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  • Open Access

First large-scale ethnobotanical survey in the province of Uíge, northern Angola

Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201814:51

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-018-0238-3

  • Received: 10 February 2018
  • Accepted: 29 May 2018
  • Published:

Abstract

Background

Angola suffered a long-lasting military conflict. Therefore, traditional knowledge of plant usage is still an important part of cultural heritage, especially concerning the still very poor health care system in the country. Our study documents for the first time traditional knowledge of plant use of local Bakongo communities in the northern province of Uíge on a large scale with a focus on medicinal plants and puts data in context to different parameters of age, gender and distance to the provincial capital.

Methods

Field work was carried out during nine field trips in 13 municipalities between October 2013 and October 2016. In 62 groups, 162 informants were interviewed. Herbarium specimens were taken for later identification. Database was analysed using Relative Frequency of Citations, Cultural Importance Index, and Informant Consensus Factor. Furthermore, significances of influence of age, gender and distance were calculated.

Results

Our study presents 2390 use-reports, listing 358 species in 96 plant families, while just three out of 358 mentioned species are endemic to Angola about one-fifth are neophytes. The larger the distance, the higher the number of use citations of medical plants. Although women represent just a fifth of all citations (22%), their contribution to medicinal plants was proportionally even higher (83%) than those of men (74%). Fifty percent of all plants mentioned in the study were just listed by men, 12% just by women. We made some new discoveries, for example. Gardenia ternifolia seems to be promising for treatment of measles, and Annona stenophylla subsp. cuneata has never been ethnobotanically nor phytochemically investigated.

Conclusions

While the study area is large, no significant influence of the distance in regard to species composition in traditional healer’s concepts of the respective village was pointed out. Although several plants were just mentioned by women or men, respectively, no significant restriction to gender-specific illnesses in medical plant use could be found. Merely concerning the age of informants, a slight shift could be detected.

Graphical abstract

Visual representation of the ethnobotanical study in Uíge, northern Angola.
Graphical Abstract image

Keywords

  • Medicinal plants
  • Angola
  • Ethnobotany
  • Influence of distance
  • Gender-specific
  • Neophytes

Background

Angola is regarded as a country with an unusually rich biodiversity covering a high amount of vegetation zones and habitats [1, 2]. Although several botanists, among them Friedrich Welwitsch (1806–1872), Hugo Baum (1867–1950) and John Gossweiler (1873–1952), visited and studied this richness, the war lasting 40 years did not allow them to carry out continuous botanical or ethnobotanical investigations [1]. Bossard (1987, 1993) investigated Ovimbundu traditional medicine, listing plant names just in Ovimbundu language without identifying botanical species [3, 4]. Nowadays, the considerable work of Figueiredo and Smith [1] creating a plant checklist for the country with about 7000 species represents a useful database for following and future studies. While quite a number of surveys were conducted in Southern Angola, just a few are located in the northern part [5, 6]. Göhre et al. [7] collected ethnobotanical data in disturbed areas around the city of Uíge. Monizi et al. [8] described a high variety of wild plants used for securing human survival in Ambuila, one of the 16 municipalities in the province of Uíge [8]. Heinze et al. [9] conducted the first ethnobotanical studies in the neighbouring province Cuanza Norte. Specific descriptions of fibre uses were given by Senwitz et al. [10]. According to the distribution of the ethnic tribe Bakongo, covering northern Angola as well as the adjacent Bas-Congo area, ethnobotanical studies conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo should reveal comparable results of ethnobotanical uses in Angola [11].

Traditional knowledge is essential for the healthy cultural and social life within a society [12]. It is generally assumed that indigenous traditional knowledge information is going to be lost because it is, at least partly no longer essential for the survival of people. This is either due to influences such as the rapid development of rural areas or because of displacement of indigenous people [13, 14]. Although several infrastructure measures were undertaken in Angola, development is still slow, especially regarding the public health sector. Even if child mortality in Africa decreased during the last two decades, it is still very high. More specifically, Angola has the highest rate in Africa and worldwide and, following Sierra Leone the lowest life expectancy for women and men worldwide [15, 16]. Sousa-Figueiredo et al. [17] detected malnutrition and anaemia as public health problems. Smith et al. [18] documented that the overall prevalence of malnutrition is higher in rural than then in urban areas. In this context, ethnobotanical studies in northern Angola seemed reasonable not only in terms of documentation of the current state but urgently needed to record still existing knowledge. Furthermore, Moyo et al. [19] stated that the rich flora of sub-Saharan Africa suggests enormous potential for discovery of new chemical components with therapeutic value.

In our large-scaled survey in the northern province of Uíge, covering about 60,000 km2, 13 out of 16 municipalities were visited, including both savannah and forest formations. Therefore, this study for the first time
  1. 1.

    Provides an overview of traditional plant uses and health methods in the province of Uíge

     
  2. 2.

    Highlights native as well as introduced plant species used in traditional medicine

     
  3. 3.

    Analyses the influence of gender, age and distance from the province capital Uíge with regard to uses and methods

     

Methods

Study area

The studies were conducted in the province of Uíge located in the very north of Angola, bordering in the north and east to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in the south to the provinces of Malanje, Cuanza Norte, and Bengo, and in the west to Zaire province (Fig. 1). According to the Köppen climate classification, the province has a tropical wet or dry or savannah climate Aw [20, 21]. This so-called Guineo-Congolian rainforest climate is characterized by a rainy season lasting at least 6 months, relative air humidity above 80% and typical dense fog, locally called Cacimbo [2224]. Due to the global ecoregions map defined by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the province of Uíge covers the ecoregion called the Western Congolian Forest-Savannah Mosaic [25]. A more precise description of the region was given by White [24] who classified Angola north between the Guineo-Congolian and the Zambesian Regions, i.e., the Guinea-Congolian/Zambesian Regional Transition Zone. According to that classification, this zone is characterized by a high complexity since elements of both formations are present. Edaphic conditions and the existence of a diverse topography strongly influence the formation of distinctive patterns of mosaic vegetation shown in Fig. 1c. Barbosa [26] subdivided the area into six vegetation zones, shown in Fig. 1d.
Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a Location of Angola in Africa, b province of Uíge in Angola, c mosaic of forest and savannah patches in the municipality of Ambuila (d) map of study area with vegetation zones, collection sites marked with a black dot and circles representing the distance to Uíge city: inner circle ≤ 160 km, outer circle > 160 km; vegetation zones according to Barbosa [26]. Carta fitogeográfica de Angola. Instituto de Investigação Científica de Angola, Luanda. Graphic: Andreas Kempe

The long lasting war in Angola had a highly negative impact on biodiversity [27]. But also prior to the conflicts, several species of economic value on international timber markets like Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C.Berg or species of Entandrophragma were historically exploited and are still under increasing pressure [22]. This rising forest loss is confirmed by global analysis of satellite data [28]. Moyo et al. [19] calculate for Guinean Forests in West Africa a remaining area of 15%. On the other hand, the National Report on forest resources by the FAO [29], based on data captured by Horsten, reported not more than 4% of the Uíge area as productive [7, 30]. Beside deforestation, Göhre et al. [7] reported uncontrolled burning caused by growing agricultural activities. Hence, large areas are heavily disturbed anthropogenically resulting in an increased abundance of Zambezian floristic elements following the destruction of the original vegetation leaving only secondary grass- and woodland [24]. Recordings in the remaining forest patches exhibit tropical rainforest and savannah species assemblages comparable with the Bas-Congo region [11, 31, 32].

Since the vegetation formations are very heterogeneous, traditional use of plants by people is prevalent and manifold. The province comprises 16 municipalities, covering an area of 58.698 km2 inhabited by more than 1.4 million people [33], the majority of which belongs to the Kikongo speaking Bakongo ethnic group [33]. As this Bantu group is also living in the neighbouring countries Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, and Gabon, manifold influences caused by migration due to political problems and conflicts are part of its culture. Very little is known about the health care system in Angola. Faith-based organizations’ contribution to Angola’s health care system is very low, compared to other sub-Saharan countries [34]. In turn, the government is cutting the health budget due to the falling prices for oil [35]. The lack of health infrastructure, especially in rural areas, is a serious problem resulting in the constant importance of traditional healers and herbal medicines [36].

Data collection

Data sampling was carried out between 5° 58′ 59.2″ and 7° 56′ 59.4″ southern latitude and between 14° 33′ 53.7″ and 16° 17′ 04.5″ longitude, covering 35 localities in 13 municipalities (Fig. 1). According to the distance from the provincial capital Uíge, two distance levels A (≤ 160 km) and B (170–330 km) were defined. During nine field trips between October 2013 and October 2016, 162 informants were involved in the study, 30 of those were interviewed on their own, 132 were interviewed in groups of two to five persons, bringing the total number of interviews to 62. In advance, the University Kimpa Vita formulated credentials to inform the mayors of the municipalities about the planned activities. To establish contact with potential informants, local authorities of the visited villages (called soba and seculo) were informed about the aims and methods of the study and asked to suggest persons with experience in traditional medicine that might participate (prior informed consent). Hence, all the interviews were conducted with at least one traditional herbalist sometimes accompanied by laypeople. We tried to form a gender-balanced research without violating cultural and/or sacred taboos [37]. The specification of the obtained knowledge varied from location to location and person to person. Information was collected during semi-structured interviews, transect walks and group discussions [38]. Criteria used to define the uses reported are based on informant’s statements. Since Silva et al. [39] recommended vegetation inventories to guarantee a correct identification of species and better identification by informants, walks into the traditionally used plant collecting areas were always part of interviews, including forest and savannah formations, since these two habitats alternate very frequently. During field-work, Portuguese language was mainly used, however, in some cases, Angolan colleagues translated into Kikongo. Gender and age of every informant was documented wherever possible. In those cases where the informant did not know his exact age, it was estimated whether the person was younger or older than 40. The following data sets were requested: local plant name, its usage, used plant part and preparation techniques. In case of medicinal plants administration techniques were also documented. Local market surveys and field trips for collecting herbarium specimens completed the investigations. All processes of the surveys were permitted and accompanied by the local authorities. Following the advice made by Ramirez [14] to allow a better contribution and exchange of knowledge, we invited several informants to our presentations and discussions at the University Kimpa Vita in Uíge city. The code of ethics of the International Society of Ethnobiology was followed. The study was carried out in compliance with the agreement of Access and Benefit Sharing. For identification, plants were photographed and plant voucher specimens were collected, dried and stored at the Dresden herbarium (Herbarium Dresdense), Technische Universität Dresden, Germany. In a Memorandum of Understanding between the Instituto Nacional da Biodiversidade e Áreas de Conservação (INBAC), Angola and the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany, signed in 2014, it was agreed upon that duplicates will be returned to Angola as soon as appropriate conditions to store the herbarium vouchers are established. The Ministry of Environment Angola and the Province Government of Uíge issued the required collection and export permits. Identification of collected plant specimens and data analysis was completed in Dresden, Germany. For identification, several floristic works were used: Conspectus Florae Angolensis [40], Plantas de Angola [1], Flore Analytique du Bénin [41], Flora of Tropical West Africa [4246], and Flora Zambesiaca [47]. Additional information was retrieved from Kew Herbarium Catalogue [48] and Naturalis Biodiversity Center [49]. Furthermore, for some plant families, specialists were consulted. The Herbario LISC and Herbario COI were visited in July 2016 and 2017 for comparing plant samples [50]. Use-reports of identified plants were only included in the results if the specimen was at least determined to genus level. The nomenclature used refers to Plantlist.org. Voucher specimen numbers of Herbarium Dresdense as well as photo voucher numbers are given in Table 1. Due to the poor availability of data regarding the information of endangered species, Table 1 includes only additional details on endemism and states of neophytes.
Table 1

Overview of all collected and identified useful plants from the Province Uíge: Species listed alphabetically; additional information on usage, used plant part (PP), preparation and administration, use category (UC), number of citations and number of informants. Species information provided: Origin: E = endemic; + = listed; (-) = not listed; * = naturalised according to Plants of Angola (Figueiredo and Smith, 2008); vernacular names in Portugues (Port.) and Kikongo (Kik.); Voucher number according to Herbarium Dresdense or Foto voucher (F); Plant parts: B = bark, BU = bulb, F =fruit, FL = flower, L = leaf, LA = latex, MY = mycel, R = root, RE = resin, RH = RH, S = seed, SS= stem sap, ST = stem, W = whole plant, WO = wood; Use Category: C = drugs and cigarettes, D = domestic and charcoal, F = hunting and fishing, H = handicrafts, L = ludic, M = medicine, N = nutrition, O = other, R = ritual, T = dental care and cosmetics

Species

Usage

PP

Preparation

Administration

UC

Citations

Informants

Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, Kiabo (Port.), Kingombo (Kik.), Kiabua, F_01

Diabetes

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

2

Diarrhea

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Intestinal inflammation

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

Abrus precatorius L., Dinzenze, Dienguele (Kik.), 44228

Activates lactation

L

Crudité

Oral

M

2

2

Cough

L

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Erectile dysfunction

L

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr., Lunzunzu lua mpembe (Kik.) Ndondondo, 43828

Costal pain

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

2

Support birth (faster)

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

- Acanthospermum glabratum (DC.) Wild, Matata, Madiata (Kik.), 43361

Infection legs

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

3

Migraine

W

Roast, Pulverize

Dermal

M

1

Open fontanelle (baby, old people)

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Skin disease

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Yellow fever

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Acanthospermum hispidum DC., Madiatadiata (Kik.), 42727

Skin disease

L

 

Dermal

M

2

2

Acanthus montanus (Nees) T.Anderson, Kekasanga, Nkeka ngô (Kik.), Indulumba, sosongui, 43375

Angina pectoris

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

7

Epilepsy

R

Decoction

 

M

1

Hepatitis

L

  

M

1

High blood pressure

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Infertility

L

Roast, Pulverize

Oral

M

3

Leg pain

L

Crudité

Dermal

M

1

Nutrition

L

  

N

1

Scoliosis

L

Decoction

Bath, Dermal

M

2

Stomach pains

L

 

Enema

M

1

Adansonia digitata L., Imbondeiro (Port.), Nkondo (Kik.), Mucua, F_02

Lemonade

F

  

N

1

1

Skin disease

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. ex Hook.) Harms, Nkawu (Kik.), 45030

Infertility women

R

  

M

1

1

Adenia lobata (Jacq.) Engl., Mukekete, Nkenkete (Kik.), Muloa, 43834

Epilepsy

SS

Crudité

Eyes Drops

M

1

5

Nutrition

L

 

Oral

N

4

Aframomum alboviolaceum (Ridl.) K.Schum., Gingengue (Port.), Mansasa, Mansansa ma londe, Manzunja, Ntundulu (Kik.), Linguenga, dizaza Xinguenga, Mazasa da queimada, mazaza gingenga, nzaza, Ntundabala, Kizaza, 44161

Antibiotic

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

16

Bloody urin

R

Maceration

 

M

1

Constipation

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Convulsion

L, SS

Crudité

Nose Drops

M

1

Diabetes

R

Decoction

Hip Bath

M

1

Epilepsy

R, ST

Decoction, Maceration, Crudité

Enema, Bath

M

4

Epilepsy

L

Percolation

Eye Drop

M

2

Hernia

R

 

Enema

M

1

Inflammation legs

R

Crudité

Bath

M

2

Low blood pressure

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Nutrition

F

  

N

6

Parsitic worms

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Scoliosis

L

Decoction

Enema, Bath, Dermal, Oral

M

8

Sterility (men and women)

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Vertiz

ST

Decoction

Face Wash

M

1

Yellow fever

R

  

M

1

Aframomum angustifolium (Sonn.) K.Schum., Gingenga da mata (Port.), Mansasa ma mfinda (Kik.), F_04

Nutrition

F

  

N

2

2

Yellow fever

R

  

M

1

Aframomum melegueta K.Schum., Ndungu za kongo (Kik.), 44226

Mixture component

S

  

M

1

3

Spice

S

  

N

2

* Agave sisalana Perrine, Fibra de sisal (Port.), Barabate (Kik.), F_05

Fiber plant

L

  

F

1

2

Rope

L

  

H

1

Agelaea pentagyna (Lam.) Baill., Kamatatu (Kik.), 42832

 

R

  

M

1

1

 

L

  

M

1

Agelanthus brunneus (Engl.) Tiegh., Nkunda nkunda (Kik.), 43338

Eye infection

L

Percolation

Eye drops

M

1

2

Stomach pains

L

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L., Fuatakala, Imbuakatela (Kik.), 43160

Vertigo

   

M

1

1

Albizia adianthifolia (Schum.) W.Wight, Mulu (Kik.), mulukai, 44243

Bleeding

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

11

Cold

L

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

Construction

WO

  

D

1

Cough

L

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Epilepsy

R

Decoction, Maceration

Enema

M

2

Eye parasites

R

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

5

Fodder plant

L

  

F

1

Headache

R

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

Hemorrhoids

L

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Infidelity of father

L

Roast, Pulverize

Oral

R

1

Malaria

L

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

Nosebleed

R

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

2

Albizia ferruginea (Guill. & Perr.) Benth., Makaba, Nsuemba (Kik.), 44220

Epilepsy

B

Decoction

Nose Drops

M

1

2

Fodder plant

L

  

F

1

Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Müll.Arg., Bunza, Gunze, Wunze (Kik.), kibunge,mbunzi, Kimbunza, Guunze, Muunze, lumbunze, Kiunzia, 42586

Anaemia

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

12

Anaemia

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Bloody diarrhea

R, L

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Decoration graveyard

F

  

R

1

Diarrhea

L, B

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Eye pain

R

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

2

Fire wood

WO

  

D

1

Hemorrhoids

L

Suppository

Rectal

M

1

Hunting birds

F

  

F

1

Open cervix

L

Balm

Anal, Vaginal

M

2

Otitis

L

Percolation

Ear Drops

M

1

Parasites in eyes

R

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

1

Skin disease

L, B

Balm, Decoction

Dermal, oral

M

3

Surgery wounds

L

Infusion

Oral

M

1

Toothache

L, B

Decoction

Oral

M

4

Weakness

L, B

Decoction

Oral

M

2

- Allium sativum L., Alho (Port.), F_06

Infertility

BU

Decoction

Oral

M

2

2

Stomach pains

BU

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Allophylus africanus P.Beauv., Mbanzu mbanzu (Kik.), 41878

Fodder plant

L

  

F

2

2

Aloe buettneri A.Berger, Ba dia Nseke (Kik.), kikalango, ndende, 43280

Cough

L

Crudité

Oral

M

1

6

Erectile dysfunction

ST

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Gonorrhea

L, SS

Crudité

Vaginal

M

1

Headache

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Hernia

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Mixture component

L

  

