Open Access

Ethnomedicinal and cultural practices of mammals and birds in the vicinity of river Chenab, Punjab-Pakistan

Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201713:41

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-017-0168-5

Received: 26 May 2017

Accepted: 26 June 2017

Published: 12 July 2017

Abstract

Background

Although, use of animal species in disease treatment and culture practices is as ancient as that of plant species; however ethnomedicinal uses and cultural values of animal species have rarely been reported. Present study is the first report on the medicinal uses of mammals and bird species in Pakistan.

Methods

Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were applied to collect qualitative and quantitative data from local informants (N = 109). Relative frequency of mention (RFM), fidelity level (FL), relative popularity level (RPL), similarity index (SI) and rank order priority (ROP) indices were used to analyzed the data.

Results

One hundred and eight species of animals, which include: 83% birds and 17% mammals were documented. In total 30 mammalian and 28 birds’ species were used to treat various diseases such as rheumatic disorders, skin infections and sexual weakness among several others. Fats, flesh, blood, milk and eggs were the most commonly utilized body parts. Bos taurus, Bubalus bubalis, Capra aegagrus hircus, Felis domesticus, Lepus nigricollis dayanus and Ovis aries (mammals) and Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Columba livia, Coturnix coturnix, Gallus gallus and Passer domesticus (birds) were the highly utilized species. Medicinal and cultural uses of 30% mammals and 46% birds were reported for the first time, whereas 33% mammals and 79% birds depicted zero similarity with previous reports.

Conclusion

Present study exhibits significant ethnozoological knowledge of local inhabitants and their strong association with animal species, which could be helpful in sustainable use of biodiversity of the region. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of biological activities in the mammalian and birds’ species with maximum fidelity level and frequency of mention could be important to discover animal based novel drugs.

Graphical Abstract

Some commonly used mammals and birds species of the study area

Keywords

Ethnomedicinal uses, Mammals, Birds, Cultural significance, Pakistan

Background

Animal resources have been of significant value in different features of human life from its origins. Various animal species are present in art, music, religion, literature, medicine, food and many other human expressions [1, 2]. The phenomenon of zootherapy is noticeable mutually by a broad geographical distribution and profound historical origins [3]. Zootherapy contributes significantly in the healing practices, magic rituals [4] and constitutes an important alternative in modern civilization [5]. Therefore, to recognize this important relationship, ethnozoology should be considered as an affective field [6], and the social and cultural bonds between native people and animal species should be taken into account [7]. The use of animals for medicinal purposes is part of a body of traditional knowledge [5]. Wild and domestic animals and products derived from their bodies are not only used in traditional medicines, but are also increasingly valued as raw materials in the preparation of modern medicines and herbal preparations [8], 8.7% of essential chemicals are derived from animals [9]. Regardless of their importance, studies on the therapeutic uses of animals and their body parts have been neglected, when compared to plants [5].

Rural people make use of a large host of existing resources; while, they are not all evenly important. The idea of cultural importance arose through the study of traditional systems of classification and taxonomy [10]. Cultural importance of a species is the value of its characteristic within a human ethnic group [11]. There are different selection parameters of specific species or groups of species [1214]. The idea of a species, its specific ecological characteristics, the benefits obtained from it, the direct and/or indirect harm or damage it can cause, it’s cultural importance, and other criterion, are illustrations of substantial and insubstantial characteristics that people take into consideration to allocate value [15, 16]. And such evaluation involves different ecological and social procedures which are specific to each human ethnic group and occur in a different way through era. Thus, the cultural importance of an animal is a scientific method [17].

The fundamental relation between humans and animals goes behind utilitarian features. Consequently, documentation of traditional knowledge associated with medicinal and cultural uses of the wild and domesticated animal species is essential because the majority of local communities are rapidly losing their socioeconomic and cultural characteristics [18]. Particularly, mammals and birds are known as the most important and extremely fascinating species that is present in people’s thoughts and cultural traditions [16]. In several human ethnic communities, mammals and birds species constitute the major source of protein; used in medicine, leather industry as well as in folklore [16, 1921]. Pakistan has a rich diversity of mammals with a total of 195 listed species [22], and birds with a total of 668 observed species [23] and majority of them are utilized in traditional health care. However, ethnomedicinal uses and cultural importance of mammals and birds species in Pakistan have never been documented. Present study was aimed to document the medicinal uses and cultural value of mammals and birds species used by the local communities of three districts: Sialkot, Gujrat and Gujranwala around the river Chenab in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

Methods

Study area

Present study was conducted in the three districts of Punjab province Pakistan viz. Sialkot, Gujrat and Gujranwala located around the river Chenab (Fig 1). The river Chenab originates from Kangra and Kulu districts of Himachal Pradesh India and enters in Pakistan near Diawara village of district Sialkot [24]. The study area spreads over 9830 Km2 with temperature ranges from 1 °C to 48 °C in the months of December and June, respectively [2528].
Fig. 1

Map showing study area along with visited sites

Ethnography

Male population is dominant in the study area, and is estimated around 52%, while remaining 48% are female. Majority of the inhabitants (65%) lives in rural areas and 35% are settled in urban areas. Mughal, Jutt, Arain, Gujjar, Sheikh, Malik, Butt and Rana are the major ethnic communities while Christians are in minority. Most of the inhabitants speak Punjabi language (90.6%), followed by Urdu (9%), Pashto (0.2%), Siraki (0.19%) and English (0.01%). Wheat is the major cereal crop with annual production 1530 Thousand Million Tones (TMT) followed by rice (964 TMT) and sugarcane (225 TMT). Guava and citrus are the major fruits of the area with an annual production of 20,335 and 5010 Million Tons (MT). Study area is well known for vegetable production where potato, onion, tomato, carrot, brinjl, ladyfinger and garlic are commonly grown. Almost 1,347,000 cattle are slaughter annually for meet and on average 211 MT per annum wool obtained from animals like sheep and goats [2527].

Data collection and analysis

Field surveys were conducted during 2014–2015 to collect information on ethnomedicinal application of mammals and birds species. Formal consent was received from informants regarding data collection and publication; then the Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) approach as mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol was applied with the consent of the informant. Ethical guidelines of the International Society of Ethnobiology (http://www.ethnobiology.net/) were strictly followed. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were conducted from 109 informants (i.e. farmers, teachers, herdsmen, hunters and traditional health practitioners). Informants were selected based on their traditional knowledge on medicinal and cultural importance of mammals and birds species. Mammals species were recognized using field guides “Mammals of Pakistan” [29, 30]. Books of “Birds of Pakistan” were consulted for identification of birds of the study area [31, 32].

Data on ethnomedicinal uses and cultural values were analyzed using various indices such as; relative frequency of mention (RFM), fidelity level (FL), relative popularity level (RPL), rank order priority (ROP) and similarity index (SI).

Relative frequency of mention (RFM): The value of RFM for species of medicinal animals is based on the citing percentage of local informants for that particular animal species. RFM was calculated using formula as reported by [33].
$$ \mathrm{RFM}=\frac{\mathrm{FM}}{\mathrm{N}}\ \left(0\le RFM\le 1\right) $$

Where, FM = Frequency of mention (or number of informants) for a cultural use of a particular species. N = total number of informants.

Fidelity level (FL): was calculated by modified formula of [34].
$$ \mathrm{FL}\ \left(\%\right)={\mathrm{N}}_{\mathrm{p}}/\mathrm{FM}\times 100 $$

Where, Np is the number of informants of major ailment (IMA) for particular types of mammals and birds species. FM = Frequency of mention (or number of informants) for cultural use of a particular species.

Relative popularity level (RPL): was determined as explained earlier [35, 36]. Briefly, mammals and birds species were divided into two groups ‘popular’ and ‘unpopular’. Popular mammals and birds are those which were mentioned for more than half of the maximum FM. The remaining mammals and birds’ species were noted as unpopular. A co-ordinate system was utilize in which X-axis represents to the FM citing a mammals and birds species for cultural use, while Y-axis represents to the number of different cultural uses for each mammals and birds species. For mammals and birds species with low popularity level, a linear increase was assumed, namely, a greater FM cited the mammals and birds species for any use, hence a greater average number of uses per mammals and birds species. On the other hand, for popular mammals and birds species a horizontal line was supposed namely, the average number of uses per mammal and bird is independent of the FM, who knows the mammalian and avian species; Hence, the average number of uses of a popular mammals and birds species does not increase with the increased FM who mention the mammals and birds species for any medical use. For popular mammalian and avian species, the RPL was selected to 1.0. For mammals and birds species within the unpopular group, the RPL is less than 1.0. RPL values may be noted for each particular mammalian and avian species in accordance with its location on the graph.

Rank order priority (ROP): is used to rank the mammals and birds species [35, 36] and was calculated by formula,
$$ \mathrm{ROP}=\mathrm{FL}\times \mathrm{RPL} $$
Similarity index (SI) was calculated using formula
$$ \mathrm{SI}={\mathrm{M}}_{\mathrm{s}}/{\mathrm{M}}_t\kern1em \left(0\le \mathrm{SI}\le 1\right) $$

Ms. = Similar number of medicinal applications in present and previous research records for a particular species.

Mt. = Total number of medicinal applications in present and previous research records for a particular species.

