

 

200-900

Root: Used to treat bone fracture and crack (Panchthar: [67]).

601

Uncari arhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil.

Climber

Rubiaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

602

Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa

Tree

Rutaceae

Sinjo (S); Bel (Np)

600-1100

Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used in constipation, diarrhea and dysentery (Jhapa: [66]; Panchthar: [67]; Darjeeling: [86]; Sikkim: [79, 91]). Pulp edible (KL Bhutan: [70]; Jhapa: [92]). Seeds: Extract taken orally in ulcer (KL Nepal: [53]).

603

Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook.) Rchb. ex Meisn.

Herb

Rutaceae

Likhijari (Np)

600-3300

Leaves: Extract applied on the body of cattle to kill lice and flea (Sikkim: [75, 97]).

604

Citrus medica L.

Tree

Rutaceae

Bimbira (Li)

700-1200

Fruit: Eaten raw in indigestion, vomiting, jaundice and typhoid. Dried skin powder administered in dysentery (Sikkim: [79]).

605

Citrus reticulata Blanco

Tree

Rutaceae

Suntala (Li)

600-1800

Fruit: Skin dried and paste applied on the face to soften (Sikkim: [79]).

606

Clausena excavata Burm. f.

Shrub

Rutaceae

 

200-500

Leaves: Used to remove flies from wounds, sores, and cuts (Jhapa: [66]).

607

Euodia fraxinifolia (D.Don) Hook. f.

Tree

Rutaceae

Khanakpa (Np)

1000-2400

Bark: Juice given in dysentery and menstrual disorder (Ilam: [73]).

608

Evodia fraxinifolia Hook. f.

Tree

Rutaceae

Khanakpa, Kanu (Np)

1200-2100

Roots: Powder taken to treat dysentery (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [85]). Bark: Decoction given in fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Fruit: Used as antipyretic and in treatment of typhoid; eaten as vegetable (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]). Seeds: Used to make chutney and taken with food to improve appetite (Darjeeling: [91]; Sikkim: [79]).

609

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.

Tree

Rutaceae

  

Leaves: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).

610

Tetradium fraxinifolium (Hooker) T. G. Hartley

Tree

Rutaceae

Khanakpa (Np); Kanu (L)

700-3000

Whole plant: Taken as antipyretic and diuretic (Sikkim: [75]). Fruit: Taken as antipyretic and diuretic (Sikkim: [75]).

611

Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC.

Shrub

Rutaceae

Boke timur (Np); Gee (Sh), Thingne (Dz)

1600-2800

Leaves and seeds: Used to cure toothache and worms (Darjeeling: [91]; Ilam: [73]). Branchlets: Used as toothbrush to relieve toothache (Sikkim: [11]). Fruit: Taken in indigestion (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [74, 75, 79]), used to treat ear diseases, headache, and asthma (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]). Crushed and rubbed on the leg and foot as antileech repellent agent (Darjeeling: [91]; Sikkim: [11]).Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).

612

*Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

Shrub

Rutaceae

Timur (Np)

1100-2500

Fruit, roots and leaves: Decoction used to treat toothache, fever, cough, rheumatism, and asthma (Darjeeling: [78]; KL Nepal: [83]; Panchthar: [67]; Ilam: [73, 76, 77]). Fruit: Used as spice (KL Nepal: [83]; Panchthar: [67]; Ilam: [73]).

613

Zanthoxylum budrunga Wall.

Shrub

Rutaceae

  

Fruit: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).

614

Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum Edgew.

Shrub

Rutaceae

Nepalese Pepper (Eg): Ban Timur, Lekh Timur (Np)

2100-2800

Fruits: Pickled and eaten; paste of immature fruit kept between teeth to relieve from toothache (KL Nepal: [83]). Flowers and fruit: Extract given to treat pain, tumor, fever, cholera and snake bite (Ilam: [76]).

615

Salix babylonica L.

Tree

Salicaceae

Bains (Np)

1400-3600

Leaves and stem bark: Infusion taken in fever (Darjeeling: [78]).

616

Salix calyculata Hook. f. ex Andersson

Shrub

Salicaceae

Leng Junye, Langma Parma (Km); Lansip (Sh); Langma Chhung (Tb); Langma (Wl)

3600-4500

Plant: Used in death ritual. Leaves and flowers: Used as incense (Taplejung: [81, 88]).

617

Osyris wightiana Wall. Ex Wight

Shrub

Santalaceae

Nundhiki (Np)

1100-2600

Root bark: Used to treat body pain and fractured bone (Panchthar: [67]).

618

Pyrularia edulis (Wall.) A. DC.

Tree

Santalaceae

Amphi (Np)

1600-1800

Fruit: Edible; kernel possess wax which is used for lighting (Sikkim: [89]).

619

Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

Climber

Sapindaceae

Fuka fucha (S)

900-1500

Plant: Powder mixed with mustard or coconut oil applied to cure sores and wounds (Jhapa: [66]).

620

*Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.

Tree

Sapindaceae

Ritha (Np)

1000-1200

Fruit: Juice used to cure burnt part of the body; also used for epilepsy (Sikkim: Database). Extract applied on head to remove dandruff and lice (Darjeeling and Sikkim: [69]; Sikkim: [11]). Used to extract oil (Ilam: [94]). Fruit and root bark: Used as tonic, anthelmintic, purgative, in asthma and piles (Darjeeling and Sikkim: [69]).

621

Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken

Tree

Sapindaceae

Baru (S); Kusum (Np)

200-300

Fruits: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

622

Aesandra butyracea (Roxb.) Baehni

Tree

Sapotaceae

Chiuri (Np)

200-1500

Bark and seeds: Paste applied on fractured bone and in piles (KL Nepal: [53]). Fruits: Used to extract oil (KL Bhutan: [93]). Edible ([94]; Sikkim: [11, 47, 89, 95]; KL Bhutan: [70]). Used in rheumatism (Sikkim: Database; [47]). Juice taken to soften the skin (Sikkim: [11]). Oil extract applied on body during winter (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves: Used as fodder (Sikkim: [89]).

623

Diploknem abutyracea (Roxb.) H.J.Lam

Tree

Sapotaceae

Yika (Dz), Pinsa (Sh)

 

Fruits: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

624

Madhuca longifolia (Roxb.) Macbride

Tree

Sapotaceae

Mahuwa (Np)

150-300

Bark: Used to treat bone crack (Panchthar: [67]).

625

Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

Herb

Saururaceae

Gaytso (Bhu)

1300-2500

Shoots: Used as vegetable (Bhutan: [102]). Leaves: Decoction given to treat tuberculosis (Darjeeling: [74]).

626

Astilbe rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Herb

Saxifragaceae

Tangphung, Tangphung Supari, Toksong Supari (Li); Bansupari, Buriokahti, Budo Okhati, Thulo Ausadi (Np); Thappasid (Ri); Tongsergugay (Sh),

2000-3600

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Taken as tonic for post natal women (Sikkim: [75]). Chewed to relief from pain (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]). Paste applied to treat wound and juice used in fever, dysentery, back pain, waist pain, and throat pain (Taplejung: [82, 87, 88]) body ache, bleeding at pre and post pregnancy (Darjeeling: [52, 74]; Ilam: [73, 76, 77]; Sikkim: [69]). Powder taken in jaundice (Sikkim: [69]). Roots and leaves: Taken in diarrhea, dysentery, and as blood purifier (Sikkim: Database). Leaves: Chewed raw in toothache (Sikkim: [49, 79]).

627

*Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.

Herb

Saxifragaceae

Rockfoil (Eg); Pakhanved (Np); Sallipat, Salpari, Simtadi (Np-Dl); Sediwakthosida (Ri); Pashanaveda (Sn); Hyoma, Kopsokpa, Silviro (Sh); Bhramhendo (Tm)

900-3600

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as analgesic and in piles, heart diseases (Darjeeling: [80, 89]), and spleen enlargment (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [69]).Juice taken as tonic (Sikkim: [75]) and used to treat wound, boils, diarrhea (Taplejung: [87]; Sikkim: [11, 75], Database; Panchthar: [67]) sinusitis, body pain, cough and cold, eye infection, dysentery, abdominal pain, fever, and to check bleeding during menstruation (Taplejung: [87, 88]; Panchthar: [67]). Crushed and tied around the factured bone (Darjeeling: [80]), also used with root of Bergenia ciliata, Kaempferia rotunta, and Viscum articulatum for the same (Sikkim: [79]). Paste given to treat dysentery (Sikkim: [74, 91]); also applied on burns and cuts; dried rhizome used as astringent, given in ulcers and tuberculosis (Sikkim: [69]). Crushed and extract given to cattle to treat diarrhea and dysentery (Darjeeling: [86]; Sikkim: [84]).

