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Historical ethnopharmacology of the herbalists from Krummhübel in the Sudety Mountains (seventeenth to nineteenth century), Silesia

Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201915:24

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-019-0298-z

  • Received: 12 September 2018
  • Accepted: 5 April 2019
  • Published:

Abstract

Background

Krummhübel (after 1945, Karpacz) in the Sudety Mountains (now SW Poland) was called “the village of pharmacists”. At the end of the seventeenth century, there were 57 households, of which about 40 were inhabited by herbalists. Krummhübel herbalists were the first in the Sudety region who applied medicinal mixtures for the treatment of various diseases (using, among others, plants, oils, minerals and even viper venom) in contrast to previous herbalists who only indicated the use of individual plant species for specific diseases. Riesengebirge (in Polish Karkonosze) potions were sold in Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland and Russia, and some of them could even be purchased in Scandinavia and England. The purpose of this paper is an ethnopharmacological analysis of historical texts of herbalists from Krummhübel. Based on their recipes, we analysed the use reports of drugs. Recently, research on ethnobotany and ethnopharmacological analyses of historical materials or egodocuments related to formulations used in folk medicine have become an important source of acquiring knowledge about new medicines.

Methods

Based on 46 recipes of Krummhübel herbalists re-written by Reitzig (1943), we analysed the use reports of drugs which included plant taxa and other constituents such as animal formulations, fungi, inorganic and organic substances and minerals as well as tinctures (with alcohol/spirit) and elixirs (without alcohol/spirit). For each usage mentioned in the text, we recorded (i) the putative botanical identity of the taxon; (ii) the plant family or origin of other than the plant constituent; (iii) the reported plant part; (iv) the number of the recipe; (v) the name of the recipe; (vi) the vernacular name of ingredient; (vii) the described symptom, ailment or specific use; (viii) our modern (viz. biomedical) interpretation of the described symptom or ailment; (ix) the mode of administration; and (x) the category of use under which we filed the specific use. We also cross-checked the medicinal plants of Krummhübel herbalists with the species described in old manuscripts and regional surveys and compared their use with contemporary plant use.

Results

The paper introduces the generated database comprising 348 use reports of 46 drugs based on 70 plant taxa and other constituents. Besides, we address patterns such as the frequent recommendation of Fabaceae herbs for respiratory system issue and gynaecology and Asteraceae for respiratory system and cardiovascular problems. Gastrointestinal use reports are based on Asphodelaceae, Burseraceae and Rosaceae species.

Conclusions

Remedies that lost importance over time as well as drugs used for diseases now controlled by conventional medicine may be interesting starting points for research on herbal medicine and drug discovery. It seems to be important to attempt to reproduce therapeutic mixtures from the preserved recipes of Krummhübel herbalists, which offers an opportunity to learn more about the real effects of the former medicines and their therapeutic activity. The obtained data can also be used to search for new drugs.

Keywords

  • Medicinal plants
  • Mixtures
  • Folk medicine
  • Phytotherapy history
  • Phytopharmacy
  • Ethnobotany

Background

Caspar Schwenckfeld, a municipal doctor from Hirschberg (after 1945, Jelenia Góra), was one of the first medicinal plant explorers operating in the Silesia region. Two monographs of great value are the result of his scientific work. Chronologically, his scientific work describing resorts in Warmbrunn (after 1945, Cieplice), Landeck (after 1945, Lądek-Zdrój), Flinsberg (after 1945, Świeradów) and Salzbrunn (after 1945, Szczawno) appeared first [1, 2], and 7 years later, another monograph was released. It describes 50 species of plants that were used in phytotherapy at the turn of the seventeenth century in health resorts in the Sudety Mountains (in German, Sudeten), SW Poland, mainly in Warmbrunn [3]. Many species of medicinal plants formerly used in phytopharmacy now have scientifically demonstrated medicinal properties based on their diverse chemical compositions (e.g. [48]).

The purpose of the work is an ethnopharmacological analysis of historical texts of the so-called Krummhübel laboratory workers, who were active in the Sudetes (Central Europe) from the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries. Our research will contribute to a better understanding of treatments for diseases in this region prior to the development of the pharmacological industry. It will also provide in-depth insight into old methods of treatment. So far, no research has been carried out on ethnopharmacological activities of the herbalists from Krummhübel. In particular, this study may guide research on novel phyto-therapeutic agents, inform safety evaluations and help to prove the tradition of use in terms of drug regulations [9, 10].

We also cross-checked the medicinal plants of Krummhübel herbalists with the species described in five manuscripts and regional surveys, including Matthioli (1563) [11], Schwenckfeld (1607) [3], Mattuschka (1779) [12], Kneipp (1892) [13], Fischer (1930s) [14] and Madaus (1938) [15]. Besides, we compared their uses with those of other contemporary plants.

Recently, research on ethnobotany and ethnopharmacological analysis of historical materials or egodocuments, related to preparations used in folk medicine, has become an important source of acquiring knowledge about new medicines [10, 16]. Our study may constitute a part of this trend.

Karpacz (formerly Krummhübel) is a town located in Silesia in Poland. Until the mid-sixteenth century, this region belonged to the Kingdom of Bohemia, and in 1526, it became a part of the Habsburg Empire. As a result of the Silesian wars in the years 1740–1742, Silesia came under the rule of the Kingdom of Prussia and remained within the German borders until 1945. After World War II, under the terms of the agreements at the Yalta Conference and the Potsdam Agreement (both in 1945), German Silesia, east of the rivers Oder (now Odra) and Lusatian Neisse (now Nysa Łużycka), was transferred to Poland. This region included Krummhübel (after 1945 renamed Karpacz), the area of the herbalists’ activities described in this article [17, 18].

The beginnings of the production of herbal medicinal mixtures in the Sudety Mountains are related by multiple sources. One of them speaks of two protestants, well-known medics from Prague, who fled to the town of Krummhübel in the Sudety Mountains in the late seventeenth century to avoid punishment for participation in a bloody duel. Niclaus and Solomon found refuge in the house of Melchior Grossmann, where they established the first pharmacy in Krummhübel and introduced their saviour and his friend Jonas Exner to the art of producing herbal ointments, powders and tinctures [1924]. At the end of the seventeenth century, Krummhübel had 57 households, of which about 40 were inhabited by herbalists, also known as “Laboranten” (in German). For this reason, Krummhübel was called “the village of pharmacists” [2330]. The herbalists’ houses were log cabins with pitched roofs, timber framing and very distinctive interiors. The largest room on the ground floor, built of granite stones, was a laboratory with a large kitchen oven and distillation equipment (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The museum dedicated to the herbalists from Krummhübel. Postcard from 1938 (collection of K. Spałek)

In the adjacent room, the medicinal raw material was produced and portioned. A side chamber, where cabinets, barrels, crates and shelves were located, served as a warehouse for storing products, and an airy loft served as a drying room for herbs. The dried products were stored in small free-standing structures due to the danger of fire [23, 31]. Next to the laboratory building, there was a backyard with medicinal plants, where, among others, the following plants were grown: Plantago lanceolata L., Pimpinella anisum L., Menyanthes trifoliata L., Artemisia absinthium L., Centaurium erythraea Rafn. subsp. erythraea, Verbascum densiflorum Bertol., Carum carvi L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Valeriana officinalis L., Achillea millefolium L., Linum usitatissimum L., Alcea rosea L. var. nigra Cav., Taraxacum spp., Calendula officinalis L., Althaea officinalis L., Polygonum aviculare L., Rosa canina L., Ruta graveolens L., Salvia officinalis L. and Thymus pulegioides L. Shrubs were also popular: Viburnum opulus L. and Sambucus nigra L. The most widespread plant, used for the production of many medicines, was Digitalis purpurea L., which still commonly grows on the slopes of the Sudety Mountains [23, 25, 3234]. The other most popular plants used to manufacture medicaments were Carlina acaulis L., Primula elatior (L.) Hill, Arnica montana L., Lilium martagon L., Rhodiola rosea L. and Crocus sp., i.e. probably C. sativus L. There are no voucher specimens associated with this study, so precautions in the identification of plant taxa in old written documents discussed by Łuczaj [35] were taken. Herbalists from Krummhübel enriched many drugs with powder roots of Mandragora officinarum L. [23], a plant species from the Solanaceae family, originating from the Mediterranean area and the Middle East and also grown in Krummhübel [36]. The following raw materials were used in therapeutics of the Mediterranean countries: the root Mandragorae radix and the herb Mandragorae herba, both of which contain tropane alkaloids. The root has anaesthetic and hypnotic properties, while the herb, with a lower content of alkaloids, is used in homoeopathy as a drug of analgesic properties for rheumatic diseases. Mandragora officinarum is one of the plants with the longest history of use in phytotherapy. It has already been mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 3000 years BC [4, 37, 38]. In the Middle Ages, a great cult developed around this plant as a panacea for any disease and a magical agent. At the end of the sixteenth century, the species disappeared from most of the drug stores and were obtained from the official European herbal market [36]. However, herbalists from Krummhübel used it until the end of the seventeenth century [25]. They were also the first in central Europe to use the herb Drosera rotundifolia L.—Droserae herba as a medicinal agent that had already been confirmed by Rittman [25]. Earlier, alchemists had examined the secretions of this plant’s glandular hairs that digest insects as they searched for preparations that could produce gold or a youth elixir. It also belonged to the group of so-called sacred herbs. Nowadays, this species is strictly protected by law in Poland, and the material for medicinal use comes from import only. Extracts of Droserae herba include derivatives of naphthoquinone, flavonoids and organic acids, which have antibacterial and antispastic properties [6, 7, 39]. The herbalists from Krummhübel also introduced Rhodiola rosea to phytotherapy in the Sudety region [25]. In medical practice, the rhizome of this species is now used, Rhizoma Rhodiolae, which has stimulating properties and enhances concentration and increases physical activity. It is used to treat tiredness, neurosis and anaemia [5, 39]. For these disorders, it was used in the form of mixtures by the Krummhübel herbalists [25].

To describe medicines, the herbalists used notes, armorials and prescriptions. Latin names were used to protect their trade secrets. Knowledge of Latin was required during the masters exam for herbalists, which was introduced around the year 1700. It was then that herbalists from Krummhübel and the surrounding area formed the common herbalists’ guild, one of the first in Central Europe. Medicinal knowledge was usually kept in secret by family members and passed from one generation to another. In the eighteenth century, Krummhübel herbalists manufactured more than 200 proprietary medicines [2225, 40]. We confirmed that they were the first in the Sudetes who applied medicinal mixtures to the treatment of diseases (using, among others, plants; oils; powdered minerals, including rock crystal and amethyst; and animal formulations—adder venom, deer horns, toads, salamanders and frogs), and they left their medical legacy in writing [23] in contrast to previous herbalists, who only indicated the use of individual plant species for specific diseases. (The first researcher who published data on the distribution of medicinal plants and their therapeutic properties from the described area was the renaissance physicist Caspar Schwenckfeld from Hirschberg. The naturalist, however, did not provide and did not use any medicinal mixtures [1].) Medications from Krummhübel were mixed with water, wine, honey, oils, salts, acids and alcohol distilled in local or domestic distilleries [31, 37]. For instance, the tincture of Arnica montana was used as a painkiller and anti-inflammatory drug against digestive system disorders as well as used externally for bruises, frostbite and open wounds [23].