Results and discussion

Demographic features of respondents

A total of 109 informants between the age of 20 to 70 years were interviewed (Table 1). Maximum respondents 73 were 41 to 60 years old. Approximately, 71 were literate with different levels of education viz., primary (25), secondary school certificate (41), graduate (4) and post-graduate (1). About 84 respondents were from rural areas and their main source of income was agriculture. The old age informants possess significant traditional knowledge compared to younger. This may be due to their wide interaction with animal species.
Table 1

Ethnographic data of local informants

Variables

Demographic categories

Number of informants

Gender

Male

109

Female

0

Experience

Health practitioners

20

Farmer

43

Teachers

23

Herdsman

15

Hunters

9

Age group

20–30

9

31–40

27

41–50

36

51–60

26

above 60

11

Education

Post-graduate

1

Graduate

4

SSC

41

Primary

25

Illiterate

38

Residence

Rural

84

Urban

25

Religious background

Muslim

108

Non-Muslim

1

Local nomenclature

Vernacular nomenclature represents the local names of animal species used for medicinal and cultural purposes. Local name usually have clue about habitat, morphological difference, myth and social associations. For example, choha is used as suffix synonym in five species such as Millardia meltada (Fasli choha), Mus musculus (Chota choha), Nesokia indica (Choti push wala choha), Rattus rattus (Wada choha) and Tatera indica (Jangli choha). These variations in local names are due to difference in morphological characteristics i.e. house rat has larger size and is known as ‘wada choha’; mouse has smaller size and is named ‘chota choha’; and short tailed mole rat is called ‘chhoti dum wala choha’. Suncus etruscus (Mediterranean pygmy shrew) is the world smallest mammal. In the study area it is named as ‘choti chachondar’; alike suffix ‘waddi chachondar’ is used for Suncus murinus (House shrew) due to its large size. Hystrix indica (Indian crested porcupine) and long eared Hemiechinus collaris (Desert hedgehog) have same suffix ‘say’. Indian crested porcupine is known as ‘kanday wali say’ due to long spines while long eared desert hedgehog is known as ‘chotay kanday ali say’ because of small spines.

Based on habitat some mammals were named as ‘fasli choha’ (M. meltada) lives in cultivated fields, whereas ‘jungli choha (T. indica) is found in forests only. Likewise, Lepus nigricollis dayanus (Desert hare) lives in forest and is named jungli khargush or saya, while Oryctolagus cuniculus (Domestic rabbit) lives in houses and is known as khargush or saya. Five species of mammals were noted to have more than one local names viz. desert hare ‘jungli saya and jungli khargush’, Indian wild boar (Sus scrofa) ‘baarla and soor’ and domestic rabbit ‘khargush and saya’. Saya and baarla are common names in the forest land and rural areas, whereas khurgush and soor are used in urban areas. Chotay kanday ali say and Kandyari Choha are common names of Hemiechinus collaris Pangolin and Sipple are also common names of Manis crassicaudata in all areas (Table 2).
Table 2

Cultural uses of mammals and birds in the study area

S. no

Scientific, local & common name

MCU

FM

RFM

Med. use

Cultural uses

Mag

Entt

Do

To

Cc

Pt

Or

Fo

Na

Ha

 

Mammals

1.

Bos taurus L.

Cow, Gay

5

36

0.33

X

X

X

X

X

X

2.

Bubalus bubalis L.

Buffalo, Mujh

5

40

0.37

X

X

X

X

X

X

3.

Camelus dromedaries L.

Camel, Ount

5

24

0.22

X

X

X

X

X

X

4.

Canis aureus L.

Asiatic jackal, Gidar

3

17

0.16

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

5.

Canis lupus familiaris L.

Dog, Kuta

5

19

0.17

X

X

X

X

X

X

6.

Capra aegagrus hircus L.

Goat, Bakri

5

32

0.29

X

X

X

X

X

X

7.

Equus africanus von Heuglin

Donkey, Gadha

5

22

0.2

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

8.

Equus caballus L.

Horse, Kurrah

5

28

0.26

X

X

X

X

X

X

9.

Felis chaus Schreber

Jungle cat, Jungli billi

3

15

0.14

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

10.

Felis domesticus L.

Cat, Billi

3

46

0.42

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

11.

Funnambulus pennanti Wroughton Northern palm squirrel, Gulahri

1

7

0.06

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

12.

Hemiechinus collaris Gray

Long eared desert hedgehog

Chotay kanday ali say, Kandyari Choha

2

11

0.1

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

13.

Herpestes javanicus E. Geoffroy Small Indian mongoose, Neola

3

12

0.11

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

14.

Homo sapiens L.

Human, Insan

1

9

0.08

X

-

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

15.

Hystrix indica Kerr

Indian crested porcupine, Kanday wali say

4

52

0.48

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

16.

Lepus nigricollis dayanus F. Cuvier Desert hare, Jungli saya, Jungli khargush

4

54

0.5

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

17.

Manis crassicaudata E. Geoffroy Indian Pangolin, Pangolin, Sipple

1

8

0.07

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

18.

Millardia meltada Gray

Soft-furred field rat, Fasli Choha

1

6

0.06

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

19.

Mus musculus L.

House mouse, Chota Choha

1

4

0.04

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

20.

Nesokia indica Gray

Short tailed mole rat, Chhoti push wala choha

1

3

0.03

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

21.

Oryctolagus cuniculusl.

Domestic rabbit, Khargush, Saya

4

14

0.13

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

22.

Ovis aries L.

Sheep, Bairh

5

23

0.21

X

X

X

X

X

X

23.

Pteropus giganteus Brunnich

Indian flying fox bat, Chamgadar

1

10

0.09

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

24.

Rattus rattus L.

House rat, Wada Choha

1

5

0.05

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

25.

Suncus etruscus Savi

Mediterranean pygmy shrew, Choti chachondar

1

2

0.02

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

26.

Suncus murinus L.

House shrew, Waddi chachondar

1

2

0.02

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

27.

Sus scrofa L.

Indian wild boar, Baarla, Soor

4

20

0.18

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

28.

Tatera indica Hardwicke

Indian gerbil, Jungli Choha

1

3

0.03

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

29.

Ursus thibetanus G. Cuvier

Bear, Richh

7

26

0.24

X

X

X

X

30.

Vulpes bengalensis Shaw Indian/Bengal fox, Lomri

3

13

0.12

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

Birds

31.

Acridotheres ginginianus Latham

Bank Myna, Shark

3

21

0.193

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

32.

Acridotheres tristis L.

Common Myna, Lali

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

33.

Acrocephalus dumetorum Blyth

Blyth’s Reed Warbler, Dabh peeddi

2

6

0.055

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

34.

Acrocephalus melanopogon Temminck

Moustached Sedge Warbler, Chhoti Peeddi

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

35.

Alauda arvensis L

Eurasian Lark, Chandol

4

35

0.321

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

36.

Alauda gulgula Franklin

Small Skylark, Chhota chandol

4

35

0.321

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

37.

Alcedo atthis L.

Common Kingfisher, Chhota machhera

2

12

0.11

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

38.

Amandava amandava L.

Red Munia, Lal moonia

2

11

0.101

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

39.

Amaurornis phoenicurus Pennant,

White-breasted Waterhen, Chitthikki jal kukri

4

25

0.229

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

40.

Anas clypeata L.

Shoveler, Balchi

2

9

0.083

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

41.

Anas crecca L.

Common Teal, Til

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

42.

Anas penelope L.

Eurasian Wigeon. Wijan

4

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

43.

Anas platyrhynchos domesticus L.

Domestic Duck, Batakh

5

55

0.505

X

X

X

X

X

X

44.

Anas platyrhynchos L.

Mallard, Nilsir

3

11

0.101

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

45.

Anas querquedula L.

Garganey, Nili til

3

22

0.202

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

V

X

X

46.

Anas strepera L.

Gadwall, Gaidwal

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

47.

Anhinga melanogaster Pennant

Snake Bird, Bhujanga

2

6

0.055

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

48.

Anser indicus Latham

Bar-headed Goose, Sawa magh

4

22

0.202

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

49.

Anthus campestris L.

Tawny Pipit, Baggi charchari

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

50.

Anthus novaeseelandiae Gmelin

Richard Pipit, Charchari

2

2

0.018

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

51.

Anthus trivialis L.

Tree Pipit, Rukh charchari

2

6

0.055

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

52.

Anus auta L.

Pintail Duck, Sinkhpur

4

38

0.349

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

53.

Apus affinis Gray

Little Swift, Chhoti ateran

2

11

0.101

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

54.

Aquila rapax Temminck

Tawny Eagle, Chhota baaz

3

9

0.083

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

55.

Ara macao L.

Macaw, Macaw

3

24

0.22

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

56.

Ardea cinerea L.

Grey Heron, Nari

2

15

0.138

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

57.

Ardea cinerea L.

Purple Heron, Kirmachi nari

2

17

0.156

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

58.

Ardeola grayii Sykes

Indian Pond Heron, Chhappari bagla

2

2

0.018

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

59.

Athene brama Temminck

Spotted Little Owlet, Ullo

5

31

0.284

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

60.

Aythya ferina L.

Common Pochard, Pochad

4

35

0.321

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

61.

Aythya fuligula L.

Tufted Duck, Bodal murgabi

4

34

0.312

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

62.

Bubulcus ibis L.

Cattle Egret, Badami bagla

3

6

0.055

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

63.

Buteo buteo L.

Common Buzzard, Tisa

2

2

0.018

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

64.

Buteo rufinus Cretzschmar

Long-legged Buzzard, Chuhamar tisa

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

65.

Calandrella brachydactylaLeisler,

Greater Short-toed Lark, Chandol

4

35

0.321

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

66.

Calidris alpine L.

Tateri

2

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

67.

Calidris minuta Leisler

Little Stint, Panlawa

2

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

68.

Calidris temminckii Leisler

Temminck’s Stint

2

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

69.

Caprimulgus europaeus L.

European Nightjar, Chapaki

2

27

0.248

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

70.

Carpodacus erythrinus Pallas

Common Rosefinch, Lal tooti

4

15

0.138

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

71.

Centropus sinensis Stephens

Common Crow Pheasant, Jal Kukar

3

18

0.165

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

72.

Cercomela fusca Blyth

Common Rock chat, Lal galri

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

73.

Ceryle rudis L.

Small Pied kingfisher, Kilkila

2

9

0.083

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

74.

Charadrius alexandrinus L.

Snowy Plover, Kalarwala marwa

3

17

0.156

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

75.

Chlidonias hybridus Pallas

Whiskered Tern, Taheri

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

76.

Chrysomma altirostre JerdonSind Babbler, Serhari

2

2

0.018

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

77.

Cisticola juncidis Rafinesque

Fan-tailed Warbler, Phanka Peeddi

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

78.