628

Bergenia purpurascens (Hook. f. & Thomson) Engl.

Herb

Saxifragaceae

Pakhanved (Np); Chhurcha, Kopsyokpa (Sh); Gadur, Ligadur (Tb)

3800-4700

Roots: Paste used in wound, bodyache (Taplejung: [82, 87]; Darjeeling: [80, 89]) and bone fracture (Taplejung: [82]). Decoction used in fever, diarrhea (Taplejung: [87]; Sikkim: [75]), knee ache, and loss of eye sight (Taplejung: [87]). Dried roots used as substitute of tea by high altitude dwellers to get relief from bodyache (Sikkim: [79]).

629

Chrysosplenium carnosum Hook. f. & Thomson

Herb

Saxifragaceae

Churtsa, Simjhar (Sh); Ya Ki Ma, Ser Ya Ki Ma (Tb)

3800-5500

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Leaves and stem: Used in common fever and typhoid fever (Taplejung: [82]).

630

*Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennell) Hong

Herb

Saxifragaceae

Gorki, Gurki (Gr-Mn); Katuki, Kutki (Np); Katuko (Np-Dl); Katukaa (Sn); Hogling, Hunglen (Sh, Wl)

3500-4800

Rhizomes: Used for bile disease, eye diseases, and gastritis (KL Nepal: [83]). Decoction used to treat cold and cough, throat pain, fever, bodyache, and high blood pressure (Darjeeling: [49]; Taplejung: [81, 87, 88]). Taken in cold, fever and snake bite (Darjeeling: [52]). Used as bitter tonic, laxative, stomachic, effective in dropsy and scropion stings (Sikkim: [69]). Effective in diseases of liver and spleen including jaundice and anaemia (Sikkim: [69]).

631

Saxifraga mucronulata Royle

Herb

Saxifragaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

632

Schisandra neglecta A. C. Sm.

Climber

Schisandraceae

Sighatta Lahara (Np)

 

Fruit: Used as tonic and given in insomnia (Sikkim: [75]).

633

Digitalis purpurea L.

Herb

Scrophulariaceae

Fox glove (Np)

 

Leaves: Used as heart tonic and cardiac stimulant (Sikkim: Database).

634

Lancea tibetica Hook. f. & Thomson

Herb

Scrophulariaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

635

Scoparia dulcis L.

Herb

Scrophulariaceae

Chineebimfang (Me)

100-1200

Plant: Decoction used in eye troubles (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Extract drunk and also applied externally on the body as a remedy for the babies weeping all days (Jhapa: [68]). Young leaves taken in diabetes (Sikkim: [75]). Roots: Decoction taken orally in diarrhea and dysentery (Jhapa: [66]).

636

Smilax zeylanica L.

Climber

Smilacaceae

Kukur Dainey (Np)

150-1500

Plant: Used in Urinary complaints and dysentery. Roots: Taken as tonic (Sikkim: Database).

637

Anisodus luridus Link ex Spreng.

Herb

Solanaceae

Langthang, Longtankobu (Wl)

2300-4000

Seeds: Used to treat toothache (Taplejung: [81]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

638

Datura metel L.

Herb

Solanaceae

Dhaturo, Dhontrey (Np)

300-1200

Seeds: Powder used in skin diseases in cattle (Sikkim: [97]; Ilam: [73, 76]), dandruff, leprosy, ulcer, and fever (Ilam: [73, 76]). Burned and smoke inhaled in chronic asthmatic fits (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves: Crushed leaf applied on insect bite of cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Burnt and smoke inhaled to treat asthma (Sikkim: [11]). Warmed leaves placed on joint to reduce the pain and swelling (Sikkim: [79]). Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Smoked for toothache; powdered and mixed with warm mustard oil to treat earache (Jhapa: [66]). Taken in mad dog bites (Sikkim: [79]).

639

Datura stramonium L.

Shrub

Solanaceae

Gofatdothrabithai (Me)

200-2200

Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).Used to treat scabies (Jhapa: [68]). Used as narcotic and also to treat dandruff and hairfall (Panchthar: [67]).Given orally against rabies, nervousness, nausea and hysteria (Darjeeling: [52]).

640

Hyoscyamus sp.

Shrub

Solanaceae

  

Fruit/Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

641

Mandragora officinarum L.

Herb

Solanaceae

  

Roots: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

642

Physalis minima L., Herb

 

Solanaceae

Jangali phokphokey (Np)

 

Fruit: Used as tonic, diuretic, laxative, and useful in inflammations (Sikkim: Database).

643

Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.

Herb

Solanaceae

Goglang (Me); Hinje, Bhingakheta (S)

1600

Roots and fruit: Extraction taken in cold and bronchitis. Fruit: Smoked for relieving toothache (Jhapa: [66]). Seeds: Boiled and vapour taken through mouth to kill germs of teeth (Jhapa: [68]).

644

Solanum myriacanthum Dunal

Herb

Solanaceae

  

Seeds: Smoke directed to the infected tooth to cure toothache and tooth decay (Sikkim: [11]).

645

Solanum nigrum L.

Herb

Solanaceae

Sano bini (Np)

900-2900

Aerial parts: Used as sedative (Darjeeling: [74]). Roots, leaves and fruit: Used in the treatment of leucoderma, dysentery, vomiting, asthma, bronchitis, fever, and urinary discharge (Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Edible (Ilam: [94]; Jhapa: [92]).

646

Solanum sp.

Shrub

Solanaceae

Khalanji (Sh.)

 

Fruit: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

647

Solanum surattense Burm. f.

Shrub

Solanaceae

Kalchudo (Np); rangani kate (S)

 

Roots: Grounded with Alternanthera sessilis and given in urinary troubles (Jhapa: [66]).

648

Solanum torvum Sw.

Shrub

Solanaceae

Henje (S); Thulo bini (Np)

250-750

Fruit: Used as vegetables and pickle (Jhapa: [92]). Fried and eaten to cure cold and cough (Jhapa: [66]). Leaves: Smooked to treat toothache (Darjeeling: [74]).

649

Melochia corchorifolia L.

Herb

Sterculiaceae

Thuik (S)

200-1300

Young leaves: Eaten as vegetable (Jhapa: [66]).

650

Pterospermum acerifolium (L.) Willd.

Tree

Sterculiaceae

Hattipaila, Numbong (Np)

450-600

Flowers: Juice taken to treat peptic ulcer (Sikkim: [85]).

651

Punica granatum L.

Tree

Sterculiaceae

Darim (Np)

 

Unripe fruit: Useful in vomiting, fever, heart diseases, sore throat, diarrhea and dysentery (Sikkim: Database). Fruit/seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

652

Symplocos lucida (Thunberg) Siebold & Zuccarini

Tree

Symplocaceae

Kharane (Np)

500-2600

Seeds: Powder applied against spider sting (Sikkim: [75]). In the past people used to extract oil for cooking from the seed (Sikkim: [89]).

653

Symplocos paniculata (Thunb.) Miq.

Shrub

Symplocaceae

Pangtsi (Dz)

 

Fruit: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]), Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]). Seeds: Used to extract oil (KL Bhutan: [93]).

654

Symplocos sp.

Shrub

Symplocaceae

  

Leaves: Use to extract dye (KL Bhutan: [70]).

655

Myricaria rosea W. W. Smith

Shrub

Tamaricaceae

Angmeo (Gr); Thrishing (Km); Chhusin-Ghumbu, Hunbu (Sh, Wi); Hunbu Chungwa (Tb).

3300-4500

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).Leaves and flowers: Used for incense (Taplejung: [87, 88]). Stem: Used to treat cough and cold (Taplejung: [87, 88]).

656

Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth.