M

1

Splenomegaly

L

Decoction

Enema

M

2

Alvesia rosmarinifolia Welw., Mazima-zima, Mfinguila (Kik.), 43910

Open fontanelle (baby, old people)

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

2

Pain

L, ST

Infusion

Dermal

M

2

Vertigo

L

Balm

Dermal, Nose Drops

M

2

* Amaranthus caudatus L., Biteku teku, Bowa (Kik.), Gimboa, 43908

Nutrition

L

  

N

2

2

* Anacardium occidentale L., Cajú, Cajueiro (Port.), Nkazuwa (Kik.), F_06

Nutrition

F, S

  

N

4

3

Vertiz

B

Decoction

Bath

M

1

* Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., Abacaxi (Port.),Nanazi (Kik.), F_07

Backache

F

Fermentation

Oral

M

1

1

Anchomanes difformis (Blume) Engl., Nsadia kiula (Kik), 44160

Earache

ST

Put into Fire

Emitted Spume into Ear

M

1

2

Splenomegaly

BU

Decoction

Inhalation

M

1

Aneilema beninense, Mpimpita (Kik.), 42713

Nutrition

L

  

N

1

1

Anisophyllea quangensis Engl. ex Henriq., Mfungua (Kik.), mfuongo, Ifungu, xifungu, 43266

Cough

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

7

Eye parasites

R

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

1

Lung problems

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Nutrition

F

  

N

6

Nutrition

L

  

N

1

Scoliosis

R

Decoction

Dermal

M

2

- Anisophyllea sororia Pierre, lufuongo, F_09

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

1

- Annona muricata L., SSi SSi (Port.), Mbundu a ngombe (Kik.), 44055

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

1

Annona senegalensis Pers., Lolo kIambulu, Lolo (Kik.), F_10

Bloody diarrhea

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

3

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

Stomach pains

L, R

Decoction, Infusion

Oral

M

4

Annona stenophylla subsp. cuneata (Oliv.) N.Robson, Lolo, Lolo kia ndamba, Nlolo a mpolo, Nzelenge (Kik.), nolopolo, muloloa, Loloalolo, mulolo, molo, Nlolo kafioti, lolonbulu, malolo, dilolo, 43204

After loss of pregnancy

R

Maceration

Enema

M

1

23

Anaemia

L

Decoction, Infusion

Oral, Bath

M

5

Anaemia

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Appendix

R

Maceration

Enema

M

1

Backache

L, R

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Cleaning stomach

L, R

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Constipation

R

Decoction, Maceration

Enema

M

2

Cryptorchidism

R

Maceration

Oral, Enema

M

2

Diarrhea

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Epilepsy

R

Decoction, Maceration

Enema

M

2

Hemorrhoids

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Hernia

R

Maceration

Oral, Enema

M

2

Infertility women

R

Decoction

 

M

1

Influenza

R

Maceration

Bath

M

1

Malaria

R

Maceration

Bath

M

1

Nutrition

F

  

N

13

Open cervix

L

  

M

1

Parasitic worms

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Scoliosis

R, L

Decoction

Dermal

M

2

Stomach pains

R

Decoction, Maceration

Oral

M

4

Tea

L

Infusion

 

N

2

Typhus

L

Decoction, Infusion

Oral

M

2

- Antidesma laciniatum var. Membranaceum Müll.Arg., Munzevo nzevo (Kik.) 43259

Bleedings

F

Decoction

Oral

M

1

1

Antidesma venosum E.Mey. ex Tul., Mfutila (Kik.), 43868

Skin disease

F

Swallowing

 

M

1

1

- Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn) Fosberg, Fruta pão (Port.), Santu Petelo (Kik.), 42674

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

1

Asparagus drepanophyllus Welw. ex Baker, Nlandu, Timba timba (Kik.), malekatanga, F_11

Cryptorchidism

BU

Chewing

 

M

1

2

Strong menstruation

BU

  

M

1

Asparagus laricinus Burch., Mandioca (Port.), Dioko dia nkama, Nsensa mpakasa, Nzezangoma (Kik.), 44003

Backache

R

  

M

1

4

Cough

BU

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Erectile dysfunction

BU

Decoction

Enema, Dermal

M

2

Headache

BU

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Infertility (male)

BU

Eat

Oral

M

1

Menstruation (severe)

RH

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Nosebleed

   

M

1

Stomach pains

BU

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Asparagus spec., Nsesa mpakasa (Kik.), 44737

Cough

BU

Chewing, Cook

Oral

M

2

3

Erectile dysfunction

BU

Crudité, Maceration In Palm Wine

Oral

M

3

- Azadirachta indica A.Juss., Neem, 44233

Stomach pains

L

  

M

1

1

Baccharoides guineensis (Benth.) H.Rob., Matita, Nkokomakioko, Nsakaba (Kik.), 43279

Baso

BU

Crudité

Enema

M

1

9

Body pain

BU

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Burns

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Constipation

BU

Pulverize

Enema

M

1

Cough

BU

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Diarrhea

BU

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Headache

BU

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Inflammation testicles

BU

Decoction

Enema, Dermal

M

2

Injury

BU

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Lack of appetite

BU

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Sprain

BU

Balm, Chewing, Tie Around Belly

Dermal, Oral

M

5

Stomach pains

BU

Crudité, Decoction

Oral, Enema

M

4

Trap for mole

BU

  

F

1

- Bambusa vulgaris Schrad., Bamboo (Port.), Tutu dia mputu (Kik.), F_13

Construction

ST

  

D

2

3

Erosion control

W

  

O

1

- Baphia chrysophylla Taub.

Mbidimbidi, Mbidi (Kik.) Ntandambínza F_14

Bloody urin

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

2

Urinal infection

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Barteria nigritana Nzumizumi (Kik.) 42749

Skin disease

L

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

1

Basella alba L. F_16

Nutrition

L

  

N

1

1

Bauhinia thonningii Schum. Pata do boi (Port.), Nsakala (Kik.) loloa, musakala 43847

Diabetes

R, SS

 

Oral

M

1

8

Diarrhea

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Hemorrhoids

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Open cervix

B

Crudité, Decocton

Vaginal, Oral, Bath

M

3

Tool handle

WO

  

D

2

Typhus

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Weakness after birth

B

Decoction

Bath

M

1

Bidens pilosa L. Kimananganzi, Kolokoso (Kik.) 42743

Tea

L

  

N

1

2

 

W

  

M

1

Biophytum umbraculum Welw. Zambakonono (Kik.) 43236

Chills

W

Decoction

Enema

M

1

2

Weakness

W

Decoction

Bath

M

1

Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Desv.) J.H.Kirkbr. & Wiersema Nzuku (Kik.) muzuku, nsambozeke 43829

Fever

B

Maceration

Enema

M

1

2

Open fontanelle

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Rattle

F

  

L

1

* Boerhavia diffusa L. Ditumbato (Kik.)

Hepatitis

W

Maceration

Enema

M

1

3

Malaria

W

Maceration

Enema

M

1

Malaria

L

  

M

1

Snakebite

L

  

M

1

Yellow fever

L

Decoction

Bath

M

1

Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. Kwidi, Nkuidi (Kik.) 44141

Nutrition

WO

  

N

1

1

Tobacco

B

  

C

1

Brassica spec. Couve (Port.), Nkove (Kik.) 42794

Nutrition

L

  

N

1

1

Brenandendron donianum (DC.) H.Rob. Mundala ndala (Kik.) 44115

Headache

L

Balm, Maceration

Dermal

M

2

4

High fever children

L

Decoction

Bath

M

1

Package

L

  

O

1

Bridelia ferruginea Benth. Mukalakala, Mwindu, Nkangati (Kik.), munkangati, mukala 44197

Anaemia

B

Decoction

Oral, Enema

M

2

15

Bleeding

R

Decoction

Enema

M

 

Bloody diarrhea

B, R

Decoction

Oral

M

3

Construction

WO

  

D

1

Cough

B

  

M

1

Diarrhea

L

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Diarrhea

B

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Dysentery

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Fodder plant

L

  

F

2

Headache

B

Smoking

 

M

1

Healing wounds

B

Incinerate

Dermal

M

1

Injury

B

Balm

Dermal

M

3

Injury

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Open cervix

B

Crudité

Vaginal

M

1

Stomach pains

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Strong menstruation

B

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Tobacco

B

Incinerate

Nose Drops

C

2

Weakness

R

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill. Minzundu, Mukalakala da mata (Kik.) 44224

Fodder plant

L

  

F

6

6

Brillantaisia owariensis P.Beauv. Lemba lemba, Malembalemba (Kik.) 44259

Against storms (totosimalembosi)

L

  

R

1

11

Burn injuries

L

Incinerate

Dermal

M

1

Crying baby

L, R

Put into Cradle

Dermal

M

2

Epilepsy

L

Maceration

Dermal

M

1

Growth from the stump

L

  

D

1

Headache

L

Infusion, Maceration

Oral, Dermal

M

4

Heart problems

L

Infusion

Oral

M

2

High blood pressure

L

  

M

1

Infertility women

L

Roast

Oral

M

1

Madness

R, L

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

2

Many uses

L

Infusion

 

M

1

Solves problems

L

  

R

1

Stomach pains

L

Infusion

Oral

M

2

Stress

L

  

M

1

Struck by lightning

L

Crudité

Oral

M

2

Tachycardia

L

  

M

1

- Brugmansia versicolor Lagerh. F_17

Insect bite

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

1

Snake bite

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Burkea africana Hook. Kilobo (Kik.) 44200

Fodder plant

L

  

F

3

3

* Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Mbwengwe, Wando (Kik.), Muando, feijao uandu 44033

Nutrition

S

  

N

3

4

Parasites in eyes

L

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

1

Calamus deerratus G.Mann & H.Wendl., Junco (Port.), Mbamba (Kik.) 44125

Construction

ST

  

D

1

2

Rattan

ST

  

H

2

Calvoa seretii De Wild., Nzikinseke (Kik.) 43333

Nutrition

L

Decoction

 

N

1

1

Canarium schweinfurtii Engl., Kimfwabidi, Mbidi, Mfuambidi (Kik.), Obafu, mumbidi, mbafu F_18

Asthma

RE

Decoction

Oral

M

1

8

Backache

B

 

Enema

M

1

Candle

RE

  

O

2

Cough

RE

Burn Incense

Inhalation

M

2

Energy source

RE

  

D

1

Fodder plant

L

  

F

1

Incense

RE

  

R

1

Mixture component

RE

  

M

1

Nutrition

F

  

N

3

Parasitic worms

RE

Sucking

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

RE

Pulverize, Sucking

Oral

M

2

 

B

  

M

1

- Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC., Feijão (Port.), Madezo, Nkasa (Kik.) F_19

Nutrition

S

Cook

Oral

M

1

1

* Canna indica L. 42701

Pain when breathing

R

Crudité

Dermal

M

1

2

Toys

S

  

L

1

- Capsicum annuum, Ndungu za kongo, Ndungu za matebo (Kik.), 42694

Hemorrhoids

F

Decoction

Enema

M

1

3

Madness

F

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

* Capsicum frutescens, Gindungu (Port.), Ndungu (Kik.) F_21

Nutrition

F

  

N

3

3

* Carica papaya L., Mamão (Port.), Papayi (Kik.) F_22

Backache

L

Crudité

Anal

M

1

14

Backache

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Bloody urin

R

Maceration

 

M

1

Caries

R

Decoction

Mouth Wash

M

1

Diabetes

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Diarrhea

R

  

M

2

Diarrhea caused by breast milk

L

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Fertility men

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Flatulence

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Gonorrhoea

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Hemorrhoids

R

Balm, Decoction

Dermal, Enema

M

2

Induced abortion

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Injury

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Madness

R

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

Potency

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Toothache

R

Decoction

Mouth Wash

M

3

Typhus

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Yellow fever

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

- Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don, 43937

Amoeba

R

Decotion

Oral

M

1

3

Beauty, decoration

FL

  

R

1

Decoration

FL

  

R

1

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn., Mfuma (Kik.), mufumeira, Kapok 42781

Anaemia

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

2

Canoe construction

WO

  

H

1

* Celosia argentea L., sankokolo 43935

Decoration

FL

  

R

1

1

Nutrition

L

  

N

1

Celosia trigyna L. 43173

Epilepsy

L, R

Maceration

Enema

M

2

2

Nutrition

L

  

N

1

Celtis gomphophylla Baker, Munzunzua mfinda (Kik.) 44219

Fodder plant

L

  

F

1

1

Cereus spec., Nsoma (Kik.) F_23

Lightning conductor

W

  

O

1

1

Ceropegia bonafouxii K.Schum. 43253

Skin disease

L

Balm

 

M

1

1

Chaetocarpus africanus Pax, Kosu kosu, Nkovola, Nkungui a nteka, Nkunguteka (Kik.) 43229

Animal trap

ST

  

F

1

5

Cough

L

Infusion

Oral

M

1

Fungi on skin

F, L

Balm

Dermal

M

2

Lepra

L

Decoction

Enema, Dermal

M

2

Mpungu = bad magic (inflammation arms, genital area)

L

Decoction

 

M

1

Chassalia cristata (Hiern) Bremek., nlotunlotu F_74

Skin disease

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

1

Skin parasites

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Chlorophora excelsa (Welw.) Benth., Moreira (Port.), Nkamba (Kik.), murere 44231

Construction

WO

  

D

3

4

Infection

ST

  

M

1

- Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob., Kongo ya sika, Mubutu (Port.), mabutu, wasabanga, kabukila, Nguengele, Ntumisina 42706

Backache

L

Crudité

Dermal

M

1

17

Body pain

L

Pulverize

Dermal

M

1

Cold

L

Decoction

Inhalation

M

1

Fever

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Flu

L

Infusion

Oral

M

1

High fever

L

Decoction

Oral, Steam Bath

M

2

Injury

L

Balm

Dermal

M

6

Injury

L

Pulverize

Oral

M

1

Malaria

L

Decoction

Oral, Inhalation, Enema

M

5

Soil improvement

W

  

O

1

Stomach pains

L

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Stomach pains (reason: dirty water)

L

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Wounds

L

Balm, Tincture

Dermal

M

3

Chrysophyllum cf. bangweolense R.E.Fr., Ngonti, Nkosi nti, Ntele (Kik.), muhonga 44156

Constipation

R

Decoction

Enema

M

2

4

Hernia

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Leg ache

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Parasitic worms

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Snakebite

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Splenomegaly children

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Stomach pains

R

Decoction

Enema

M

2

Cissus rubiginosa (Welw. ex Baker) Planch,

Faz tudo (Port.), Katambadi, Nkatakata kahendanga, Nkata mbadi, Nkokila mbundu (Kik.), holamo zunzu 42591

Arm pain

ST

Crudité

Dermal

M

1

12

Bloody diarrhea

L

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Hernia

R

 

Enema

M

1

Inflammation

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Inflammation testicles

BU

Decoction

Enema, Testicles

M

2

Injury

   

M

 

Leg pain

ST

Balm, Crudité

Dermal

M

2

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

Red eyes

L

Decoction, Percolation

Oral, Eye Drops

M

2

Rheumatism

F

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Skin disease

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Sprain

F

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Stomach pains

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Struck by lightning

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Struck by lightning

R

 

Enema

M

1

Yellow fever

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

- Citrus reticulata Blanco, Tangerineira (Port.)

Lemonade

F

 

Oral

N

1

1

Tea

L

Infusion

Oral

N

1

Citrus spec., Limão (Port.), Lala dia nsa (Kik.)

Bloody urin

R

Maceration

 

M

1

4

Cake

F

  

N

1

Diabetes

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Gonnorrhe

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Lemonade

F

  

N

1

- Citrus x limon (L.) Osbeck, Limão (Port.)

Cold

F

 

Dermal

M

1

4

Cough

F

Crudité, Decoction

Oral

M

2

Desinfection

F

 

Dermal

M

1

Fertility men

F

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Fertility men

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Skin disease

FL

Balm

Dermal

M

1

- Citrus x sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Laranjeira (Port.) F_28

Angina

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

1

Fever

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

- Clematis hirsuta Guill. & Perr., Feijao maluco (Port.), Mankundia (Kik.), Mutsiatsia 43350

Headache

L

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

1

- Clematis uhehensis Engl. 44009

Puppet

F

  

L

1

1

Clematis villosa DC., Zalandemba (Kik.) 44167

Epilepsy

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

1

Clerodendrum formicarum Gürke, Kinda ngolo, Nlombua mvula (Kik.), Nlombamvula 43286

Infection legs

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

4

Leg ache

L

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Skin disease

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Stomach pains

L

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Urinal infection

L, R

 

Oral

M

2

Clerodendrum fuscum Gürke, Maculu (Port.), 44213

Anus infection

L

Incinerate

Dermal

M

1

1

Mouth infection

L

Incinerate

Dermal

M

1

Clerodendrum splendens G.Don, Kindangolo (Kik.)