However, not all of these plants can be found in the recipes that have survived to this day (e.g. Arnica montana, Rhodiola rosea or Mandragora officinarum) [23]. Nevertheless, it was confirmed that specimens of these species so far are stored within the collections of the Museum of Sports and Tourism in Karpacz, and they certainly were used by the herbalists from Krummhübel.

The reign of the House of Hapsburg in Hirschberg brought no restrictions on the herbalists’ activities. However, the situation changed after 1740, when the area came under the rule of Prussia. As the popularity of the goods produced by the herbalists of Krummhübel increased, resentment and jealousy of doctors and pharmacists rose as well, since they considered them charlatan family clans who made fortunes from human illnesses [23, 31]. The desire to limit their activities also resulted from the Prussian administration’s wish to organise, e.g. health care, on a national level. The office of the Collegium Medicum et Sanitatis (Royal Council of Physicians and Pharmacists) intervened to limit the activity of the herbalists, and the production of herbal medicines by so-called laboratory workers was then only possible with an official license, and not based on the rules of the guild. The Act of 1740, issued by the Prussian government, reduced the number of legally operating herbalists to 30 persons only. To obtain a license, one had to wait for the death of a guild member and go through a long official procedure. In 1796, the herbalists’ guild comprised 27 members [23, 24]. The leaders of the guild were Christian Ignatius Exner (guild master), Benjamin Gottlieb Exner (guild chief) and Johannes Christoph Grossmann (guild chief assistant). The oldest known book by Krummhübel herbalists was produced in 1792 [2225] and contained 150 recipes for mixtures made from local medicinal plants. From the late eighteenth century onwards, the herbalists encountered more and more difficulties. In 1796, the Prussian government allowed them to produce and sell only 46 medicines [23, 24]. Junker [24] provides a full list of them: (1) Aqua apoplectica alba s. pauperum, weißes Schlagwasser; (2) Aqua apoplectica rubra, rotes Schlagwasser; (3) Balsamus anglicus, englischer Haupt- und Universalbalsam; (4) Balsamus embryonum liquidus, stärkender Kinderbalsam; (5) Balsamus sulpburis; (6) Balsamus vitae, Lebensbalsam; (7) Elixir pectorale; (8) Elixir proprietatis Paracelsi; (9) Elixir vitrioli Mynsichti; (10) Elixir uterinum; (11) Essentia absynthii composita; (12) Essentia alexipharmaca; (13) Essentia amara; (14) Essentia antidysenterica, Ruhrtropfen; (15) Essentia carminativa; (16) Essentia castorei; (17) Essentia corticum aurantiorum; (18) Essentia dulcis; (19) Essentia lignorum; (20) Essentia myrrhae; (21) Essentia rhei amara; (22) Essentia stomacbica composita, stärkende Gall- und Magentropfen; (23) Essentia succini; (24) Essentia absynthii simplex; (25) Liquor anodynus mineralis Hofmanni; (26) Mixtura symplex; (27) Morsuli anthelmintici; (28) Pulvis anthelminticus; (29) Pulvis bezoardicus; (30) Pulvis dentifriticus, Zahnpulver; (31) Pulvis marchionis, Marggrafenpulver; (32) Pulvis sternutatorius viridis, Hauptpulver; (33) Pulvis vitae; (34) Species zum Brust- und Blutreinigungsthee; (35) Spiritus comu cervi; (36) Spiritus matricalis; (37) Spiritus melissae compositus; (38) Spiritus nitri dulcis; (39) Spiritus salis ammoniaci aromatica; (40) Spiritus salis ammoniaci volatilis; (41) Spiritus tartari; (42) Spiritus theriacalis; (43) Tinctura bezoardica; (44) Tinctura coralliorum; (45) Tinctura laxans; and (46) Tinctura antimonii tartarisata.

All 46 known recipes were provided by Reitzig [23], because he was studying the original manuscripts and recipes of the herbalists from Krummhübel, located in the then pre-war museum [41]. These manuscripts have not survived—they were lost in the war turmoil, which was confirmed directly by the Museum of Sports and Tourism in Karpacz and by the local libraries.

In 1797, licensed pharmacists persuaded the Prussian government to withdraw the privilege of selling the so-called drop of Krummhübel at fairs; it was one of the best-known medicines produced by the herbalists [31, 37]. In 1799, information was provided about a complementary treatment in the Warmbrunn spa by an anonymous relation of the practitioner. A herbalist with the initials P.I. was described, and during his presence at the spa, he was offering medicinal herbal mixtures to patients on request [23].

Despite the growing administrative difficulties, the popularity of medications from Krummhübel continued to increase. Among others, the eminent writer and representative of German Romanticism, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, took an interest in medicinal herbs [42, 43]. Riesengebirge (in Polish Karkonosze, in the Western Sudetes) potions were sold in Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland and Russia, and at the turn of the nineteenth century, some of them could also be purchased in Scandinavia and England. In 1810, in the Sudetes, a company named W. Koerner & Co. was founded, which specialised in the production of liqueurs and tinctures prepared from Sudetic herbs [23, 24]. In subsequent years, the pharmacist herbalists of Krummhübel were affected by further restrictions. They were suspected of practicing black magic, secret cults, alchemy and possessing devil’s knowledge. In 1809, the authorities of Legnica Province (in German Kreis Liegnitz) banned the herbalists from conducting door-to-door trade. In the period from 1831 to 1832, a cholera epidemic raged in Central Europe, also reaching the Sudetes [31]. Fears of the disease were so great that the government decided to reach out for help from the Krummhübel herbalists. Carl Traugott Ende, who came from a family with a long tradition of herbalists, prepared medications for patients and was a member of the anti-cholera epidemic committee [23]. Despite this, the administrative restrictions on herbalists were restored after the end of the plague [42, 43]. In 1843, a royal edict was issued to limit the allowable number of simple Riesengebirge (Karkonosze) herbal medicines from 46 to 21. The list of 21 medicinal preparations approved in 1845 by the district doctor Dr. Schaeffer is as follows [23]: (1) Aqua apoplectica alba s. pauperum; (2) Aqua apoplectica rubra (Schlagwasser); (3) Balsamum anglicus, englischer Haupt- und Universalbalsam; (4) Balsamum vitae, Lebensbalsam; (5) Elixir pektorale, brustelixir; (6) Essentia amara; (7) Essentia carminativa; (8) Essentia corticum aurantiorum; (9) Essentia dulcis; (10) Essentia lignorum; (11) Essentia rhei Amara, bittere Rhabarber Tinktur; (12) Essentia stomacbica composita, stärkende Gallund Magentropfen; (13) Liquor anodynus, mineralis Hoffmanni Hoffmannsche Tropfen; (14) Pulvis sternutatorius viridis, Hauptpulver; (15) Pulvis Vita, Lebenspulver; (16) Species pectorales, Brust- und Blutreinigungsthee; (17) Spiritus melissae compositus, Karmelitenwasser; (18) Spiritus salis ammoniaci, aromaticus sive Spirit. volatilis oleosus Sylvii; (19) Spiritus salis ammoniaci volatilis; (20) Spiritus nitri dulcis; and (21) Tinctura Coralliorum, Corallen Tinktur.

For the preparation of medicaments, only 24 strictly specified types of fruits and barks, 20 types of roots, 16 species of herbs (= aerial parts), 10 seeds and flowers and 2 species of timber were allowed [23]. In 1843, the Prussian government stopped issuing new licenses for herbal practices, which was the beginning of the end of the herbalists’ activity. In the Riesengebirge (Karkonosze), the herbalists’ art began to fade away in the second half of the nineteenth century. It was still possible to find some isolated cases of treatment using local herbs in later years, albeit only on a small scale. The last herbalist of the herbalists’ guild died on 28 March 1884 [23, 44].

The heritage of the herbalists from Krummhübel, regarding the use of medicinal plants and their mixtures, remained, mainly in the Sudety Mountains, until the beginning of the twentieth century, especially in folk medicine. Drosera rotundifolia may be presented as an example. It was used in the form of infusions for poor digestion, whooping cough and sclerosis by the residents of the Masyw Ślęży Mountains (in German Zobten-Gebirge) until the beginning of the twentieth century, although the species has not been found in the area so far [45].

The good reputation of Krummhübel herbalists and their gardens with medicinal plants is evidenced by the fact that they were visited by famous German botanists, including Max von Uechtritz [46].

Research on the activities of herbalists of Krummhübel was conducted by Will Erich Peuckert (1895–1969), a world-famous German ethnographer and ethnologist. In 1934, Peuckert became a professor at the Universität Breslau (University of Wrocław) and created a museum dedicated to the Krummhübel herbalists [23], which was, however, closed in the 1950s. Nowadays, an exhibition on pharmacist workers, including numerous exhibits, is held by the Museum of Sports and Tourism in Karpacz, which is the successor of the pre-war museum [47, 48].

Material and methods

Based on 46 recipes by Krummhübel herbalists, re-written by Reitzig [23], we performed the analysis of use reports of drugs, which included plant taxa and other constituents such as animal formulations, fungi, inorganic and organic substances, minerals and tinctures (with alcohol/spirit) and elixirs (without alcohol/spirit). For each usage mentioned in the text, we recorded (i) the putative botanical identity of the taxon; (ii) the plant family or origin of other than the plant constituent; (iii) the reported plant part; (iv) the number of the recipe; (v) the name of the recipe; (vi) the vernacular name of the ingredient; (vii) the described symptom, ailment or specific use; (viii) our modern (viz. biomedical) interpretation of the described symptom or ailment; (ix) the mode of administration; and (x) the category of use under which we filed the specific use. Each recorded combination of the variables was counted as one individual (therapeutic) use report.