Tree

Theaceae

Chilone (Np); Sakriphal (S)

900-2100

Bark: Crushed with common salt and used as vermicide in cattle (Sikkim: [97]). Rubbed on caterpillar infected portion to remove hair (Sikkim: [11]). Pounded and given to cure fever and stomach pain, and also applied in bone fracture and sprain (Jhapa: [66]). Bark paste with the bark of Bridelia retusa applied externally on deep cuts and wounds (Sikkim: [79]).

657

Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.

Tree

Thymelaeaceae

Aagurushing (Dz/Sh/T)

 

Stem: Heartwood used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

658

Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don

Shrub

Thymelaeaceae

Tunguma (Li); Baruwa, Kagaj Pate, Lokta, Seto Baruwa, Seto Lokta, Sikre (Np); Sugumendo, Da Mendok (Sh); Da Mendok (Wi).

2000-4000

Roots and bark: Used to treat intestinal worms; decoction used in fever (Taplejung: [87]). Bark: Used in the manufacture of handmade paper (KL Nepal: [83]; KL Bhutan: [93]).

659

Daphne papyracea Wall. ex Steud

Shrub

Thymelaeaceae

Tunguma (Li); Aule Lokti, Dangma, Jhapre Lokta, Kagatey, Kalo Baruwa (Np); Khultum (Ri)

1500-2400

Roots: Used for intestinal troubles (Sikkim: Database). Decoction given in food poisoning (Sikkim: [79]; Darjeeling: [91]; KL Nepal: [83]). Used as a substitute of Aconitum sp. (Sikkim: [79]). Bark: Decoction given to treat fever (Sikkim: Database). Juice used to treat intestinal worms and used as anti-leech agent; powder cause nasal irritation (Taplejung: [87]). Used to make handmade paper (KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: [11]). Leaves: Given to baby goat during diarrhea and fever; stalks used to make locally used mats (Sikkim: [11]).

660

Daphne sp.

Shrub

Thymelaeaceae

  

Inner wood: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

661

Edgeworthia gardneri (Wall.) Meisn.

Shrub

Thymelaeaceae

Nepalese paper bush (Eg); Argeli, Argaily (Np)

1500-3000

Bark: Used to make paper (KL Bhutan: [93], KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: [72]; Database). Bark: Used as fish poison (Sikkim: Database).

662

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.

Herb

Trapaceae

Paniphalz (S); Paniphal singara (Np).

200-600

Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

663

Trema orientalis (L). Blume

Tree

Ulmaceae

Sitaundu (S); Khari (Np)

1000-1200

Fruit: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

664

Dendrocnide sinuata (Blume) Chew

Shrub

Urticaceae

Morange (Np)

200-1000

Roots: Powder taken to stop vomitting and diarrhea (Jhapa: [66]).

665

Elatostema lineolatum Wight

Shrub

Urticaceae

Damroo (Bhu)

200-1800

Young shoots: Used as vegetable (KL Bhutan: [70, 102]).

666

Elatostema platyphyllum Wedd.

Shrub

Urticaceae

Gagleto (Li)

700-1900

Shoots: Young shoots consumed as vegetable in gastritis (Sikkim: [79]). Stems and Leaves: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

667

Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis

Herb

Urticaceae

Himalayan Nettle (Eg); Mayu Sagi (Li); Kuju (Lp); Allo (Np); Ptale (Ri)

1700-3000

Roots: Juice taken in constipation (Ilam: [73, 76]). Young shoots: Eaten as green vegetable (Ilam: [94]; Taplejung: [87]; KL Nepal: [83]). Used as substitute for dal which is good for diabetes (Darjeeling: [80]). Leaves: Paste given in headache and joint pain (Ilam: [76]). Flowers: Taken to treat blood pressure (Sikkim: [75]).

668

Girardinia palmata (Forssk.) Gaudich.

Shrub

Urticaceae

Zochha (Dz); Gomjazu (Sh);

 

Inflorescence: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

669

Girardinia sp.

Herb

Urticaceae

Sissnu (Np)

 

Bark: Used to make ropes (KL Bhutan: [100]).

670

Laportea terminalis Wight

Herb

Urticaceae

Sishnu (Np); Sorong (L)

1900-3300

Leaves and flowers: Used in blood pressure complaints (Sikkim: [75]).

671

Urtica dioica L.

Herb

Urticaceae

Stinging Nettle (Eg); Polo (Gr, Tm); Sagi (Li); Sisnu (Np); Sajilim, Sokhima (Ri); Sadukpa (Wl)

1000-4000

Plant: Juice used to treat jaundice, toothache, and hematuria (Ilam: [73, 76]). Roots: Paste applied as antidote to dog bite and on minor fractures. Young shoots: Taken as vegetables (Darjeeling: [80]; Taplejung: [88]; Sikkim: [11], Database). Young shoots and inflorescences cooked and given in hypertension (Darjeeling: [52]). Leaves: Cooked and taken to maintain blood pressure (Darjeeling: [80]; Sikkim: [89]).

672

*Nardostachys grandiflora DC.

Herb

Valerianaceae

Spikenard (Eng); Pagbon, Pangbo, Pangbwang (Li); Pangpay (Dz/Sh); Bhulte, Bhutle, Jatamasi (Np); Bhultya (Np-Dl); Ngorochi (Ri); Jatamansi (Sn); Pangboe (Wl)

3200-5300

Whole plant and roots: Useful in skin diseases, leprosy, ulcers, and cough. Roots: Used for incense and also in wounds, cough, cold, chronic fever, high blood pressure, and stomach diseases (Sikkim: [49]; Taplejung: [87]; KL Nepal: [83]). Infusion taken to treat stomachache and as laxative (Sikkim: [75, 85]). Decoction used in fever (Darjeeling: [49, 78]). Juice or decoction taken in dysentery and constipation (Ilam: [76]). Used as tonic, stimulant, antispasmodic, diuretic and antiflatulent (Sikkim: [69]). Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

673

Valeriana hardwickii Wall.

Herb

Valerianaceae

Nakkali Jatamansi (Np)

1200-4000

Roots: Given in hysteria, epilepsy, and neurosis (Sikkim: [75]). Used as carminative and stimulant (Sikkim: Database). Extract taken to cure urine trouble (Sikkim: [11]).

674

*Valeriana jatamansii Jones

Herb

Valerianaceae

Indian Valerian (Eg); Nappu (Gr-Mn); Samayo, Sugandhawal (Np); Bhutakesi (Sn); Jaboe (Wl)

1200-3600

Rhizome: Used in fever, cold (Taplejung: [82]), headache, eye compliants, sore throat, wounds, and indigestion (KL Nepal: [83]). Dried rhizome also used as incense (KL Nepal: [83]). Juice given in hysteria, epilepsy, cholera, cough, asthma, weakness and hairfall (Ilam: [76]).

675

Callicarpa arborea Roxb.

Tree

Verbenaceae

Guahelo (Np)

1000-2500

Bark: Juice given to treat fever (Sikkim: Database). Roots: Chewed in cases of boils on the gums (Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Juice administered to cure fever (Sikkim: [79]).

676

Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl

Shrub

Verbenaceae

Guenlo, Sumali (Np); Tichangsa (Che); Dahidhula (Dar); Dahigun (Tha)

300-1500

Roots: Used to treat pneumonia (Panchthar: [67]). Decoction drunk to cure bronchitis (Jhapa: [68]). Bark: Used in rheumatism and gonorrhea (Sikkim: Database).

677

Gmelina arborea Roxb.

Tree

Verbenaceae

Khamari (Np); Kasnar (S)

200-1100

Bark: Pounded and taken as antidote for all kinds of poison; also used in dysentery (Jhapa: [66]).

678

Lantana camara L.

Shrub

Verbenaceae

  

Leaves: Juice applied in cut to heal; crushed and tied over the sprain to relieve pain (Sikkim: [11, 79]).

679

Premna serratifolia L.

Shrub

Verbenaceae

Gineri (Np)

 

Roots: Decoction taken as laxative and carminative (Sikkim: [85]).

680

Vitex negundo L.

Shrub

Verbenaceae

Simali (Np); Sindware (S)

200-1400

Plant: Juice used to treat fever, ulcer, asthma, and cough (Ilam: [73]). Leaves: Used to treat sinusitis and rheumatism (Panchthar: [67]); also used as repellent for insects and bedbugs (Jhapa: [66]). Stem: Juice bath taken to treat body swelling, common cold and influenza (Darjeeling: [74]).