Parasitic worms

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

1

Stomachache

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Weakness

L

Decoction, Maceration

Oral

M

2

Clerodendrum welwitschii Gürke, Ndia a nzamba (Kik.) 43254

Otitis

R

  

M

1

1

Clitandra cymulosa Benth., Madinga, Makalanga (Kik.) 43183

Nutrition

F

  

N

2

2

Parasitic worms

LA

Crudité

Enema, Oral

M

2

Cnestis corniculata Lam., Kizikizamba (Kik.) 43886

Allergic shock

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

1

Cnestis ferruginea Vahl ex DC. 43890

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

1

- Coffea robusta L.Linden Café (Port.), Kafi (Kik.) F_30

Toothache

R

Decoction

Mouth Wash

M

1

1

Cogniauxia podolaena Baill., Mpakambai, Mazakanbulu 42751

Chills

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

3

Menstrual cramps

R

 

Enema

M

1

Splenomegaly

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Cola acuminata (P.Beauv.) Schott & Endl., Cola (Port.), Makazu (Kik.), Nkazu brasa 41880

Aphrodisiac agent

S

Pulverize

Oral

M

1

7

Back pain

B

Decoction

 

M

1

Backache

S

Pulverize

Oral

M

1

Diabetes

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Diarrhea

S

Crudité

Eat

M

1

Hemorrhoids

S

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Open fontanelle

S

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Ritual

S

  

R

1

Stimulants

S

  

C

1

Weakness

S

Pulverize

Oral

M

1

Colletoecema dewevrei (De Wild.) E.M.A.Petit, Nzekazeka (Kik.) F_31

Cough

L

Chewing

Oral

M

1

1

Injury

B

Balm

Dermal

M

1

- Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, Batata malanga (Port.), Malanga (Kik.) F_32

Nutrition

RH

  

N

2

2

Combretum celastroides Welw. ex M.A.Lawson, Nzenze (Kik.) 43978

Sore throat

R

Decoction

Inhalation

M

1

1

Combretum collinum Fresen., mugiti 43881

Construction

WO

  

D

1

2

Hemorrhoids

L

Balm, Decoction

Dermal, Enema

M

2

Combretum psidioides Welw., Nkukuti (Kik.) 44215

Backache

R

Apply On Surface

Dermal

M

1

6

Bloody diarrhea

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Bronchitis

F

Pulverize

Oral

M

1

Construction

WO

  

D

1

Diarrhea

L, ST

Decoction

Enema

M

2

Hemorrhoids

B

Balm, Roast

Anal

M

2

Hemorrhoids

R

Crudité

Anal

M

 

Skin disease

B

Balm, Decoction

Dermal, Bath

M

3

Stomach pains

L

Balm

Oral

M

1

Combretum racemosum P.Beauv., Nsumbila, N'sumbi, Nsumbi a mbi (Kik.), nsumbiele 44794

Bloody diarrhea

L

Decoction, Maceration

Oral

M

2

6

Bloody diarrhea

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Diarrhea

L

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Dysentery

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Commelina diffusa Burm.f., Kambuakatela (Kik.) 44029

 

R

  

M

1

1

Costus afer Ker Gawl., Makenia, Mankene, Matumba tumba, Nsangalavu, Nsangalavua, (Kik.) 46847

Activates lactation

ST

Chewing

Oral

M

1

14

Cleaning uterus and testicles

ST

  

M

1

Cough

L

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Enuresis

ST

Chewing

 

M

1

Epilepsy

ST

Chewing

Eye Drops

M

4

Epilepsy

L

Maceration

Dermal

M

1

Eye problems

ST

Percolation

Drop In Eye

M

2

Gout

W

Maceration

Enema

M

1

Insomnia

W

Maceration

Enema

M

1

Mixture component

L

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Nutrition

L, ST

  

N

2

Parasites in eyes

ST

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

1

Trypanosomiasis

F

 

Oral

M

1

Weakness

ST

Chewing

 

M

2

Yellow fever

ST

Chewing

Eye Drops

M

1

Costus spectabilis (Fenzl) K.Schum., Longa di nseke, Longa dia simbi, Ntesi ntesi (Kik.) 42652

Erectile dysfunction

RH

Chewing, Maceration

Oral, Enema

M

3

4

Eye problems

RH

Percolation

Eye Drop

M

1

Water belly

L

  

M

1

Crassocephalum montuosum (S.Moore) Milne-Redh., Bungudi (Kik.), Bungula 43282

Nutrition

L

  

M

1

1

Crassocephalum rubens (Juss. ex Jacq.) S.Moore, Bungudi (Kik.), bungudia 44082

Chest pain

L

Cook

Eat

M

1

5

Nutrition

L

  

N

4

Crinum spec., Bá dia nseke (Kik.) F_34

Yellow fever

BU

Decoction

Enema

M

1

1

Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel. ex G.Don) Benth., Mvala (Kik.), nhala, Vala 43907

Baso children

R

 

Enema

M

1

10

Cleaning body

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Cold

R

  

M

1

Constipation

R

Crudité

Enema

M

1

Diabetes

R

 

Enema

M

1

Epilepsy

R

Decoction

Nose Drops

M

1

Fertility men

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Flatulence

R

Crudité, Decoction

Enema

M

2

Gonorrhoea

B

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Harelip

R

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

Headache

L

Decoction

Washing

M

1

Headache

R

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

Madness

R, L

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

3

Malaria

R

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

Scoliosis

L

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Sexual potency

R

Decotion

Enema, Oral

M

2

Splenomegaly

L

 

Enema

M

1

Croton mubango Müll.Arg., Mbangu mbangu (Kik.) 44230

Backache

B

 

Enema

M

1

10

Bodypain

B

Decoction

Oral, Dermal

M

2

Bone pain

B, L

Maceration

Enema, Bath

M

4

Epilepsy

L

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

Flu

B

Decoction

Steam Bath

M

1

Fodder plant

L

  

F

2

Joint pain

B, L

Maceration

Enema, Bath

M

4

Malaria

B

  

M

1

Scoliosis

B

Balm

Enema, Bath

M

2

Scoliosis

L

Balm

Enema, Bath

M

2

Shadowtree for coffee plantations

W

  

O

1

Stomach pains

B

Decoction, Maceration

Enema, Oral

M

2

Toys

S

  

L

1

Weakness

B

 

Enema, Dermal

M

2

Croton sylvaticus Hochst., Ndianga, Nsonia (Kik.) 43127

Urinal infection

B

Crudité

Oral, Enema, Anal

M

3

1

Cryptolepis oblongifolia (Meisn.) Schltr., Mukonki (Kik.) 44131

Detoxifying

L, R

Chewing, Put Behind Ear

 

M

3

2

Erectile dysfunction

R

Chewing

Oral

M

1

- Cucurbita maxima Duchesne, Muengeleka, Muteta (Port.), Lenge (Kik.), Kosekelenge F_35

Headache

F

Balm

Dermal

M

1

5

Nutrition

L, F, S

  

N

4

Vertigo

F

Incinerate

Nose Drops

M

1

Culcasia angolensis Welw. ex Schott, Mazanzala ngongolo (Kik.) 44133

Package

L

  

O

1

2

Snake bite

L

Percolation

Dermal

M

1

* Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Sinde (Kik.) 42882

Appetizing

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

2

Aromatization

L

Decoction

Oral

N

1

Cymbopogon densiflorus (Steud.) Stapf, Lunsansangu (Kik.), luzango 43869

Anorexia

F

Decoction

Oral

M

1

2

Spice

FL

Decoction

Oral

N

1

Stomach pains

FL

Incinerate

Oral

M

1

Cyperus articulatus L., Nianga za nkoko, Nsaku nsaku, Tangawisi (Kik.), Capi do Tangauisi, Usakusaku, Nlunianganu nloki 43939

Backache

RH

 

Enema

M

1

6

Erectile dysfunction

RH

  

M

1

Foot infection

RH

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Stomach pains

RH

 

Enema

M

1

Toothache

RH

Tooth Balm

 

M

1

 

RH

Maceration

Oral

M

1

 

RH

  

M

1

Cyperus papyrus L., Papiros (Port.), Mabu (Kik.) F_36

Mat

ST

  

H

4

4

Cyperus spec.

Rope

ST

  

H

1

1

E CyphoSTma stipulaceum (Baker) Desc., Nlembuzu (Kik.) 44139

Sore throat

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

1

Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J.Lam, N´safu (Kik.) F_37

Anaemia

L

Decoction

Bath, Oral

M

2

3

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

Toothache

R, L

Decoction

Mouth Wash

M

2

E Dalbergia carringtoniana Sousa, hela 44174

Epilepsy

R

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

1

1

Epilepsy

L

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

1

Stomach pains

R, L

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

2

Dalbergia nitidula Baker, Katete (Kik.) 44135

Scoliosis

R

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

1

Sprain

R

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Daniellia alsteeniana P.A.Duvign., Mulomba (Kik.) 44210

Construction

WO

  

D

1

3

Erectile dysfunction

R

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Scoliosis

R

Decoction

Bath

M

1

Stomach pains

ST

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Toothache

B

Decoction

Mouth Wash

M

2

Weakness

R

Decoction

Bath

M

1

Daniellia klainei A.Chev., Nlomba (Kik.) 43982

Eye infection

FL

Crudité

Eye Drops

M

1

1

Eye pain

FL

Crudité

Eye Drops

M

1

* Datura metel L., tebu, Trampuapuasó 43938

Drug

S

Crudité

Oral

C

1

2

Drug

L

On Hand

Dermal

C

1

Hallucinogenic

S

  

C

1

* Datura stramonium L. F_38

Rheumatism

L

Pulverize

Dermal

M

1

1

Desmodium setigerum (E.Mey.) Harv., Lunzila nzila, Luvuma, Mantata, Mungilagila (Kik.) 43826

Hemorrhoids

W

Decoction

Oral

M

1

4

Open fontanelle

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Skin disease

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Splenomegaly

W

Balm

Dermal

M

1

* Desmodium cf. tortuosum (Sw.) DC., Malama lama (Kik.) F_39

Antiaborting

L

Maceration

Enema

M

1

1

Desmodium velutinum (Willd.) DC. 43831

Infertility women

L

Cook

Eat

M

1

1

Dialium englerianum Henriq., Mbota, Mbota, Nsamba nzeke (Kik.), Umbota 43176

Charcoal

WO

  

D

2

12

Diarrhea

L

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Fodder plant

L

  

F

3

Headache

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Hiccup

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Lepra

B

Decoction

Enema, Dermal

M

2

Nutrition

F

  

N

6

Open fontanelle

B

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Parasitic worms

B, R

Maceration

Enema

M

2

Scoliosis

B

Balm

Dermal

M

2

Scoliosis

L

Decoction, Infusion

Dermal, Oral, Enema

M

5

Skin disease

B

Balm, Crudité

Dermal

M

2

Thrombosis

L, R

Decoction

Dermal

M

2

Toothache

B

Decoction

Inhalation

M

1

Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn., Mvanga (Kik.) 44232

Anaemia

B

Balm

Dermal

M

1

2

Fodder plant

L

  

F

1

Dioscorea BUifera L., Nsoko (Kik.) F_40

Nutrition

BU

Roast Slices

 

N

1

1

Dioscorea praehensilis Benth., Gindunga da mata, Inhame (Port.), Nsende za nkaka, Nsende za sadi, Sadi (Kik.), batata kisadi, mitoto 42602

Bloody diarrhea

BU

Cooked

Oral

M

1

8

Constipation

ST

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Erectile dysfunction

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Infertility women

BU

Boiling

Enema

M

1

Nutrition

BU

  

N

3

Nutrition

ST

  

N

2

Sterility (men and women)

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

BU

Cooked

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Diospyros heterotricha (Welw. ex Hiern) F.White, Lufua lua ndombe, Munkonki (Kik.), lufua 43975

Cosmetic

R

  

O

3

6

Dental care

R

Chewing

Oral

T

4

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

Skin disease

F

Swallowing

Oral

M

1

Splenomegaly

R

Maceration

Enema

M

1

Toothache

R

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Diplorhynchus condylocarpon (Müll.Arg.) Pichon, Mvondo ngolo, Vondisila, Nzo (Kik.), Ihondegila, muhondixila, Insenge, Kisengi 42725

Construction

WO

  

D

1

11

Diarrhea

LA

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Diarrhea

R

Decoction, Pulverize

Oral

M

2

Diarrhea children

R

Chewing, Decoction

Oral, Enema

M

2

Epilepsy

L

Decoction

Steam Bath

M

1

Gastrointestinal disease

R

Pulverize

Oral

M

1

Glue

LA

  

O

2

Mosquito repellent

LA

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Parasitic worms

R

Crudité, Maceration

Oral

M

2

Snake bite

LA

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

R

Chewing, Crudité, Decoction, Maceration

Oral, Enema, Dermal

M

5

Vertigo

L

Decoction

Dermal, Oral

M

3

Dissotis spec., Mpangi mpangi, Nzangani (Kik.) F_41

Baso

L

Decoction

Enema, Oral

M

2

3

Open fontanelle

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Dombeya burgessiae Gerrard ex Harv. 43954

Rope

ST

  

H

1

1

Dorstenia psilurus Welw., Mikombo (Kik.) F_42

Back pain

R

  

M

2

6

Chest pain

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Cough

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Infertility (male)

   

M

1

Malaria

R

  

M

1

Scoliosis

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

So hide marihuana

R

  

C

1

Splenomegaly

S

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Stomach pains

R

  

M

2

Weakness

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

 

R

  

M

1

Dracaena camerooniana Baker, Nsalabakala (Kik.) F_43

Nutrition

L

  

N

2

2

Dracaena mannii Baker, Munzadi nzadi, Nsadisadi (Kik.), kitondo 44797

Angina

ST

Percolation

Oral

M

1

7

Baby is crying a lot

ST

Percolation

Oral

M

1

Bird trapping

F

  

F

1

Fire WO

WO

  

D

1

Flu

L

Maceration

Bath

M

1

Headache

L

Balm, Maceration, Crudité

Dermal, Bath

M

3

Headache

B

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Headache

ST

Decoction

 

M

1

Open fontanelle

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Otitis

ST

Percolation

Ear Drops

M

1

* Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants, Santa Maria (Port.), Kinsidi nzimba (Kik.), kibuekete 42698

Backache

W

Crudité

Anal

M

1

14

Bloody urin

R

Maceration

 

M

1

Cold

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Fever

W

Balm, Infusion

Dermal, Oral, Inhalation

M

4

Fever

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Flu

W

Decoction, Infusion

Oral, Bath, Inhalation

M

4

Flu

L

Decoction

Steam Bath

M

1

Headache

W

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Headache

L

Maceration

Dermal

M

1

Hepatitis

L

Crudité

Enema

M

1

Kidney problems

L

Maceration

Enema

M

1

Malaria

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Malaria

W

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Open cervix

L

Crudité

Enema

M

1

Open fontanelle

W

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Scoliosis

L

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Vertigo

L

Maceration

Dermal

M

1

Yellow fever

L

Decoction

Bath

M

1

Ekebergia benguelensis Welw. ex C.DC., Fukamena nkosi (Kik.), koxinti, Nfuka menakoxi, koxanti 43900

Constipation

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

5

Fever

R

Maceration

Enema

M

1

Parasitic worms

R

Maceration

Oral

M

2

Rheumatism

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Stomach pains

L

Decoction

Enema

M

2

Stomach pains

R

Decoction

Enema

M

2

Elaeis guineensis Jacq., Dendê, Palmeira de dendê (Port.), Ngazi, Nkula, Nsamba, Nsoko a bá (Kik.), maruvu da palmeira, palmeira de dend, Kokonote F_44

Activates lactation

S

Chewing, Crudité

Eat, Oral

M

2

17

Bloody diarrhea/dysentery

F, B

Pulverize

Oral

M

2

Bucket for peanuts

L

  

H

1

Cold (sniffles)

S

Oil

Nose Drops

M

1

Constipation

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Cryptorchidism

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Diarrhea

L

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Dysentery

B, F

Pulverize

Oral

M

2

Erectile dysfunction

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Eye parasites

F

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

1

Fish trap

L

  

F

2

Fodder plant

ST

  

F

1

Kidney problems

F

Maceration

Enema

M

1

Mixture component

F, S

Oil

Dermal

M

2

Nutrition

F, S

  

N

2

Palm wine

SS

  

C

3

Palm wine (prevents foaming)

S

  

O

1

Rip pain

F

Tie Around Body

Dermal

M

1

Ritual

FL, L

  

R

2

Splenomegaly

F

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Sprain

F

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Sterility (men and women)

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

S

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Stomachache

F

Crudité

Eat

M

1

Weak child

S

Oil

Dermal

M

1

Emilia coccinea (Sims) G.Don, Lalulalu, Malalulalu (Kik.), Lanu 43903

Skin anomaly: Vitiligo

L

Maceration

Enema

M

1

3

Skin disease

L

Balm

Dermal

M

2

Entada abyssinica A.Rich., Nsofi (Kik.) 43942

Asthma

L

Crudité

Oral

M

1

7

Constipation

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Epilepsy

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Fodder plant

L

  

F

2

Headache

L

Balm

Dermal

M

2

Malaria

R

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

Parasitic worms

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Soap

R

  

O

1

Stomachache

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Eremospatha cuspidata (G.Mann & H.Wendl.) H.Wendl., Junco (Port.), Lubamba, Mbamba (Kik.) 44128

Construction

ST

  

D

1

2

Fish trap

ST

  

H

1

Eremospatha haullevilleana De Wild., Junco (Port.), Lubamba, Mbamba (Kik.) 44129

Constipation

ST

Decoction

Enema

M

1

4

Dental care

ST

  

T

1

Fish trap

ST

  

F

1

Handicraft

ST

  

H

1

Penis infection

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Rattan

ST

  

H

1

Eremospatha hookeri (G.Mann & H.Wendl.) H.Wendl., Mbamba (Kik.), mabamba 44122

Construction

ST

  

D

1

1

Eremospatha spec., Junco (Port.) F_45

Animal trap

ST

  

F

1

1

Eriosema glomeratum (Guill. & Perr.) Hook.f., Bulukutu, Wandu wandu (Kik.), moando 43168

Fodder plant

L

  

F

1

3

Tea

L

  

N

2

Vertiz

L

Maceration

Bath

M

 

Eriosema spec., Wando wando (Kik.)