Clamator jacobinus Boddaert

Pied Crested Cuckoo, Koail

2

14

0.128

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

79.

Columba livia Gmelin

Blue Rock Pigeon, Jangli kabotar

6

60

0.55

X

X

X

X

X

X

80.

Coracias benghalensis L.

Indian Roller, Nil kanth

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

81.

Coracias garrulus L.

Kashmir Roller, Nil Kanth

2

8

0.073

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

82.

Corvus splendens Vieillot

House Crow, Kaan

4

28

0.257

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

83.

Coturnix coturnix L.

Common Quail, Batera

6

58

0.532

X

X

X

X

X

X

84.

Cursorius coromandelicus Gmelin,

Indian Courser, Nukri

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

85.

Dendrocitta vagabunda Latham

Indian Tree Pie, Chhota kaan, Lagoja

2

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

86.

Dicrurus macrocercus Vieillot

Black Drongo, Japal kalchit, Chepu

2

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

87.

Egretta alba L.

Large Egret, Wadda bagla

3

10

0.092

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

88.

Egretta garzetta L.

Little Egret, Bauna bagla

3

8

0.073

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

89.

Egretta intermedia Wagler Intermediate Egret, Gabhla bagla

3

12

0.11

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

90.

Elanus caeruleus Desfontaines

Black Winged Kite, Chiti ail

2

10

0.092

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

91.

Emberiza bruniceps Brandt

Red-headed Bunting, Lal sir booli

2

25

0.229

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

92.

Emberiza schoeniclus L.

Reed Bunting, Booli

2

14

0.128

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

93.

Eremopterix grisea Scopoli

Ashy Crowned Finch lark, Saleti sir chandol

4

35

0.321

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

94.

Eudynamys scolopacea L.

Koel, Koal

4

24

0.22

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

95.

Falco tinnunculus L.

Eurasian Kestrel, Lal shikra

2

11

0.101

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

96.

Falco chicquera Daudin,

Red Necked Falcon, Lal-gardan baaz

2

10

0.092

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

97.

Ficedula parva Bechstein

Red-breasted Flycatcher, Lal gala tik tiki

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

98.

Francolinus francolinus L.

Black partridge, Kala tittar

6

56

0.514

X

X

X

X

X

X

99.

Francolinus pondicerianus Gmelin,

Indian Grey Partridge, Bhura tittar

5

23

0.211

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

100.

Fulica atra L.

Eurasian Coot, Koot

2

11

0.101

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

101.

Gallicrex cinerea Gmelin

Watercock, Jal murgha

2

13

0.119

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

102.

Gallinula chloropus L.

Common Moorhen, Jal kukri

4

34

0.312

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

103.

Gallus gallus L.

Domestic Chicken, Murghi

5

62

0.569

X

X

X

X

X

X

104.

Gelochelidon nilotica Gmelin

Gull-billed Tern, Bularh taheri

2

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

105.

Grus grus L.

Common Crane, Waddi kunj

2

9

0.083

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

106.

Halcyon smyrnensis L.

White-throated Kingfisher, Wadda machhera

2

14

0.128

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

107.

Hieraaetus fasciatus Sibley & Monroe

Bonnelli’s Eagle, Baaz

3

14

0.128

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

1108.

Himantopus himantopus L.

Black-winged Stilt, Lam latta

2

15

0.138

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

109.

Hippolais caligata Lichtenstein

Booted Warbler, Chita gala Peeddi

2

7

0.064

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

110.

Hirundo rustica L.

Barn or Common Swallow, Ababil

2

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

111.

Hirundo smithii Leach

Wire-tailed Swallow, Tar punjha

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

112.

Hoplopterus indicus Boddaert

Red-wattled Lapwing, Tatihri

2

13

0.119

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

113.

Ixobrychus sinensis Gmelin

Yellow Bittern, Bora bagla

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

114.

Larus fuscus L

Lesser Black-headed Gull, Chhota damra

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

115.

Lonchura malabarica L.

Indian Silverbill

4

17

0.156

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

116.

Lymnocryptes minimus Brünnich,

Jack Snipe, Rangla chaha

2

6

0.055

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

117.

Meleagris gallopavo L.

Turkey, Turkey

5

30

0.275

X

X

X

X

X

X

118.

Merops orientalis Latham

Little Green Bee-eater, Chhota path ranga

2

7

0.064

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

119.

Merops supercilliosus L.

Blue-cheeked Bee-eater, Chhota path ranga

3

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

120.

Milvus migrans migrans Boddaert,

Indian Kite, Cheil, Ail

2

8

0.073

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

121.

Motacilla alba alboides Hodgson,

Hodgeson’s Pied Wagtail, Wadda mamola

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

122.

Motacilla alba dukhunensis Sykes,

Siberian Pied Wagtail, Wadda mamola

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

123.

Motacilla cinerea Tunstall

Grey Wagtail, Slati mamola

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

124.

Motacilla citreola calcarata PallasYellow-headed Black-backed Wagtail, Pila kala Mamola

2

6

0.055

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

125.

Motacilla citreola citreola Pavlova Yellow-Headed Black-Collared Wagtail, Pila Mamola

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

126.

Motacilla citreola werae Pavlova Yellow-headed Grey-backed Wagtail

Pila si mamaloa

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

127.

Motacilla maderaspatensis Gmelin,

Large Pied Wagtail, Wada mamola

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

128.

Mycteria leucocephala Pennant

Painted Stork, Chitra lamdhing

2

11

0.101

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

129.

Nectarinia asiatica Latham

Purple Sunbird, Kala pidda, Shakar khora

2

7

0.064

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

130.

Nycticorax nycticorax L.

Night Heron, Chor bagla

2

7

0.064

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

131.

Oenanthe isabellina Temminck,

Isabelline Wheatear, Kali akha wheater

3

15

0.138

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

132.

Oenanthe picata Blyth

Eastern Wheatear, Kali cheeti wheatear

3

20

0.183

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

133.

Oriolus oriolus L.

Golden Oriole, Pilak

2

13

0.119

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

134.

Orthotomus sutorius Pennant

Tailor Bird, Derzi

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

135.

Parus major L.

Great Tit, Wadda tit

2

8

0.073

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

136.

Passer domesticus L.

House Sparrow, Chiri

6

64

0.587

X

X

X

X

X

X

137.

Passer hispaniolensis Temminck,

Willow Sparrow, Chini chiri

2

15

0.138

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

138.

Pavo cristatus L.

Peacock, Moor

3

25

0.229

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

139.

Pericrocotus ethologus Bangs & Phillips

Long-tailed Minivet, Lam punjhi saheli

2

7

0.064

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

140.

Pernis ptilorhynchus Temminck,

Crested Honey Buzzard, Makhi tissa

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

141.

Phalacrocorax niger Vieillot

Little Cormorant, Jal kaan

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

142.

Phoenicurus ochruros Gmelin

Black Redstart, Kala thirthara

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

143.

Phylloscopus subviridis Brooks

Brooks’s Leaf Warbler, Hari peeli Peeddi

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

144.

Ploceus philippinus L.

Baya Weaver, Bijra

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

145.

Porzana parva Scopoli

Little Crake, Jal bater

2

15

0.138

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

146.

Prinia burnesii Blyth

Long-tailed Grass Warbler, Bori Peeddi

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

147.

Prinia gracilis Lichtenstein

Streaked Long-tailed Warbler,

Lumbi push Peeddi

2

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

148.

Prinia inornata Sykes

Tawny Prinia, Chhoti bori Peeddi

4

27

0.248

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

149.

Prinia socialis Sykes

Ashy long-tailed Warbler, Uchi push Peeddi

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

150.

Psittacula eupatria L.

Large Indian Parakeet, Wada tota

4

50

0.459

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

151.

Psittacula krameri Scopoli

Rose-ringed Parakeet, Gani wala Tota

5

50

0.459

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

152.

Pycnonotus cafer L.

Red-vented Bulbul, Pahari bulbul

2

2

0.018

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

153.

Pycnonotus leucogenys Gray

White-cheeked Bulbul, Bulbul

2

2

0.018

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

154.

Rallus aquaticus L.

Water Rail

2

13

0.119

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

155.

Recurvirostra avosetta L.

Pied Avocet, Chaha

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

156.

Remiz pendulinus L.

Penduline Tit, Tit

2

6

0.055

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

157.

Rhipidura aureola Lesson

White-browned Fantail Flycatcher

Phanka tik tiki

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

158.

Riparia paludicola Vieillot

Indian Sindh Martin, Martin

2

35

0.321

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

159.

Riparia riparia L.

Collard Sand Martin, Martin ababil

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

160.

Rynchops albicollis Swainson

Indian Skimmer, Pancheera

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

161.

Saxicola leucura Blyth

White-tailed Bushchat, Galri

2

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

162.

Saxicoloides fulicata L.

Indian Robin, Kalla Peedda

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

163.

Sterna acuticauda Gray

Black-bellied Tern, Kali chonge taheri

2

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

164.

Sterna albifrons Pallas

Little Tern, Choti taheri

2

6

0.055

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

165.

Sterna aurantia Gray

Indian River Tern, Dariai taheri

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

166.

Streptopelia decaocto Frivaldszky

Indian Ring Dove, Kogi, Ghogi

6

45

0.413

X

X

X

X

X

X

167.

Streptopelia orientalis Latham

Oriental turtle Dove, Totru

6

44

0.404

X

X

X

X

X

X

168.

Streptopelia senegalensis L.

Little Brown Dove, Chhoti tutru, Chhoti kogi

6

36

0.33

X

X

X

X

X

X

169.

Streptopelia tranquebarica Hermann,

Red Turtle Dove, Lal totru

6

47

0.431

X

X

X

X

X

X

170.

Sturnus roseus L.

Rosy Starling, Gulabi tilyar, Gulabi maina

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

171.

Sturnus vulgaris L.

Common Starling, Tilyar, Maina

2

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

172.

Sylvia curruca L.

Lesser Whitethroat, Chitt kanthi peeddi

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

173.

Tachybaptus ruficollis Pallas

Little Grebe, Dubkian

2

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

174.