681

Viola biflora L.

Herb

Violaceae

Ghattey Ghans (Np)

2100-4500

Roots and flowers: Used as emetic and antiseptic (Sikkim: [75]).

682

Viola diffusa Ging. ex DC.

Herb

Violaceae

Ghattey Ghans (Np)

1400-2000

Flowers: Taken to get relief from chest pain (Sikkim: [75])

683

Viola serpens Wall.

Herb

Violaceae

Ghattejhar (Np)

 

Roots: Juice taken in fever (Darjeeling: [78]).

684

Ampelocissus barbata (Wall.) Planch.

Climber

Vitaceae

Jarila lahara (Li)

 

Plant: Juice given to treat sores in mouth and tongue of milk sucking baby (Sikkim: [79]).

685

Ampelocissus latifolia (Roxb.) Planch.

Climber

Vitaceae

Icewar (S)

300-1600

Fruits: Edible (Jhapa: [92]).

686

Ampelocissus sikkimensis (M. A. Lawson) Planch.

Climber

Vitaceae

 

1000-2000

Plant: Juice used to cure sores in the mouth of an infant and treats foot and mouth disease in cattle (Sikkim: [11]).

687

Alpinia allughas (Retz.) Roscoe

Herb

Zingiberaceae

Churampha (Np)

400-600

Rhizomes: Extract taken in diabetes and as laxative (KL Nepal: [53])

688

Amomum subulatum Roxb.

Herb

Zingiberaceae

Bada alaichi (Li)

500-2000

Seeds: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used in indigestion and vomiting (Ilam: [76]).Decoction used to gargle to treat teeth and gum infection (Sikkim: [79, 91]). Oil applied on eye-lids to allay inflammation of the eye in cattle; paste applied externally as antidote for scorpion-sting and insect bites (Sikkim: [84]).

689

Caulokaempferia sikkimensis (King ex Baker) K. Larsen

Herb

Zingiberaceae

Bhuin Champa (Li)

 

Bulb: Poultice from crushed bulbs applied to heal fractured bone and wound (Sikkim: [11]).

690

Costus speciosus (Koenig) Sm.

Herb

Zingiberaceae

Bet Lauri (Np); Urat (S)

400-700

Roots: Useful in fever, bronchitis, anemia, rheumatism and diabetic (Darjeeling: [78]; Sikkim: [69]) and diabetic (Darjeeling: [51, 78]; Sikkim: [96]).Used as antiinflamatory, stimulant and anthelmintic and also given in urinary stones (Sikkim: [69]). Juice taken before breakfast to cure urinary tract infection; juice mixed with sugar and used to treat veneral disease (Sikkim: [11]). Juice mixed with milk and sugar cubes and drunk to cure sensation of internal heat and stomach inflammation (Jhapa: [66]). Roots of this plant grounded with leaves of Swertia chirayita and taken in fever and urinary complaints (Jhapa: [66]). Root mixed with leaves of Drymeria cordata androot paste of Bombax ceiba and combinely crushed and administered orally to treat urinary disorders (Sikkim: [79]). Rhizome powder given to cattle to treat fever and inflammation (Sikkim: [84]). Stem: Extract given in diabetes and cholera (KL Nepal: [53]).

691

Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.

Herb

Zingiberaceae

Bakhre Saro (Np); Nauhaine- haldai (Me)

100-1500

Rhizomes: Powder used as antiseptic in cuts, wounds and to check bleeding (Jhapa: [68]).

692

Curcuma aromatica Salisb.

Herb

Zingiberaceae

Wild turmeric (Eg); Bandhale, Banhaledo, Kalohaledo (Np); Vanharida (Sn)

700-1100

Rhizomes: Used in cough and bronchitis (Taplejung: [82]). Also used as appetizer, tonic, carminative and applied to bruises and sprains; powder used as anthelmintic; oil useful in the treatment of early stage of cervix cancer (Sikkim: [69]).

693

Curcuma caesia Roxb.

Herb

Zingiberaceae

Kalo haledo (Np)

200-1500

Rhizomes: Powder taken to treat leucoderma, piles, bronchitis, and asthma (Ilam: [73, 76]; Sikkim: [69]). Fresh rhizomes eaten raw to expel gas (Sikkim: [11]). Used as stomachic, diuretic, aromatic, stimulant, carminative and to cure sprains and bruishes (Sikkim: [69]).

694

Curcuma longa L.

Herb

Zingiberaceae

Hardi (Np); Juung (Sh); Yongka (Dz)

 

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Paste prepared from powder and applied on the fractured bones (Darjeeling: [52]).

695

Curcuma zeodaria Rosc.

Herb

Zingiberaceae

Kalo Hardi (Np); Zalmathangru- tsalu (Sh)

 

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).Eatern raw to cure diarrhea, colic and indigestion; paste applied to treat skin diseases (Sikkim: [11]). Decoction taken to get rid from fever (Darjeeling: [78]). Cut into small pieces and administered orally to treat stomach pain, loss of appetite and also used as antidote to food poisonong (Darjeeling: [52]).

696

Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton

Herb

Zingiberaceae

  

Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Fruit: Used as spices (KL Bhutan: [70]).

697

Hedychium spicatum Sm.

Herb

Zingiberaceae

Pankha Phool, Sara (Np)

 

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Taken to treat diarrhea, vomiting, and asthma (Sikkim: [69, 75]).Used in liver disorders and stomach ailments (Sikkim: [69]).

698

Kaempferi agalanga L.

Herb

Zingiberaceae

Borangsaga (Sh)

 

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

699

Kaempferia rotunda L.

Herb

Zingiberaceae

Vuinchampa (Np)

1300-2000

Plant: Juice used in gastric problems, tumors, ulcers, wounds (Ilam: [73, 76]) and swelling, and wounds (Ilam: [76]). Tubers: Used as bone settlers (Sikkim: [69], Database) and as poultice in fracture, healing fresh wounds, and removes coagulated bloods from the body (Darjeeling: [80]). Paste prepared along with the roots of Laportea terminalis and aerial portion of Viscum albumand applied on bone fracture and dislocated joints (Darjeeling: [52]). Root decoction used analgesic and sedative (Darjeeling: [74]).

700

Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.

Herb

Zingiberaceae

Banada (Np)

 

Leaves and inflorescence: Given in cough and fever, dyspepsia. Inflorescence heated in fire and sniff against sinusitis (Darjeeling: [69]). Rhizomes: Soup taken during stomachache (KL Nepal: [53]).

701

Zingiber officinale Rosc.

Herb

Zingiberaceae

Aduwa (Np)

100-1800

Rhizomes: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Used as laxative, aphrodisiac, carminative, also useful in heart diseases, throat, and asthma (Sikkim: Database). Used as spice; juice and powder used to cure joint pain, headache, cough, and cold (Ilam: [73, 76]).Roasted rhizome chewed with salt during severe dry cough (Sikkim: [79]).

 

Fungi

     

1

Lycoperdon pyriforme Schaeff.

Herb (Fungi)

Agaricaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

2

*Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sung et al.

Herb

Ophiocordycipitaceae

Yarcha gombuk (Np); Yaartsa-gunbu (Dz)

 

Plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Rejuvenates liver, heart and cheeks ageing process and built up immune system (Sikkim: Database). Species has high commercial value (Bhutan: [99]; Sikkim: [98]). Known to treat health complaints like aging, cancer, diabetes, fatigue, heart diseases, lungs and liver ailments (Sikkim: [96]). Taken as aphrodiasic (KL Nepal: [53]).

 

Lichen

     

1

Usnea logissima Ach.

Herb

Usneaceae

Lichen, Old-man's beard (Eg); Jhyau (Np)

2500-3900

Thallus: Useful in wounds, lung, liver, and fever from poisoning; also useful as incense (KL Nepal: [83]).

2

Usnea sikkimensis Biswas

Herb

Usneaceae

  

Thallus: Used to bandage surface of wound and skin eruptions; inserted into the nose to stop bleeding (Sikkim: [11]).

 

Algae

     

1

Ulva spp.

Herb (Algae)

Ulvaceae

  

Whole plant: Edible (KL Bhutan: [70]).

 

Pteridophytes

     

1

Adiantum capillus-veneris L.

Herb

Adintaceae

Kane Uniu (Np)

 

Leaflets: Decoction taken as antipyretic (Darjeeling: [78]).