Diarrhea

L

Crudité

Oral

M

2

3

Fodder plant

L

  

F

1

Erythrina abyssinica DC., Lungu nlungu, Mungoma ngoma, Ngoma ngoma (Kik.), mulundulundu, mulungulungu 43909

Anaemia children

L

Decoction

Oral, Bath

M

2

15

Back pain

B

Infusion, Decoction, Maceration

Oral, Dermal, Enema

M

4

Bloody diarrhea

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Coal

WO

  

D

1

Fodder plant

L

  

F

3

Hepatitis

B

Decoction, Maceration

Enema, Dermal

M

5

Irregular menstruation

R

  

M

1

Kidney

B

  

M

1

Open cervix

B

 

Hip Bath

M

1

Weakness

B

Crudité, Maceration

Oral

M

2

Yellow fever

B

Decoction, Maceration

Enema, Oral, Bath, Dermal

M

6

Yellow fever

R

Decoction

 

M

1

Erythrophleum africanum (Benth.) Harms, Ngungu (Kik.), lugungu 43233

Caries

B, L

Decoction

Mouth Wash

M

2

7

Charcoal

WO

  

D

1

Construction

WO

  

D

2

Displace rain

L

  

R

1

Fodder plant

L

  

F

6

Graveyard

WO

  

R

1

Leg pain

B

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Leg pain

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Menstruation problems

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Nosebleed

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Scoliosis

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

* Euphorbia hirta L., Kimvumina kia nkombo (Kik.) 43934

Amoeba in belly

W

Eat, Infusion

Oral

M

2

1

Euphorbia tirucalli L., Muteta (Port.), Mbika (Kik.), Mbiku F_46

Supporting birth

LA

 

Dermal

M

1

1

- Euphorbia tithymaloides L. 42692

Decoration

FLs

  

R

1

1

Fadogia cienkowskii Schweinf., Mankindangolo (Kik.) 43830

Body pain

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

2

Stomach pains

   

M

1

Weakness

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Ficus bubu Warb., Catato (Port.),

Milenda (Kik.), milendemukua 44223

Fodder plant

L

  

F

1

1

Ficus exasperata Vahl, Nkuakasa (Kik.) 44166

Cleaning of dishes

L

  

O

 

1

Ficus spec., Nkuzu, Nsanga nsanga, Nsuemba (Kik.) F_76

Anaemia

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

3

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

Pilao (cassava pot)

WO

  

D

1

Weakness children

L

Balm, Decoction

Dermal, Oral

M

2

Ficus thonningii Blume, N'sanda (Kik.), muzandi 44154

Rheumatism

B, L

Decoction

Bath

M

2

5

Ritual

W

  

R

2

Support birth

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Symbol

W

  

R

2

Fleroya stipulosa (DC.) Y.F.Deng, Nlongua (Kik.), mulongo 43882

Constipation

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

1

Construction

WO

  

D

1

Gaertnera paniculata Benth., Nzuni nzuni (Kik.) 44173

Constipation

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

2

Scoliosis

L

Decoction

Dermal, Oral, Enema

M

3

Stomach pains

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Garcinia huillensis Welw., Kabobo (Kik.) 43854

Diarrhea

FL

  

M

1

1

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

Garcinia kola Heckel, Ngadiadia (Kik.) 44246

Infection legs

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

6

Intestine pain

S

Eat

Oral

M

1

Malaria

S

Chewing, Eat

Oral

M

4

Skin disease

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Snake bite

S

Chewing

 

M

1

Snake repellent

S

  

R

2

Stomach pains

S

Eat

Oral

M

1

Typhus

S

Chewing

Oral

M

2

Yellow fever

S

Chewing, Crudité

Oral, Enema

M

2

Gardenia ternifolia subsp. jovis-tonantis Schumach. & Thonn., Nkia, Nkindia, Nlemba nzau (Kik.), ndai, Ndía 43245

Bloody diarrhea

B

Eat

Oral

M

1

13

Debaso

F

Pulverize, Balm

Dermal

M

1

Diarrhea

B

Eat

Oral

M

1

Epilepsy

R

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

Joint pains

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Lightning conductor

L

  

R

1

Lightning conductor

F

  

O

1

Malaria

F

Pulverize, Balm

Dermal

M

1

Measles

F

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Measles

F

Crudité

Oral

M

 

Measles

S

Swallow

Oral

M

5

Pain

S

  

M

1

Parasites in mouth

F

Decoction

Mouth Wash

M

1

Prevent measles

S

Crudité

Eat

M

1

Stomach pains

L

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Toothache

F

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Typhus

S

  

M

1

Weakness

L

Infusion

Oral

M

1

 

S

Swallowing

Oral

M

1

Geastrum spec. F_47

Urinal infection

MY

Decoction

Oral

M

1

1

Weakness

MY

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel, Malavu manuni (Kik.), kazeka nkuadi 44010

Backache

B

 

Enema

M

1

3

Bird trap

FL

  

F

1

Urinal infection

BU

Maceration

Anal, Vaginak

M

2

Gloriosa superba L., Pisa maluca (Port.), Dioko dia kiana, Mvia lawu (Kik.) 42734

Decoration

FL

  

R

1

6

Male potency

RH

  

M

3

Parasitic worms

RH

Balm, Eat

Dermal, Orak

M

2

Stomach pains

RH

Balm, Eat

Dermal, Oral

M

2

Ximbasu = bad magic

RH

Balm, Eat

Dermal, Oral

M

2

Gnetum africanum Welw., Mfumbwa (Kik.) 41876

Diabetes

L

Cooked

Eat

M

1

1

Nutrition

L

  

N

1

Gongronema latifolium Benth.

Antivenin

L

Chewing

Oral

M

1

1

Bloody diarrhea

L

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

L

Chewing

Oral

M

1

- Gossypium barbadense L., Algodão (Port.), Vusu (Kik.) 42693

Caries

R

Maceration

Mouth Wash

M

1

3

Costal pain

   

M

1

Heartache

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Otitis

S

Oil

Ear Drop

M

1

Gymnanthemum glaberrimum (Welw. ex O.Hoffm.) H.Rob., Nsaku nsaku, Nsalukiayakala, Salu kia luyakala (Kik.), Salu 44157

Aborting

R

Maceration

Bath

M

1

5

Backache

R

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Constipation

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Fever

L

Decoction

Steam Bath

M

 

Infertility

L

  

M

1

Parasitic worms

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Tea

L

  

N

1

Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex Poir., Fitila, Leka, Ntunu, (Kik.), Kitunu, Mtunu 43268

Appendix

B

Decoction

Enema

M

1

9

Construction

WO

  

D

1

Diarrhea

L

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Headache

L

 

Oral

M

1

Hepatitis

L

Balm

Enema

M

3

Hepatitis

B

 

Enema

M

2

Housebuilding

WO

  

D

1

Menstruation

B

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Open cervix

L

Balm

Enema

M

1

Skin disease

B

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Skin disease

L

 

Enema

M

1

Splenomegaly

B

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Stain

LA

  

H

1

Yellow fever

B

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Heinsia crinita (Afzel.) G.Taylor, Nsiamuna, Nsangumuni (Kik.) 43181

Anorexia

B

Maceration

Oral

M

1

2

Constipation

B

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Cough

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Fever

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Stomachache

B

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Helichrysum globosum Sch.Bip., Mpemba (Kik.) 43892

Stomach pains

R

Decoction

Enema

M

2

2

Helichrysum mechowianum Klatt, Kutu kua ngô (Kik.) 42728

Otitis

L

Incinerate

Ear Drop

M

1

2

Toilet paper

L

  

O

2

Helichrysum spec., Dimpaludi (Kik.), Dipakula 44116

Earache

R

Percolation

Ear Drop

M

1

3

Parasitic worms

R

Decoction, Maceration

Enema, Oral

M

2

Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern, Usse (Port.) F_48

Anaemia children

L

Decoction, Infusion

Oral

M

2

2

Heart problems

L

Decoction, Infusion

Oral

M

2

Nutrition

L

Decoction, Infusion

Oral

N

3

Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H.Walter 42612

Nutrition

L

  

N

1

1

Hugonia macrocarpa Welw., Kisilua (Kik.) 43126

Urinary infection

R

Infusion

Oral

M

1

1

Hymenocardia acida Tul., Mpete, Mvete (Kik.), lovete, kihete, Vete, kiheta, Iheta 42738

Anaemia

L

Decoction

Bath, Oral

M

2

22

Bloody diarrhea

R

Maceration, Decoction, Enema

Oral

M

7

Cough

L

Crudité, Decoction

Oral

M

2

Diarrhea

L

Crudité, Eat

Oral

M

2

Diarrhea

B

  

M

1

Fainting

R

Decoction

Inhalation

M

1

Hemorrhoids

L

Balm, Decoction

Dermal, Enema

M

3

Inflammation legs

R

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Inflammation testicles

S

Decoction

Enema

M

2

Lepra

B

Decoction

Dermal

M

2

Madness

L, R

  

M

12

Open cervix

B

Crudité

Vaginal

M

2

Paralysis

L

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Save pregnancy

B

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Scoliosis

L

Decoction

Dermal, Oral, Enema

M

5

Sprain

B

Bandage

Dermal

M

1

Stimulation

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Toothache

B

Decoction

Mouth Wash

M

1

Weakness

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Weakness

R

Funge

Oral

M

1

Hymenocardia ulmoides Oliv., Mbanga nvete, Nkalangangula (Kik.), nzangambala, mbangahete 43930

Anaemia

L

Crudité, Decoction

Oral

M

2

10

Bloody diarrhea

L

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Cleaning blood

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Construction

WO

  

D

2

Cough

L

Crudité, Decoction

Oral, Enema

M

3

Diarrhea

L

Chewing, Crudité

Oral

M

2

Epilepsy

L

Decoction

Enema, Oral

M

2

Scoliosis

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Sprain

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Stomach pains

L

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Wound

L

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Hypoestes forsskaolii (Vahl) R.Br., Kimana ngangi (Kik.) 43329

Inflammation

L

  

M

1

1

Wounds

L

  

M

1

Hypoxis angustifolia Lam., Ba dia nseke, Lumpakuludia (Kik.) 44136

Erectile dysfunction

BU, L

Pulverize

Dermal

M

2

2

Supporting pregnancy

L

  

M

1

Hypselodelphys poggeana (K.Schum.) Milne-Redh., Mangungu (Kik.), mungungu 41883

Package

L

  

O

2

2

Impatiens spec., Ndaka mboma (Kik.) F_49

Stomachache

W

Crudité

Enema

M

1

1

Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch., Sonja (Port.), Nsioni (Kik.) 44098

Stomach pains

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

2

Underweight baby

RH

Maceration

Bath, Oral

M

2

Indigofera capitata Kotschy, Nkeka za ngô (Kik.), munkando 43364

Breathing problems

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

2

Bronchitis

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Cough

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Tumor

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Indigofera erythrogramma Baker, Mbadi mbadi (Kik.) 44015

Stomach pains

R

Chewing

Oral

M

1

1

Indigofera podocarpa Baker f. & Martin 44198

Constipation

R

Maceration

Enema

M

1

1

* Inga edulis Mart., Banana macaco (Port.), gazela 44781

Charcoal

WO

  

D

5

5

Fodder plant

L

  

F

1

Nutrition

F

  

N

2

Ipomoea prismatosyphon Welw., Kiniata (Kik.) 43948

Splenomegaly

BU

Decoction

Enema

M

1

1

* Jatropha curcas L., Mpuluka, Sinde dia nkaka (Kik.), umpulukua, Mumpulukua, Puluka, Mupululuka 43845

Dermal infection

RE

 

Dermal

M

1

9

Diabetes

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Diabetes

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Epilepsy

L

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

Fencing

W

  

D

1

Inflammation

L

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Malaria

L

Pulverize

Enema

M

1

Skin disease

L

Pulverize

Enema

M

1

Skin disease

LA

 

Dermal

M

1

Toothache

LA

Decoction

Mouth Wash, Inhalation

M

2

 

L

  

M

1

Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haw., Ntontozi (Kik.), Luikaika, totozi, mukaikai, kayuki 44194

Against storms (totozimalembozi)

L

  

R

1

7

Earache

L

Percolation

Ear Drops

M

2

Eye problems

L

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

1

Lepra

L, R

Decoction

Enema

M

2

Otitis

L

Percolation

Ear Drops

M

1

Struck by lightning

L

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. F_50

Bottle

F

  

O

1

1

Landolphia camptoloba (K.Schum.) Pichon, Mbungu mbungu (Kik.), nzozu, Mata 44119

Nutrition

F

  

N

4

4

Landolphia congolensis

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

1

Landolphia owariensis

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

1

Lannea antiscorbutica (Hiern) Engl.

Nkumbi (Kik.), mukumbi 43179

Diabetes

B

Maceration

Oral

M

1

12

Eye problems

B

Percolation

Eye Drop

M

2

Fracture

B

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Hemorrhoids

B

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Hemorrhoids

L

Decoction, Maceration

Oral, Dermal

M

2

Lazeration

B

Apply On Surface

Dermal

M

1

Leg injury

B

Balm

Dermal

M

2

Sprain

B

Bandage, Decoction

Dermal

M

2

Toothache

B

Decoction

Mouth Wash, Inhalation

M

4

Buculosis

FL, L

Decoction

 

M

2

Wounds on chest

FL, L

Decoction

 

M

2

Lannea edulis (Sond.) Engl., Nkumbi (Kik.), kanda, kakumbi 44158

Bloody diarrhea

R

Decoction, Maceration

Oral

M

2

4

Colorant

R

  

O

1

Diarrhea

L, R

Decoction

 

M

2

Erectile dysfunction

R

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Strong diarrhea

R

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Lannea welwitschii (Hiern) Engl., Nkumbi (Kik.) 43832

Scoliosis

B

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

2

Toothache

B

Decoction

Inhalation

M

1

Lantana angolensis Moldenke, Bulukutu (Kik.) 44740

Tea

L

  

N

1

1

* Lantana camara L. 43374

Cough

L

Infusion

Oral

M

1

2

Obstructed airways

L

Infusion

Oral, Steam Bath

M

2

Tea

L

  

N

1

Laportea mooreana (Hiern) Chew, kahidi 44164

Asthma

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

1

Lasimorpha senegalensis Schott, Tiokola, Tiokuela (Kik.) 44019

Fodder plant

L

  

F

1

2

Packaging

L

  

O

1

- Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

Menstrual cramps

F

Incinerate

 

M

1

1

Leonotis leonurus (L.) R.Br., Kumba dia mvuala (Kik.) 42874

Epilepsy

L

Maceration

Enema

M

2

3

Hepatitis

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

L

Decoction, Maceration

Oral, Enema

M

2

Leptactina benguelensis (Welw. ex Benth. & Hook.f.) R.D.Good, Idídi 42825

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

1

Leptoderris congolensis (De Wild.) Dunn, Mfundi (Kik.) 42614

Birthing problems

L

Incinerate

Vaginal

M

1

1

Leptoderris nobilis var. Latifoliolata, Muika wa mbua (Kik.) 43357

Backache

L

Maceration

Enema

M

1

1

Lippia multiflora Moldenke, Bulukutu (Kik.), tandela 44101

Appetizing

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

3

Cleaning lymph

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Tea

L

Decoction

Oral

N

1

Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.Roem., Nsanu (Kik.) 42712

Cosmetics

F

  

T

1

4

Sponge

F

  

O

4

Maesopsis eminii Engl., Ntendani (Kik.), mutendani 43904

Backache

  

Enema

M

1

2

Splenomegaly

B

Decoction

Enema

M

1

* Mangifera indica L., Mangueira (Port.), Manga (Kik.) 42871

Anaemia

L

Decoction

Bath, Oral

M

2

7

Caries

B

Decoction

Mouth Wash

M

1

Corn wine production

B

  

C

1

Diarrhea

B

Decoction, Maceration

Oral

M

3

Flavour for lunguila

B

Decoction

Oral

C

1

Heart problems

B

Decoction

Bath, Oral

M

2

Ingredient for wine (lunguila)

B

  

C

1

Nutrition

F

  

N

2

Open cervix

B

Decoction

Bath

M

1

Vertiz

B

Decoction

Bath, Oral

M

2

- Manihot esculenta Crantz, Mandioca (Port.), Nsak (Kik.), kisaka 42760

Activates lactation

BU

Crudité

Oral

M

1

5

Bee repellent

L

  

F

1

Eye parasites

R

Percolation

Eye Drop

M

1

Skin disease

L

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Toothache

BU

Incinerate

Dermal

M

1

- Manihot glaziovii Müll.Arg., Nkueza, N´saki (Kik.), mandioca do kongo F_52

Nutrition

L

  

N

3

3

Repair

LA

  

O

1

Manotes expansa Sol. ex Planch., Menga menga (Kik.), mamengamenga 43953

Hemorrhoids

L

Ss

 

M

1

4

Nose bleeding

L

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

Scoliosis

L

Decoction

Dermal, Oral, Enema

M

3

Stomach pains

L

Pulverize + Water

Oral

M

1

Maprounea africana Müll.Arg., Kanzonzo, Mbunza, Nsiele nsiele (Kik.) 42808

Constipation

L

Decoction, Eat

Oral

M

4

15

Constipation

R

Eat

Oral

M

2

Constipation

B

  

M

1

Cough

L

Decoction, Eat

Oral

M

2

Diabetes

R

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Epilepsy

R

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Hernia

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Leg pain

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Open cervix

L

Crudité

Vaginal

M

1

Poor lactation

L

Chewing

Oral

M

2

Potbelly

R

Eat

Oral

M

1

Scoliosis

R, L

Decoction

Dermal

M

2

Toothache

L

Chewing, Crudité, Decoction

Oral, Inhalation

M

5

Toothache

R

Decoction

Mouth Wash

M

2

Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K.Schum. ex Engl., Nsasa (Kik.) 43915

Eye problems

R

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

1

2

Infertility

L

 

Bath

M

1

Misfortune

L

Decoction

Dermal

R

1

Melanthera scandens (Schumach. & Thonn.) Roberty, Nkaiala 43972

Injury

L

  

M

1

1

Melinis minutiflora P.Beauv., Malekambua (Kik.) 43896

Fodder plant

W

  

F

1

1

Premature contractions (pregnancy)

W

 

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains pregnancy

W

 

Oral

M

1

- Millettia laurentii De Wild., Pau preto (Port.)

Construction

WO

  

D

1

1

Millettia versicolor Baker, Pau ferro (Port.), M´bota (Kik.), Mbotembandu 43220

Construction

WO, B

  

D

2

8

Coppice for fencing

ST

  

D

1

Malaria

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Rheumatism

L

Apply On Surface

Dermal

M

1

Rip pain

B

Tie Around Body

Dermal

M

1

Sprain

L

Decoction, Apply On Surface, Balm

Dermal

M

3

Tendon strain

L

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

* Mirabilis jalapa L., jovan, Belle de nuit 43131

Anaemia

L

Infusion

Oral

M

1

2

Decoration

W

  

M

1

Nutrition

L

Infusion

Oral

N

1

Momordica charantia L., Dimbunzu, Lumbuzua mbuzua, Mambuzu, (Kik.), Mbusuabusua 42620

Antifertil

   

M

1

8

Backache

W

Put into Trousers

Dermal

M

1

Baso

   

M

1

Childhood disease

L

  

M

1

Clean babys belly

L

 

Enema

M

1

Clean breast milk

L

 

Enema, Oral

M

2

Constipation

L

Maceration

Oral, Bath

M

3

Stomach pains

L

Maceration

Enema, Oral

M

4

Momordica foetida Schumach. F_53

Chills

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

1

Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels, Kimbiolongua, Londolondo (Kik.) 44674

Bodypain

R

Chewing

Oral

M

1

12

Cough

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Dental care

R

  

T

2

Erectile dysfunction

R

Crudité, Chewing, Decoction

Oral

M

13

Nutrition

L

  

N

7

Tooth cleaning

R, WO

  

T

1

Vegetable

L

  

N

1

Monodora myristica (Gaertn.) Dunal, Mpeve (Kik.) 44707

Aphrodisiac agent

S

Pulverize

Oral

M

1

15

Appetizing

F, S

Pulverize

Oral

M

2

Backache

S, F

Infusion

Oral

M

3

Chest pain

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Cough

S

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Cough

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Debaso

S

Pulverize, Balm

Dermal

M

1

Fever

S

Eat, Infusion

Oral

M

2

Infertility

S

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Inner diseases

B, S

 

Oral

M

2

Kidney

S

Roast

Dermal

M

1

Malaria

S

Pulverize, Balm

Dermal

M

1

Parasitic worms

B, S

 

Oral

M

2

Premature contractions (pregnancy)

S

 

Oral

M

1

Scoliosis

S, R

Decoction

Dermal

M

2

Splenomegaly

S

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Sprain

S

  

M

1

Stomach pains pregnancy

S

 

Oral

M

1

Stomachache

S

Roast

Eat

M

1

Weakness

R, S

Maceration

Oral

M

3

Morinda lucida Benth., Nsiki (Kik.), masiki, nxiki 42744

Intestinal bacteria

R, L

Decoction

Oral

M

2

8

Malaria

L, B

Decoction

Oral

M

3

Parasitic worms

B, L

Decoction

Oral

M

3

Parasitic worms

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Splenomegaly

L

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Sterility (men and women)

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

L

Decoction

Oral, Enema

M

5

Stomach pains

B, R

Decoction

Oral, Enema

M

4

Typhus

L, R

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Morinda morindoides (Baker) Milne-Redh., Disu dia lunguenia, Meso-nkama (Kik.), Kongobololo, Nkongobololo 43356

Cleaning blood

L

Decoction

 

M

1

11

Parasitic worms

L

Decoction, Infusion

Oral, Enema

M

7

Stomach pains

L

Crudité, Decoction

Enema, Oral

M

10

Stomach pains

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Typhus

R, L

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Weakness

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

- Morus nigra L., Doce (Port.), Amoreira F_54

Fodder plant

L

  

N

1

2

Nutrition

F

  

N

2

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC., Feijao maluco (Port.), Mankundia (Kik.) F_55

Foamy urine

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

2

Halluzinogens

L

  

C

1

Soil improvement

W

  

O

1

- Musa × paradisiaca L., Banana (Port.), Mambuatisa, Mfuka wa dinkongo (Kik.)