Tadorna ferruginea Pallas

Common Shelduck, Surkhab

2

3

0.028

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

175.

Tadorna tadorna L.

Ruddy Shelduck, Surmai

2

6

0.055

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

176.

Tephrodornis pondicerian Gmelin,

Common Wood Shrike, Latora

2

6

0.055

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

177.

Tringa glareola L.

Wood Sandpiper

2

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

178.

Tringa nebularia Gunnerus

Greenshank, Hara chaha

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

179.

Tringa ochropus L.

Green Sandpiper

2

6

0.055

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

180.

Tringa stagnatilis Bechstein

Marsh Sandpiper

2

5

0.046

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

181.

Turdoides caudatus Dumont

Common Babbler, Serhari

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

182.

Turdoides earlei Blyth

Striated Babbler, Dharidar serhari

2

7

0.064

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

183.

Turdoides striatus Dumont

Jungle Babbler, Jangli serhari

2

9

0.083

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

184.

Upupa epops L.

Common Hoopoe, Hud-hud

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

185.

Vanellus vanellus L.

Great Plover, Waddi karvank

2

4

0.037

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

MCU (Medicinal and Cultural Uses), FM (Frequency of Mention), RFM (Relative Frequency of Mention), Med (Medicinal), Mag (Magic), Entt (Entertainment), Do (Domestic), To (Tool), Cc (Commercial), Pt (Pet), Or (Ornamental), Fo (Food), Na (Narrative), Ha (Harmful)

The local name of 96.2% bird species are mentioned (Table 2). However, local name of 3.8% species including Rallus aquaticus, Calidris temminckii, Tringa stagnatilis, Tringa ochropus, Tringa glareola and Lonchura malabarica could not be searched. Around 8 bird species were noted to have more than one local name. These include: Milvus migrans migrans, (Cheil and Ail), Streptopelia decaocto (Kogi and Ghogi), Streptopelia orientalis (Tutru and Chhoti kogi), Nectarinia asiatica (Kala pidda and Shaker khora), Dicrurus macrocercus, (Japal kalchit and Chepu), Sturnus vulgaris (Tilyar and Maina), Sturnus roseus (Gulabi tilyar and Gulabi maina), and Dendrocitta vagabunda, (Chhota kaan and Lagoja). About 5.2% species have synonyms; because of their resemblance with other bird species such as Merops orientalis, and Merops supercilliosus have synonym chhota path ranga; the synonym of Oenanthe isabellina, Oenanthe picata is wheatear; Coracias garrulus and Coracias benghalensis have synonym nil kanth; while Chrysomma altirostre, and Turdoides caudatus called as serhari.

Interestingly, the vernacular names of 26 bird species were associated with their voice. These species were: Phalacrocorax niger (jal kaan), Anas Penelope (wijan), Milvus migrans (ail), Elanus caeruleus (chiti ail), Francolinus francolinus (kala tittar), Coturnix coturnix (batera), Grus grus (waddi kunj), Recurvirostra avosetta (chaha), Hoplopterus indicus (tatihri), Calidris alpine (tateri), Tringa nebularia (hara chaha), Gelochelidon nilotica (bularh taheri), Chlidonias hybridus (taheri), Streptopelia orientalis (Totru), Psittacula eupatria (wada tota), Psittacula krameri,(ganiwala tota), Clamator jacobinus (koail), Eudynamys scolopacea (koal), Ceryle rudis (kilkila), Upupa epops (hud-hud), Coracias benghalensis (nil kanth), Hirundo rustica (ababil), Anthus campestris (baggi charchari), Corvus splendens (kaan), Carpodacus erythrinus (lal tooti) and Athene brama (ullo).

The local name and English name of 10.3% species were same. Such as Teal for (Anas crecca), Gadwall (Anas strepera), Wigeon (Anas Penelope), Pochard (Aythya ferina), Coot (Fulica atra), Koel (Eudynamys scolopacea), Martin (Riparia paludicola), Tit (Remiz pendulinus & Parus major), Bulbul (Pycnonotus spp.), Macaw (Ara macao), Wheatear (Oenanthe spp.) and Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). This may be due the fact that, English is the official language of Pakistan and British Government had ruled over this region more than 9 decades.

Body part(s) used

The body parts of mammals and birds species used in different recipes are presented in Fig. 2a and b. In mammals, fat was the most utilized body part (21 recipes), followed by flesh (7), milk (6) and blood (4), while remaining parts were used in one recipe only. Among birds, flash was the most commonly used body part with maximum application of 18 recipes, followed by fat and blood (each in 5 recipes), egg (4 recipes) and bones (3 recipes).
Fig. 2

Body parts of mammals (a) and birds (b) used in various recipes

The inhabitants of the study area use fat and flesh to treat skin infections, rheumatic pains, burning sensation, body swelling and as sex stimulant. The presence of omega-3 fatty acid in fat that reduces inflammation may involve treating human ailments [37]. As this compound is also useful in neurological disorder, atherosclerosis, thrombotic and aging affects [3840]. Likewise, milk of Bubalus bubalis (Buffalo), Bos taurus (Cow), Capra aegagrus hircus (Goat), Camelus dromedaries (Camel), Equus africanus (Donkey) and Ovis aries (Sheep) is used to treat muscular pain, weakness, fever, and as sexual tonic. This may be due to the presence of high contents of proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals in milk, which strengthens the body, reduce joint pain and increase sexual potency [4145].

Blood of different species such as donkey, domestic rabbit, desert hare, camel, spotted little owlet, cattle egret, large egret, little egret and intermediate egret was effective in abdominal dropsy, arthritis, burning sensation, sexual weakness and dysentery. Flesh of different mammals and birds was used to cure asthma, epilepsy, joint pain, sexual debility and skin infections. Human’s urine was reported against herpes and to treat ear pain in the study area. It has been documented that the urine of cow, sheep, camel, hyrax, goat, rhinoceros and ass effective in the treatment of disinfection, skin diseases, syphilis, tuberculosis, asthma, mouth infection, foot diseases, chronic ailment, acne, back pain, fever, anemia, nervous problem, memory loss, as antifungal, throat, rashes, burn, ear and eyes infections [2, 20, 4656]. In addition, urine of camel inhibits cell proliferation, enhance apoptosis, maintain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21[48], and has high resistance against heat as well as fungal diseases [54].

Ethnomedicinal uses of mammals and birds

Present investigation is the first report on ethnomedicinal uses and cultural values of mammals and bird species in Pakistan. The inhabitants of the study area use different animals to treat health disorders and possess significant traditional knowledge particularly on medicinal and cultural uses of mammals and birds species. In total, 30 mammalian and 28 bird species are used to treat various diseases in the study area (Table 3). The Fig. 3a and b demonstrates percentage of animal based (mammals and birds) recipes used to treat various diseases by the inhabitants of the study area. Rheumatic disorders, skin infections, sexual weakness and gastrointestinal disorders were among the topmost ailments treated, followed be body pain, burning sensation and paralysis. In mammals 23% recipes were used to treat skin infections, followed by sexual problems and rheumatic disorders (20 and 14%, respectively), whereas for birds highest percentage recipes were used to treat body weakness, gastrointestinal disorders and skin infections (20, 18 and 13%, respectively). Nutritional deficiency, lack of hygienic environment and social evils may attribute in high prevalence of these diseases in the study area.
Table 3

Medicinal uses of mammals and birds and their comparison with previous reports

S. no

Scientific, common and local name

Part used

Application

Diseases cured

Previous reports

Reference

SI

IMA

FL

RPL

ROP

 

Mammals

1.

Bos taurus L. Cow, Gay

Fat, milk, Flesh

Topical and oral

Feet wounds, body pain, fever, poison effect

Fever, bone fever, memory loss, paralysis, asthma, stomach ache, gastritis, diarrhea, eye infection, tuberculosis, pesticide

[46, 47, 59, 62, 65, 77, 78]

0.08

36

100

1

100

2.

Bubalus bubalis L. Buffalo Mujh

Fat, Milk, flesh

Topical and oral

Feet wound, body pain, fever, poison effect

Pain, wound, jaundice, ascites, rheumatic pain, weakness, osteoporosis, thrombosis

[18, 5557, 59, 61, 77, 79]

0.18

16

40

1

40

3.

Camelus dromedaries L.

Camel

Ount

Milk, blood

Topical and oral

Muscular pain, weakness, arthritis

Acidity, hepatitis B and C

[60, 64]

0

10

42

0.89

37

4.

Canis aureus L.

Asiatic jackal

Gidar

Flesh, bones

Topical

Skin diseases

Asthma, sciatica, arthritis, body pain, gout, skin diseases, paralysis

[46, 47, 57, 70, 78]

0.14

11

65

0.63

41

5.

Canis lupus familiaris L.

Dog

Kuta

Fat, flesh

Topical

Sexual power

Weakness, poison, fever

[77]

0

8

42

0.7

30

6.

Capra aegagrus hircus L.

Goat

Bakri

Milk

Oral

Increase sexual efficiency

Fever, eye tonic, tonsillitis, asthma, tuberculosis, menstrual disorder, toothache, anemia, dysentery, bronchitis, jaundice, diarrhea, blindness

[55, 5862, 64]

0

13

41

1

41

7.

Equus africanus von Heuglin & Fitzinger

Donkey

Gadha

Milk, blood

Topical

Abdominal dropsy, arthritis

Arthritis, madness, abdominal dropsy, tuberculosis

[55, 58, 70]

0.5

9

41

0.81

33

8.

Equus caballus L.

Horse

Kurrah

Fat

Topical

Skin infection

Rabies, skin diseases, burn, allergy, arthritis, body pain, neuralgia, osteoporosis

[50, 55, 56]

0.13

11

39

1

39

9.

Felis chaus Schreber

Jungle cat

Jungli billi

Fat

Topical

Joint Pain

Leucoderma

[55]

0

10

67

0.56

37

10.

Felis domesticus L.

Cat

Billi

Fat

Topical

Rheumatic pain, skin infections

Fever, arthritis

[57, 58]

0

46

100

1

100

11.