2

Diplazium asperum Blume

Herb

Athyriaceae

 

300-1200

Roots: Used to cure dysentery (Sikkim: [11]).

3

Diplazium esculentum (Retzius) Swart

Herb

Athyriaceae

Ghinki arak (S); Niguro (Np)

100-1200

Fronds: Young fronds cooked and eaten as vegetable (Jhapa: [92]; Darjeeling: [78]; Bhutan: [102]).

4

Diplazium laxifrons Rosenstock

Herb

Athyriaceae

Nakey (Bhu)

900-1800

Fronds: Young fronds cooked and eaten as vegetable (Bhutan: [102]).

5

Diplazium maximum (D. Don) C. Christensen

Herb

Athyriaceae

Nakey (Bhu)

900-1800

Fronds: Young fronds cooked and eaten as vegetable (Bhutan: [102]).

6

Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott

Herb

Dryopteridaceae

  

Stem: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

7

Equisetum diffusum D. Don

Herb

Equisetaceae

Ankhle (Np)

100-3400

Plant: Paste applied on bone fracture, sprains, and in urinary troubles (Ilam: [73]).

8

Equisetum ramosissimum subsp. debile (Roxb. ex Vaucher) Hauke

Herb

Equisetaceae

Kurkure Jhar (Np); Haalgoda (Me)

1000-2600

Plant: Paste mixed with Drymaria cordata and applied in bone factures (Jhapa: [68]). Aerial parts: Used as clotting agent for wound, nose bleeding, and bleeding of urinary tract (Sikkim: [11]; Database). Paste applied to cure mouth sores (Darjeeling: [74]).

9

Lycopodium clavatum L.

Herb

Lycopodiaceae

Naagbeli (Np); Dermusungfon (L)

700-1800

Plant: Administered orally for treatment of muscle contraction in cattle (Sikkim: [84]). Plant and spores: Taken in rheumatism, pulmonary disorders, and chronic kidney. Roots and leaves: Used in treating rheumatism (Sikkim: [75], Database). Spores: Given withpaste of strobilus to cure lung and kidney problems and urinary disorders (Ilam: [73, 76, 77]). Also used to treat scabies and ringworms (Panchthar: [67]). Applied directly on the wound (Sikkim: [79]). Cosumed to treat bleeding after childbirth (Darjeeling: [74]).

10

Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl

Herb

Nephrolepidaceae

Paniamala (Np)

500-2000

Tubers: Juice taken to treat indigestion, fever, cold, and cough (Ilam: [73, 76]). Fruit: Edible (Ilam: [73, 76]).

11

Lepisorus thunbergianus (Kaulf.) Ching

Herb

Polypodiaceae

  

Whole plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

12

Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith

Herb

Polypodiaceae

 

200-1000

Rhizomes: Juice with sugar drunk to cure stomach inflammation and sensation of internal heat of cattle; grounded with Oxalis corniculata and applied on bone fracture (Jhapa: [66]).

13

Aleuritopteris leptolepis (Fraser-Jenk.) Fraser-Jenk.

Herb

Pteridaceae

Rani sinka (Np)

1000-3000

Plant: Juice used in ulcer and stomachache (Ilam: [73]).

14

Pteris biaurita L.

Herb

Pteridaceae

Thado unew (Np)

200-1500

Stem: Mashed and applied on cuts and wounds to stop bleeding and infection (Sikkim: [11], Database). Frond: Juice consumed to treat dysentery (Darjeeling: [74]).

15

Pteris terminalis Wallich ex J. Agardh

Herb

Pteridaceae

Nimin Daway (Bhu)

600-2700

Young fronds: Cooked as vegetable (KL Bhutan: [102]).

16

Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw.

Herb

Schizaceae

Bahun Lahara (Np)

1000

Fronds: Young fronds soaked in mustard oil and applied externally on affected areas to treat rheumatism and sprains (Darjeeling: [74]).

17

Sphagnum squarrosum Crome

Herb

Sphagnaceae

  

Plant: Used as fuel; hunters and graziers use whole moss for dressing wound (Sikkim: [11]).

18

Tectaria coadunata (J.Sm.) C.Chr.

Herb

Tectariaceae

Kalo Oonew (Np)

500-2500

Plant: Boiled and taken as soup for a week to treat dysentery (Darjeeling: [74]).

 

Gymnosperms

     

1

Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf

Shrub

Ephedraceae

Hathijor, Somlata (Np); Kagchalo, Kagcharo, Sallejar (Np-DI); Chhe (Sh), Sankhapa (Sh); Chhewong (Sh, WI), Tshe (Dz)

2000-5200

Plant: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Raises blood pressure and used to relieve high fever (KL Nepal: [83]; Sikkim: Database) and asthma (Sikkim: Database). Juice used for liver fever, bleeding, and cuts (KL Nepal: [83]. Fruit: Used as digestive (KL Nepal: [83]). Ripe fruits taken to get relief from altitude sickness and indigestion (Sikkim: [79]). Stem: Powder inhaled to treat headache (Sikkim: [79]).

2

Cupressus spp.

Tree

Cupressaceae

Tsendenshing (Sh); Tsendey (Dz)

 

Whole plant: Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

3

Juniperus communis L.

Tree

Cupressaceae

Sukpa (Np)

 

Fruits: Dried and chewed as a nut or decoction taken in fever (Darjeeling: [78]).

4

Juniperus indica Bertol.

Tree

Cupressaceae

Black Juniper (Eg); Dhup (Np)

3700-4500

Leaves and fruits: Used in kidney disorders, skin and lymph disease, fever, cough, and cold, sores, wounds and paralysis of limbs (KL Nepal: [83]). Fruit: Powder put on the glowing red fire coal and the scent smelt to relief from headache and reduce blood pressure. Dried fruit powder mixed with tea or milk to treat cough, cold in high altitude (Sikkim: [79]). Leaves: Used as incense (KL Nepal: [83]).

5

Juniperus recurva Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don

Shrub

Cupressaceae

Drooping juniper (Eg); Dhupi (Np); Shup (Dz); Shukpashing (Sh)

3300-4600

Aerial parts: Used as incense (KL Nepal: [83]). Leaves: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]).

6

Juniperus spp.

Shrub

Cupressaceae

  

Used as incense (KL Bhutan: [70]).

7

Abies densa Griff. ex Parker

Tree

Pinaceae

Gobre salla (Np); Dungshi (Dz)

2550-3700

Leaves: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]) and incense (KL Bhutan: [70]). Juice taken orally to relieve from stomach pain and fever (Sikkim: [11]). Extract used in asthma, bronchitis, and stomach trouble (Sikkim: [79, 80, 89]). Extract given to cattle to treat fever and loss of appetite (Sikkim: [84]).

8

Abies spectabilis (D.Don) Mirb.

Tree

Pinaceae

Himalayan Silver Fir (Eg); Gobre Salla, Thingre Salla (Np); Thingro (Np-Dl); Talispatra (Sn); Som Chirugpa (Wl)

2400-4400

Leaves: Used as incense (Taplejung: [81, 88]). Leaves and gum: Used as tonic and also useful in tuberculosis and internal hemorrhage (Sikkim: Database). Fruit: Boiled to obtain black ink (Taplejung: [87]).

9

Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D. Don) G. Don

Tree

Pinaceae

Deodara (Np)

 

Oil applied externally to treat ringworm (Sikkim: [97]).

10

Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

Tree

Pinaceae

Rani Salla (Np); Aang (Li)

1100-2100

Leaves: Extract used in hydrocele and also during bone fracture (KL Nepal: [53]). Resin: Used as medicine in rheumatism (KL Bhutan: [71, 93]).

11

*Taxus wallichiana Zucc.

Tree

Taxaceae

Eastern Himalayan Yew (Eg); Silingi (Gr-Mn); Dhengre (Li); Lauthsalla (Np); Kandeloti, Lota (Np-Dl)

2100-3500

Bark: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Taken as herbal tea, especially to treat piles (Taplejung: [87]; KL Nepal: [104]) and in muscular pain and fever. Leaves: Extract used to cure asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory diseases (KL Nepal: [83]; Ilam: [73, 76]). Leaves: Used as medicine (KL Bhutan: [71]). Antispsmodic, used in nervousness, hysteria and epilepsy (Darjeeling: [69]; Sikkim: [106]). Young shoots used in headache, giddiness, diarrhoea and liver disorders (Darjeeling: [69]; KL Nepal: [104]). Fruits: Eaten raw (KL Nepal: [83]; Ilam: [73]).