Cough

F

Balm

 

M

1

9

Diarrhea

F

Cook

Eat

M

1

Hemorrhoids

F

Incinerate

Dermal

M

1

Nutrition

F, L

  

N

2

Rheumatism

L

Apply On Surface

Dermal

M

1

Sanitary pad

L

  

O

1

Skin disease

FL

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Toothache

F

Incinerate

Dermal

M

1

Traditional banheira

L

  

D

1

Transport

L

  

H

1

Musanga cecropioides R.Br. ex Tedlie, Nsenga nsenga, Nsenga (Kik.) Musenga, musengasenga, F_75

Birthing problems

L

Decoction

Enema

M

1

6

Dehydration

R, SS

Drink

Oral

M

1

Diarrhea

FL, L

Incinerate

Dermal

M

2

Injury

FL, L

Incinerate

Dermal

M

2

Revitalization

ST

Drink

Oral

M

1

Toothache

B, L

Decoction

Mouth Wash

M

2

Weakness

R, SS

Crudité

Oral

M

2

Mussaenda arcuata Poir., Mabolebole, Nsiamuna (Kik.) 42654

Anorexia

R

Chewing

Oral

M

1

7

Hepatitis

L, R

  

M

2

Menstruation problems

R

Infusion

Enema

M

1

Nutrition

L, F

  

N

3

Parsitic worms

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

R

Decoction, Maceration

Oral

M

2

Support birth

L

Infusion

Oral

M

1

 

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

E Mussaenda nijensis R.D.Good, Nzamuna 43224

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

1

Mussaenda spec., Nsamuna (Kik.) F_56

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

2

Otitis

R

Percolation

Ear Drops

M

1

Myrianthus arboreus P.Beauv., Mbonzo (Kik.), Ntusu, Mbonzu 43174

Nutrition

F

  

N

2

3

Yellow fever

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Yellow fever

ST

 

Eye Drops

M

1

- Newbouldia laevis (P.Beauv.) Seem., Kafuki, Kavuki, kuvuiti 43913

Fence

ST

  

D

1

3

Hemorrhoids

R

 

Hip Bath

M

1

Hemorrhoids

   

M

1

Thrombosis

B

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

- Nicotiana tabacum L., Tabaco de kimbundu (Port.), Mfomo, Tabaco (Kik.), Kizumba, Lulongu 42883

Cigarettes

L

  

C

3

7

Cryptorchidism

R

Roast

Dermal

M

1

Eye problems

L

Extract Juice

Eye Drops

M

1

Eyesight

L

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

1

Hernia

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Sore throat

L

Maceration

Nose Drops

M

1

Stomach pains

L, R

Roast

Dermal

M

2

Nymphaea lotus L., Longa dia maza (Kik.) 44143

Infection legs

L

  

M

1

1

Ochna afzelii subsp. mechowiana (O.Hoffm.) N.Robson, Nkosi nti, Ngonti (Kik.), muhonga 44187

Anaemia

B

Decoction

Oral

M

3

10

Anaemia

L

Decoction

 

M

1

Backache

B

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Body pain

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Constipation

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Eye problems

L

Decoction

Steam Bath

M

1

Increases blood

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Lepra

B

Decoction

Enema, Dermal

M

2

Paralysis

L

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Scoliosis

L

Decoction

Dermal

M

3

Sculptures

WO

  

H

1

Skin disease

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Sore throat

B, L

Decoction

Steam Bath

M

3

Tool handle

WO

  

D

1

Weakness

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Ochna pygmaea Hiern, Ndombe, Nsosi (Kik.) 44181

Epilepsy

R

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

1

1

Parasitic worms

R

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

1

Splenomegaly

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Ocimum gratissimum L., Dinioka nioka, Lumba lumba, Mazudi zudi, Mansusua nsusua (Kik.) 42649

After birth

L

Decoction

Bath

M

1

7

Cold

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Flu

L

Decoction

Inhalation

M

1

Flu

W

Decoction

Bath

M

1

Malaria

W

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Malaria

L

Decoction

Inhalation, Enema

M

2

Pain

L

Balm, Infusion

Dermal, Oral

M

2

Spice

L

  

N

1

Toothache

L

Chewing

Oral

M

1

    

M

1

- Oldfieldia africana Benth. & Hook.f., Mfilu (Kik.) 44731

Vomit

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

1

Oncoba dentata Oliv., Dikaka dia ndianga (Kik.) 42821

Urinal infection

B

Maceration

Oral, Enema, Anal

M

3

1

Oncoba welwitschii Oliv., Mbamba (Kik.) 45033

Cold (sniffles)

R, SS

Crudité

Nose Drops

M

1

13

Constipation

B, F

Decoction

Enema

M

2

Construction

WO

  

D

1

Eye pain

R, SS

Crudité

Eye Drops

M

1

Fish hunting

F

  

F

1

Fodder plant

L

  

F

2

Headache

L

Infusion

Inhalation

M

1

Headache

R

Maceration, Percolation

Nose Drops

M

4

Nutrition

F

  

N

2

Paralysis

L

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Parasitic worms

   

M

1

Scoliosis

L

Decoction, Infusion

Dermal, Oral, Enema

M

5

Stain

F

  

H

1

Stomach pains

R

Maceration

Nose Drops

M

1

* Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

1

- Ouratea welwitschii (Tiegh.) Exell, Kombasesa (Kik.) 44064

Animal trap

L

  

F

1

2

Scoliosis

L

Decoction

Bath

M

1

* Pachira glabra Pasq., Amendoim (Port.), Nguba (Kik.) F_58

Nutrition

S

  

N

1

1

Palisota ambigua (P.Beauv.) C.B.Clarke, kudi 44175

Nutrition

L

  

N

1

1

Palisota schweinfurthii C.B.Clarke, Mabunda bunda (Kik.), kibundabunda, Pau kisongo F_70

Abrasion

F, L

Decoction

Dermal

M

2

15

Family problems

F

Crudité

Oral

R

1

Gonorrhoea

BU

Decoction

Eat

M

1

Impotence

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Infertility men

R

  

M

1

Inflammation legs

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Lepra

L

Decoction

Enema, Dermal

M

2

Lepra

F

Pulverize

Dermal

M

1

Nutrition

ST

  

N

1

Package of cola Ss for storage

L

  

O

1

Paralysis

L

Incinerate

Dermal

M

1

Potency

ST, R

Decoction

Enema

M

2

Rheumatism

L

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Ritual

L

  

R

1

Scoliosis

L

Decoction

Bath, Dermal

M

2

Sexual potency

R

 

Enema

M

1

Sore throat

F

Swallowing

Oral

M

1

Tea

ST

  

N

1

 

L

  

M

1

Palisota ambigua, kudi 44783

Nutrition

L

  

N

1

1

Parinari capensis Harv., salaki, salakia, salakizu, ikia 42733

Bloody diarrhea

L

Maceration

Oral

M

1

6

Breathing problems

L

  

M

1

Cough

L

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Nutrition

F

  

N

5

Scoliosis

L

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Paropsia brazzaeana Baill., Mbasa, Mbasa nseka (Kik.) 43129

Backache

L

  

M

1

6

Diarrhea

L

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Infertility women

L

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Inflammation leg

R

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Leg ache

L, R

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Menstruation (severe)

L

Chewing

Dermal

M

1

Pain while playing soccer

L

Apply On Surface

Dermal

M

1

Scoliosis

L

Decoction

Dermal, Oral, Enema

M

3

Stomach pains

R

Decoction

 

M

1

Xibasu = bad magic

R

  

M

1

Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel.) Bullock, Mputumputu (Kik.)

Diarrhea

L

Crudité

Oral

M

1

1

Stomach pains

L

Crudité

Oral

M

1

* Passiflora foetida L., 44257

Nutrition

F

  

N

2

2

Paullinia pinnata L. 43906

Activate lactation

L

Decoction

 

M

1

1

Pauridiantha mayumbensis (R.D.Good) Bremek., Simão (Port.) 44014

Scoliosis

L

Decoction

Bath, Dermal

M

2

1

Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baill., Hamba (Kik.) 43341

Flatulence

R

Chewing

Oral

M

1

1

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

Pentarhopalopilia marquesii (Engl.) Hiepko, Nkombo (Kik.) 44176

Constipation

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

2

Stomach pain

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Perichasma laetificata Miers, Kazilingizimue (Kik.) 41875

Epilepsy

R

Crudité

Oral

M

1

2

Helps solving problems

R

Chewing, Put into Pocket

 

R

4

Protection during war

R

  

R

1

- Persea americana Mill., Abacate, Abacateiro, Caroso de abacate (Port.), Mavoka, Mvoka (Kik.)

Headache

B, S

Balm

Dermal

M

2

3

Hemorrhoids

B

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Hemorrhoids

B

Decoction

Enema

M

2

Stain

F

  

H

1

Petersianthus macrocarpus (P.Beauv.) Liben, Nsati (Kik.) 44188

Fodder plant

L

  

F

1

1

* Phaseolus vulgaris L., Makasikila (Kik.), 42758

Nutrition

S

  

N

1

1

Nutrition

L

  

N

1

Phyllanthus polyanthus Pax, Mantomina (Kik.) 44016

Cough

L

Chewing, Pulverize

Oral

M

2

1

Phyllanthus spec., Mfunga mfunga (Kik.) 44251

Skin disease

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

1

* Physalis angulata L., Bulabula, Mabulabula (Kik.) 44793

Stomach pains

L

Maceration

Enema

M

1

2

Stomach pains baby

L

 

Enema

M

1

Piper guineense Schumach. & Thonn., Kumpidi (Kik.), Kapidi 44780

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

4

Parasitic worms

F

 

Oral

M

1

Spices

F

  

N

2

Stomach pains

F

 

Oral

M

1

Cough

F

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Piper umbellatum L., Lembe, Lembe kia mfinda, Malemba lemba, Nkángati (Kik.) 42664

Burn

L

Crudité

Dermal

M

1

5

Chest pain

L

Eat

Oral

M

1

Newborn baby crying

L

Colocate In Bed

Dermal

M

1

Nutrition

L

Decoction

 

N

3

Support birth

L

Eat

Oral

M

1

Piptadeniastrum africanum (Hook.f.) Brenan, Nsinga nsinga (Kik.) 42798

Splenomegaly

 

Decoction

Enema

M

1

1

* Plantago major L. 43841

Gastritis

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

1

Typhus

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Plectranthus esculentus N.E.Br., Batata gitamba 42813

Nutrition

BU

  

N

1

1

Pleiotaxis rugosa O.Hoffm., Matita, Ntalamakatesi, Telema katesi (Kik.) 43893

Abdominal infect

R

Chewing

Oral

M

1

8

Anorexia

L

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Diabetes

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Diarrhea

BU, L

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Hunters goos luck

R

  

R

1

Infertility men

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Inflammation testicles

BUs

Decoction

Enema, Dermal

M

2

Lack of appetite

R

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Parasitic worms

L, BU

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Stomach pains

R

Chewing, Decoction

Oral

M

4

Plumbago zeylanica L., Bau bau (Kik.) 42829

Fever

R, L

 

Bath

M

2

1

Leg ache

R

 

Dermal

M

1

Pollia condensata C.B.Clarke, Caldeia (Port.), Kiesekiese, Mpimpita (Kik.) mampipita, pipita 44227

Fraud

S

Swallowing

Oral

R

1

7

Helps solving problems

S

Put into Pocket, Swallowings

Oral

R

4

Pleasure

S

  

L

1

Ritual

S

  

R

1

Splenomegaly

   

M

1

Protea petiolaris (Hiern) Baker & C.H.Wright, Kikumbi kia ngunga, Mbimbi, Mvanga, Sokila (Kik.) 44208

Charcoal

WO

  

D

2

5

Diarrhea

R

  

M

1

Fodder plant

L

  

F

1

Headache

L

Balsam

Dermal

M

1

Infertility

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Menstruation problems

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Rheumatism

L

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Stomach pains

R

Decoction

Enema

M

2

Pseudospondias longifolia Engl., Nviwa (Kik), nviwua, nviua 44199

Anaemia

L

Decoction

Bath, Oral

M

2

4

Backache

L

Fermentation

Oral

M

1

Diarrhea

B

Maceration

Enema

M

1

Hemorrhoids

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

- Psidium guajava L., Goiaba, Goiabeira (Port.),Mfuluta (Kik.) 42660

Asthma

L

Infusion

Oral

M

1

8

Bloody diarrhea

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Cough

L

Infusion

Oral

M

2

Diarrhea

L

Chewing, Crudité, Decoction

Oral

M

6

Nutrition

F

  

N

5

Psorospermum febrifugum Spach, Kilengo lengo, Kisoko soko, Lengula, Mfiofio, Mfitila, Nfiofiofio, Nlengula, Nsoko nsoko, Windu wakiana (Kik.), Fiofio, kifitile, Mhotola 42626

Bird trapping

F

  

F

2

19

Bleeding

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Bleeding penis

L

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Bloody diarrhea

L

Chewing, Decotion

Oral, Enema

M

2

Bloody diarrhea

B

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Cough

L

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Decoration

F

Put On Bed

 

R

1

Diarrhea (heavy)

L

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Eye problems

F

Swallowing

Oral

M

3

Heart problems

L

Roast

Oral

M

1

Hemorrhoids

L

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Lepra

L

Incinerate

Dermal

M

1

Lepra (maladimakay)

B

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Nosebleed

R, L

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

2

Skin disease

B

Balm, Decoction

Dermal

M

4

Skin disease

F, SS, R

Balm

Dermal

M

5

Typhus

F

Swallowing

Oral

M

1

Psychotria spec., Nseke nseke (Kik.) F_59

Injury

B

  

M

1

1

Toothache

B

  

M

1

Pteridium aquilinum subsp. Africanum, Matekua, Manzemba nzelele, Mitekua, (Kik.), kinzelele 42671

Asthma

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

8

Leg ache

L

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Nosebleed

L

  

M

1

Nutrition

L

  

N

6

Skin disease

L

Crudité

Dermal

M

1

Vertigo

L

Balm, Percolation

Dermal, Nose Drops

M

2

Pterocarpus angolensis DC., Nkula nkula, Ntete mbula, Nkosu (Kik.) 42735

Bloody diarrhea

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

6

Children not walking

F

Balm

Dermal

M

2

Medicine

R

  

M

1

Menstruation (severe)

R

Decoction

Enema

M

2

Save pregnancy

R

Maceration

Enema

M

1

Smoking

F

  

C

1

Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Warb., Muscada (Port.), Banda nzazi, Ndidila, Nlenda, , Munzanga, Nozungu nkumbi (Kik.) 44478

Construction

WO

  

D

1

7

Drums

WO

  

L

1

Fodder plant

L

  

F

3

Infertility women

F, B

  

M

2

Spice

S

  

N

1

Raphia spec., Bordão (Port.), Matombe, Nkulu (Kik.) F_60

Asthma

F

Incinerate

Oral

M

1

20

Bottle cork for maruvu can

L

  

O

1

Bronchitis

F

Balm

Dermal

M

3

Construction

L

  

D

4

Diabetes

F

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Fiber

L

  

H

1

Fish trap

L

  

H

2

Fodder plant

ST

  

F

3

Measles

L

Incinerate

Dermal

M

1

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

Palm wine

SS

  

C

2

Parasitic worms

F

Crudité

Oral

M

2

Typhus

F

Roast

Eat

M

1

Raphia textilis Welw., Bordão, Maruvo (Port.) F_61

Fiber

L

  

H

1

1

Palm wine

SS

  

C

1

Rauvolfia mannii Stapf, Zumbu dia nkento (Kik.) 43923

Drug

B

  

C

1

1

Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel., Mvuala, Nzumbu dia kabonzo, Zumbu, Mundungu (Kik.) 42723

Drug

B

  

C

1

8

Infertility men

R

Maceration

Enema

M

1

Malaria

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

B

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

R

Crudité

Oral, Enema

M

5

Renealmia africana Benth., Dinsasa dia mpumba, Mansansa (Kik.) 43946

Backache

R, F

  

M

2

 

Malaria

R, F

  

M

2

 

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

 

Ricinodendron heudelotii subsp. africanum(Müll.Arg.) J.Léonard, Munguela, Monguela (Kik.) 42845

Drum

WO

  

L

1

 

Fodder plant

L

  

F

5

Headache

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

Stomach pains

B

Decoction, Maceration

Enema

M

2

* Ricinus communis L., Mpanza, Ngono, Mahanzu, Gimono, Mbono (Kik.) 42668

Constipation

S

Chewing

Oral

M

1

6

Eyes pain

L

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

1

Hemorrhoids

L

Decoction

Bath

M

1

High blood pressure

L

Balm, Decoction

Dermal, Bath

M

2

Inflammation

L

Decoction

Dermal, Bath

M

3

Scoliosis

S

Crudité

Dermal

M

1

Stomach pains

S

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Rothmannia whitfieldii (Lindl.) Dandy, Lubanzi lua mpakasa (Kik.) F_62

Tattoo

F

Extraction

 

R

1

1

* Saccharum officinarum L., Cana de açúcar (Port.), Cana de lunguila (Kik.)