The following 10 plant parts or products were differentiated: barks, exudates (incl. gums, resins and saps), flowers (incl. inflorescences and parts thereof), fruits (incl. parts thereof), herbs (= aerial parts, incl. branches and shoots), leaves, oils (e.g. linseed oil), seeds, subterranean parts (incl. bulbs, rhizomes, roots and tubers) and wood. If there was no information on which plant part was used, it was qualified as an herb. The modes of administration were divided into two groups: internal (e.g. drops, many tinctures) and external (e.g. ointments and poultices). Use reports were classified into organ-, symptom- and ailment-defined categories of use, largely following the bioprospecting-oriented classification scheme proposed by Staub et al. [10]. The applied 15 categories of use citations comprise the following: andrology (incl. male fertility and venereal diseases: gonorrhoea, syphilis), antidotes (internally applied), cardiovascular problems, dermatology (e.g. tumours, injuries and wounds), fever, gastroenterology (e.g. appetite, intestinal obstruction, lithiasis liver and tympanites), gynaecology (incl. female fertility and venereal diseases: gonorrhoea, syphilis), musculoskeletal ailments (e.g. cramps, gout, rheumatism, scurvy and spasms), neurology (incl. psychosomatic ailments), oral cavity (e.g. dentistry and stomatitis), others (“internal wounds” and “for breast” but others than connected with respiratory system), parasites (e.g. anthelmintics), respiratory system (e.g. cleansing lungs and the upper respiratory tract, plague, tuberculosis) and urology (e.g. diuretics, lithiasis and kidneys).

This work also aimed at recalling the activities of Krummhübel herbalists and their input into the medical use reports of plants at that time. Taking this into account, we present selected species of medicinal plants and mixtures used by them, based on their recorded recipes. We selected the plant species that were most often used in mixtures and which were simultaneously growing in the medicinal plant gardens of Krummhübel herbalists. To achieve all these goals, we translated available source texts, including books, articles from magazines and guides as well as press notes on the activity of Krummhübel herbalists, from German.

We compared the medicinal plants of Krummhübel herbalists with the medicinal plant lists of Europe by cross-checking the species used in manuscripts and regional surveys, including Matthioli [11], Schwenckfeld [3], Mattuschka [12], Kneipp [13], Fischer (1930s) [14] and Madaus [15]. Matthioli’s book [11] is one of the most popular ethnobotanical studies and describes medicinal species; it was translated into a few languages. Schwenckfeld’s publication [3] constitutes the fullest analysis of therapeutic properties of the warm springs in Warmbrunn (Cieplice) as well as the plants used in spa and healing treatments [49]. Mattuschka is known for the work on the natural history of plants native to Silesia, in which he indicates species with medicinal properties [12]. Kneipp, one of the founders of the naturopathic medicine movement, developed his “Nature Cure” form of therapy based on subalpine plants from the Allgäu in Bavaria, which were used in folk medicine, and based on those, he cultivated in the garden [50, 51]. Fischer’s data (1930s) comprise the most complete information on folk botany, with nearly 250 plant species, used in the folk culture in the whole area of pre-World War II, Poland, which also includes the present Western Ukraine and parts of Belarus and Lithuania [14]. In his book, a German medical doctor, Madaus [15], discusses homoeopathic products and their use as therapeutic agents.

The paper follows the newest guidance referring to the analysis of historical texts [52]. Plant identifications were established by cross-checking the names and descriptions in the Flora Europaea [53] with the confirmed data that the individual species were growing in the area at that time [32, 33] or/and were cultivated in Krummhübel herbalists gardens [46] or/and are stored within the collections of the Museum of Sports and Tourism in Karpacz; thus, they certainly were used by the Krummhübel herbalists. Species names were checked against The Plant List 1.1 [54], and family names follow the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV [55].

Results

Patterns of the diversity of drugs

In total, among 46 drugs, 70 plant taxa were recorded. Of these, 52 taxa, included in 29 drugs, could be identified to the species and 18 taxa in 13 drugs were identified to the genus level. For 3 ingredients of plant origin, which were included in 5 drugs, no taxa identification was possible. Besides herbal, other constituents were used, including animal formulations (e.g. castoreum, corals, deer antlers, earthworms, scorpions, snakes), fungi, inorganic and organic substances (e.g. calcium, Sp[iritus] Vitrioli, Sp. Nitri dulcis, Sp. Nitri, Sp. Tartari, wax) and minerals (e.g. potash, pumice, salt) as well as elixirs and tinctures. These components were exclusively used in 13 drugs.

Overall, 348 use reports (i.e. unique combinations of a specific taxon or another origin of a constituent, plant part, route of administration and specific use in individual recipes) were recorded. Internal applications, mainly as drops in tea or water (283 use reports), prevail over external applications such as ointments or poultices (69 use reports) (Fig. 2). Seventy-four records have no reported uses, i.e. when Reitzig’s [23] original did not clearly state the ailment they were used. The same remark applies to the lacking mode of administration (61 records). A full dataset of the recorded plant taxa, plant parts and other constituents used, as well as the therapeutic uses, is presented in Additional file 1: Table S2 and at the end of this paper.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Number of use reports by category of use and mode of administration (N = 348). ANDR, andrology; ANTI, antidotes; CARD, cardiovascular problems; DERM, dermatology; DIAPH, diaphoretic; FEV, fever; GAST, gastroenterology; GYN, gynaecology; MUSK, musculoskeletal ailments; NERV, neurology; ORAL, oral cavity; OTH, others; PARA, parasites; RESP, respiratory system; URO, urology

More than 45% of drugs stemmed from herbs (= aerial parts) (118), while the remaining percentage consisted of exudates (41), subterranean organs (29), flowers (25) and other less frequent plant parts (Fig. 3). The drugs were derived from members of 32 vascular plant families, with Asteraceae (9 taxa; 22 drugs), Fabaceae (8 taxa; 33 drugs) and Apiaceae (7 taxa; 26 drugs) being the most frequent ones.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Number of drugs by plant part (N = 262). BARK, barks; EXUD, exudates; FLOW, flowers; FRU, fruits; HERB, herbs (= aerial parts); LEAF, leaves; OIL, oils; SEED, seeds; SUBT, subterranean parts; WOOD, wood

To characterise the therapeutic preferences, the associations between taxonomy, plant part or other constituent origins and categories of use were analysed (Figs. 4 and 5). The most frequently cited constituents were those obtained from animals and minerals. Animal formulations were recommended for neurology (12), gynaecology (4) and fever (4), while minerals were suggested for musculoskeletal ailments (7), oral cavity (6), neurology (5) and dermatology (5). Among the plant families, Fabaceae species were relatively frequently cited for respiratory system (10) and gynaecology (4), as well as Asteraceae for respiratory system (10) and cardiovascular problems (5).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Quantification of use reports by category of use and the most important botanical families or other constituent origins. The categories of use are abbreviated following the legend of Fig. 2

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quantification of use reports in the categories of respiratory system by plant part and botanical family. Plant part abbreviations follow the legend of Fig. 3

The use citations for respiratory system issues are the most frequent ones (67; Fig. 2) and cover ailments concerning the lungs (21) and the upper respiratory tract (21) as well as plague (17). The remedies for these conditions are taxonomically diverse, including 7 different drugs derived from 34 plant taxa. Herbs of the families Asteraceae and Fabaceae account for a comparably high number of use reports in this category (8 and 6, respectively; Fig. 5) and include Achillea spp., Cyanus segetum Hill. (= Centaurea cyanus L.), Matricaria spp., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Hedysarum spp. and Ononis spinosa L.

The category of nervous system and psychosomatic disorders (52; Fig. 2) includes plague (17), stroke (9), pain of the body (5), headache (3), brain disease (3) or postpartum discomfort (3). The most frequently used constituents were those not obtained from plants, but from animals (12), or were elixirs (6) and minerals (5).

Gastrointestinal use reports (41; Fig. 2) mainly comprise stomach and intestine problems (29) but also refer to appetite (9). Apart from the prevalence of elixirs (6) and minerals (4) in drugs, some use citations are based on Asphodelaceae (3), Burseraceae (3) and Rosaceae (3) species such as Aloë spp., Commiphora spp., Potentilla erecta (L.) Räusch. and Rosa spp.

Dermatology is the fourth largest category of use reports (39; Fig. 2) and mainly covers injuries and wounds (19) as well as applications for cleaning the head (5) and drying out feet (5). Organic substances (7) and elixirs (6) were the most frequently mentioned drugs. Among the plant families, Lauraceae oils (3) and Oleaceae exudates (3), including species such as Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl and Olea europaea L., were mostly recommended for uses.

The drugs mentioned for cardiovascular problems (6) are mainly remedies for blood purification (3), while 2 are recommended against oedema (i.e. wood of Guaiacum officinale L. and Sp. Tartari (= Weinstein-Geist)) and flowers of Rosa spp. as a heart tonic.

Sample recipes and plant species

The extract of Gentiana lutea L.—Essentia Gentianae was recommended in the absence of appetite and for stomach pains. This plant was confirmed to be cultivated by the Krummhübel herbalists in their pharmaceutical gardens [46]. The original recipe was as follows: “Nimm 2 Loth gröblich gestossene Enzian-Wurzel, 1 Qv. starken Branntwein, halte es in der Wärme bis es sich gefärbet, hernach seige sie durch grau Pappier.—Dienet in Schwachheit des Magens, bey allen 3 und 4 tägigten Fiebern 30 bis 40 Tropfen gebraucht” ([23]; explanation of abbreviations in the caption of Fig. 6) [Take 2 spoons of coarsely minced [great yellow] gentian root (Gentiana lutea), 250 ml of strong spirit, and keep it in a warm place until it is dyed; afterwards, seep it through grey paper—serve it in weakness of the stomach, using 30 to 40 drops on all 3 and 4 days of fever.]
Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Original recipe using saffron (bottom part of page 78 and top part of page 79, from Reitzig [23]). Abbreviations: 1 Loth—about one large spoon (in Prussia, this equalled 14.606 g); 1 Quintl.—1/4 of Loth, which was about 3.651 g; Qv.—250 ml. [Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, stomach elixir—take 4 spoons of aloe (Aloë vera (L.) Burm.f.), 2 spoons of potash, 1/8 spoon of saffron (Crocus probably sativus). Put it in a pitcher and pour 4 quarts [4 × 1.14504 l] of strong spirit, then leave it in a warm place until aloe will completely dissolve, or, if it is still visible, you can add 250 ml or 500 ml of strong spirit until it is ready [i.e. well dissolved]. In a different way: take 4 spoons of aloe, 2 spoons of myrrh, 1/4 spoon of saffron and 2 spoons of potash. Put these species in a pitcher and add 1 l of strong spirit; leave it in a warm place until it is thick enough and pour off when ready. This elixir is served against stomach problems, increases appetite and detoxifies the body. You can take it starting from 30, 40, 50 up to 60 drops. Externally, it is good for healing any injuries.]

An extract from Crocus (probably) sativus was used by Riesengebirge (Karkonosze) herbalists as a spice and a dye (saffron). The extract also helped against digestive system diseases and circulatory problems. When dosed appropriately, it was considered an aphrodisiac and even a hallucination-inducing agent. Some quantitative recipes for this plant are also preserved (Fig. 6, from Reitzig [23]).