ǂSikkim: Datadase = Medicinal Plant Database of Government of Sikkim:http://www.sikkimforest.gov.in/medicine_main.htm#tp

*National priority herbs of Government of Nepal

Abbreviations: Bh Bhotia, Bhu Bhutanese, Dz Dzongkha, Eg English, Gr Gurung, Gr-Mn Gurung of Manang, Km Kham, Li Limbu, Lp Lepcha, M Meche, Np Nepali, Np-DlNepali in Dolpo, Np-Tp Nepali in Taplejung, Nw Newari, Ri Rai, S Satar, Sh Sherpa, Sh Sharchop-kha, Sn Sanskrit, Tb Tibetan, Tha Tharu, Wl Walung

We listed ailments as mentioned in the publications but we followed the method proposed by Cook [28] to classify plants according to the different ailment categories they used to cure. However, in some cases Cook’s categories were not precise enough and plants were assigned to additional ailment categories. Chi-square (χ2) was used to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in use of NTFPs under various use categories among the three countries in the Kangchenjunga Landscape.

Results and discussion

Pattern of publications

Majority of publications on NTFP were from India (60 %), while 34 % were from Nepal and 6 % from Bhutan. This is quite obvious as Darjeeling and the state of Sikkim in India make up a large part of the KL (56.3 %). The presence of two state level universities and research institutes has made significant contribution to the research in KL India [29]. Except for Bhutan, the species reported in this study were mostly documented through ethnobotanical studies conducted in different parts of the landscape. A few studies were focused on particular ethnic communities whereas most of the studies were on general ethnobotany of the region with mixed ethnic composition. Publication on NTFPs date back to 1988 in India while in Nepal and Bhutan it was started after 1996 (Fig. 2). However, majority of the publications (86 %) were published after 2000. All publications are qualitative in nature.
Fig. 2

Pattern of publications on NTFP from the Kangchenjunga Landscape

Frequency of NTFPs use

We reported on a total of 739 species of NTFPs used by the local people of Kangchenjunga Landscape. Of these, the highest number of NTFPs was documented from India (377 species), followed by Nepal (363) and Bhutan (245). These numbers, however, overlap in terms of distribution. The NTFPs used only in India were 185 species, while this number was 189 for Nepal and 166 for Bhutan.

Taxonomic diversity and growth habit

Angiosperms were predominant with 705 taxa belonging to 137 families followed by Gymnosperms (10), Pteridophytes (17), Fungi (3), Lichens (2), Bryophyte (1) and Algae (1). Families with the highest number of species used belong to Asteraceae (56 species), Fabaceae (41), Lamiaceae (27), Rubiaceae (24), Poaceae (23), Moraceae (16), Ranunculaceae (16), Rosaceae (15), Zingiberaceae (15), Polygonaceae (14), Ericaceae (13), Rutaceae (13), and Liliaceae (11). NTFPs were distributed into different life forms, with herbs having the most species followed by trees and shrubs (Fig. 3). Pattern of NTFPs used according to different life forms was similar in Bhutan, India and Nepal. Such herbaceous species were mostly medicinal and their extensive use could be because they were frequently found in the forest, and it is believed that the more abundant a plant is the more medicinal virtues it may possess [30].
Fig. 3

Frequency of NTFPs in different growth habits

Major use categories

People from Kangchenjunga Landscape used NTFPs for 24 different purposes (Table 2). A comparative analysis revealed that the highest number of use categories were reported from the Kangchenjunga Landscape region of India (20 categories) followed by Nepal (18) and Bhutan (14). Despite common occurrence of many species in India and Nepal, use pattern differed greatly in these two countries. Medicinal plants were among the main valuable NTFPs in the landscape. Of the total NTFPs, 334 species were used in traditional medicinal practice in India, whereas 297 species used in Nepal and 176 species used in Bhutan. A considerable number of species were also used as edibles as fruit, vegetables, and pickles in all three countries (Table 1 and Table 2). Fruit and shoots were the most frequently eaten parts.
Table 2

Major use categories of NTFPs and frequency of taxa reported from Kangchenjunga Landscape

Use category

Frequency of taxa reported

Total (Kangchenjunga Landscape)

Bhutan

India

Nepal

Basket

4

3

7

Broom

2

1

3

Cigarette wrapper

1

1

Detergent

1

1

Dye

12

6

6

23

Edible

62

46

130

191

Fencing

2

1

1

4

Fermentation

4

3

4

Fibre

10

4

4

15

Fish poisoning

1

1

2

Fodder

3

4

12

19

Fuel

1

1

2

Gum

4

4

Incense

19

3

13

33

Insecticide

2

1

3

Medicinal

176

334

297

598

Oil

6

2

7

7

Ornamental

5

1

2

Preservator

1

1

Roofing

2

2

Ritual

3

5

8

Spritual

1

1

2

Tea

1

4

4

8

Vetenery medicine

27

5

27

The relatively higher number of diversity in wild edible NTFPs in Nepal could be because of higher diversity of ethnic groups living in the lowland Tarai to highland regions. There was a significant difference (χ2 = 35.06, df =64, α = 0.05 and 1-α = 83.67) in medicinal plants use pattern in major disease/ailment categories in India and Nepal. These results indicate differences between the traditions of NTFP use in different cultures of India and Nepal. Similar results were also obtained from East Timor [31]. NTFPs use varies from site to site because of the heterogeneity of the community and different traditional practices by ethnic groups [14].

Among 739 species used by the local people, most species were used for a single (550 species) purpose, while fewer were used for two (147) or multiple (42) purposes. Local people were well aware of collecting seasons, mode of collection, and frequency of collection of specific parts of plant species. Medicinal plants such as Heracleum nepalense is plucked on the first Tuesday after the Teej festival. This practice is known as ‘Harlo’. The people believe that the medicinal plants plucked on that day are extremely effective and potent [32]. Similar practice of harvesting season can be found among the Amchis of the Himalaya where they believe that for better medicinal efficacy, specific parts of specific medicinal plants should be collected during specific seasons [33].

Ailments treated and preparation methods

The use of medicinal plant in treatment of particular ailment and the preparation method were not specified from Bhutan. In India and Nepal, a total of 27 major ailments were reportedly treated with medicinal plants with most species being used to treat multiple ailments (Table 3). Gastro-intestinal disorders; fever; cold, cough and sore throat; musculoskeletal disorders; injuries; dermatological infections; respiratory system disorders; nutritional disorders; and poisoning effects were treated with the highest diversity of medicinal plant species (Table 1 and Table 3). The high diversity of species use in gastro-intestinal disorders could be because of poor sanitation and drinking water quality in the Kangchenjunga Landscape as in many developing contries [34, 35].
Table 3

Major disease categories and number of taxa reported from Kangchenjunga Landscape

Disease/ailment/condition category

Number of taxaa

India

Nepal

Blood system disorders (purification, anaemia, etc.)

9

9

Circulatory system disorders (heart problems, blood pressure, etc.)

23

9

Cough, cold and sore throat

84

54

Dermatological infections (boils, eczema, itch, leucoderma, leprosy, running sore, dropsy, irritant, small pox, chicken pox, skin problems, etc.)

86

63

Diabetes

19

11

Earache, ear irritation

3

5

Fainting and fits

2

Fever/malarian fever

83

64

Gastro-intestinal disorders (bile disorder, cholera, colic, constipation, indigestion, diarrhoea, dysentery, dyspepsia, emetic, laxative, liver disorders, piles, purgative, stomach pain, ulcer, intestinal worms, vomiting, etc.)

312

219

General health (alterative, antiperiodic, prophylactic, etc.)

7

5

Gynaecological problems (menstrual disorders, pain, vaginal and uterine problems, etc.)

8

12

Haemorrhages (internal bleeding, nasal haemorrhage, etc.)

2

2

Hair care (prevent hair loss, scalp problems, lice)

7

8

Headache

18

20

Injuries (cuts and wounds, burns)

65

54

Mental disorders (Hysteria, insomnia, seizures, nervousness, etc.)