Wine

SS

Decoction

Oral

C

3

3

- Sambucus canadensis L., Mumvumbi (Kik.) 42580

Food aches

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

1

Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A.Bruce, Kilolo kia pumba, Lolo, Lolo kia mabundu, Nlolo, Nzelenge (Kik.) 43154

Anaemia

L

Balm, Decoction

Dermal, Bath, Oral

M

3

16

Antibiotic

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Diabetes

F

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Diarrhea

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Erectile dysfunction

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Infertility

R

Decoction

Enema, Oral

M

3

Malnutrition

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Parasitic worms

R

Chewing

Oral

M

3

Parasitic worms

B

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Revitalization (many diseases)

B, R

Maceration

Oral

M

2

Stomach pains

R

Decoction, Maceration

Oral

M

6

Stomach pains

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

F

Eat

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

R, B

Maceration

Oral

M

2

Strengthening

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Typhus

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Womens infertility

B

Decoction

Oral, Enema

M

2

 

R

  

M

1

-Sarcophrynium prionogonium (K.Schum.) K.Schum., Folha de kwanga (Port.), Makaya ma kwanga (Kik.) F_63

Baskets

L

  

H

1

2

Package

L

  

O

1

Schinziophyton rautanenii (Schinz) Radcl.-Sm., Dikelekese (Kik.) 44018

Charcoal

WO

  

D

1

1

Schizophyllum commune, Cogumelo, Turu turu (Port.), Luvua, Kakeketele, Okulokulo (Kik.) F_64

Nutrition

F

  

N

4

4

Sclerocroton cornutus (Pax) Kruijt & Roebers, Ndingambuela, Nguingui mbuela, Ntekele, Nbatekela, Ndingui mbuele, mutekele (Kik.) 43897

Bird trapping

F

  

F

2

8

Breathing problems

L, B

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Constipation

L

  

M

1

Cough

R, B, L

Chewing, Decoction

Oral

M

12

Flu

B

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Toys

F

  

L

1

Sclerosperma mannii H.Wendl., Mamia, Manga (Kik.)

Construction

L

  

D

1

2

Construction

L

  

D

1

Roofing

L

  

D

1

Securidaca longipedunculata Fresen., Nsunda nti, Nsunda (Kik.), Misunda 42740

Backache

R, B

Balm, Decoction

Dermal

M

5

14

Body pain

R

Balm, Pulverize

Dermal

M

2

Breathing problems

R

Decoction

Inhalation

M

1

Bronchitis

R

Balsam

Dermal

M

1

Cold

R

  

M

1

Constipation

R

Crudité, Decoction

Oral, Enema

M

2

Hemorrhoids (internal)

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Inflammation

R, L, B

Balm

Dermal

M

4

Leg ache

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Muscle cramp

R

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Pain

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Scoliosis

R, L, B

Balm, Maceration

Dermal, Enema

M

5

Stomachache

R

Decoction, Maceration

Enema

M

3

Thrombosis

R

Maceration

Enema

M

1

Selaginella myosurus Alston, Malekazanga, Mazangazanga makita (Kik.) 44262

Ritual bath

W

  

R

1

2

Scoliosis

W

Decoction

 

M

1

* Senna alata (L.) Roxb., Balakasa (Kik.) 44134

Skin disease

L

Balm

Dermal

M

2

2

* Senna occidentalis (L.) Link, Manioka nioka, Mansambi nsambi nkau, Nioka nioka (Kik.) 42630

Coffee

S

  

C

1

13

Constipation

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Diarrhea

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Dysentery

L

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Infertility women

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Kidney problems

L

Maceration

Enema

M

1

Liver problems

R

  

M

1

Loss of appetite

R

Crudité, Decoction

Enema

M

3

Respiratory problems

S

Roast

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

R, L

Chewing, Crudité, Decoction, Maceration

Oral, Enema

M

15

Stomach pains baby (first 2 weeks)

L

 

Enema

M

1

Vomit

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

* Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby, Malulu (Kik.), Malulua 43177

Stomach pains

L

 

Enema

M

1

1

Sesamum indicum L., Bulukutu, Wanguila (Kik.) 43895

Cicatrices

S

Oil

Dermal

M

1

2

Inflammation

S

Oil

Dermal

M

1

Nutrition

S

  

N

1

Pain

W

Decoction

Inhalation

M

1

Thromboses

S

Oil

Dermal

M

1

Weakness

W

Decoction

Inhalation

M

1

Sesamum radiatum Schumach. & Thonn., Wandu wandu, Wanguila (Kik.) 42742

Blemished skin

L

Decoction

Bath

M

1

2

Typhus

L

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr., Nkuamba (Kik.), Kuanda 42632

Induced abortion

R

Crudité

Enema

M

1

1

Setaria megaphylla (Steud.) T.Durand & Schinz, Capim do diabo (Port.), Kangaya, Makangaya (Kik.) 43246

Arm pain

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

5

Fodder plant

L

  

F

2

Supports birth

L

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Urinary bladder pain

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Sida urens L., Lumvumbu (Kik.) F_65

Madness

L

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

1

Smilax anceps Willd., Mpolo, Ngila ngila, Nzila nzila (Kik.) 43197

Bloody diarrhea

L, R

Crudité, Decoction

Oral

M

4

13

Cough

L

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Epilepsy

L

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

1

Erectile dysfunction

R

Chewing

Oral

M

2

Hernia

R

 

Enema

M

1

Infection legs

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Inflammations

L

  

M

1

Neck pain

L

  

M

1

Skin disease

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Skin disease

F

Eat, Swallows

Oral

M

2

Tea

L

Decoction

 

N

1

Vertigo

L

Balm, Percolation

Dermal, Nose Drops

M

2

 

R

Decoction

 

M

1

* Solanum aethiopicum L., Mbolongwa (Kik.) 43113

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

1

* Solanum americanum Mill.

Parasitic worms

F

Chewing

Oral

M

1

1

Stomach pains

F

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Solanum macrocarpon L., Couve preta (Port.), Lezo (Kik.) 44099

Nutrition

L, F

  

N

2

2

* Solanum mauritianum Scop., Daniel, Malulua branca 44682

Appendix

L

Decoction

Enema

M

1

3

Constipation

L

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Knee pain

L

Apply On Surface

Dermal

M

1

Measles

   

M

1

Stomach pains

L

Decoction

Enema

M

1

* Spondias mombin L., Gajajeira, Gajaja (Port.), Mungiengie (Kik.) 42879

Diarrhea

B

Decoction

 

M

1

4

Eye problems

B

Percolation

Eye Drop

M

1

Fence

ST

  

D

2

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

Yellow fever

L

Decoction

Bath

M

1

- Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl, Agua de joelho (Port.) 42710

Chest pain

W

Decoction

Oral

M

1

5

Clean lungs

W

Balm

Dermal

M

2

Inflammations

W

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Knee pain

W

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Shoulder pain

L

Apply On Finger

Dermal

M

1

Skin disease

W

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Typhus fever

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Weakness

L

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Steganotaenia araliacea Hochst., Mumvumbivumbi, Nkula mvumbi (Kik.), kitomona, Mukala mvumbi 43172

Analgesic

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

7

Backache

L

Decoction

Oral

M

3

Bad dreams

L

  

R

2

Body pain

L

Maceration

Bath

M

1

Cold

R

Dedoction

Oral

M

1

Gonorrhoea

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Insomnia

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Refreshment

B

Maceration

Oral

M

2

Scoliosis

R

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Stomach pains

R

Dedoction

Oral

M

1

Sterculia quinqueloba (Garcke) K.Schum., Mulendi (Kik.) 44732

Backache

L

Roast

Dermal

M

1

1

Construction

WO

  

D

2

Fiber plant

B

  

H

1

Fodder plant

L

  

F

1

Inflammation

L

Roast

Dermal

M

1

Sterculia tragacantha Lindl., Milenda, Ntutu (Kik.)

Nkombolokia, kombolokia 44004

Fire WO

WO

  

D

1

6

Fodder plant

L

  

F

1

Handicraft

F

  

R

1

Hemorrhoids

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Prenatal infection

B

Maceration

Enema

M

1

Urinal infection

B

  

M

1

Stomatanthes africanus (Oliv. & Hiern) R.M.King & H.Rob., Kisalu kia kento, Nkutakani, Salu kialukento (Kik.) 44748

Backache

L, W

Decoction

Enema

M

2

4

Erectile dysfunction

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Fatigue

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Good development of baby during pregnancy

R

  

M

2

Heart problems

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Infertility

L

  

M

1

Supports pregnancy

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Strophanthus welwitschii (Baill.) K.Schum., Luvuma, Mvuma (Kik.) 42757

Talisman

F

  

R

1

2

    

M

1

Strychnos cocculoides Baker, Maboque (Port.),

Kahole 44124

Baso children

F, R

 

Enema

M

2

9

Cryptorchidism

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Diarrhea

F

Crudité

Eat

M

1

Drinking vessel

F

  

H

1

Flute

F

  

L

1

Hernia

R, F

Chewing

Oral

M

2

Nutrition

F

  

N

8

Parasitic worms

R

Maceration

 

M

1

Stomach pains

R

Chewing, Decoction, Maceration

Oral, Enema

M

4

Stomach pains

F

Chewing

Oral

M

1

Strychnos pungens Soler., Mabumi, Mbumi (Kik.), Kahola muanda, mbitu 43884

Hernia

F

Decoction

 

M

1

3

Pain after birth

L

Leaves Put into Clothes, Decoction

Dermal, Enema

M

2

Rat trap

F

  

F

1

Skin disease

B

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Stomach pains

F

Decoction

 

M

1

Symphonia globulifera L.f., Ntadia ngombo (Kik.) 43924

Cough

L

Chewing

Oral

M

2

2

Witchery

LA

  

R

1

Synsepalum cerasiferum (Welw.) T.D.Penn., Nsuama nkima (Kik.), musuamankima 43283

Backache

B

 

Enema

M

1

1

Syzygium guineense (Willd.) DC., Nkizu, lungama (Kik.) 44138

Bloody diarrhea

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

12

Diarrhea

B, L, R

Maceration, Decoction

Oral

M

4

Fodder plant

L

  

F

3

Nutrition

F

  

N

8

Parasites in eyes

B

Percolation

Eye Drops

M

1

Protection of eyes

L

  

R

1

Stomach pains

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Toothache

B

Decoction

Inhalation

M

1

Typhus

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

- Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston F_66

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

1

Tabernaemontana crassa Benth., Ngavua za mputu (Kik.) 42823

Construction

WO

  

D

1

3

Hiccup

B, L

Maceration

Oral

M

2

Snakebite

F, LA

Extraction

Dermal

M

1

Tagetes minuta L., Nkamansongo (Kik.) 42576

Flu

L

Decoction

Steam Bath

M

1

1

Tapinanthus dependens (Engl.) Danser, Kikunda 42763

Headache

L, ST

Decoction

Steam Bath

M

2

1

Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f., Bualu, Mbaka (Kik.) 42824

Epilepsy

L

Ss

Eye Drops

M

1

5

Fish toxin

L

  

F

5

Terminalia brachySTma Welw. ex Hiern, mungolo, moeia 44180

Fever

F

Crudité

Oral

M

1

2

Flu

F

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Fodder plant

L

  

F

2

Sore throat

R

Decoction

Inhalation

M

1

Stomachache

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

- Terminalia catappa L. F_67

Decoration village

W

  

R

1

1

- Tetracera stuhlmanniana Gilg, Nkudi a nkayi (Kik.) 43833

Nutrition

SS

  

N

1

1

- Thonningia sanguinea Vahl, Langa dia mfinda, Mbengela, Timba timba (Kik.), pisa de maluca 43263

Cough

RH

Chewing, Maceration

Oral

M

2

9

Erectile dysfunction

RH

Chewing, Decotion

Oral

M

9

Parasitic worms

RH

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Stomachache

RH

Crudité

Eat

M

1

Urinal infection

RH

Syrup

Oral

M

1

Thunbergia lancifolia T.Anderson, Malavu dia nsongui, Malavu masonguia (Kik.), mpandazeka 44011

Constipation

R

Maceration

Enema

M

1

4

Hernia

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Parasitic worms

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Stomach pains

R

Maceration, Decoction, Chewing

Oral, Enema

M

4

* Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray, Malulua, Malulu (Kik.) 44090

Constipation

L

 

Enema

M

1

1

Decoration graveyard

FL

  

R

1

Parasitic worms

L

 

Enema

M

1

Trema orientalis (L.) Blume, Ndia nuni (Kik.), Mudianuni, mezendenguenia, yanuni 44216

Fodder plant

L

  

F

2

3

Heartache

L, B

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Host plant

L

  

F

1

- TriStma leiocalyx Cogn., Banana de deus (Port.), Kimbunga mbunga, Mbunga mbunga (Kik.). makondo makambolo F_73

Nutrition

F

Crudité

Oral

N

4

4

Triumfetta cordifolia A.Rich., Luvunga, Mpunga, Mvungila, Ngongi (Kik.), gigonge, punguila, mpunguele, xipunga, kivungala 42650

Baskets

ST

  

H

1

8

Fiber

ST

  

H

2

Fish trap

ST

  

F

1

Jute sack

ST

  

H

2

Rope

ST

  

H

3

Skin problem

R

Balm

Dermal

M

1

- Uapaca vanhouttei De Wild., musambi 44171

Fodder plant

L

  

F

1

1

Uraria picta (Jacq.) DC., Zumbu (Kik.) 42629

Male potency

R

  

M

1

2

Stomach pains

R, BU

Crudité

Enema

M

2

Urena lobata L., Kikulokoso, Kolokoso, Lunzunzu, Makolokoso (Kik.), punga 43227

Backache

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

11

Constipation

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Dysentery

L

 

Enema

M

1

Flatulence baby

L

 

Enema

M

1

Healing umbilicus of newborn

L

Apply On Surface

Dermal

M

1

Hemorrhoids

R

Crudité

 

M

1

Kidneys

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Nosebleed

R

Crudité

 

M

1

Pregnancy hard belly

 

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Rope

ST

  

H

2

Stomach pains children

L

Pulverize

Enema

M

1

Stomach pains while birth

L

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Wounds

L

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Vangueria infausta Burch., mamuemuita 43857

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

1

- Vernonella subaphylla (Baker) H.Rob. & Skvarla, Makútula 42795

Inflammation finger

L

 

Dermal

M

1

1

Typhus fever

R

  

M

1

Vernonia amygdalina Delile, Malulu (Kik.) 43285

Dermal infection

BU

Balm

Dermal

M

1

5

Constipation children

L

Maceration

Enema

M

1

Dermal allergy

L

Balm

Dermal, Bath

M

3

Malaria

L

Crudité

 

M

1

Parasites

L

Infusion

Oral

M

1

Parasitic worms

L

Infusion, Decocton Balm

Oral, Dermal

M

3

Stomach pains

L

Decoction

 

M

1

- Vernonia jaegeri C.D.Adams, Matita (Kik.) 43888

Stomach pains

R

Crudité

Enema, Oral

M

2

1

Skin infection

BU

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Vitex doniana Sweet, Mfilu (Kik.), mulolo, Filufilu, nzulozulo, Mafilu 43366

Backache

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

9

Constipation

R

Decoction

Enema

M

2

Cough

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Diarrhea

R

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Epilepsy

R

  

M

1

Fatigue

B, L

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Flu

L

Decoction

Inhalation

M

1

Headache

L

Decoction

Inhalation

M

1

Hemorrhoids (internal)

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Nutrition

F

  

N

1

Scoliosis

R, L

Decoction

Enema, Bath

M

4

Stomach pains

R

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Tea

L

  

N

4

Thrombosis

R

Decoction

Dermal

M

1

Vitex madiensis Oliv.

Anaemia

L

Decoction, Infusion

Bath, Oral

M

3

20

Antibiotic

L

Infusion

Oral

M

1

Back pain

L

Decoction, Infusion

Oral, Dermal

M

3

Backache

B

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Bloody diarrhea

R, L

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Body aches

L

Infusion

Dermal

M

1

Ceremony

L

  

R

1

Chest pain

R

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

Cleaning

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Cough

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Diabetes

L

Decoction

Oral, Enema

M

21

Epilepsy

L

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Eye problems

R

Squeeze

Eye Drops

M

1

For children during mango season

L

Infusion

Oral

M

1

Headache

L

Infusion, Decotion

Dermal

M

2

Headache

R

Percolation

Nose Drops

M

1

Nutrition

F

  

N

2

Nutrition

R

Roast

 

N

1

Parasitic worms

L

Maceration

Oral

M

1

Ritual to overcome illness

W

  

R

1

Scoliosis

L

Decoction

Dermal, Oral, Enema

M

4

Sterility (men and women)

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Stimulation

L

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Stomach pains

L

Decoction

Oral, Enema

M

4

Tea

L

Infusion

Oral

N

3

Weakness

B, L

Decoction

Oral

M

2

Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich., Nkuwa nkuwa, N´sanu (Kik.), nkuakua, Mvamba kuakua F_71

Aphrodisiac agent

F

Pulverize

Oral

M

1

16

Aromatization

B, F

  

N

2

Asthma

F

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Backache

F

Crudité

Oral

M

2

Chest pain

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Childhood disease: Kikongo

F

Pulverize, Balm

Dermal

M

1

Construction

WO

  

D

2

Cough

F

Crudité

Oral

M

1

Cough

R

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Debaso

F

Pulverize, Balm

Dermal

M

1

Flavour for meal

F

  

N

1

Infertility men

F

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Infertility women

S

Roast

Oral

M

1

Inflammation testicles

F

Decoction

Enema

M

2

Kidney

F

Roast

Dermal

M

1

Malaria

F

Pulverize, Balm

Dermal

M

1

Mixture component

F

  

M

1

Parasites in stomach

F

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Scoliosis

F, R

Decoction

Dermal, Oral

M

2

Skin problems

R, S

Balm

Dermal

M

2

Splenomegaly

F

Decoction

Enema

M

1

Sprain

F

  

M

1

Stomach pains

S

Pulverize

Oral

M

1

Universeal remedy

F

  

M

1

Weakness

F

Maceration

Oral

M

3

Xyris spec., Capim (Port.) F_72

For tattooing

L

  

R

1

1

Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild.) P.G.Waterman, Nkongo mayeno (Kik.) F_68

Bottle cork

ST

  

O

2

4

Injury foot

ST

Balm

Dermal

M

2

Toothache

B

Crudité

Dermal

M

1

* Zea mays L., Milho (Port.), Masangu, Nzemvo za masangu (Kik.), maiz

Aids

F

Infusion

Oral

M

1

5

Flavour for lunguila

S

Decoction

Oral

C

1

Testicle pain

F

Infusion

Oral

M

1

Urinary stone

F

Decoction

Oral

M

1

Vertigo

S

Balm

Dermal

M

1

Vertigo

ST

Incinerate

Dermal

M

2

- Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Gengibre (Port.), Tanga wisi (Kik.) F_69

Aphrodisiac agent

RH

Pulverize

Oral

M

1

2

Backache

RH

Pulverize

Oral

M

1

Mixture component

RH

  

M

1

Weakness

RH

Pulverize

Oral

M

1

Chest pain

RH

Pulverize

Oral

M

1

Data analysis and ethnobotanical indices

All collected data sets were put into a database using Microsoft Excel. Corresponding to the research issue, the use of pivot-tables allowed the systematic processing of the large and detailed data set (nearly 40,000 data fields) to correlate different features with each other. Tableau Software was used to create selected diagrams. The basic structure of use-reports to list the information follows the principle “informant i mentions the use of species s in the use category u” [51, 52]. Out of the collected data, 10 use categories were defined: “medicinal use (M)”; “nutrition, spices and herbal teas (N)”; “domestic and charcoal (D)”; “Hunting, fishing and animal feed (F)”; “dental care and cosmetics (T)”; “drugs and cigarettes (C)”; “handicrafts (H)”; “ludic, childrens’ toys (L)”; and “rituals (R)”. Uses mentioned less than eight times were summarized in “Others (O)”, including soaps, toilet paper, glue or agricultural purpose like soil improvement inter alia. Since the majority of data refers to medicinal plants, this category was differentiated into 41 secondary categories according to the treated illnesses (Table 5). We used this detailed classification to enable later pharmaceutical studies because in this field the local people who provide information are not capable of classifying different subcategories according to modern medicine since ethnobotanical indigenous knowledge in several cases does not clearly distinguish.