Funnambulus pennanti Wroughton

Northern palm squirrel

Gulahri

Flesh

Topical and oral

Epilepsy

Epilepsy

[59]

1

4

57

0.26

15

12.

Hemiechinus collaris Gray

Long eared desert hedgehog

Chotay kanday ali say, Kandyari Choha

Fat

Topical

Rheumatic pain, body ache

  

0

7

64

0.41

26

13.

Herpestes javanicus E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilarie

Small Indian mongoose

Neola

Fat

Topical

Sexual power

  

0

8

67

0.44

30

14.

Homo sapiens L.

Human

Insan

Saliva, urine

Topical

Herpes, ear pain

Eye infections, wound, hiccup

[4951, 58, 70, 77, 80]

0

6

67

0.33

22

15.

Hystrix indica Kerr

Indian crested porcupine

Kanday wali say

Fat

Topical

Skin infection, Rheumatic pain

  

0

26

50

1

50

16.

Lepus nigricollis dayanus F. Cuvier

Desert hare

Jungli saya, Jungli khargush

Flesh, liver, blood

Topical and oral

Asthma, burning sensation, paralysis

Tonic, chicken pox, wheezing, stomach and joint pain, high blood pressure, asthma

[46, 47, 55, 56, 59, 70, 77, 78]

0.13

27

50

1

50

17.

Manis crassicaudata E. Geoffroy

Indian Pangolin

Pangolin, Sipple

Scale, flesh

Topical

Feet swelling, Sexual power

Feet swelling, piles, blood pressure, head ach, asthma, anti-haemorrhoidal, warts, ear pain, angina

[55, 56, 59, 65, 66, 70]

0.1

3

38

0.3

11

18.

Millardia meltada Gray

Soft-furred field rat

Fasli Choha

Fat

Topical

Joint pain

  

0

3

50

0.22

11

19.

Mus musculus L.

House mouse

Chota Choha

Fat

Topical

Enhancement of semen

Arthritis, analgesic

[60, 80]

0

2

50

0.15

7

20.

Nesokia indica Gray

Short tailed mole rat

Chhoti push wala choha

Fat

Topical

Joint pain

  

0

2

67

0.11

7

21.

Oryctolagus cuniculusL.

Domestic rabbit

Khargush, Saya

Tail, blood

Topical

Burning sensation, weakness

Bronchial diseases, stomachache

[63, 64]

0

14

100

0.52

52

22.

Ovis aries L.

Sheep

Bairh

Fat, milk, flesh

Topical and oral

Skin burn and crack, weakness, joint pain

Edema, fractures, joint pain, sterility, flu, skin burn and crack, muscular pain, swellings, weakness,

[20, 45, 47, 52, 56, 8082]

0.2

23

100

0.85

85

23.

Pteropus giganteus Brunnich

Indian flying fox bat

Chamgadar

Fat

Topical

Body and backbone pain, sexual power

Asthma, bronchitis

[55, 56, 61, 77]

0

5

50

0.37

19

24.

Rattus rattus L.

House rat

Wada Choha

Fat

Topical

Joint pain

Convulsions, semen enhancement, wounds healing,

[56, 57, 61, 69]

0

3

60

0.19

11

25.

Suncus etruscus Savi

Mediterranean pygmy shrew

Choti chachondar

Fat

Topical

Scrotal swelling

  

0

1

50

0.07

4

26.

Suncus murinus L.

House shrew

Waddi chachondar

Fat

Topical

Scrotal swelling

Snake bite, scrotal swelling

[56, 61]

0.5

1

50

0.07

4

27.

Sus scrofa L.

Indian wild boar

Baarla, Soor

Fat

Topical

Paralysis, burn

Inflammatory, joint pain, fracture, paralysis, burn, snake bite, fever, piles, cough, cold, anti-haemorrhoidal, warts, earache, angina

[46, 47, 50, 55, 56, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 70, 77, 80]

0.17

10

50

0.74

37

28.

Tatera indica Hardwicke

Indian gerbil

Jungli Choha

Fat

Topical

Lumbago

  

0

1

33

0.11

4

29.

Ursus thibetanus G. Cuvier

Bear

Richh

Fat

Topical

Sexual power

  

0

7

27

0.96

26

30.

Vulpes bengalensis Shaw

Indian/Bengal fox

Lomri

Fat

Topical

Epilepsy

  

0

9

69

0.48

33

 

Birds

31.

Acridotheres tristis L.

Common Myna, Lali

Flesh

Oral

Whooping cough, weakness

  

0

15

71.43

0.66

47

32.

Anas platyrhynchos domesticus L.

Domestic Duck, Batakh

Egg

Oral

Weak eye-side, weakness, low blood pressure

 

[20, 55, 56, 69]

0

55

100.

1.00

100

33.

Anas platyrhynchos L.

Mallard, Nilsir

Flesh, egg

Oral

Paralysis, weakness

Erectile dysfunction, scarlet fever, body strength, weakness

 

0.2

10

90.91

0.34

31

34.

Aquila rapax Temminck

Tawny Eagle, Chhota baaz

Fat

Topical

Breast swelling

Chest pain

[45]

0

4

44.44

0.28

13

35.

Ara macao L.

Macaw, Macaw

Fat

Topical

Pneumonia

  

0

9

37.50

0.75

28

36.

Athene brama Temminck

Spotted Little Owlet, Ullo

Blood

Topical

Sexual weakness

Rickets, cough

[55]

0

18

58.06

0.97

56

37.

Bubulcus ibis L.

Cattle Egret, Badami bagla

Blood, Flesh

Topical and oral

Dysentery

  

0

1

16.67

0.19

3

38.

Centropus sinensis Stephens

Common Crow Pheasant, Jal Kukar

Flesh

Oral

Body-ache, weakness

  

0

5

27.78

0.56

16

39.

Charadrius alexandrinus L.

Snowy Plover, Kalarwala marwa

Egg

Oral

Typhoid

 

[47, 5557, 60, 63, 64, 69]

0

6

35.29

0.53

19

40.

Columba livia Gmelin

Blue Rock Pigeon, Jangli kabotar

Flesh, Feather

Oral

Paralysis

Menorrhagia, Bronchitis, puberty in young girls, paralysis, epilepsy, anemia, infertility

[55, 83]

0.17

53

88.33

1.00

88

41.

Corvus splendens Vieillot

House Crow, Kaan

Bone

Topical

For ear infection

Lethargy, aphrodisiac, anemia, body aches, stomach disorder

 

0

4

14.29

0.88

13

42.

Coturnix coturnix L.

Common Quail, Batera

Head of the bird, flesh

Oral

Enhance memory, improve sexual power

Skin diseases, anemia, body weakness, enhance memory power

[47, 55, 56]

0.25

30

51.72

1.00

52

43.

Egretta alba L.

Large Egret, Wadda bagla

Blood, Flesh

Topical and oral

Dysentery

  

0

5

50.00

0.31

16

44.

Egretta garzetta L.

Little Egret, Bauna bagla

Blood, Flesh

Topical and oral

Dysentery

Asthma, body strength, breathing trouble, immune enhancer

[55, 56]

0

2

25.00

0.25

6

45.

Egretta intermedia Wagler Intermediate Egret, Gabhla bagla

Blood, Flesh

Topical and oral

Dysentery

  

0

7

58.33

0.38

22

46.

Francolinus francolinus L.

Black partridge, Kala tittar

Flesh and Bone soup

Oral

Bronchitis, weakness

Bronchitis

[64]

0.5

24

42.86

1.00

43

47.

Gallus gallus L.

Domestic Chicken, Murghi

Egg, flesh

Oral

Fever, weakness, low blood pressure

Sprains, strains, nourishing food, eye-each, bronchitis, diabetes, burst furuncles, asthma, Indigestion, sinusitis, shortness of breath, bronchitis, nervous problems, rheumatism, stuffy nose, weak bones, flu, weakness, sore throat, furuncle, burns, night blindness, eye infection, evil eye

[20, 47, 49, 50, 58, 6163, 78, 82, 84]

0

62

100

1.00

100

48.

Hieraaetus fasciatus Sibley & Monroe

Bonnelli’s Eagle, Baaz

Fat

Topical

Breast swelling

Breast swelling

[58]

1

3

21.43

0.44

9

49.

Meleagris gallopavo L.

Turkey, Turkey

Flesh

Oral

Asthma

  

0

10

33.33

0.94

31

50.

Oenanthe isabellina Temminck,

Isabelline Wheatear, Kali akha wheater

Fat

Topical

Gastric problems in infants

  

0

8

53.33

0.47

25

51.

Oenanthe picata Blyth

Eastern Wheatear, Kali cheeti wheatear

Fat

Topical

Gastric problems in infants

  

0

2

10

0.63

6

52.

Passer domesticus L.

House Sparrow, Chiri

Flesh

Oral

Weakness, fever

Increase sexual desire, aphrodisiac, allergy, paralysis, impotency, gas trouble, constipation, Chickenpox,

[47, 56, 62, 64, 84]

0

64

100

1.00

100

53.

Pavo cristatus L.

Peacock, Moor

Bone

Topical

Wound, pus

Blurred vision, anemia, Abscess, eye diseases, body strength, ear infection, hiccup, asthma

[55, 56, 62, 65]

0

7

28.00

0.78

22

54.

Streptopelia decaocto Frivaldszky

Indian Ring Dove, Kogi, Ghogi

Flesh

Oral

Maturity in girls

Early maturity in girls

[64]

1

13

28.89

1.00

29

55.

Streptopelia orientalis Latham

Oriental turtle Dove, Totru

Flesh

Oral

Maturity in girls

  

0

13

29.55

1.00

30

56.

Streptopelia senegalensis L.

Little Brown Dove, Chhoti tutru, Chhoti kogi

Flesh

Oral

Maturity in girls

  

0

13

36.11

1.00

36

57.

Streptopelia tranquebarica Hermann,

Red Turtle Dove, Lal totru

Flesh

Oral

Maturity in girls

  

0

13

27.66

1.00

28

58.