A tincture made from the root of Carlina acaulis (a common plant in the area), recommended for digestion, was also appreciated for its antibacterial and antipyretic properties (Fig. 7). Sulphuric acid, manufactured in the Sudetes until the early nineteenth century, was of great importance to the production of herbal potions [2225]. In the valley of the Kamienna river, there was a facility that produced sulphuric acid from pyrite shale. The term “vitriol” was the essence of the alchemical formulas, contained in the motto: visita interiorem terrae rectificando invenies operae lapidem (i.e. descend into the belly of the Earth, and in distilling you will find the stone of the work) [38, 56].
Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Original recipe using Carlina acaulis (bottom part of page 94 and top part of page 95, from Reitzig [23]). Abbreviations: 1 Loth—about 1 large spoon (in Prussia, this equalled 14.606 g); Qv.—250 ml; Grs.—gram [g]. [Tinctur Bezoardica of F. Grossmann in the way of Krummhübel—take Zedoary root (white turmeric, Zedoariae radix, Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe), parsley root (Petros [elini] radix, Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss), stemless carline thistle root (Carlinae radix, Carlina acaulis)—all together 125 g, as well as black cohosh root (Serpentariae radix, Actaea racemosa L. = Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt.), burning bush root (Dictamni albus radix, Dictamnus albus L.), masterwort root (Imperat [oriae] radix, Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) W.D.J. Koch = Imperatoria ostruthium L.)—all together 125 g. Chop everything together, add 1 l of Spiritus vini and 2.273 l of water, then pass it through the distiller glass. When the spirit has evaporated, the distillation can be finished and 2 g of sliced red sandal wood with half a spoon of camphor can be added. It is ready to use.]

Discussion

By using a systematic data extraction technique, we elucidated several salient therapeutic patterns in preserved recipes of Krummhübel herbalists. These include the importance of Fabaceae plants for respiratory system diseases and gynaecology, as well as Asteraceae for respiratory system and cardiovascular problems. Generally, the use citations for respiratory system issues are the most frequent ones and cover ailments concerning the lungs and the upper respiratory tract as well as plague. The remedies for these conditions are taxonomically diverse, including 7 different drugs derived from 34 plant taxa. Gastrointestinal use reports mainly comprise stomach and intestine problems but also refer to appetite and are based on Asphodelaceae, Burseraceae and Rosaceae species. Moreover, animal formulations were recommended for neurology, gynaecology and fever, while minerals were suggested for musculoskeletal ailments, oral cavity, neurology and dermatology.

This confirms that medicinal plants were commonly used in ethnomedicine for centuries, because they were the only drugs available to residents of many regions. Knowledge about their healing properties was passed down orally from generation to generation [57]. The past importance of mountain species and the frequent uses against envenomations and intoxications mirror the closer interaction of past societies with their biological environment and different ecological, epidemiological and hygienic conditions.

In the fifteenth century, the first herbaria and also herbals, written by doctors or other professionals, began to appear in Europe [57]. These items, however, do not take into account knowledge about medicinal plant mixtures provided by folk therapists. The phenomenon of herbalists from Krummhübel is connected with the fact that these unprofessional therapists left their knowledge on plant mixtures in a written form to be used for centuries in traditional folk medicine in the Sudety region.

The history of herbalists from Krummhübel shows that historical events, in this case, the disappearance of a well-established knowledge, has a lot to teach us now, such as regulations and restrictions kill traditions, which can also happen nowadays. An example may be the Kneipp phytotherapy method, recognised and currently used in health resort treatments. This method was known in the folk medicine of the Allgäu region in Southern Germany, and in the nineteenth century, it was not allowed as a therapy for a relatively long time (e.g. [5861]).

The systematic analysis of herbal texts offers unique insights into past herbal medicine [10]. Thus, we also confirm the suggestion of Staub et al. [10] that those drugs with discontinued use might represent interesting starting points for drug discovery and the evaluation of old herbal medicine, especially that the information on this subject was strictly protected and included in the professional secrecy of the Krummhübel herbalists’ guild, not available to outsiders for centuries.

Medicinal plants of Krummhübel herbalists used in other ethnobotanical studies

The highest share of the flora documented as medicinal plants by Krummhübel herbalists was recorded in Madaus [15] and Matthioli [11] and constituted 76.4 and 66.7%, respectively. This indicates that many plants used in medical treatment by Krummhübel herbalists were also known in other regions and in different periods. The medicinal plants, documented in all publications considered, included Angelica spp., Carlina acaulis L., Gentiana spp., Juniperus spp., Rosa spp. and Veronica spp. (Table 1). All of them are native or indigenous plants occurring in Central Europe. Additionally, Gentiana spp., Juniperus spp. and Rosa spp. were used for medicinal purposes through all other time periods in Switzerland [62]. While Polish inhabitants of the Carpathians, among others, valued Angelica archangelica L. and Carlina acaulis L. [57]. In the contemporary literature, only the use of Veronica officinalis is mentioned, but the use of Veronica chamaedrys and V. beccabunga is documented in ethnobotanical studies [62], and different Veronica species were cultivated in local Silesian gardens [46].
Table 1

Medicinal plants listed in Krummhübel herbalist recipes (seventeenth to nineteenth centuries) and their occurrences in manuscripts and regional surveys, including Matthioli [11], Schwenckfeld [3], Mattuschka [12], Kneipp [13], Fischer [14] and Madaus [15]

Krummhübel herbalists, seventeenth to nineteenth centuries

Matthioli (1563) [11]

Schwenckfeld (1607) [3]

Mattuschka (1779) [12]a

Kneipp (1892) [13]

Fischer (1930's) [14]b

Madaus (1938) [15]

Achillea spp.

+ (as Ptarmica)

+ (as A. millefolium, A. ptarmica)

+

+ (mainly as A. millefolium L., rare A. ptarmica L.)

+ (as A. ptarmica, A. millefolium*, A. moschata)

Actaea racemosa L. = Cimicifuga racemosa Nutt.

+ (as A. spicata L.)

+

Aloë spp.

+

+ (as Aloes Balsam)

+

+ (as A. succotrina Lam.)

+ (many species*)

Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) Lag. = Anacyclus officinarum Hayne

+*

Angelica spp.

+ (as Angelica maior, A. minor)

+ (as A. erratica)

+ (as A. syluestris)

+

+ (as A. archangelica L., A. sylvestris L.)

+ (many species*)

Artemisia vulgaris L.

+ (as Artemisia)

+

+

+

+*

Bellis perennis L.

+ (as Bellis minor)

+ (as B. minima)

+

+

+*

Carlina acaulis L.

+ (as Chamaeleon albus) 261

+

+

+

+

+

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl

+ (as camphora)

+

+*

Cinnamomum verum J.Presl

+

+ (as C. zeylanicum*)

Citrus × aurantium L.

+

+*

Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck

+

+ (as C. limonum)

Citrus spp.

+ (as Citria malus)

+ (many other species)

Cochlearia officinalis L.

+

+

+*

Commiphora spp.

+ (as C. abyssinica, C. mukul, C. myrrha)

Copaifera officinalis L.

Coriandrum sativum L.

+ (as Coriandrum)

+

Crocus (probably) sativus L.

+ (as Crocus florens)

+

Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe

+

+*

Cyanus segetum Hill. = Centaurea cyanus L.

+ (as Cyanus minor)

+

+*

Dictamnus albus L.

+

+

Dorstenia contrajerva L.

+

Drimys winteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.

Echium vulgare L.

+ (as Echium)

Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton

+ (as C. minus, C. medium, C. maius)

+

Ferula assa-foetida L.

+ (as Ferula = Nathex)

+*

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

+ (as Foeniculum)

+

+

+*

Gentiana spp.

+ (as Gentiana minor = cruciata, Gentiana (probably lutea))

+ (as G. major cœruleo flore, G. minor punctato flore)

+ (as G. lutea, G. centaurium, G. amarella)

+

+

+ (many species*)

Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

+ (as Glycyrrhiza liquiritia)

+*

Guaiacum officinale L.

+ (as Lignum guaiacum)

+*

Guaiacum sanctum L. or G. officinale L.

+ (as Lignum guaiacum)

Hedysarum spp.

Helleborus niger L.

+

+

+*

Indigofera spp.

+

Inula helenium L.

+ (as Elenium)

+

+

+*

Juniperus spp.

+ (as Juniperus, as Sabina)

+

+ (as I. communis)

+

+ (as J. communis L.)

+ (many species*)

Laurus nobilis L.

+ (as Laurus)

+ (as L. Alexandrina Matthioli)

+

+*

Lavandula spp.

+

+

+*

Linum usitatissimum L.

+ (as Linum)

+

+

+

+*

Matricaria spp.

+ (as Camomilla)

+ (as M. chamomilla, M. parthenium)

+

+ (as M. chamomilla L.)

+ (as M. chamomilla*, M. discoidea*)

Melissa officinalis L.

+ (as Melissa)

+ (as M. calamintha)

+

+

+*

Mentha aquatica L. var. crispa (L.) Benth.

+ (as Mentha aquatica)

+

+ (as Mentha spp.)

+

Myristica fragrans Houtt.

Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms

+*

Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

+ (as Nasturcium aquaticum)

+

+

+*

Olea europaea L.

+ (as Olea domestica)

+

Ononis spinosa L.

+ (as Ononis)

+ (as O. aruensis)

+

+*

Origanum majorana L.

+ (as Maiorana)

+*

Persicaria bistorta (L.) Samp. = Polygonum bistorta L.

+ (as Bistorta)

+

+

Petasites sp.

+ (as Petasites falso dieta)

+

+ (as Tussilago petasites)

+ (many species*)

Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss.

+ (as Pertoselinum vulgare)

+ (as P. sativum*)

Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) W.D.J. Koch = Imperatoria ostruthium L.

+

+

Pimpinella anisum L.

+ (as Anisum)

+ (as P. major L. Huds, P. minorcrispa)

+

+

+*

Piper longum L.

Potentilla erecta (L.) Räusch.

+ (as Tormentilla)

+ (as Tormentilla erecta)

+ (as P. tormentilla*)

Pterocarpus santalinus L. fil.

+

Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn.

+

Pyrus sp.

+

+ (as P. communis L.)

+ (as P. malus*)

Rheum rhabarbarum L.

+

Rosa spp.

+

+ (as R. alpina, R. rubra)

+ (as R. canina, R. alba)

+

+

+ (many species*)

Rosmarinus officinalis L.

+ (as Rosmarinus coronaria)

+ (as R. sylvaticus)

+

+

+*

Sassafras spp.

+*

Scabiosa spp.

+ (as Scabiosa minor)

+ (as Scabiosa succisa and S. aruensis)

+ (as Succisa pratensis Moench = Scabiosa succisa L.)

+ (different species*)

Senna spp.

+ (as Sena)

+*

Silene baccifera (L.) Roth = Cucubalus baccifer L.

Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis = Betonica officinalis L.

+ (as Betonica)

+

+

+

Styrax spp.

+

Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry

Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.

+

+

+ (as V. myrtillus L.)

+*

Veronica spp.

+ (as Veronica mas, V. foemina)

+

+ (as V. officinalis, V. beccabunga)

+

+

+ (many species*)

Viola spp.