Statistical methods were performed to figure out the influence of age, gender, plant habitat, and distance to Uíge city, use categories and application forms to each other. Chi-square test of independence was used to determine whether a significant relation between two variables exists [53]. Using the Checklist of Plants in Angola [1], the proportion of neophytes was determined.

In order to allow comparing recorded data to other studies, the following quantitative ethnobotanical indices were calculated: Relative Frequency of Citations (RFC), Cultural Importance Index (CI) as well as the Informant Consensus Factor (FIC) regarding the secondary categories of illnesses. The Relative Frequency of Citations presents the local significance of each plant species and is calculated for each species as the quotient of the frequency of citations (FC) and the total number of informants (N) [54] (Formula 1). Tardío and Pardo-de-Santayana [51] introduced the CI to ensure data of different studies being compared due to versatility of species use. If the species use would be mentioned in every use category, ten in our study, the CI would be this total number of use categories, i.e. also 10 [51]. In case the species is used in just one use category the CI would be equal to the RFC (Formula 2). Since interviews often were conducted in groups of informants, the number of groups (62) instead of the number of informants (162) was used to calculate the indices.

FIC indicates the homogeneity of the knowledge of the informants [55] (Formula 3). Values differ from 0 (no concordance) to 1 (full accordance). High values therefore illustrate that healers use the same species for the treatment of the same illness.
$$ {\mathrm{RFC}}_{\mathrm{s}}=\frac{{\mathrm{FC}}_{\mathrm{s}}}{N}=\frac{\sum \limits_{i={i}_1}^{i_N}{UR}_i}{N} $$
Formula 1: Calculation of the Relative Frequency of Citations (RFC): s = species, FC = Frequency of Citation by one informant; N = total number of informants [54].
$$ {\mathrm{CI}}_s=\sum \limits_{u={u}_1}^{u_{\mathrm{NC}}}\sum \limits_{i={i}_1}^{i_{\mathrm{NI}}}\frac{{\mathrm{UR}}_{ui}}{NI} $$
Formula 2: Calculation of the Cultural Importance Index (CI): s = species, u = use categories; N = total number of informants, i = informants, NC = the number of use categories, URui = the use report of informant I in use [51].
$$ {F}_{ic}=\frac{n_{\mathrm{ur}}-{n}_t}{n_{\mathrm{ur}}-1} $$

Formula 3: Calculation of the Informant Consensus Factor (Fic): nur = number of use-reports in each use category; nt = number of taxa used [56].

Literature available on medicinal applications of the listed plant species were used for comparison: Neuwinger [57], Iwu [58] and Latham and Konda ku Mbuta [11] of which the latter two reported data in the adjacent Democratic Republic of Congo [11, 57, 58]. In the following the term citation is used in the same way as use-report.

Results and discussion

General findings on vegetation of used plants

The heterogeneity of Uíge’s landscapes and vegetation formations is mirrored by a high variability of data. Nevertheless, several tendencies can be postulated. Our study presents 2390 use-reports (Table 1). Three hundred fifty-eight species representing 96 plant families were identified, 17 of them only to genus level. Of these used plant species, 35% were trees, 26% perennial herbs, 16% shrubs, 12% climbers, 10% annuals and less than 1% parasites. In contrast to a study in southern Angola [6] and one in Namibia [59], woody plants are not used more frequently in our study area compared to herbs since herbaceous plants are found all year around due to the humid forest habitats, and because the much shorter dry season results in a higher availability of plants from savannah areas [6, 24]. Apparently, men (13%) use more climbers than women (8%) certainly due to the fact that climbers are a characteristic element of forest and transition zone where men are going to hunt regularly. However the difference is not significant (chi-square test, P = 0.108, χ2 = 2.578). The use patterns of the other growth forms do not differ between genders in contrast to, e.g. in Eastern Tanzania, where women are more responsible for collecting herbaceous plants while men work with arborescent species [60].

Concurrently, 27% are plants growing in different savannah types, 24% in forests, and 21% in the transition zone connecting these two ecosystems. Furthermore, 20% of the used plants are cultivated, 7% were collected in disturbed areas and 1% are water plants. Comparing habitat and growth form data, some features become apparent. Forty-five percent of the forest species are trees, 21% climbers. This proportion is shifting towards the transition zone where 40% are trees and 31% climbers. These often anthropogenically induced forest edges are characterized by a moist climate with a simultaneous high solar radiation imitating natural gaps caused by treefall. As tropical rainforest disturbance increases, relative abundance of climbers increases, as well [61, 62]. In contrast, from the collected plant species of the studied savannah formations, 42% are trees and 32% perennial herbs [24]. Fifty percent of species collected in disturbed areas are annual herbs, which confirms the fact that annuals are typical for disturbed areas [63]. While just three out of 358 mentioned species are endemic to Angola, 71 species are naturalized that is equivalent to one fifth, 73% of which are still cultivated. In total, 15% of all citations refer to these species. This high number is not surprising. Different studies document the integration of introduced plants into the ethnobotanical repertoires of people [7, 64, 65]. In a study in Brazil, Santos et al. [66] even detected that invasive species overall were considered useful more often than non-invasive species. A closer look reveals that the naturalized species do not fill a gap described in Alencar et al. or Medeiros et al. [67, 68]. They make up a small part in all medicinal categories with an average of 14%, with just one exception in the category “fevers, malaria” where they represent 36%. Out of the 53 citations for this disease category, 15 citations are based only on Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob. (8) and Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants (7). Although a wide range of species exist to treat stomachache, the most frequently used species is Senna occidentalis (L.) Link, introduced from tropical America, and used for various applications worldwide [69].

Angola’s turbulent history as a Portuguese colony and the resulting cultural influences from other Portuguese colonies such as Brazil led to an interchange of plant use and knowledge as for Nicotiana tabacum L., which arrived in Africa in the 1600s or Arachis hypogaea L., which was incorporated at the same time into African ethnomedical systems [70]. In particular, certain arable crops from the New World were introduced in Angola, especially from the Solanaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Actual international listings and reports on neophytes and invasive species are still very incomplete for Angola [71, 72]. According to the list of invasive species in Eastern Africa [73], 24 species of our study are detected to have invasive potential. Due to our observations in northern Angola, six plant species display an invasive behaviour: Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob., Inga edulis Mart., Lantana camara L., Senna occidentalis (L.) Link, Solanum mauritianum Scop., and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray. The species of most invasive power Chromolaena odorata forms dense thickets in savannah and forest gaps, disrupting forest successions.

Local people are aware that this plant is not native to their region. Different myths surround its arrival suggesting that Chromolaena odorata was introduced rather recently [32, 72]. Nevertheless, in terms of its traditional use in our study, it is in 6th position regarding its RFC-value (Table 2).
Table 2

List of the 11 species with the highest Relative Frequency Citation (RFC) including habitat, used plant parts (PP), use categories (UC), number of citations (NC), and Cultural Importance Index (CI). Habitat (Hab.): C cultivated, F forest, S savannah. Plant Parts: B bark, F fruit, L leaf, R root, S seed, SS stem sap, ST stem, W whole plant, Wo wood. Use category: C drugs and cigarettes, D domestic and charcoal, F Hunting, fishing and animal feed, H handicrafts, L ludic, childrens’ toys, M medicinal use, N nutrition, spices and herbal teas, R rituals, T dental care and cosmetics, O others; *neophyte

Species

Hab.

PP

UC

NC

RFC

CI

Annona stenophylla subsp. cuneata

S

R, L, F

M, N

50

0.371

0.435

Hymenocardia acida

S

B, L, R, S

M

40

0.355

0.355

Vitex madiensis

S

B, L, R, F, W

M, N, R

43

0.323

0.468

Psorospermum febrifugum

S

B, L, R, F, SS

F, M, R

29

0.306

0.371

Raphia matombe

F

F, L, SS, ST

C, D, F, H, M, N, O

24

0.306

0.371

Chromolaena odorata*

S

L, W

M, O

26

0.274

0.290

Elaeis guineensis

C

B, F, FL, L, R, SS, S

C, F, H, M, N, O, R

35

0.274

0.387

Aframomum alboviolaceum

S

F, L, R, ST

M, N

34

0.258

0.339

Sarcocephalus latifolius

S

B, F, L, R

M

32

0.258

0.242

Smilax anceps

S

F, L, R

M, N

20

0.258

0.226

Xylopia aethiopica

F

B, F, R, S, Wo

D, M, N

33

0.258

0.306

With regard to the species number, the predominant used plant families are Fabaceae (11.7%), Asteraceae (6.1%) and Rubiaceae (5.6%), followed by Apocynaceae, Malvaceae and Euphorbiaceae (4.2%). The distribution of plant families is difficult to discuss without referring to the occurring vegetation units. Our results therefore confirm the mosaic like heterogeneity of the studied area, influenced by Guineo-Congolian rain forests, Zambesian dry evergreen forests, Miombo woodlands and secondary (wooded) grasslands [24]. This shows a respective preference: species from Fabaceae and Asteraceae have a high percentage of used savannah plants (> 50%) while the percentage of forest plants increases within the other families, especially in Rubiaceae (26%).

The quotient of citations and species number within one plant family (C/S) emphasizes the importance of citations within one plant family, including the fact that big families like Fabaceae or Asteraceae inherently show high citation numbers. As illustrated in Fig. 2, some plant families were mentioned with just a few species but high citation rate (high C/S). For example in Annonaceae, 120 citations for 5 species lead to a C/S of 24. While the families Annonaceae and Asteraceae exhibit an equally high number of citations, the number of species is considerably higher in Asteraceae. The proportion for one species therefore is much higher in Annonaceae than in Asteraceae. By contrast, in Solanaceae, 34 citations for 11 species lead to a C/S of 3.1.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plant family distribution correlating species number with the number of citations including data about its C/S-Quotient depicted by the size of the circles. Abbreviations of families: ANN Annonaceae, ACA Acanthaceae, ANA Anacardiaceae, APO Apocynaceae, ARE Arecaceae, AST Asteraceae, EUP Euphorbiaceae, HYP Hypericaceae, LAM Lamiaceae, MAL Malvaceae, PHY Phyllanthaceae, POL Polygalaceae, RUB Rubiaceae, SOL Solanaceae, ZIN Zingiberaceae

Ethnobotanical results

Willingness of visited people to collaborate was very high. One hundred sixty-two informants were interviewed in 62 groups. Two thirds were older than 40 years. Some healers specialized on one or two diseases only while others demonstrated their broad knowledge to heal a large variety of diseases (Additional file 1).

Seventy-six percent of the citations collected in our study refer to medicinal uses, 10% to nutritional use and 4% to its use as fodder plant. The remaining 10% are divided into the other 7 use categories. Although the unequal split of citations within the 10 use categories suggests a low use of plants in some of them, plenty of species are used for several purposes and daily needs. Thus, 41 species are used for domestic applications, 33 species for rituals, 29 species as drugs or cigarettes, 21 species for handicrafts and 9 for ludic ambits. Compared to other studies (e.g. Vodouhê, [74]), the percentage of medicinal uses is very high, although Göhre et al. [7] detected quite similar use category distributions. One reason might be that our study design required at least one person with knowledge of traditional medicine to accompany the interview. On the other side, this split is an indication of the crucial role of plants in rural health care.

In general, the predominantly used part is the leaf (37%, 890 citations, 220 species), followed by the different stem tissues wood, bark, bast fibres, and resins (17%, 407 citations, 110 species), underground organs like roots, tubers and rhizomes (15%, 367 citations, 140 species) as well as fruits and seeds with 15% (354 citations, 114 species). In some cases, the whole plant (56 citations, 27 species) or flowers (16 citations, 12 species) were used. Regarding only the medicinal use category, the proportion of the citations describing the use of leaves remains almost unchanged with 39% (689 citations, 178 species) while the proportion of the use of underground organs increases by more than the double to 32% (582 citations, 137 species). This detected plant part percentage is consistent with the one observed by Urso et al. [6], Giday et al. [75], or Cheikhyoussef and Embashu, [76]. As already mentioned and discussed in Urso et al. [6], the intensive use of underground organs in medical applications may be due to the fact that underground organs need effective defence strategies based on a high content of secondary metabolites [6, 77]. By contrast, the studies of Upadhyay and Kumar [78] and Panghal et al. [79] confirm leaves as the most frequently used plant part in remedies [78, 79]. In this context, strain and increasing mortality in species of which primarily bark and roots or bulbs are collected for remedies, are discussed [8083]. No awareness of interviewed people in Uíge province for this emerging problem was detected during our study.

As expected, in the category “nutrition”, the main plant parts used are fruits (57%), leaves (31%), and seeds (5%) which is in concordance with literature [6, 76]. Fruits are consumed fresh, except the fruits of Adansonia digitata L., Piper guineense Schumach. & Thonn. and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich. which can also be dried. Tubers, although an important source of starch, were seldom mentioned. This may be because during field trips these tubers are not abundant but normally cultivated. For fodder purposes, mainly, leaves are used (75%); fruits and stem tissues only play a subordinate role.

Stems and timber, respectively, are the main plant parts used domestically (67%). Except the significantly more frequent utilization of fruits and seeds by women (chi-square test, P = 7 × 10−5, χ2 = 15.8), no other gender-specific difference was detected. This result could be caused by the daily behaviour and responsibilities women have; those inter alia walk to and work in the field, carry and take care of the children while collecting edible fruits along the wayside. For the Ibo women in Nigeria for instance, their ownership of fruit trees was described [84].

Ethnobotanical indices of used plants

RFC and CI of all mentioned species were calculated to evaluate the importance of the species use. Here, 67% of the species have a RFC below 0.05, 14% between 0.05 and 0.1, and 20% more than 0.1. The values range from 0.37 to 0.02. The species with the highest RFC also show a high variety of its used plant parts and use categories (Table 2). The calculated CI covers values from 0.47 to 0.02 with an average value of 0.07 while Göhre et al. [7] calculated an average value of 0.09 in savannah regions near Uíge city.

Eight of the 11 species listed in Table 2 are typical savannah species demonstrating the importance of this vegetation in traditional plant usage [7]. The most important species is Annona stenophylla subsp. cuneata (Oliv.) N. Robson, a subshrub, which, due to its woody rhizome, is able to regrow after periodical fires. Fruits are edible, frequent and therefore known by everyone. Its medicinal use is broad but with focus on gastrointestinal disorders. This application was mentioned for the related A. stenophylla and A. stenophylla subsp. nana [57]. Hymenocardia acida Tul. as well as Psorospermum febrifugum Spach are frequent small savannah trees often used for treating bloody diarrhoea, bleeding or anaemia due to its red root bark producing a reddish coloured decoction and therefore related to blood, according to the tradition of local people. We noticed a comparable relationship between the bark of Erythrina abyssinica DC., which produces a yellow decoction and is used to treat yellow fever, and the use of pulverized thorns of the trunk of Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild.) P.G.Waterman to treat injuries to the feet. Hence, for some plants, appearance is related to functionality, comparable to the doctrine of signatures developed by Paracelsus in the sixteenth century [85, 86]. The shrub Vitex madiensis Oliv. produces edible fruits and has a wide variety of healing properties. Another frequent tree is Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A.Bruce whose roots are often sold at local markets as a tonic. Aframomum alboviolaceum (Ridl.) K.Schum. is a common perennial that produces edible fruits sold at local markets during the late rainy season. Smilax anceps Willd. is the only climbing plant in this list, widespread in African savannahs and therefore used diversely [57].

Secondly, three species (Elaeis guineensis Jacq., Raphia matombe De Wild., Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich) are an important part of remedy mixtures and thus quite well known in the literature [57]. Several liposoluble substances can be dissolved in the oil of Elaeis guineensis fruits, which is therefore used for skin diseases [57, 58]. At the same time, palm fruits present a food for better nutrition and health due to its components such as palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat as well as vitamin E, carotenoids and phytosterols [87]. Xylopia aethiopica is most commonly used as an addition to remedy mixtures of pulverized seeds due to its diverse constituents [58, 88]. In contrast, the other palm species Raphia matombe is one of the most important species in Bakongo culture inter alia because of its common traditional utilization to produce palm wine [89]. In addition, alcohol also serves as solvent for active ingredients [9092]. Some plants traditionally are macerated in alcoholic beverages and used in medical applications, mainly as aphrodisiac or against pain [57]. However, parts of Raphia also serve as base for other applications such as the leaf rachis for domestic use, edible fruits or fibres for handicrafts [32].

Interestingly, the invasive species Chromolaena odorata, native to Central-America, is part of the list but also used worldwide for the same purpose or other applications [90, 91, 9395]. Its biochemical and antimicrobial activities as well as anticancer properties are already well studied [96, 97].