Upupa epops L.

Common Hoopoe, Hud-hud

Flesh

Oral

Kidney problems

Gall bladder stone

[84]

0

1

25.00

0.13

3

SI (Similarity Index), IMA (Informants of Major Ailment), FL (Fidelity Level), RPL (Relative Popularity Level), ROP (Rank order priority)

Fig. 3

Percentage of diseases curd by using mammals (a) and birds (b) species

Local people use body fat of Felis domesticus (Cat) to treat skin infections and rheumatic pain. These findings were in agreement to Benarjee, Srikanth [57] and andHaileselasie [58]. Milk of C. aegagrus hircus (Goat) is used as sexual tonic. However, different parts of same species have been reported to cure fever, eye tonic, tonsillitis, asthma, tuberculosis, irregular menstrual cycle, toothache, anemia, dysentery, bronchitis, jaundice, diarrhea, anemia and blindness [55, 56, 5862]. According to local inhabitants, milk of C. dromedaries (Camel) is highly effective in the treatment of sexual weakness and muscular pain, whereas tail and blood of O. cuniculus (Domestic rabbit) are useful against burning sensation and weakness. Same species have been reported to treat acidity, bronchial disease, stomach disorder, hepatitis B and C [60, 63, 64]. Scales and flesh of M. crassicaudata (Indian pangolin) were used in the treatment of feet swelling and as sexual tonic, respectively. Same species is used to treat piles, blood pressure, headache, asthma [55, 56, 59, 61, 65, 66].

The ethnomedicinal uses of C. dromedaries (Camel), C. aegagrus hircus (Goat), Canis lupus familiaris (Dog), Felis chaus (Jungli cat), F. domesticus (Cat), H. collaris (Long eared desert hedgehog), Herpestes javanicus (Small Indian mongoose), Homo sapiens (Human), H. indica (Indian crested porcupine), M. meltada (Soft-furred field rat), M. musculus (House mouse), Nesokia indica (Short tailed mole rat), O. cuniculus (Domestic rabbit), R. rattus (House rat), S. estruscus (Mediterranean pygmy shrew), Tatera indica (Indian gerbil) and Ursus thibetanus (Bear) were reported for the first time (Table 3). In addition, these species exhibited zero similarity index with previous literature. Inhabitants of the study area use these species to treat sexual power, rheumatic pain, herpes, lumbago, burning sensation, enhancement of semen, ear pain, skin infections, muscular pain, weakness, and arthritis. Some species i.e. Funnambulus pennanti (Northern palm squirrel), E. africanus (Donkey), S. murinus (House shrew), and O. aries (Sheep) exhibited maximum similarity index with previous studies (1, 0.5, 0.5 and 0.2, respectively).Due to illegal hunting and extensive use in traditional medicines Indian pangolin is at verge of extinction and has been included in “Red Listed” species by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) [67, 68].

Only, 28 species of birds out of 155 were used in traditional medicines by the inhabitants of the study area (Table 3). The ethnomedicinal uses of Acridotheres tristis, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Aquila rapax, Ara macao, Athene brama, Bubulcus ibis, Charadrius alexandrinus, Corvus splendens, Centropus sinensis, Egretta alba, Egretta garzetta, Egretta intermedia, Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Oenanthe isabellina, Oenanthe picata, Passer domesticus, Pavo cristatus, Streptopelia orientalis, Streptopelia senegalensis, Streptopelia tranquebarica and Upupa epops have not been reported before and exhibited 0 similarity Index. These species were reported against respiratory disorders (asthma, pneumonia, and cough), cardiovascular disorders, skin infections (swelling, wounds, pus, and ear infection), sexual weakness, typhoid, body-ache, fever, gastric problems, maturity in girls and kidney problems.

Anas platyrhynchos was used for the treatment of paralysis, weakness. Same species was reported to treat erectile dysfunction, scarlet fever, body strength and weakness, showed 0.2 similarity index [19, 20, 55, 56, 69]. Columba livia, was used to treat paralysis and have 0.17 similarity index with previous reports [46, 47, 57, 60, 63, 64, 69]. Local inhabitants use Coturnix coturnix to enhance memory, improve sexual power. Same species has been reported against skin diseases, anemia, body weakness, enhance memory power and its similarity index is 0.25 [47, 55, 56]. Hieraaetus fasciatus and Streptopelia decaocto were used for the treatment of the breast swelling and early maturity in young girls respectively and have highest similarity index 1.

Cultural uses

The cultural uses of mammals and bird species are given in Table 2. Spines of H. indica (Indian crested porcupine) were used in magic or superstitions; however presence of spines creates disgusting among the people that may leads to clash. Likewise, hairs and bones of U. thibetanus (Bear) and C. dromedaries (Camel) were used to treat black magic (Kala Jadoo). Six mammals’ species were used for enjoyment of the people such as dog fight, mongoose contest with snake, bear and horse dance, hunting of desert hare and Indian wild boar. Dogs are commonly used for hunting of desert hare and Indian wild boar. Horses with decorated craft (Baggi) are used in wedding ceremony. B. bubalis (Buffalo), B. tarus (Cow), C. aegagrus hircus (Goat), C. dromedaries (Camel), E. africanus (Donkey), Equus caballus (Horse), Oryctolagus cuniculus (Domestic rabbit) and O. aries (sheep) are reared for milk and milk products (curd, butter, ghee), meet, leather and wool. Skin of large and medium size mammals species were used to make leather products. Hairs of Canis aureus, C. aegagrus hircus, E. caballus, F. chaus, H. indica, Herpestes javanicus, O. aries, O. cuniculus and Vulpes bengalensis were used in stuffed toys (Fig 4). These findings were in agreement to del Valle, Naranjo [16].
Fig. 4

Some important mammals and bird species of the study area. a Stuffed mongoose with stuff snake. b Indian pangolin (c) Indian Jackal (d), common Myna (e) Egret (f) Tawny eagle

Spines of H. indica and H. collaris were used as needles while bones of U. thibetanus were used as a defensive tool. Bear (Ursus thibetanus) are not present in the wild areas of Areas surrounding the river Chenab are not natural habitat of U. thibetanus, however body parts of this species are imported from Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Northern areas of Pakistan. Sun dried dung of B. bubalis and B. gaurus is used for heating purpose and to cook food. Likewise, local inhabitants used to train dogs for hunting desert hare and Indian wild boar. Ten percent of the reported species were linked with traditional narrated stories or superstitions such as; people of the area thought that if cat (F. domesticus) crossed ahead of any person during journey, then it would be inauspicious. Spiritually and socially it is believed, that Allah (God) may not accept prayer of a person that speaks the name of Soor (S. scrofa). Similarly, presence of the dog (C. lupus familiaris) in the house may stop the blessing of Allah (God). According todel Valle, Naranjo [16]79% mammals species in Playon de la Gloria, 50% in Reforma Agraria, 47% in Naha and 42% in Metzabok-Mexico were supposed to be harmful.

In the study sites, people eat specific birds, as they obey the rules of Islam. Among birds, 17.4% species (herbivore, granivore, frugivore and omnivore which do not eat dead animals) were edible and used as food Table 2, while scavengers, carnivores, insectivore and piscivore are prohibited to eat in Islam. Local hunters mimic the voices of doves, partridges and quails. They use golara (birds in cage) to attracts other species of birds. Punjabi net trap and mist net are also used to capture the live birds. Previous results showed that wild birds used as a source of food in many areas of the world i.e. India [60, 70]; Pakistan [64]; Philippines [71]; Brazil [72, 73].

Six birds were linked with narrative stories, such as the voice of crow is thought to be an indication of guest. Similarly, the presence of owl is supposed to be infamy in home; arrival or presence of doves (Indian ring dove, red turtle dove, little brown dove and Oriental turtle dove) in house linked with the influx of prosperity. Many magicians used owlet blood and carcasses for magic. These findings were almost same as reported [74] in Punjab, Pakistan.

About 96.8% of reported bird species are wild, while 3.2% are domesticated. People of the study area like to keep Parakeets (Large Indian Parakeet and Rose-ringed Parakeet) as a pet bird. Eight species of the birds were used commercially. Such as common quail farming is growing day by day. Fried meet of common quail, house sparrow and blue rock pigeon is very delicious. Parakeet’s species are used commercially for the lottery. Domestic chicken, duck and turkey are kept in home and at farms for the meat purposes. About 15.5% species were used for hunting or entrainment and all reported birds were used for the ornamental purposes; because they are stuffed by local people and their feathers are used in making mud toys.

Relative frequency of mention (RFM)

The animal species, which are reported by the maximum number of informants are frequently used to treat various diseases, exhibited high relative frequency of mention (RFM) ranged from 0.02 to 0.587 (Table2). Among mammals Lepus nigricollis dayanus (Desert hare) had maximum RFM (0.50), followed by Hystrix indica (Indian crested porcupine) and Felis domesticus (Cat) (0.48 and 0.42, respectively). Whereas lowest RFM value (0.02) was calculated in Suncus estruscus (Mediterranean pygmy shrew) and Suncus murinus (House shrew). Among birds: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) depicted highest RFM value (0.587), while Gallus gallus (Domestic chicken) and Columba livia (Blue Rock Pigeon) were ranked second and third with RFM value of 0.569 and 0.550, respectively.