23

10

Musculoskeletal disorders (analgesic, arthritis, gouts, bone facture, rheumatism, body pain, joint pain, sprains, swellings, cramps, muscle relaxant, etc.)

76

84

Nervous system disorders (paralysis, hypertenson, etc.)

5

4

Nutritional disorders (weight loss, tonic, appetizers, etc.)

42

17

Odontological problems (tooth ache, gum problems, decayed teeth)

17

15

Ophthalmological disorders (eye wash, sore eyes, infection, etc.)

13

12

Poisoning (insect bites, leech bites, rabies, snake bites, bee stings, food intoxication)

25

26

Pregnancy, child birth, puerperium (labour induction, labour pain, after child birth, miscarriages, abortion, lactation stimulant, pregnancy prevention)

8

17

Respiratory system disorders (asthma, bronchitis, plague, chest pain, expectorant, pneumonia, tuberculosis, altitude sickness, nasal irritation)

65

55

Sexual health/dysfunction

7

8

Urinary system disorders (hematuria, kidney, urination, diuretic etc.)

26

27

Venereal diseases (gonorrhea, spermatorrhea etc.)

7

11

aMost taxa were reported to be used in more than one disease/ailment/condition category (see Table 1)

Mode of preparation included juice, paste, decoction, powder, infusion, and chewing raw plant parts (Fig. 4, Table 1). The majority of formulations were prepared as juice followed by paste and decoction. Proper selection of species, parts, as well as preparation and administration methods were very important in traditional health care systems.
Fig. 4

Use frequency (number of medicinal formulations) of different remedy preparation methods in India and Nepal

Almost all plant parts were used to prepare different medicinal formulations: roots, rhizomes, tubers, bark, leaves, flowers, fruit, seeds, young shoots, whole plants, and gum and latex (Table 1). The most frequently used plant parts were underground parts, followed by leaves, fruit, bark, whole plants, seeds and flowers (Fig. 5). Use of multiple plant parts was often documented (Table 1). The preference for roots and rhizomes to prepare traditional remedies follows the scientific basis that roots generally contain high concentrations of bioactive compounds [36]. Such a trend is also reported from other studies from the Himalaya [35, 37, 38].
Fig. 5

Use frequency (number of species) of different plant parts in traditional medicine preparation in India (black bars), Nepal (dark grey bars), and Bhutan (light grey bars)

NTFPs trade and livelihoods potential

The role of NTFPs is particularly important in the Himalayan region where a large proportion of the rural population depends on them as a source of medicine, food, fibre, dye and other useful materials [3941]. In the Kangchenjunga Landscape, many of the NTFPs are used for subsistence, while others are the main or only source of income generation. However, the role of non-marketed NTFPs that were used for subsistence is largely ignorned when estimates are made of the economic importance of NTFPs to rural populations [42]. Understanding the economic value of non-marketed NTFPs helps to determine the true income of the gatherers and also helps ascertain the true value of the standing forest, leading to more rational decisions about its alternative uses [42].

Domestic as well as cross-border trade of NTFPs, both legally and illegally, is a historical practice in this region [43]. The traded NTFPs mostly include medicinal plants and to a lesser extent some wild edible plants and fibre yielding plants. The handmade paper from Argeli (Edgeworthia gardneri) is the only NTFPs that was sold after value addition in Nepal. Many of the species documented in this study possess high economic potential (Table 4) and could thus supplement family income [44] while generating incentives for biodiversity conservation [45].
Table 4

Major NTFPs traded (in kg) and revenue generated (USD) from 2008 to 2013 in the Nepal part of Kangchenjunga Landscape

Species/products and parts

Traded quantity (kg)

Revenue (USD)

Argeli (Edgeworthia gardneri)/Bark

97,000

4109

Ban lasun (Fritillaria cirrhosa)/Bulb

1500

150

Bish jara (Aconitum ferox)/Root

4300

301

Chiraito (Swertia chirayita)/Whole plant

88,765

7445.97

Chutro (Berberis wallichiana)/Bark

5000

NA

Daruhaldi (Mahonia napaulensis)/Bark

6500

130

Dhupi pat (Juniperus indica)/Twig

3800

76

Khayar (Acacia catechu)/Heartwood

97,784.6

38,456.88

Lauth salla (Taxus wallichiana)/Twig

290,500

9441.25

Lichen (Usnea sp., Parmelia sp.)/Whole plant

11,000

1650

Lokta (Daphne bholua)/Bark

71,076

1940

Majitho (Rubia manjith)/Whole plant

78,800

2199.24

Nagbeliko powder (Lycopodium clavatum)/Pollen grains

8000

160

Khoto (Pinus roxburghii)/Resin

1,256,334

9799.40

Ritha (Sapindus mukorossi)/Fruit

1600

48

Total

2,021,959.6

75,906.74

Source: Compiled from Hamro Ban - a yearly publication of Department of Forests, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Government of Nepal

Commonly traded NTFPs from the Nepal part of the Kangchenjunga Landscape include medicinal plants such as Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Fritillaria cirrhosa, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, lichens, and Taxus wallichiana. Other important species under trade are Aconitum species, Valeriana jatamansi, Viscum album and Zanthoxylum species. Species such as Daphne bholua, Edgerworthia gardnerii, Rhododendron anthopogan, Rubia manjith, Swertia chirayita, Valeriana jatamansi, and Zanthoxylum species are traded in large volume following legal procedures. The collected plant materials are normally sold to middlepersons (local traders), with only a few collectors selling or exporting NTFPs directly in local and cross-border markets. The total amount of NTFPs traded from Nepal in the last five years was 2,029,960 kg and the amout of revenue generated was around US$ 76,066 (Fig. 6, Table 4). The lack of openly accessible information on traded species of NTFPs from Bhutan and India limited our ability to conduct a comparative analysis.
Fig. 6

Amount of traded NTFPs (black bars) in ‘000 kg and revenue generated (grey bars) in USD in five years in the Nepalese part of the Kangchenjunga Landscape

Despite the high potential for trade and livelihoods through NTFPs, local people in the Kangchenjunga Landscape are not able to adequately benefit from engaging in the NTFP sector. In most cases, collectors were not aware of the market price for their products and were compelled to sell based on the offers of the middlepersons [46]. Thus, ensuring that market information is available to local people is one of the challenges in the NTFP sector in the landscape. Moreover, traders reported several other issues including multiple taxation system, hurdles during transportation, and duration of transport permit.

As reported by Sundriyal and Sundriyal [47] from Sikkim within the Kangchenjunga Landscape, the sale of fruit provides minimum returns due to fairly low shelf life and market costs. Therefore, some value addition in the form of pickle, chutney, jam, jelly, etc. may increase fruit shelf-life and economic profit to local communities. This reflects a clear need to diversify the product base and to ensure that wild edible plants fetch higher prices [47]. There is also need for value addition for other NTFPs. Therefore, value addition at the local level is an essential part of NTFP trade. Untapped but potential species of NTFPs such as wild edible fruit and vegetables could be promoted in local markets. These could also be promoted for visitors in hotels and restaurants.

Another major problem in commercialization of NTFPs is the low volume in which they are collected and produced, in contrast to the large quantities that are required for the markets. This problem could be addressed by establishing cooperatives, and using these cooperatives for collective marketing which will ensure optimum benefits to collectors [48].

Threats and conservation challenges

Unustainable harvesting of NTFPs, mostly medicinal and edible plants, is the major threat to conservation and management of NTFPs in the Kangchenjunga Landscape [47, 49]. Sustainable harvesting is essential for conservation of NTFPs, and in turn for ensuring the livelihoods of many rural peoples. Indeed, promotion of commercial extraction of NTFPs as a conservation strategy is based on the argument that forest conservation must be able to offer economic incentives to local peoples in order to counter the threat from destructive land uses such as logging and grazing. This strategy has gained wide acceptance as a conservation paradigm [2]. As indicated by Ticktin [2], despite growing concern over the conservation of these species, as well as their potential to enhance forest conservation and livelihoods, information on the ecological implications of harvest is not available in the Kangchenjunga Landscape.