+ (as Viola purpurea)

+ (as V. odorata)

+

+

+ (many species*)

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

+ (as Zinziber)

+

+*

Σ = 72

Σ = 48

Σ = 11

Σ = 25

Σ = 24

Σ = 33

Σ = 55

*Denotes to Madaus [15], asterisk shows the description of use or recipe; no asterisk—plant was only listed

aThe register of Mattuschka [12] includes only species listed by the author as having medicinal properties

bBased on Kujawska et al. [14]

On the other hand, in therapeutic mixtures of Krummhübel herbalists, eight taxa were exclusive, including mainly exotic plants such as Copaifera officinalis L., Drimys winteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst., Hedysarum spp., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Piper longum L., Silene baccifera (L.) Roth and Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry. Although they originate from various parts of the world, they were quite frequently used in several remedies by Krummhübel herbalists and are still highly important herbs in modern folk medicine. The oleoresin of Copaifera trees has been widely used in Neotropical regions for thousands of years and remains a popular treatment for a variety of ailments [63]. One of the most ancient and valuable spices of the Orient is clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry), which has a wide spectrum of biological activity [64]. The exotic plants used by Krummhübel herbalists may also refer to the scholarly origin of their knowledge. This, and the considerable overlap of the nomenclature with the old herbals, indicates that the recipes might have been originated (even if later modified) from the monastic tradition dating back to at least the sixteenth century [65, 66], and they may go back even to antiquity. For example, by producing and marketing drugs to the public, Italian Renaissance nuns both augmented the medical resources available in urban society and acquired roles of public significance beyond the spiritual realm [66](Table 2).
Table 2

Compact list of the vascular plant uses described in “Die Laboranten von Krummhübel” [23]

Plant taxon

Family or origin

Part

No. of reci–pe

Name of recipe

Vernacular

Ailment

Ailment_interpretation

Mode

Category

Animal

1

Sp. Lumbricorum, Regenwurm-Spiritus

Regenwürmer (Gemeine Regenwurm)

Tinctura

1

Sp. Lumbricorum, Regenwurm-Spiritus

Sp. Vini

Animal

2

Sp. Cornu Cervi, Hirschhorn-Geist

Hirschhorn

Tinctura

3

Mixtura siplex

Oli acris

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl

Lauraceae

OIL

3

Mixtura siplex

Sp. Camphor

Mineral

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Pottasche (potash)

verdorbenen Magen

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Mineral

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Pottasche

führet die Unreinigkeiten ab

Detoxifies the body

INT

ANTI

Mineral

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Pottasche

zem Heilen in ellen Schäden

Good for healing of any injuries

EXT

DERM

Mineral

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Pottasche (potash)

macht Appetit zum Essen

Increases appetite

INT

GAST

Aloë spp.

Asphodelaceae

HERB

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Aloe

verdorbenen Magen

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Aloë spp.

Asphodelaceae

HERB

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Aloe

führet die Unreinigkeiten ab

Detoxifies the body

INT

ANTI

Aloë spp.

Asphodelaceae

HERB

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Aloe

zem Heilen in ellen Schäden

good for healing of any injuries

EXT

DERM

Aloë spp.

Asphodelaceae

HERB

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Aloe

macht Appetit zum Essen

Increases appetite

INT

GAST

Commiphora spp.

Burseraceae

EXUD

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Myrrhen

verdorbenen Magen

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Commiphora spp.

Burseraceae

EXUD

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Myrrhen

führet die Unreinigkeiten ab

Detoxifies the body

INT

ANTI

Commiphora spp.

Burseraceae

EXUD

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Myrrhen

zem Heilen in ellen Schäden

Good for healing of any injuries

EXT

DERM

Commiphora spp.

Burseraceae

EXUD

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Myrrhen

macht Appetit zum Essen

Increases appetite

INT

GAST

Crocus probably sativus L.

Iridaceae

FLOW

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Safran

verdorbenen Magen

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Crocus probably sativus L.

Iridaceae

FLOW

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Safran

führet die Unreinigkeiten ab

Detoxifies the body

INT

ANTI

Crocus probably sativus L.

Iridaceae

FLOW

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Safran

zem Heilen in ellen Schäden

Good for healing of any injuries

EXT

DERM

Crocus probably sativus L.

Iridaceae

FLOW

4

Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsis, Magen Elixir

Safran

macht Appetit zum Essen

Increases appetite

INT

GAST

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Ess. Carminativae Wedelii

reiniget das Haupt

Cleans the head

EXT

DERM

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Ess. Pectoralis

reiniget das Haupt

Cleans the head

EXT

DERM

Animal

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Corallorum

reiniget das Haupt

Cleans the head

EXT

DERM

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

roth. Schlagwasser

reiniget das Haupt

Cleans the head

EXT

DERM

Inorganic

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Sp. Vitrioli

reiniget das Haupt

Cleans the head

EXT

DERM

Animal

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Corallorum

trocknet die Füsse aus

Dries out the feet

EXT

DERM

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Ess. Carminativae Wedelii

trocknet die Füsse aus

Dries out the feet

EXT

DERM

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Ess. Pectoralis

trocknet die Füsse aus

Dries out the feet

EXT

DERM

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

roth. Schlagwasser

trocknet die Füsse aus

Dries out the feet

EXT

DERM

Inorganic

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Sp. Vitrioli

trocknet die Füsse aus

Dries out the feet

EXT

DERM

Animal

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Corallorum

macht Appetit

Increases appetite

INT

GAST

elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Ess. Carminativae Wedelii

macht Appetit

increases appetite

INT

GAST

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Ess. Pectoralis

macht Appetit

Increases appetite

INT

GAST

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

roth. Schlagwasser

macht Appetit

Increases appetite

INT

GAST

Inorganic

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Sp. Vitrioli

macht Appetit

Increases appetite

INT

GAST

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Ess. Carminativae Wedelii

bewahret vor dem Schlage und der Schweren-Noth

Prevents stroke

INT

NERV

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Ess. Pectoralis

bewahret vor dem Schlage und der Schweren–Noth

Prevents stroke

INT

NERV

Animal

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Corallorum

bewahret vor dem Schlage und der Schweren–Noth

Prevents stroke

INT

NERV

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

roth. Schlagwasser

bewahret vor dem Schlage und der Schweren–Noth

Prevents stroke

INT

NERV

Inorganic

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Sp. Vitrioli

bewahret vor dem Schlage und der Schweren–Noth

Prevents stroke

INT

NERV

Animal

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Corallorum

verwahret den ganzen Leib vol allen Schmerzen

Protects the whole body from all pain

INT

NERV

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Ess. Carminativae Wedelii

verwahret den ganzen Leib vol allen Schmerzen

Protects the whole body from all pain

INT

NERV

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Ess. Pectoralis

verwahret den ganzen Leib vol allen Schmerzen

Protects the whole body from all pain

INT

NERV

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

roth. Schlagwasser

verwahret den ganzen Leib vol allen Schmerzen

Protects the whole body from all pain

INT

NERV

inorganic

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Sp. Vitrioli

verwahret den ganzen Leib vol allen Schmerzen

Protects the whole body from all pain

INT

NERV

Animal

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Corallorum

stärket Magen und Eingeweide

Strengthens the stomach and intestines

INT

GAST

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Ess. Carminativae Wedelii

stärket Magen und Eingeweide

Strengthens the stomach and intestines

INT

GAST

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Ess. Pectoralis

stärket Magen und Eingeweide

Strengthens the stomach and intestines

INT

GAST

Elixir

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

roth. Schlagwasser

stärket Magen und Eingeweide

Strengthens the stomach and intestines

INT

GAST

Inorganic

5

Elixir Vitrioli Mynsichti

Sp. Vitrioli

stärket Magen und Eingeweide

Strengthens the stomach and intestines

INT

GAST

Animal

6

Elixir Uterini Crolly

Castor od. Bibergeil

allen Mutterkrankenheiten

Postpartum discomfort

INT

NERV

Animal

6

Elixir Uterini Crolly

Castor od. Bibergeil

allen Mutterkrankenheiten

Postpartum discomfort

INT

GYN

?

?

EXUD

6

Elixir Uterini Crolly

Oleum Succini

allen Mutterkrankenheiten

Postpartum discomfort

INT

NERV

?

?

EXUD

6

Elixir Uterini Crolly

Oleum Succini

allen Mutterkrankenheiten

Postpartum discomfort

INT

GYN

Artemisia vulgaris L.

Asteraceae

HERB

6

Elixir Uterini Crolly

Artemisiae oder Beyfuss

allen Mutterkrankenheiten

Postpartum discomfort

INT

NERV

Artemisia vulgaris L.

Asteraceae

HERB

6

Elixir Uterini Crolly

Artemisiae oder Beyfuss

allen Mutterkrankenheiten

Postpartum discomfort

INT

GYN

Crocus probably sativus L.

Iridaceae

FLOW

6

Elixir Uterini Crolly

Safran

allen Mutterkrankenheiten

Postpartum discomfort

INT

GYN

Crocus probably sativus L.

Iridaceae

FLOW

6

Elixir Uterini Crolly

Safran

allen Mutterkrankenheiten

Postpartum discomfort

INT

NERV

Pimpinella anisum L.

Apiaceae

OIL

6

Elixir Uterini Crolly

Oleum anisi

allen Mutterkrankenheiten

Postpartum discomfort

INT

GYN

Pimpinella anisum L.

Apiaceae

OIL

6

Elixir Uterini Crolly

Oleum anisi

allen Mutterkrankenheiten

Postpartum discomfort

INT

NERV

Pterocarpus santalinus L. fil.

Fabaceae

HERB

6

Elixir Uterini Crolly

rothen Sandel

allen Mutterkrankenheiten

Postpartum discomfort

INT

GYN

Pterocarpus santalinus L. fil.

Fabaceae

HERB

6

Elixir Uterini Crolly

rothen Sandel

allen Mutterkrankenheiten

Postpartum discomfort

INT

NERV

Inorganic

7

Elixir anti Scorbutic: Elixir vor den Scharbock

Sp. Nitri dulcis

vor den Scharbock

Against scurvy

INT

MUSK

Mineral

7

Elixir anti Scorbutic: Elixir vor den Scharbock

Pottasche

vor den Scharbock

Against scurvy

INT

MUSK

Aloë spp.

Asphodelaceae

HERB

7

Elixir anti Scorbutic: Elixir vor den Scharbock

Aloe

vor den Scharbock

Against scurvy

INT

MUSK

Cochlearia officinalis L.

Brassicaceae

HERB

7

Elixir anti Scorbutic: Elixir vor den Scharbock

Sp. Cochlear

vor den Scharbock

Against scurvy

INT

MUSK

Commiphora spp.

Burseraceae

EXUD

7

Elixir anti Scorbutic: Elixir vor den Scharbock

Myrrhen

vor den Scharbock

Against scurvy

INT

MUSK

Crocus probably sativus L.