Fidelity level (FL)

Fidelity level (FL) is used to identify species that are most preferred by the inhabitants for the treatment of certain ailments. Animal species with topmost medicinal uses in a particular area have maximum fidelity level [75, 76]. In the present investigation fidelity level of mammals and birds species varied from 10 to 100% (Table 2). B. taurus Smith (Cow), F. domesticus (Desert hare’), Oryctolagus cuniculus (Domestic rabbit) and Ovis aries (Sheep) were the mammals species, which depicted 100% FL, while Ursus thibetanus (Bear) showed lowest FL percentage (27%) as mentioned in (Fig 5). Fat, milk and flesh of these species were used to treat skin infections, fever, rheumatic pain, and to reduce poisonous effects. Among birds; Anas platyrhynchos domesticus (Domestic duck), Gallus gallus (Domestic chicken) and Passer domesticus (House sparrow) exhibited 100% FL. Beside this, six species of birds depicted more than 70% FL, which include: Anas platyrhynchos (90.91%), Columba livia (88.33%) and Acridotheres ginginianus (71.43%) S2B Fig. The FL of mammals and bird species were calculated for the first time. Therefore, these species could be used for in depth chemical profiling and to investigate pharmaceutical properties, which may confirm their medicinal worth.
Fig. 5

The relationship between informant numbers and the number of that mammalian (a) and avian (b) species application; circled numbers showed the mammal and birds names as given in Table 2

Relative popularity level (RPL)

The Relative popularity level (RPL) of mammals and bird species are given in Table 3. Approximately, 7 species of mammals that depicted highest importance were included for further discussion. For the mammals species cited by 2 to 26 informants (Fig. 6a), the frequency of use per mammal increases linearly with increase in the frequency of mention (y-1.5 + 0.130×; correlation coefficient r = 0.661). Conversely, the half number of uses for those species mentioned by 27 informants or more does not increase with the increased FM. All mammals species mentioned by less than 27 informants (23 mammals species) were therefore classified as unpopular, whereas those cited by 27 informants or more (7 mammals species) are classified as popular. The B. bubalis (buffalo), B. taurus (cow), C. aegagrus hircus (goat), E. caballus (horse), F. domesticus (cat), H. indica (Indian crested porcupine) and L. nigricollis dayanus (desert hare) were the most popular mammals with 1.0 RPL value.
Fig. 6

The relationship between informant numbers and the percentage of informants who argued similar use for that mammals (a) and Birds (b); circled numbers show mammalian and bird names as they present in Table 2

In birds, 10 species received more attention by informants, therefore included for further discussion (Fig 6b). The bird species cited by 4 to 64 informants, number of uses per bird increases with the increase in the number of informants (r = 0.71). The popular bird species with 1.000 RPL value were; P. domesticus, G. gallus, C. livia, C. coturnix, F. francolinus, A. platyrhynchos domesticus, S. tranquebarica, S. decaocto, S. orientalis and S. senegalensis. These findings were comparable with Friedman, Yaniv [35] and Ali-Shtayeh, Yaniv [36]. Furthermore, high popularity of mammalian and bird species might be attributed to wider geographic distribution, informant’s awareness and cultural knowledge.

Rank order priority (ROP)

The healing potential of each mammal and bird species was documented using its FL values, while ROP is used to give appropriate rank to species with different FL values. The RPL of each species derived from Fig 6a and b ; was used as correction factor to adjust the FL values. The measured level of rank order priority (ROP) of each mammal and bird species is mentioned in Table 3. The ROP value of only four mammal species out of 30 and 4 bird species out of 28 was above 50. The B. taurus (Cow) and F. domesticus (Cat) were highly utilized with maximum ROP = 100, followed by O. aries (Sheep) and O. cuniculus (Domestic rabbit) have ROP (85 and 52, respectively). Among, birds ROP value of P. domesticus and G. gallus was 100 and that of C. livia was 88. Decrease in ROP value may be due to decreasing popularity of medicinal and cultural uses of animals among indigenous peoples. Additionally, the informants of the rural areas have more information and interaction with cultural and medicinal uses of mammals and birds compared to urban areas. These findings were analogous to previous results for medicinal species of Negev district [35] and Palestinian area [36].

Conclusion

Inhabitants of the study area showed strong association with surrounding fauna and possess significant traditional knowledge particularly on mammals and birds species. In the present study, the ethnomedicinal and cultural uses of; 30% mammals and 46% birds’ species were reported for the first time. Moreover, 33% mammals and 79% birds’ species depicted zero similarity Index. These findings could be helpful for conservation and sustainable use of animal biodiversity in the region. Further investigation to screen pharmacological active substances and in vitro/in vivo valuation of biological activities in mammals and birds’ species with maximum FL and FM could be significant in animal based drug discoveries.

Declarations

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful for the kind help of employs of the Irrigation and Power department of the Government and Wildlife and Fisheries Department, Government of the Punjab during surveys in the study area. We are also thankful for the local community for the help at each point.

Funding

This paper is a part of PhD work conducted by Muhammad Altaf (first author). No funding was provided by any source to conduct this survey. We send waiver request to Editor in Chief of JEE, and he agreed to grant a full waiver to this manuscript.

Availability of data and materials

We have already included all data in the manuscript that were collected during the field survey.

Authors’ contributions

MA and MU design study and conducted ethnomedicinal and cultural survey; AJ supervised the project; AMA, ZR and MA helped in data analysis and write up; KJI involved in sampling, field survey and data collection. All the authors critically read this article and approved as the final manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Present study is purely based on filed survey instead of human or animal trails. Therefore ethical approval and consent to participate is not applicable. However, formal consent was received from informants regarding data collection and publication; then the Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) approach as mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol was applied with the consent of the informant. Ethical guidelines of the International Society of Ethnobiology (http://www.ethnobiology.net) were strictly followed.

Consent for publication

Our manuscript does not contain any individual’s person data; therefore this section is Not Applicable to our study.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Zoology, Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
(2)
Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of the Veterinary and Animal Sciences
(3)
School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University
(4)
Department of Life Sciences, Islamia University Bahawalpur
(5)
Department of Mathematics, Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
(6)
Department of Environment Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