Illegal trade of NTFPs from the landscape often includes some of the CITES Appendix listed species such as Sunakhari (Orchids), Kutki (Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora), and Lauth salla (Taxus wallichiana). The trade also includes some plant species under legal protection of the Government of Nepal like Orchids, Champ (Michelia champaca), Jhyau (Lichens), Jatamansi (Nardostachys grandiflora), and Sughandhawal (Valeriana jatamansi) [43]. These species are mostly traded to India via local collectors, whereas limited quantity of these items are exported to Tibet [50, 51]. Conserving such species is challenging, yet illegal trade has slightly decreased in the last decade due to effective conservation efforts of local organizations and increased cultivation practices in the landscape. Community forestry, which has restricted open access to NTFPs, and resource monitoring have also been effective in conserving NTFPs in recent years. In addition, availability of economically important NTFP species has currently declined due to deforestation and replacement with monoculture, use of pesticides and over harvesting [50]. Traditional knowledge on the use of NTFPs such as medicinal plants is also gradually declining due to socio-economic transformation in the Kangchenjunga Landscape [49, 52, 53].

Monitoring is one of the key components to promote the NTFP sector. Follow-up of rules, regulations and strategies related to NTFPs is necessary for contributing to changes in policy that are able to mainstream sustainable management of NTFPs with livelihoods improvement. Limited progress has been achieved in the Kangchenjunga Landscape in controling over-harvesting, enforcing effective harvesting regimes, and maintaining conducive and adaptive adminstrative processess. Recently adopted economic tools such as certification of sustainable harvests should also be applied as a means of ensuring that NTFPs collected sustainably can be identified as such by the consumers [54, 55].

NTFPs reported from the Kangchenjunga Landscape also include many species under different threat categories as well as under priorities of the governments. For example, of the total 30 national priority herbs of Nepal, 26 are abundantly available in the Kangchenjunga Landscape, while all species prioritized for cultivation and research in Nepal are also reported from the Landscape [56]. Among these, Nardostachys grandiflora, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Rauvolfia serpentina and Taxus wallichiana are the most threatened species. Therefore, the economic, socio-cultural and conservation values of these NTFPs are extremely high.

NTFP policy frameworks

A comparision of NTFP policy frameworks in the Kangchenjunga Landscape shows that Bhutan, India and Nepal have supportive policies for the NTFP sector, thereby providing enabling environments and support for NTFP programs and marketing [25]. As a result, many development agencies including national and international non-governmental organizations have placed emphasis on NTFPs in their programs. The collection, conservation and sustainable utilization of NTFPs in Bhutan is mostly guided by the National Strategy for the Development of Non-Wood Forest Products 2008–2018. Other sectoral policies are the Forest Act 1969, Plant Quarantine Act of Bhutan 1993, Forest and Nature Conservation Act of Bhutan 1995, Environmental Assessment Act 2000 and Biodiversity Act and Framework of Bhutan 2003, 2006 [57]. The Indian National Forest Policy (1988) makes a special mention of NTFPs emphasizing on protection, improvement and their enhanced production for generation of employment and income [58]. Likewise, in Nepal there are several sectoral as well as specific policy provisions for sustainable use and management of NTFPs [15, 55]. The most comprehensive policy is the Herbs and Non-Timber Forest Product Development Policy 2004 [59]. The recent Nepal National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2014 and Forest Policy 2015 also emphasize sustainable use and management of NTFPs and critically provide special opportunity to support livelihoods of marginalized propoor and women through wise use of NTFP. Nevertheless, present policy formation, implementation and field reality reflects power structures and domination by certain stakeholders and interests [60].

Gender participation in policy formulation is also challenging. For example, 75 % of people collecting NTFPs in India were women and 100 % involved in NTFP processing were women, but their inclusion in Joint Forest Management committees was less than 10 % [61]. Similarly, in Nepal, although women contribute a large share of the labor for forest and biodiversity conservation in community forests, they represent only 22 % in the executive bodies of Community Forest User Groups [62]. Similar situation exists in Bhutan where the women’s involvement is generally low in the designing, planning, and implementation of forestry policies, and there is limited understanding of the roles, knowledge, aspirations and contributions made by women towards NTFP management [63].

Considerable efforts have been made to develop the NTFP sector, but the contribution of NTFPs in national economies remains insignificant. As pointed by Shackleton and Pandey [21], the reason behind this is that their economic value remains invisible to external observers as most NTFPs are used for household purposes; production and harvest of NTFPs is a seasonal event, with their use or trade involving only small quantities; much of the NTFP trade is via informal and closed markets which are hard to enumerate; production and markets is dispersed; and their use is highest in rural areas, which are often remote and marginalised in terms of human resources and development policies.

Gaps on knowledge based conservation and management of NTFPs

Like in other parts of the Himalayas, there is still a severe paucity of in-depth field based information on the abundance, reproductive biology and ecological impacts of harvesting of NTFPs in the Kangchenjunga Landscape. There is no standard method available to estimate the economic contribution of NTFPs and their products. Research on the inventory, life history of NTFPs, and impact of harvesting on the ecosystem is a prerequiste for their sustainable management, yet very few such activities have been documented from the landscape [64]. Similarly, ecological impacts of NTFPs harvesting for domestic and commercial purposes must be estimated to ensure their sustainability and the implementation for effective conservation measures.

Market size, structure and value chain of NTFP species depend on the demand and supply characteristics of products and their beneficiaries in different areas. Understanding market information is important for value addition and in devising investment strategies [16] for NTFPs based products, their diversification, and related enterprises. At present, the majority of NTFPs from the Kangchenjunga Landscape are traded in the raw forms, and NTFP harvesters lack necessary support for market-based strategies from both private, as well as government sectors.

Indigenous knowledge and management systems have been recognized for contributing to sustainable use of NTFPs, and consequently they have secured legal rights to manage forest resources [55]. In the Kangchenjunga Landscape, indigenous knowledge on NTFP use is well documented, but indigenous management systems need to be assessed and used for sustainable management.

Conclusion

We documented NTFPs collected and used for various purposes by the local people of the Kangchenjunga Landscape. The diversity of NTFPs was highest in India, followed by Nepal and Bhutan. Though the landscape possesses many potential species for trade, their nominal contribution to local livelihoods was due to lack of value addition and commercialization. Unsustainable harvesting and lack of value addition and commercialization could be considered as major challenges for conservation and development of the NTFP sector in the landscape.

Tracing the trend of NTFP research and exploitation, it shows much focus on medicinal plants resulting in over-harvesting of some highly potential medicinal plants, with very negligible amount of other plant species reported for other purposes. At present, NTFPs are synonymous with medicinal and aromatic plants and vice versa. Only small amounts of other NTFPs are marketed. Therefore, research must also focus on other potential categories of NTFPs. NTFP collectors need to be educated about forest ecology and the adverse impacts of unsustainable harvesting for conservation and local livelihoods. Sustainable harvesting techniques should be provided through training and capacity building programs to local people. Biological studies of high value NTFPs must be carried out in order to ensure sustainability of these resources.

Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants and nutrient value analysis of wild edible plants would foster their commercialization. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plant use could be integrated with ‘modern’ health care systems [65]. Highly potential NTFPs must be identified and grown for commercial cultivation and adopted in traditional agroforestry systems. This will reduce pressure on these species in their natural environments while providing economic benefits to poor farmers [47].

Conservation and development organizations, together with government agencies and private sectors, must provide technical and innovative inputs to add value to NTFP products. They must also facilitate community mobilization for assessment and identification of potential NTFPs. The latter role will be of significant importance considering the limited human and financial resources of government agencies in the Kangchenjunga Landscape. An integrated approach will promote sustainable use of NTFPs while contributing to income generation and livelihood improvement for local people. Transboundary landscape conservation programs will provide opportunities for transboundary cooperation through policy reforms, as well as providing opportunities to diversify livelihoods of forest dependent communities. However, marketing and commercialization of NTFPs can be successful only if the activity is transparent, equitable and sustainable, with important implications for poverty reduction and better resource management [20]. Increasing access to NTFP-selling outlets could be achieved through information dissemination, empowerment of collectors and establishment of linkages between collectors and traders [41]. The role of small and medium sized enterprises and cooperatives is extremely important to achieve sustainable management of NTFPs.

Notes

Declarations

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to recognize the support of the Austrian Development Agency (ADA) and the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) for their financial support through International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD).

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Research Centre for Applied Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University
(2)
Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST)
(3)
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
(4)
Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University

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