Iridaceae

FLOW

7

Elixir anti Scorbutic: Elixir vor den Scharbock

Safran

vor den Scharbock

Against scurvy

INT

MUSK

Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

Brassicaceae

HERB

8

Spirit. Cochlear: Löffel-Kraut-Geist

Brunnenkresse

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

Brassicaceae

HERB

8

Spirit. Cochlear: Löffel-Kraut-Geist

Brunnenkresse

treibt den Schweiss

Diaphoretic

INT

DIAPH

Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

Brassicaceae

HERB

8

Spirit. Cochlear: Löffel-Kraut-Geist

Brunnenkresse

widersteht der Fäule

Prevents ulcers

INT

DERM

Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

Brassicaceae

HERB

8

Spirit. Cochlear: Löffel-Kraut-Geist

Brunnenkresse

widersteht dem Scharbock

Prevents scurvy

INT

MUSK

Guaiacum officinale L.

Zygophyllaceae

WOOD

9

Sp. Sassafras. Franzosen-Holz-Geist

Franzosen-Holz

reiniget das Geblüth

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Guaiacum officinale L.

Zygophyllaceae

WOOD

9

Sp. Sassafras. Franzosen-Holz-Geist

Franzosen-Holz

treibt Schweiss

Diaphoretic

INT

DIAPH

Guaiacum officinale L.

Zygophyllaceae

WOOD

9

Sp. Sassafras. Franzosen-Holz-Geist

Franzosen-Holz

treibt Harn

Diuretic

INT

URO

Guaiacum officinale L.

Zygophyllaceae

WOOD

9

Sp. Sassafras. Franzosen-Holz-Geist

Franzosen-Holz

Wassersucht

Oedema

INT

CARD

Guaiacum officinale L.

Zygophyllaceae

WOOD

9

Sp. Sassafras. Franzosen-Holz-Geist

Franzosen-Holz

Gliederreissen

Rheumatism

INT

MUSK

Guaiacum officinale L.

Zygophyllaceae

WOOD

9

Sp. Sassafras. Franzosen-Holz-Geist

Franzosen-Holz

Krätze

Scabies

EXT

DERM

Guaiacum officinale L.

Zygophyllaceae

WOOD

9

Sp. Sassafras. Franzosen-Holz-Geist

Franzosen-Holz

Franzosen

Syphilis

INT

ANDR

Guaiacum officinale L.

Zygophyllaceae

WOOD

9

Sp. Sassafras. Franzosen-Holz-Geist

Franzosen-Holz

Franzosen

Syphilis

INT

GYN

Animal

10

Sp. Lumbricorum, Regenwürmer–Geist

Regenwürmer (Gemeine Regenwurm)

gegen Krampf

Against cramp (skurcz)

EXT

MUSK

Animal

10

Sp. Lumbricorum, Regenwürmer-Geist

Regenwürmer (Gemeine Regenwurm)

gegen Gebrechen der Nerven

Against nerve ailments

EXT

NERV

Animal

10

Sp. Lumbricorum, Regenwürmer–Geist

Regenwürmer (Gemeine Regenwurm)

gegen die Schlagflüss gerühmet

Against stroke

INT

NERV

Animal

10

Sp. Lumbricorum, Regenwürmer-Geist

Regenwürmer (Gemeine Regenwurm)

gegen die Schmerzlaufende Gicht

Against the painful gout

EXT

MUSK

Animal

10

Sp. Lumbricorum, Regenwürmer-Geist

Regenwürmer (Gemeine Regenwurm)

hat eine Schmerzstillende Kraft

Antiphlogistic

INT

FEV

Animal

10

Sp. Lumbricorum, Regenwürmer-Geist

Regenwürmer (Gemeine Regenwurm)

treibt Schweiss

Diaphoretic

INT

DIAPH

Animal

10

Sp. Lumbricorum, Regenwürmer-Geist

Regenwürmer (Gemeine Regenwurm)

treibt Harn

Diuretic

INT

URO

Animal

10

Sp. Lumbricorum, Regenwürmer-Geist

Regenwürmer (Gemeine Regenwurm)

Reissen in Gliedern

Rheumatism

EXT

MUSK

Animal

11

Sp. Viperarum, Natterngräten-Geist

Natterngräten

vor toller Hunde und giftiger Thiere Biss

Against bites of mad dogs and poisonous animals

INT

ANTI

Animal

11

Sp. Viperarum, Natterngräten-Geist

Natterngräten

vor toller Hunde und giftiger Thiere Biss

Against bites of mad dogs and poisonous animals

EXT

ANTI

Animal

11

Sp. Viperarum, Natterngräten-Geist

Natterngräten

hitzigen Fiebern

High fevers

INT

FEV

Animal

11

Sp. Viperarum, Natterngräten-Geist

Natterngräten

hitzigen Fiebern

High fevers

EXT

FEV

Carlina acaulis L.

Asteraceae

SUBT

12

Allgem. Bezoar. Tinct. - Nach Krummhübler Art.

Eberwurzel

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl

Lauraceae

OIL

12

Allgem. Bezoar. Tinct. - Nach Krummhübler Art.

Campfer

Dorstenia contrajerva L.

Moraceae

SUBT

12

Allgem. Bezoar. Tinct. - Nach Krummhübler Art.

Ra. Bezoardica alba

Petasites sp.

Asteraceae

SUBT

12

Allgem. Bezoar. Tinct. - Nach Krummhübler Art.

Pestilenzwurzel

Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) W.D.J.Koch

Apiaceae

SUBT

12

Allgem. Bezoar. Tinct. - Nach Krummhübler Art.

Meisterwurzel

Persicaria bistorta (L.) Samp. = Polygonum bistorta L.

Polygonaceae

SUBT

12

Allgem. Bezoar. Tinct. - Nach Krummhübler Art.

Otterwurzel

Inorganic

13

Mixtura siplex

Sp. Nitri

Inorganic

13

Mixtura siplex

Sp. Tartari

Animal

14

Tinctura Castori, Bibergeil-Tinctur

Bibergeil

allen Mutterbeschwerungen

Postpartum discomfort

INT

NERV

Animal

14

Tinctura Castori, Bibergeil-Tinctur

Bibergeil

allen Mutterbeschwerungen

Postpartum discomfort

INT

GYN

Pterocarpus santalinus L. fil.

Fabaceae

HERB

14

Tinctura Castori, Bibergeil-Tinctur

rothen Sandel

allen Mutterbeschwerungen

Postpartum discomfort

INT

GYN

Pterocarpus santalinus L. fil.

Fabaceae

HERB

14

Tinctura Castori, Bibergeil–Tinctur

rothen Sandel

allen Mutterbeschwerungen

postpartum discomfort

INT

NERV

Ferula assa–foetida L.

Apiaceae

15

Ess. Asha foetida, Teufelsdreck–Essentz

Gummi asha foetida

EXT

Ferula assa–foetida L.

Apiaceae

EXUD

15

Ess. Asha foetida, Teufelsdreck-Essentz

Gummi asha foetida

dienet vor Milz

Spleen

INT

CARD

Ferula assa–foetida L.

Apiaceae

EXUD

15

Ess. Asha foetida, Teufelsdreck-Essentz

Gummi asha foetida

dienet vor Mutter

Uterus

INT

GYN

Animal

16

Ess. Castor, Bibergeil-Essentz

Bibergeil

stillet die Mutterbeschwerung und das böse Wesen

Calms down postpartum discomfort including depression

INT

NERV

Animal

16

Ess. Castor, Bibergeil-Essentz

Bibergeil

stillet die Mutterbeschwerung und das böse Wesen

Calms down postpartum discomfort including depression

INT

GYN

Animal

16

Ess. Castor, Bibergeil-Essentz

Bibergeil

curiret den Schlag

Heals stroke

INT

NERV

Inorganic

17

Schwarzenberger Gnad und Lebens-Balsam

Bals. Sulphur

viele Tugenden beygelegt werden

It has many advantages

?

Organic

17

Schwarzenberger Gnad und Lebens-Balsam

Oleum Petrae

viele Tugenden beygelegt werden

It has many advantages

?

?

EXUD

17

Schwarzenberger Gnad und Lebens-Balsam

Oleum Ther[eb]inth.

viele Tugenden beygelegt werden

It has many advantages

?

?

EXUD

17

Schwarzenberger Gnad und Lebens-Balsam

Ol. Succini

viele Tugenden beygelegt werden

It has many advantages

Juniperus spp.

Cupressaceae

EXUD

17

Schwarzenberger Gnad und Lebens-Balsam

Oleum Juniperi

viele Tugenden beygelegt werden

It has many advantages

?

?

EXUD

18

Engl. Balsam

Venetian Therebinth.

Angelica spp.

Apiaceae

HERB

18

Engl. Balsam

Angelica

Cinnamomum verum J.Presl

Lauraceae

BARK

18

Engl. Balsam

Zimmet (Zimt)

Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck

Rutaceae

FRU

18

Engl. Balsam

Citronschaal

Citrus spp.

Rutaceae

FRU

18

Engl. Balsam

Pomeranzenschaal

Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton

Zingiberaceae

HERB

18

Engl. Balsam

Cardemome

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Apiaceae

HERB

18

Engl. Balsam

Fenchel

Indigofera spp.

Fabaceae

HERB

18

Engl. Balsam

Balsam Indigo

Inula helenium L.

Asteraceae

HERB

18

Engl. Balsam

Alant

Juniperus spp.

Cupressaceae

HERB

18

Engl. Balsam

Wacholder

Laurus nobilis L.

Lauraceae

HERB

18

Engl. Balsam

Loorbeer

Lavandula spp.

Lamiaceae

HERB

18

Engl. Balsam

Lavendel

Melissa officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

HERB

18

Engl. Balsam

Melisse

Mentha aquatica L. var. crispa (L.) Benth.

Lamiaceae

HERB

18

Engl. Balsam

Krausemünze

Myristica fragrans Houtt.

Myristicaceae

FLOW

18

Engl. Balsam

Muscat-Blüthen

Pimpinella anisum L.

Apiaceae

HERB

18

Engl. Balsam

Anis

Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

FLOW

18

Engl. Balsam

Rosmarin-Blüthen

Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry

Myrtaceae

HERB

18

Engl. Balsam

Nelcken

Mineral

19

Ol. Phylosophorum seu Laterinum, Ziegel-Oel

neue Ziegel in Feuer recht glühend

erweichet und hat in harten Geschwulsten vortrefflichen Nutzen

Softens and has excellent benefits in hard tumours

EXT

DERM

Linum usitatissimum L.

Linaceae

OIL

19

Ol. Phylosophorum seu Laterinum, Ziegel-Oel

Oleum Lini od. Leinöl

erweichet und hat in harten Geschwulsten vortrefflichen Nutzen

Softens and has excellent benefits in hard tumours

EXT

DERM

Copaifera officinalis L.