Ethnobotanical indices of medical plants

If we consider only medical plants, the selected ethnobotanical indices attain values similar to those for the useful plants in general. Out of the 1813 use reports, 68% of the listed plant species exhibit a RFC below 0.05 (corresponding to 3 citations maximal, 13% between 0.05 and 0.1 (4 to 6 citations), and 19% more than 0.1 (from 7 citations up). The values range from 0.34 to 0.02. The species with the highest RFC in this use category are shown in Table 3. Eight of them are already mentioned in Table 3. The calculated CI values range from 0.44 to 0.02 with an average value of 0.08.
Table 3

List of 11 medical plant species with the highest Relative Frequency Citation (RFC) including habitat, used plant parts (PP), and Cultural Importance Index (CI). Habitat: C cultivated, F forest, S savannah. Plant parts: B bark, F fruit, L leaf, R root, S seed, SS stem sap, ST stem, W whole plant; *neophyte

Species

Habitat

PP

RFC

CI

Hymenocardia acida

S

B, L, R, S

0.3387

0.4355

Vitex madiensis

S

B, L, R

0.3226

0.4032

Psorospermum febrifugum

S

B, F, L, R, SS

0.3065

0.3226

Annona stenophylla subsp. cuneata

S

L, R

0.2903

0.4032

Chromolaena odorata*

S

L

0.2581

0.3226

Sarcocephalus latifolius

S

B, F, L, R

0.2581

0.4032

Aframomum alboviolaceum

S

L, R, ST

0.2419

0.3226

Dysphania abrosioides*

D

L, R, W

0.2419

0.3226

Maprounea africana

S

B, L, R

0.2419

0.3226

Monodora myristica

F

B, F, R, S

0.2419

0.371

Xylopia aethiopica

F

F, R, S

0.2419

0.3387

Ten percent out of 1813 citations for medicinal uses refer to stomach ache (183 citations), 8% to respiratory diseases (140 citations), 7% to pain and rheumatism (124 citations), 6% to diarrhoea (115 citations) and 6% to headache and weakness (101 citations). According to Heinrich et al. [55], the informant’s consensus can help to select plant species for further pharmaceutical analyses. The calculated Informant Consensus Factor (FIC) of the 41 secondary use categories ranged between 0 and 0.78. The disease “measles” has the highest FIC (0.78), followed by the disease groups “diarrhoea” (0.61), “skeletal deformation” (0.6), “anaemia” (0.58) and “stomach ache” (0.58). For 14 out of the 41 defined disease categories, FIC was below 0.2. Table 4 shows the plant species, which were cited at least five times for one disease, sorted by the Informant Consensus Factor (FIC) of each disease. Statistical analysis with Chi-square test of independence did not detect any significance in gender-specific treatment of the 41 disease categories, except in the treatment of scoliosis (chi-square test, P = 1 × 10−9, χ2 = 37.1).
Table 4

Diseases with at least one species mentioned with 5 citations listed in order of its Informant Consensus Factor (FIC). In square brackets the number of citations of disease category (UR) and the FIC; Known to literature: + known, – not known, *indirectly related; Literature used: Neuwinger, Iwu, Latham and Konda ku Mbuta [11, 57, 58]

Disease

Species

UR

L

measles [UR 10; FIC 0.78]

Gardenia ternifolia subsp. jovis-tonantis

8

(bloody) diarrhoea, dysentery

[UR 115; FIC 0.61]

Bridelia ferruginea

11

+

Hymenocardia acida

10

+

Psidium guajava

8

+

Combretum racemosum

6

+

Diplorhynchus condylocarpon

6

+

Elaeis guineensis

5

+

Lannea edulis

5

+

Syzygium guineense

5

+

skeletal deformation, scoliosis

[UR 82; FIC 0.6]

Aframomum alboviolaceum

8

Dialium englerianum

7

Hymenocardia acida

5

Oncoba welwitschii

5

Securidaca longipedunculata

5

anaemia [UR 39; FIC 0.58]

Annona stenophylla subsp. cuneata

6

Ochna afzelii subsp. mechowiana

5

+

stomachache [UR 183; FIC 0.58]

Senna occidentalis

16

+

Morinda morindoides

11

+

Morinda lucida

10

+

Sarcocephalus latifolius

10

+

Annona stenophylla subsp. cuneata

6

+

Rauvolfia vomitoria

6

+

Diplorhynchus condylocarpon

5

+

erectile dysfunction, impotence [UR 59; FIC 0.57]

Mondia whitei

13

+

Thonningia sanguinea

9

*

injury, sprain [UR 40; FIC 0.56]

Chromolaena odorata

7

+

hepatitis [UR 16; FIC 0.53]

Erythrina abyssinica

5

+

skin infection, problems, leprosy, cicatrices [UR 79; FIC 0.5]

Psorospermum febrifugum

11

+

Chaetocarpus africanus

5

+

parasitic worms (intestine) [UR 59; FIC 0.48]

Morinda morindoides

8

+

Morinda lucida

6

+

fever, malaria [UR 53; FIC 0.48]

Chromolaena odorata

8

*

Dysphania ambrosioides

7

+

toothache, caries [UR 44; FIC 0.47]

Maprounea africana

7

+

heart problems, blood pressure [UR 18; FIC 0.47]

Brillantaisia owariensis

5

respiratory diseases [UR 140; FIC 0.47]

Dysphania ambrosioides

6

+

rheumatism, gout, pain [UR 124; FIC 0.47]

Croton mubango

11

+

Securidaca longipedunculata

9

+

Vitex madiensis

6

+

headache, vertigo, weakness, fatigue [UR 101; FIC 0.45]

Oncoba welwitschii

5

+

Vitex madiensis

5

+

eye parasites, eye problems [UR 36; FIC 0.4]

Albizia adianthifolia

5

+

epilepsy, convulsion [UR 42; FIC 0.39]

Costus afer

5

+

constipation, flatulence [UR 48; FIC 0.34]

Maprounea africana

7

+

The importance of traditional medicinal plants is demonstrated by the high number of medical use-reports (76%). This value coincides with those of former studies in this area [7, 9]. The relatively low FIC values could be explained by the heterogeneity of vegetation forms in the studied area. In case of non-availability of one plant species, another will be chosen to treat the same disease. Cheikhyoussef et al. [59] reported much higher FIC due to the considerably lower number of citations, described species and disease categories [59]. The FIC encouraged us to choose reliable data of plants which could be analysed either in medical or phytochemical studies. The majority of the medical applications mentioned at least five times (Table 4) is already known and documented [11, 57, 58], but a few citations are new to science (18%), e.g. Gardenia ternifolia subsp. jovis-tonantis (Welw.) Verdc. seems to be promising for treatment of measles; except in Göhre et al. [7], the use of Brillantaisia owariensis P.Beauv. for cardiovascular diseases was still not documented and Annona stenophylla subsp. cuneata was neither ethnobotanically nor phytochemically investigated although several studies document the use of related species [7]. With decreasing number of citations the quantity of still unknown uses increases. The disease skeletal deformation/scoliosis is rarely mentioned in ethnobotanical literature as its management is dominated by physiotherapies and bracing and not by herbal preparations. Hulse mentioned deer antlers to cure skeleton deformities according to Chinese medicine and called it of dubious credibility [98]. A study from Namibia mentioned Ximenia americana L. as a cure for scoliosis [59]. The standard reference Neuwinger [57] neither mentions skeletal deformation nor scoliosis as traditionally treated diseases [57]. Nevertheless, we documented this traditional healing concept as part of Bakongo health treatment culture.

Administration methods vary from community to community, from healer to healer and from disease to disease. Using a decoction to prepare a remedy is the most frequently found method of preparation (45%), followed by the manufacture of an ointment (13%), maceration (12%) and the application as raw material, while nearly half of all preparations are administered orally (45%), followed by dermal application (20%) in only 16% is an enema used. This is in contrast to commonly used methods used in West African traditional health systems [99]. According to these analyses of administrations, the four most important combinations of preparation and application of medicinal plants are (1) decoction taken orally (21%); (2) raw material crushed, taken orally, chewed or swallowed (14%); (3) maceration of plant parts taken orally (11%); and (4) the preparation of ointment applied to the skin (11%). These findings are in line with those of several studies [6, 7, 100].

Nutritional plants

Thirty percent of mentioned plant species do have a certain nutritional value for local people. Out of the 107 species used for nutrition, 10 were cited more than five times. Besides the species already listed above (Aframomum alboviolaceum (F), Annona stenophylla subsp. cuneata (F), Vitex madiensis (F)), these are as follows: Anisophyllea quangensis Engl. ex Henriq. (F), Dialium englerianum Henriq. (F), Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels (L), Parinari capensis Harv. (F), Pteridium aquilinum subsp. africanum (L.) Kuhn (L), Strychnos cocculoides Baker (F) and Syzygium guineense (Willd.) DC. (F).

The use of these species is comparable to Biloso and Lejoly [101], who found very similar results in the province Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Termote and Van Damme [102] as well as Latham and Konda ku Mbuta [11] also point out the economic importance of these species. On the other hand, 12% of the citations (13 species) are plants which up to now are not known to literature [7, 9, 11, 103105]. Especially one species should be highlighted: Dracaena camerooniana, whose leaves are locally known as nsalabayakala, is also sold at local markets and therefore of economic value. By contrast, fruits like those of Cnestis ferruginea or Renealmia africana might be edible but not of good taste, so that just a few people do consume these wild fruits, found in the forests. Furthermore, for the consumed aerial parts of Hilleria latifolia toxicity studies showed histopathological changes at high doses [106]. As several species are just cited once, further studies on reliability of data as well as on distribution of species, and their nutritive values and toxicities are recommended.

Influence of gender, age and distance

Gender

It is postulated that women and men have separate and unique relationships with biodiversity [37]. Different studies detected either a gender-specific plant use [59, 107] or gender-independent knowledge [108]. In our study, two thirds of informants were male, one third female. In average, female informants concentrate on using plants from savannahs (49%) and villages (38%) while male interviewees focus on the use of forest (40%) and savannah (44%) species.

Although women represent just a fifth of all citations (22%), their contribution to medicinal plants was proportionally even higher (83%) than those of men (74%) (chi-square test, P = 9 × 10−6, χ2 = 19.7). Deleting use categories “medicinal plants” and “nutritional plants”, the remaining use categories can be broken down in detail. It appears that all use categories are nearly homogenously distributed regarding their number of citations between genders and do not differ significantly from each other (chi-square test, P > 0.05).

Fifty percent of all plants mentioned in the study were listed just by men, 12% just by women. When looking at more details of the use category “medicinal plants”, a similar pattern can be seen: 48% of the plants were brought up by men only and 14% just by women. The ten most important species mentioned for medical application by women and men, with a percentage of more than 50%, respectively, and the highest numbers of use-reports are shown in Table 5. There is thus a strong suspicion that these species might have a medical application for illnesses specific to women as in Cheikhyoussef et al. [59] or mentioned by Kamatenesi-Mugisha [109]. By contrast, our analyses do not confirm this assumption. Medical plant applications especially for women’s illnesses (menstruation problems, birth, pregnancy, open cervix, lactation, and abortive use) are not significantly more frequently quoted by women than others (chi-square test, P > 0.05). On the other hand, mens’ specific illnesses (erectile dysfunction, impotence) and the associated plants are not mentioned just by men, but by women too. On the contrary, percentages are almost evenly distributed.
Table 5

List of 10 species representing ≥50% citations of women and men, respectively (%) and highest number of use-reports (UR), with their habitat (H), Habitat: S = savanna, F = forest, V = village; *neophyte

Species mentioned mainly by women

UR

%

H

Species mentioned mainly by men

UR

%

H

Aframomum alboviolaceum

15

54

S

Annona stenophylla subsp. cuneata

32

91

S

Dialium englerianum

8

50

S

Hymenocardia acida

28

70

S

Jatropha curcas*

7

64

V

Securidaca longipedunculata

26

90

S

Combretum psidioides

6

86

S

Sarcocephalus latifolius

25

78

S

Ekebergia benguelensis

6

67

S

Monodora myristica

24

80

F

Stachytarpheta cayennensis*

6

67

V

Vitex madiensis

23

66

S

Gaertnera paniculata

5

100

F

Chromolaena odorata*

22

88

S

Cola acuminata

5

63

F

Psorospermum febrifugum

22

85

S

Zingiber officinale*

4

100

V

Bridelia ferruginea

21

84

S

Strychnos pungens

4

80

S

Morinda lucida

21

91

S, F

In Bakongo culture, both sexes play a plurality of roles. Nevertheless, a majority of men hunts while women maintain the household, take care of the children and work in the field. However, individual differences from person to person blur these culturally not strictly fixed boundaries, so that men also help on the fields. The results of our study on the influence of gender on plant usage in all areas of daily life did not show prominent differences of genders in traditional plant usage of Bakongo tribes. Handicraft and house constructing activities are performed by both sexes, depending on the transfer of knowledge within the families rather than on gender. Not even in the context of gender-specific illnesses, significant differences could be detected. That all adds up to the conclusion that treatment of illnesses is open and pragmatic and not biased by gender. This notion also contradicts the self-perception of male healers who “use plants of whose women do not know their effects”. But further studies should be undertaken to support this observation, also because the percentage of women was low.

Distance to Uíge city

As the study was conducted in the whole province covering an area of 59,000 km2, different vegetation zones are included which merge together seamlessly forming a complex mosaic. For this reason, it is difficult to detect a clear influence of the distance in regard to species composition in traditional healer’s concepts. What could be detected significantly with respect to the distance to Uíge city are differences in two use categories. The larger the distance, the higher the number of use citations of medical plants ranging from 72% (zone A) to 80% (zone B) (chi-square test, P = 9 × 10−6, χ2 = 19.6) while the use of nutritional plants decrease from 12% (zone A) to 8% (zone B) (chi-square test, P = 0.002, χ2 = 9.6). Neither plant part utilization nor medical plant explanation or age of informants was significantly different. With increasing distance from the city Uíge and its manifold offers of modern society such as health centres or supermarkets, no significant difference of plant usage could be detected (chi-square test, P > 0.05). Similar results were achieved by Ávila et al. [64] who, depending on different urbanization levels, documented the maintenance of a similar ethnobotanical repertoire in Brazilian Quilombola groups. In contrast, Pirker et al. [110] stated an influence of rural–urban urbanization and globalization processes on traditional knowledge. This should be more fully investigated, especially in accordance with the shifts from traditional healing to modern health care in Angola.

Age

Nearly one third of informants were younger than 40 years whereas only a quarter of all citations were mentioned by this group. The older people therefore show a significantly greater knowledge (chi-square test, P = 0.000955, χ2 = 10.913). Especially concerning the use category “medicine”, significantly more uses were mentioned by the older people (chi-square test, P = 0.00097, χ2 = 10.877). Voeks [107] described a similar situation in northeast Brazil and justified his results to show that the greater knowledge of plant medicinal properties was linked to the greater age of the participant. The reason that the number of young healers is comparatively low is explained by the slow process of transferring knowledge from one generation to another [59]. Further studies should compare firstly younger people and secondly people from urban and rural areas, regardless of their knowledge.

Conclusion

Despite (or because of) the long-lasting military conflict in Angola, traditional knowledge of plant usage is still an important part of cultural heritage. Plants therefore are essential elements in all areas of livelihood, especially in the medical sector. This situation is compounded by the still very poor health care system in the country, especially in rural areas.

The study reveals the following key messages:
  1. 1.

    A considerable heterogeneity in plant usage of the studied area could be detected, influenced by the high complexity of flora composed of both, Guineo-Congolian and Zambesian elements and the diverse topography.

     
  2. 2.

    Although the area is large, no significant influence of the distance in regard to species composition in traditional healer’s concepts of the respective village was found.

     
  3. 3.

    Although several plants were just mentioned by women or men, respectively, no significant restriction to gender-specific illnesses in medical plant use could be found.

     
  4. 4.

    Merely concerning the age of informants a slight shift could be detected, because one third of informants were younger than 40 years whereas only one fourth of all citations were mentioned by this group. Regarding the analysis within use categories, this tendency could not be substantiated significantly.

     
  5. 5.

    At least three species are worth evaluating for their pharmacological potential due to their high FIC value regarding the following diseases: Gardenia ternifolia subsp. jovis-tonantis seems to be promising for treatment of measles; Brillantaisia owariensis has still not been analysed for treating cardiovascular diseases; Annona stenophylla subsp. cuneata was mentioned for treating anaemia.

     

People in Angola still depend very much on the natural environment, and the knowledge of how to use plants in their daily life is fundamental—even people living in the large cities or urban areas do have family in the rural regions or at least have lived part of their life there. But by virtue of the already existing and for the future expected urbanization and the resultant loss of direct dependence upon nature, traditional knowledge is expected to be lost in future [111], especially if taking into account that Angola has a high amount of unused land, suitable for crops which will be converted in near future, resulting in a negative impact on biodiversity [112]. The study therefore at the same time provides an important contribution of traditional knowledge documentation, which so far is very rare for the area investigated here. Collected data are a worthwhile base for the establishment of a Botanical Garden integrated in the Universidade Kimpa Vita in Uíge with focus on useful plants. Furthermore, ethnopharmacological studies of several selected plant species might usefully be undertaken.

Abbreviations

CI: 

Cultural Importance Index

COI: 

Herbarium Coimbra

FIC

Informant Consensus Factor

LISC : 

Herbarium Lisbon

RFC: 

Relative Frequency of Citations

Declarations

Acknowledgements

The analysis and discussion contained within this article would not have been possible without the contribution of knowledge from the villagers of the province of Uíge. The University Kimpa Vita was an essential base for operations and provided logistical support. The authors would like to thank Barbara Ditsch, Gerard van der Weerden, Paul Latham, Christian Schulz, Daniel Nickrent, Anne Göhre, Roseli Buzanelli Torres, Thomas Couvreur and Ulrich Meve for assistance in the identification of selected herbarium specimens. We are also grateful to the Herbarium LISC in Lisbon and the Herbarium COI in Coimbra, Portugal for the assistance as well as to the Botanical Garden of the TU Dresden for cultivating plants until essential characters for identification appeared. Thanks to Andreas Kempe for preparing Fig. 1 and Stefan Bischoff for preparing Fig. 2.

We acknowledge support by the Open Access Publication Funds of the SLUB/TU Dresden.

Funding

The fieldwork in Angola was supported by a travel fund from the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and the program “Strategic Partnerships” of the TU Dresden. These published results were obtained in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional da Biodiversidade e Áreas de Conservação (INBAC) of the Ministério do Ambiente da República de Angola.

Availability of data and materials

All data are available from the corresponding author. All voucher specimens are deposited in the Herbarium Dresdense (DD) of the Institute of Botany, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany. As soon as suitable conditions are established, parts of the collection will be deposited at University Kimpa Vita, Uíge, Angola.

Authors’ contributions

TL carried out field work, analysed the collected data and drafted the manuscript. MM, MP, JLM and MFB participated in field work and established contact with local people. CH and CN participated in the design of the study and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Authors’ information

Since 2012, the Universidade Kimpa Vita in Uíge, Angola and the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany, have a multifaceted cooperation including the establishment of a Botanical Garden with the focus on local medicinal plants as well as biodiversity assessments.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

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Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Biology, Institute of Botany, Faculty of Science, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
(2)
University Kimpa Vita, Province of Uíge, Rua Henrique Freitas No. 1, Bairro Popular, Uíge, Angola

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