References

  1. Kaplan H, Hill K, Lancaster J, Hurtado AM. A theory of human life history evolution: diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evol Anthr. 2000;9:156–85.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Alves RR, Rosa IL, Neto NAL, Voeks R. Animals for the gods: magical and religious faunal use and trade in Brazil. Hum Ecol. 2012;40:751–80.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Marques JGW. A fauna medicinal dos índios Kuna de San Blas (Panamá) ea hipótese da universalidade zooterápica, Anais da 46a Reunião Anual da SBPC; 1994. p. 324.Google Scholar
  4. Bagde NS, Hampa J. An ethnozoological studies and medicinal values of vertebrate origin in the adjoining areas of Pench National Park of Chhindwara District of Madhya Pradesh, India. Ind Int J Life Sci. 2013;1:278–83.Google Scholar
  5. Alves RR, Rosa IL. Why study the use of animal products in traditional medicines? J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2005;1:1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Santos-Fita D, Costa-Neto E, Cano-Contreras E, Costa Neto E, Santos Fitas D, Vargas CM. El quehacer de la etnozoología. Manual de Etnozoología. 2009:23–44.Google Scholar
  7. Londoño-Betancourth JC. Valoración cultural del uso e importancia de la fauna silvestre en cautividad en tres barrios de Pereira (Risaralda). Boletín Científico. Centro de Museos. Museo Hist Nat. 2009;13:33–46.Google Scholar
  8. Kang S, Phipps MJ, Asia TE, A question of attitude: South Korea's traditional medicine practitioners and wildlife conservation. TRAFFIC East Asia: 2003.Google Scholar
  9. Marques J. Fauna medicinal: Recurso do ambiente ou ameaça à biodiversidade. Mutum. 1997;1:4.Google Scholar
  10. Berlin B. Ethnobiological Classification: Principles of Categorization of Plants and Animals in Traditional Societies. New Jersey: Princeton University Press; 2014.Google Scholar
  11. Baumeister RF. The cultural animal: Human nature, meaning, and social life. New York: Oxford University Press: 2005.Google Scholar
  12. Rosegrant MWH, azell PB. Transforming the rural Asian economy: The unfinished revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2000.Google Scholar
  13. Milton K. The critical role played by animal source foods in human (Homo) evolution. J Nutr. 2003;133:3886S–92S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kamanga P, Vedeld P, Sjaastad E. Forest incomes and rural livelihoods in Chiradzulu District, Malawi. Ecol.l Econ. 2009;68:613–24.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Turbay S, Ulloa A. Aproximaciones a los estudios antropológicos sobre la relación entre el ser humano y los animales. Rostros culturales de la fauna: las relaciones entre los humanos y los animales en el contexto colombiano. Bogotá: Fundación Natura: McArthur Foundation and Instituto Colombiano de Antropol Hist; 2002. p. 87–111.Google Scholar
  16. del Valle YG, Naranjo EJ, Caballero J, Martorell C, Ruan-Soto F, Enríquez PL. Cultural significance of wild mammals in mayan and mestizo communities of the Lacandon Rainforest, Chiapas, Mexico. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2015;11:1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Ruan-Soto F, Caballero J, Martorell C, Cifuentes J, González-Esquinca AR, Garibay-Orijel R. Evaluation of the degree of mycophilia-mycophobia among highland and lowland inhabitants from Chiapas. Mexico J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9:1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Alves RR, Rosa IL. Zootherapy goes to town: The use of animal-based remedies in urban areas of NE and N Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;113:541–55.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Alves RRN. Relationships between fauna and people and the role of ethnozoology in animal conservation. Ethnobiol Conserv. 2012;1:1–69.Google Scholar
  20. Alves RRN, Neta ROS, Trovão D, Barbosa J, Barros AT, Dias TLP. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2012;8:4269–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  21. Mesquita GP, Barreto LN. Evaluation of mammals hunting in indigenous and rural localities in Eastern Brazilian Amazon. Ethnobiol Conserv. 2015;4:2. doi:https://doi.org/10.15451/ec2015-1-4.2-1-14.
  22. Roberts TJ. The Mammals of Pakistan. Oxford: University Press; 1997.Google Scholar
  23. Mirza ZB, Wasiq H. A field guide to birds of Pakistan. Bookland: Lahore; 2007.Google Scholar
  24. Siddiqi TA, Tahir-Kheli S. Water and Security in South Asia; 2004. p. 234.Google Scholar
  25. Sheikh MS. Punjab G Go, editor. District Pre-Investment Study 2012, vol. 2012. p. 1–376.Google Scholar
  26. Sheikh MS. Punjab GGO, editor. District Pre-Investment Study 2012, vol. 2012. p. 1–28.Google Scholar
  27. Sheikh MS. In: Punjab SGO, editor. District Pre-Investment Study 2012; 2012. p. 1–31.Google Scholar
  28. Umair M, Ilyas U, Altaf M. Diversity and Ecology of Parthenium weeds ar head khanki. Pakistan: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2013.Google Scholar
  29. Roberts TJ. Field guide to the large and medium-sized mammals of Pakistan. Oxford: University Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  30. Roberts TJ. Field guide to the small mammals of Pakistan. Oxford: University Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  31. Roberts TJ, The Birds of Pakistan. Vol I Place Oxford; University Press: 1991.Google Scholar
  32. Roberts TJ, The Birds of Pakistan. Vol II Place Oxford; University Press: 1992.Google Scholar
  33. Tardío JPardo-de-Santayana M. Cultural importance indices: a comparative analysis based on the useful wild plants of Southern Cantabria (Northern Spain) 1. Econ Bot. 2008;62:24–39.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  34. Alexiades MN, Sheldon JW. Selected guidelines for ethnobotanical research: a field manual. New York: Botanical Garden; 1996.Google Scholar
  35. Friedman J, Yaniv Z, Dafni A, Palewitch D. A preliminary classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants, based on a rational analysis of an ethnopharmacological field survey among Bedouins in the Negev Desert Israel. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986;16:275–87.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ali-Shtayeh MS, Yaniv Z, Mahajna J. Ethnobotanical survey in the Palestinian area: a classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;73:221–32.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Wilson L. Fats and oils for optimum health. The Center for Development. 2015;Google Scholar
  38. Breteler MM. Vascular risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease:: An epidemiologic perspective. Neurobiol Aging. 2000;21:153–60.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kalmijn S. Fatty acid intake and the risk of dementia and cognitive decline: a review of clinical and epidemiological studies. J Nutr Health Aging. 2000;4:202–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Haag M. Essential fatty acids and the brain. Can J Psychiatr. 2003;48:195–203.Google Scholar
  41. Hemme T, Otte J, Echeverri Perico R, Paarlberg R, Walker I, Pino H, Horton D, Polanía Vorenberg J, Toro Calderón J, López Balmaceda C. Status and prospects for smallholder milk production, A global perspective. Roma (Italia): FAO; 2010.Google Scholar
  42. Alabdulkarim B. Effect of camel milk on blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and liver enzymes activities in female Albino rats. World Appl Sci J. 2012;17:1394–7.Google Scholar
  43. Sabahelkhier M, Faten M, Omer F. Comparative Determination of Biochemical Constituents between Animals (Goat, Sheep, Cow and Camel) Milk with Human Milk. Res J Recent Sci. 2012;1:69–71.Google Scholar
  44. Contarini G, Povolo M. Phospholipids in milk fat: composition, biological and technological significance, and analytical strategies. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:2808–31.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Vats R, Thomas S. A study on use of animals as traditional medicine by Sukuma Tribe of Busega District in North-western Tanzania. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2015;11:1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  46. Lohani U. Eroding ethnozoological knowledge among Magars in Central Nepal. Indian JTrad Knowl. 2011;10:466–73.Google Scholar
  47. Lohani U. Traditional uses of animals among jirels of Central Nepal. Ethno Med. 2011;5:115–24.Google Scholar
  48. Al-Yousef N, Gaafar A, Al-Otaibi B, Al-Jammaz I, Al-Hussein K, Aboussekhra A. Camel urine components display anti-cancer properties in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143:819–25.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Barros FB, Varela SA, Pereira HM, Vicente L. Medicinal use of fauna by a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2012;8:37.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Kim H, Song MJ. Ethnozoological study of medicinal animals on Jeju Island. Korea J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;146:75–82.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kim H, Song MJ. Analysis of ethnomedicinal practices for treating skin diseases in communities on Jeju Island (Korea). Indian J Trad Knowl. 2014;13:673–80.Google Scholar
  52. Melo R, Silva O, Souto A, Alves RRN, Schiel N. The role of mammals in local communities living in conservation areas in the Northeast of Brazil: an ethnozoological approach. Trop Conserv Sci. 2014;7:423–39.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  53. Mohanty I, Senapati MR, Jena D, Palai S. Diversified uses of cow urine. Intern J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 2014;6:20–2.Google Scholar
  54. Al-Awadi A, Al-Judaibi A. Effects of Heating and Storage on the Antifungal Activity of Camel Urine. Clin Microbiol. 2015;3:1–6.Google Scholar
  55. Vijayakumar S, Prabhu S, Yabesh JM, Prakashraj R. A quantitative ethnozoological study of traditionally used animals in Pachamalai hills of Tamil Nadu. India J Ethnopharmacology. 2015;171:51–63.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Vijayakumar S, Yabesh JM, Prabhu S, Ayyanar M, Damodaran R. Ethnozoological study of animals used by traditional healers in Silent Valley of Kerala. India J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;162:296–305.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Benarjee G, Srikanth K, Ramu G, Ramulua K. Ethnozoological study in a tropical wildlife sanctuary of Eturunagaram in the Warangal district, Andhra Pradesh. Ind J Trad Knowled. 2010;9:701–4.Google Scholar
  58. Haileselasie TH. Traditional zootherapeutic studies in Degu’a Tembien, Northern Ethiopia. Cur Res J Biol Sci. 2012;4:563–9.Google Scholar
  59. Dixit A, Kadavul K, Rajalakshmi S, Shekhawat M. Ethno-medico-biological studies of South India. Indian J Trad Knowl. 2010;9:116–8.Google Scholar
  60. Jaroli D, Mahawar MM, Vyas N. An ethnozoological study in the adjoining areas of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary. India J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2010;6:6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Chellappandian M, Pandikumar P, Mutheeswaran S, Paulraj MG, Prabakaran S, Duraipandiyan V, Ignacimuthu S, Al-Dhabi N. Documentation and quantitative analysis of local ethnozoological knowledge among traditional healers of Theni district, Tamil Nadu. India J Ethnopharmacolo. 2014;154:116–30.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  62. Bagde N, Jain S. Study of traditional man-animal relationship in Chhindwara District Of Madhya Pradesh. India J Glob Bioscie. 2015;4:1456–63.Google Scholar
  63. Alonso-Castro AJ, Carranza-Álvarez C, Maldonado-Miranda JJ, del Rosario J-SM, Quezada-Rivera DA, Lorenzo-Márquez H, Figueroa-Zúñiga LA, Fernández-Galicia C, Ríos-Reyes NA, de León-Rubio MÁ. Zootherapeutic practices in Aquismón, San Luis Potosí México. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;138:233–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Arshad M, Ahmad M, Ahmed E, Saboor A, Abbas A, Sadiq S. An ethnobiological study in Kala Chitta hills of Pothwar region, Pakistan: multinomial logit specification. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10:13.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Mishra N, Rout S, Panda T. Ethno-zoological studies and medicinal values of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa India. African J Pharm and Pharmacol. 2011;5:6–11.Google Scholar
  66. Kulkarni BD. Folk therapies of Katkaries from maharashtra. Indian J Trad Knowl. 2011;10:554–8.Google Scholar
  67. Mohapatra RK, Panda S, Acharjyo L, Nair M, Challender DW. A note on the illegal trade and use of pangolin body parts in India. Traffic Bull. 2015;27:33–40.Google Scholar
  68. Zhou Z-M, Zhou Y, Newman C, Macdonald DW. Scaling up pangolin protection in China. Frontiers Ecol Environ. 2014;12:97–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  69. Mootoosamy A, Mahomoodally MF. A quantitative ethnozoological assessment of traditionally used animal-based therapies in the tropical island of Mauritius. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;154:847–57.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Chinlampianga M, Singh RK, Shukla AC. Ethnozoological diversity of Northeast India: Empirical learning with traditional knowledge holders of Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh. Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2013;12:18–30.Google Scholar
  71. Van der Ploeg JVan Weerd M. Agta bird names: an ethno-ornithological survey in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park Philippines. Forktail. 2010:127–31.Google Scholar
  72. Alves RRN, Leite RCL, Souto WMS, Bezerra DM, Loures-Ribeiro A. Ethno-ornithology and conservation of wild birds in the semi-arid Caatinga of northeastern Brazil. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9:1–12.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  73. Teixeira PHR, Thel T, Ferreira J, Júnior S, Júnior W, Neves R. Local knowledge and exploitation of the avian fauna by a rural community in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Brazil. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10:81.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Farooq A. AK Kayani. Prevalence of Superstitions and other Supernaturals in Rural Punjab: A Sociological Perspective. Res J South Asian Stud. 2012;5:335–44.Google Scholar
  75. Srithi K, Balslev H, Wangpakapattanawong P, Srisanga P, Trisonthi C. Medicinal plant knowledge and its erosion among the Mien (Yao) in northern Thailand. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;123:335–42.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Bibi T, Ahmad M, Tareen RB, Tareen NM, Jabeen R, Rehman S-U, Sultana S, Zafar M, Yaseen G. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in district Mastung of Balochistan province-Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;157:79–89.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Padmanabhan PSujana K. Animal products in traditional medicine from Attappady hills of Western Ghats. Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2008;7:326–9.Google Scholar
  78. Lohani U. Man-animal relationships in Central Nepal. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2010;6:1–11.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  79. Alves RR, Rosa IL, Santana GG. The role of animal-derived remedies as complementary medicine in Brazil. Bioscience. 2007;57:949–55.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  80. Benítez G. Animals used for medicinal and magico-religious purposes in western Granada Province, Andalusia (Spain). J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137:1113–23.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Alves RR, Neto NAL, Brooks SE, Albuquerque UP. Commercialization of animal-derived remedies as complementary medicine in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;124:600–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Oliveira ES, Torres DF, Brooks SE, Alves RR. The medicinal animal markets in the metropolitan region of Natal City, Northeastern Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;130:54–60.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Chakravorty J, Meyer-Rochow VB, Ghosh S. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2011;7:1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  84. Betlu ALS. Indigenous knowledge of zootherapeutic use among the Biate tribe of Dima Hasao District, Assam, Northeastern India. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9:1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s). 2017

Advertisement