Fabaceae

EXUD

20

Balsamus Copeive

Copeive

gegen den Tripper

Against gonorrhoea

INT

GYN

Copaifera officinalis L.

Fabaceae

EXUD

20

Balsamus Copeive

Copeive

gegen den Tripper

Against gonorrhoea

INT

ANDR

Copaifera officinalis L.

Fabaceae

EXUD

20

Balsamus Copeive

Copeive

gegen Saamenfluss

Against nocturnal emission

INT

ANDR

Copaifera officinalis L.

Fabaceae

EXUD

20

Balsamus Copeive

Copeive

gegen die Franzosen gerühmet

Aagainst syphilis

INT

ANDR

Copaifera officinalis L.

Fabaceae

EXUD

20

Balsamus Copeive

Copeive

gegen die Franzosen gerühmet

Aagainst syphilis

INT

GYN

Copaifera officinalis L.

Fabaceae

EXUD

20

Balsamus Copeive

Copeive

gegen brennenden Harn

Dysuria or painful urination

INT

URO

Copaifera officinalis L.

Fabaceae

EXUD

20

Balsamus Copeive

Copeive

in allen äusserlichen und innerlichen Verwundungen

In all external and internal wounds

EXT

DERM

Copaifera officinalis L.

Fabaceae

EXUD

20

Balsamus Copeive

Copeive

in allen äusserlichen und innerlichen Verwundungen

In all external and internal wounds

INT

OTH

Copaifera officinalis L.

Fabaceae

EXUD

20

Balsamus Copeive

Copeive

Steinschmerzen

Lithiasis

INT

GAST

Copaifera officinalis L.

Fabaceae

EXUD

20

Balsamus Copeive

Copeive

Steinschmerzen

Lithiasis

INT

URO

Copaifera officinalis L.

Fabaceae

EXUD

20

Balsamus Copeive

Copeive

Lungensucht

Tuberculosis

INT

RESP

Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms

Fabaceae

EXUD

21

Balsam Opo

vor langwieriges Keuchen

Against protracted wheezing

INT

RESP

Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms

Fabaceae

EXUD

21

Balsam Opo

heilet frische Wunden

Heals fresh wounds

EXT

DERM

Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms

Fabaceae

EXUD

21

Balsam Opo

dient zur Schwind- und Lungensucht

Tuberculosis

INT

RESP

Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck

Rutaceae

FRU

22

Kayserl. und Königl. Lebens-Pulver

Zitronenschaalen

Drimys winteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.

Winteraceae

HERB

22

Kayserl. und Königl. Lebens-Pulver

weiss Zimmet

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Apiaceae

HERB

22

Kayserl. und Königl. Lebens-Pulver

Fenchel

Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

Fabaceae

HERB

22

Kayserl. und Königl. Lebens-Pulver

Süssholz

Inula helenium L.

Asteraceae

HERB

22

Kayserl. und Königl. Lebens-Pulver

Alant

Pimpinella anisum L.

Apiaceae

HERB

22

Kayserl. und Königl. Lebens-Pulver

Anis

Coriandrum sativum L.

Apiaceae

HERB

23

Fein Schwarzenberger Haupt-Pulver

Coriander

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Apiaceae

HERB

23

Fein Schwarzenberger Haupt-Pulver

Fenchel

Helleborus niger L.

Ranunculaceae

HERB

23

Fein Schwarzenberger Haupt-Pulver

Niesewurzel

Lavandula spp.

Lamiaceae

HERB

23

Fein Schwarzenberger Haupt-Pulver

Lavendel

Origanum majorana L.

Lamiaceae

HERB

23

Fein Schwarzenberger Haupt-Pulver

Majoran

Pimpinella anisum L.

Apiaceae

HERB

23

Fein Schwarzenberger Haupt-Pulver

Anis

Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn.

Asteraceae

HERB

23

Fein Schwarzenberger Haupt-Pulver

Cristinelkraut

Fungus

24

Wurm-Pulver

Lerchenschwamm

Wurm

Anthelmintic

INT

PARA

Animal

24

Wurm-Pulver

roth und weisse Korallen

Wurm

Anthelmintic

INT

PARA

Aloë spp.

Asphodelaceae

HERB

24

Wurm-Pulver

Aloes

Wurm

Anthelmintic

INT

PARA

Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe

Zingiberaceae

SEED

24

Wurm-Pulver

Zittwersaamen

Wurm

Anthelmintic

INT

PARA

Dictamnus albus L.

Rutaceae

HERB

24

Wurm-Pulver

weiss Diptam W.

Wurm

Aanthelmintic

INT

PARA

Senna spp.

Fabaceae

LEAF

24

Wurm-Pulver

Sennes-Blätter

Wurm

Anthelmintic

INT

PARA

Viola spp.

Violaceae

SUBT

24

Wurm-Pulver

Viol. Wurzel

Wurm

Anthelmintic

INT

PARA

Mineral

25

Zahn-Pulver

Bimstein

benimmt Scharbock

Against scurvy

EXT

MUSK

Mineral

25

Zahn-Pulver

gebrannt Alaun

benimmt Scharbock

Against scurvy

EXT

MUSK

Mineral

25

Zahn-Pulver

Bimstein

benimmt Mundfäule

Against stomatitis

EXT

ORAL

Mineral

25

Zahn-Pulver

gebrannt Alaun

benimmt Mundfäule

Against stomatitis

EXT

ORAL

Mineral

25

Zahn-Pulver

Bimstein

schwarze Zähne werden weiß

Black teeth turn white

EXT

ORAL

Mineral

25

Zahn-Pulver

gebrannt Alaun

schwarze Zähne werden weiß

Black teeth turn white

EXT

ORAL

Mineral

25

Zahn-Pulver

Bimstein

macht wackelnde Zähne feste

Makes wobbly teeth firm

EXT

ORAL

Mineral

25

Zahn-Pulver

gebrannt Alaun

macht wackelnde Zähne feste

Makes wobbly teeth firm

EXT

ORAL

Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) Lag. = Anacyclus officinarum Hayne

Asteraceae

SUBT

25

Zahn-Pulver

Bertran Wurzel

benimmt Scharbock

Against scurvy

EXT

MUSK

Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) Lag. = Anacyclus officinarum Hayne

Asteraceae

SUBT

25

Zahn-Pulver

Bertran Wurzel

benimmt Mundfäule

Against stomatitis

EXT

ORAL

Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) Lag. = Anacyclus officinarum Hayne

Asteraceae

SUBT

25

Zahn-Pulver

Bertran Wurzel

schwarze Zähne werden weiß

Black teeth turn white

EXT

ORAL

Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) Lag. = Anacyclus officinarum Hayne

Asteraceae

SUBT

25

Zahn-Pulver

Bertran Wurzel

macht wackelnde Zähne feste

Makes wobbly teeth firm

EXT

ORAL

Myristica fragrans Houtt.

Myristicaceae

FLOW

25

Zahn-Pulver

Muscat-Blüthen

benimmt Scharbock

Against scurvy

EXT

MUSK

Myristica fragrans Houtt.

Myristicaceae

FLOW

25

Zahn-Pulver

Muscat-Blüthen

benimmt Mundfäule

Against stomatitis

EXT

ORAL

Myristica fragrans Houtt.

Myristicaceae

FLOW

25

Zahn-Pulver

Muscat-Blüthen

schwarze Zähne werden weiß

Black teeth turn white

EXT

ORAL

Myristica fragrans Houtt.

Myristicaceae

FLOW

25

Zahn-Pulver

Muscat-Blüthen

macht wackelnde Zähne feste

Makes wobbly teeth firm

EXT

ORAL

Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

Brassicaceae

HERB

25

08

Brunnenkresse

benimmt Scharbock

Against scurvy

EXT

MUSK

Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

Brassicaceae

HERB

25

Zahn-Pulver

Brunnenkresse

benimmt Mundfäule

Against stomatitis

EXT

ORAL

Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

Brassicaceae

HERB

25

Zahn-Pulver

Brunnenkresse

schwarze Zähne werden weiß

Black teeth turn white

EXT

ORAL

Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

Brassicaceae

HERB

25

Zahn-Pulver

Brunnenkresse

macht wackelnde Zähne feste

Makes wobbly teeth firm

EXT

ORAL

Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry

Myrtaceae

HERB

25

Zahn-Pulver

Nelcken

benimmt Scharbock

Against scurvy

EXT

MUSK

Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry

Myrtaceae

HERB

25

Zahn-Pulver

Nelcken

benimmt Mundfäule

Against stomatitis

EXT

ORAL

Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry

Myrtaceae

HERB

25

Zahn-Pulver

Nelcken

schwarze Zähne werden weiß

Black teeth turn white

EXT

ORAL

Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry

Myrtaceae

HERB

25

Zahn-Pulver

Nelcken

macht wackelnde Zähne feste

Makes wobbly teeth firm

EXT

ORAL

Animal

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Biebergeil

In pest

Against plague

INT

NERV

Animal

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Biebergeil

In pest

Against plague

INT

RESP

Fungus

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Lerchenschwamm

In pest

Against plague

INT

NERV

Mineral

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Terra Sigill

In pest

Against plague

INT

NERV

Mineral

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Potaschen (potash)

In pest

Against plague

INT

NERV

Fungus

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Lerchenschwamm

In pest

Against plague

INT

RESP

Mineral

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Terra Sigill

In pest

Against plague

INT

RESP

Mineral

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Potaschen (potash)

In pest

Against plague

INT

RESP

Animal

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Biebergeil

herrl. Magen-Essenz

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Fungus

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Lerchenschwamm

herrl. Magen-Essenz

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Mineral

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Terra Sigill

herrl. Magen-Essenz

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Mineral

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Potaschen (potash)

herrl. Magen-Essenz

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Animal

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Biebergeil

Praeservativ vor alle Gifte

Protection against all poisons

INT

ANTI

Fungus

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Lerchenschwamm

Praeservativ vor alle Gifte

Protection against all poisons

INT

ANTI

Mineral

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Terra Sigill

Praeservativ vor alle Gifte

Protection against all poisons

INT

ANTI

Mineral

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Potaschen (potash)

Praeservativ vor alle Gifte

Protection against all poisons

INT

ANTI

?

?

?

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Theriac [as antidote to poisons, especially on viper venom]

In pest

Against plague

INT

NERV

?

?

?

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Theriac [as antidote to poisons, especially on viper venom]

In pest

Against plague

INT

RESP

?

?

?

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Theriac [as antidote to poisons, especially on viper venom]

herrl. Magen-Essenz

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

?

?

?

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Theriac [as antidote to poisons, especially on viper venom]

Praeservativ vor alle Gifte

Protection against all poisons

INT

ANTI

Aloë spp.

Asphodelaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Aloe

In pest

Against plague

INT

NERV

Aloë spp.

Asphodelaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Aloe

In pest

Against plague

INT

RESP

Aloë spp.

Asphodelaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Aloe

herrl. Magen-Essenz

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Aloë spp.

Asphodelaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Aloe

Praeservativ vor alle Gifte

Protection against all poisons

INT

ANTI

Angelica spp.

Apiaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Angelica

In pest

Against plague

INT

NERV

Angelica spp.

Apiaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Angelica

In pest

Against plague

INT

RESP

Angelica spp.

Apiaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Angelica

herrl. Magen-Essenz

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Angelica spp.

Apiaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Angelica

Praeservativ vor alle Gifte

Protection against all poisons

INT

ANTI

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl

Lauraceae

OIL

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Campher

In pest

Against plague

INT

NERV

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl

Lauraceae

OIL

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Campher

In pest

Against plague

INT

RESP

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl

Lauraceae

OIL

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Campher

herrl. Magen-Essenz

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl

Lauraceae

OIL

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Campher

Praeservativ vor alle Gifte

Protection against all poisons

INT

ANTI

Commiphora spp.

Burseraceae

EXUD

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Myrrhen

In pest

Against plague

INT

NERV

Commiphora spp.

Burseraceae

EXUD

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Myrrhen

In pest

Against plague

INT

RESP

Commiphora spp.

Burseraceae

EXUD

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Myrrhen

herrl. Magen-Essenz

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Commiphora spp.

Burseraceae

EXUD

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Myrrhen

Praeservativ vor alle Gifte

Protection against all poisons

INT

ANTI

Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe

Zingiberaceae

SUBT

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Zittwer

In pest

Against plague

INT

NERV

Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe

Zingiberaceae

SUBT

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Zittwer

In pest

Against plague

INT

RESP

Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe

Zingiberaceae

SUBT

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Zittwer

herrl. Magen-Essenz

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe

Zingiberaceae

SUBT

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Zittwer

Praeservativ vor alle Gifte

Protection against all poisons

INT

ANTI

Dictamnus albus L.

Rutaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Weiss Diptam

In pest

Against plague

INT

RESP

Dictamnus albus L.

Rutaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Weiss Diptam

In pest

Against plague

INT

NERV

Dictamnus albus L.

Rutaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Weiss Diptam

herrl. Magen-Essenz

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Dictamnus albus L.

Rutaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Weiss Diptam

Praeservativ vor alle Gifte

Protection against all poisons

INT

ANTI

Gentiana spp.

Gentianaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Entian

In pest

Against plague

INT

NERV

Gentiana spp.

Gentianaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Entian

In pest

Against plague

INT

RESP

Gentiana spp.

Gentianaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Entian

herrl. Magen-Essenz

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Gentiana spp.

Gentianaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Entian

Praeservativ vor alle Gifte

Protection against all poisons

INT

ANTI

Potentilla erecta (L.) Räusch.

Rosaceae

SUBT

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Tormentille

In pest

Against plague

INT

NERV

Potentilla erecta (L.) Räusch.

Rosaceae

SUBT

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Tormentille

In pest

Against plague

INT

RESP

Potentilla erecta (L.) Räusch.

Rosaceae

SUBT

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Tormentille

herrl. Magen-Essenz

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Potentilla erecta (L.) Räusch.

Rosaceae

SUBT

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Tormentille

Praeservativ vor alle Gifte

Protection against all poisons

INT

ANTI

Rheum rhabarbarum L.

Polygonaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Rhabarbara

In pest

Against plague

INT

NERV

Rheum rhabarbarum L.

Polygonaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Rhabarbara

In pest

Against plague

INT

RESP

Rheum rhabarbarum L.

Polygonaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Rhabarbara

herrl. Magen-Essenz

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Rheum rhabarbarum L.

Polygonaceae

HERB

26

Recept von einem besonderen Elixir

Rhabarbara

Praeservativ vor alle Gifte

Protection against all poisons

INT

ANTI

Mineral

27

Krampf-Pulver

Arcanum duplicatum

Krampf

Antispasmodic

INT

MUSK

Mineral

27

Krampf-Pulver

Antimon daphoreticum

Krampf

Antispasmodic

INT

MUSK

Mineral

27

Krampf-Pulver

Tartarus vitriolatus

Krampf

Antispasmodic

INT

MUSK

Mineral

27

Krampf-Pulver

Cinabar antimon

Krampf

Antispasmodic

INT

MUSK

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl

Lauraceae

OIL

28

Theriac oder Mithridat

Campher

Theriac [as antidote to poisons, especially on viper venom]

Antidote

INT

ANTI

Juniperus spp.

Cupressaceae

EXUD

28

Theriac oder Mithridat

Jochandel-Saft

Theriac [as antidote to poisons, especially on viper venom]

Antidote

INT

ANTI

Laurus nobilis L.

Lauraceae

HERB

28

Theriac oder Mithridat

Lorbeere

Theriac [as antidote to poisons, especially on viper venom]

Antidote

INT

ANTI

Piper longum L.

Piperaceae

SEED

28

Theriac oder Mithridat

langen Pfeffer

Theriac [as antidote to poisons, especially on viper venom]

Antidote

INT

ANTI

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Zingiberaceae

SUBT

28

Theriac oder Mithridat

Ingwer

Theriac [as antidote to poisons, especially on viper venom]

Antidote

INT

ANTI

Coriandrum sativum L.

Apiaceae

HERB

29

Aqua Hungarica, Schlagwasser

Coriander

Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

HERB

29

Aqua Hungarica, Schlagwasser

Rosmarin

Animal

30

Scorpion-Oel

Scorpione

Olea europaea L.

Oleaceae

EXUD

30

Scorpion-Oel

Baumöl

Animal

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Cornu Cervi

Pestilenz

Against plague

INT

NERV

Animal

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Cornu Cervi

Pestilenz

Against plague

INT

RESP

Mineral

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Salz

Pestilenz

Against plague

INT

NERV

Mineral

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Salz

Pestilenz

Against plague

INT

RESP

Iinctura

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Sp. Vini

Pestilenz

Against plague

INT

NERV

Tinctura

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Sp. Vini

Pestilenz

Against plague

INT

RESP

Mineral

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Salz

Suchen

Epidemics

INT

Animal

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Cornu Cervi

Suchen

Epidemics

INT

Tinctura

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Sp. Vini

Suchen

Epidemics

INT

Animal

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Cornu Cervi

trefflich Schweissstreibendes Mittel

Excellent diaphoretic

INT

DIAPH

Mineral

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Salz

trefflich Schweissstreibendes Mittel

Excellent diaphoretic

INT

DIAPH

Tinctura

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Sp. Vini

trefflich Schweissstreibendes Mittel

Excellent diaphoretic

INT

DIAPH

Animal

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Cornu Cervi

Fiebern

Fevers

INT

FEV

Mineral

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Salz

Fiebern

Fevers

INT

FEV

Tinctura

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Sp. Vini

Fiebern

Fevers

INT

FEV

Animal

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Cornu Cervi

Hauptschmerzen

Headache

INT

NERV

Mineral

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Salz

Hauptschmerzen

Headache

INT

NERV

Tinctura

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Sp. Vini

Hauptschmerzen

Headache

INT

NERV

Animal

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Cornu Cervi

Steck und Schlag-Flüssen

Prevents stroke

INT

NERV

Mineral

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Salz

Steck und Schlag-Flüssen

Prevents stroke

INT

NERV

Tinctura

31

Sal. volatile-Cornu Cervi, Flüchtig. Hirschhorn-Salz

Sp. Vini

Steck und Schlag-Flüssen

Prevents stroke

INT

NERV

Mineral

32

Schwarzenberger Heil- und Wundpflaster

Rubrick [as “Rubrica fabrilis (Rötel); bekannt war auch Siegelerde aus Striegau”]

flüssigen alten Schäden

Healing old wounds

EXT

DERM

Organic

32

Schwarzenberger Heil- und Wundpflaster

Wachs

flüssigen alten Schäden

Healing old wounds

EXT

DERM

Mineral

32

Schwarzenberger Heil- und Wundpflaster

Rubrick [as “Rubrica fabrilis (Rötel); bekannt war auch Siegelerde aus Striegau”]

in allen hitzigen Schäden

In all types of burns

EXT

DERM

Organic

32

Schwarzenberger Heil- und Wundpflaster

Wachs

in allen hitzigen Schäden

In all types of burns

EXT

DERM

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl

Lauraceae

OIL

32

Schwarzenberger Heil- und Wundpflaster

Campher

flüssigen alten Schäden

Healing old wounds

EXT

DERM

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl

Lauraceae

OIL

32

Schwarzenberger Heil- und Wundpflaster

Campher

in allen hitzigen Schäden

In all types of burns

EXT

DERM

Olea europaea L.

Oleaceae

EXUD

32

Schwarzenberger Heil- und Wundpflaster

Baumöl

flüssigen alten Schäden

Healing old wounds

EXT

DERM

Olea europaea L.

Oleaceae

EXUD

32

Schwarzenberger Heil- und Wundpflaster

Baumöl

in allen hitzigen Schäden

In all types of burns

EXT

DERM

Mineral

33

Nürnberger Salben

Rubrick [as “Rubrica fabrilis (Rötel); bekannt war auch Siegelerde aus Striegau”]

flüssigen alten Schäden

Healing old wounds

EXT

DERM

Organic

33

Nürnberger Salben

Wachs

flüssigen alten Schäden

Healing old wounds

EXT

DERM

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl

Lauraceae

OIL

33

Nürnberger Salben

Campher

flüssigen alten Schäden

Healing old wounds

EXT

DERM

Olea europaea L.

Oleaceae

EXUD

33

Nürnberger Salben

Baumöl

flüssigen alten Schäden

Healing old wounds

EXT

DERM

Animal

34

Grüne Waldsalbe

Bock-Inselt [as tallow goat]

heilet alle Wunden

Healing all wounds

EXT

DERM

Organic

34

Grüne Waldsalbe

Wachs

heilet alle Wunden

Healing all wounds

EXT

DERM

Organic

34

Grüne Waldsalbe

Grünspan

heilet alle Wunden

Healing all wounds

EXT

DERM

?

?

EXUD

34

Grüne Waldsalbe

Hartz [as resin]

heilet alle Wunden

Healing all wounds

EXT

DERM

?

?

EXUD

34

Grüne Waldsalbe

Terpentin

heilet alle Wunden

Healing all wounds

EXT

DERM

Inorganic

35

Oleum Montis, Berg-Oel

Balsam Sulphuris

Animal

35

Oleum Montis, Berg-Oel

Oleum Cornu Cervi

?

?

EXUD

35

Oleum Montis, Berg-Oel

Oleum Therebinth

Linum usitatissimum L.

Linaceae

OIL

35

Oleum Montis, Berg-Oel

Oleum Lini

Animal

36

Franzosen-Oel, Oleum Cuajaci

Cornu Cervi

Franzosen

Syphilis

INT

GYN

Animal

36

Franzosen-Oel, Oleum Cuajaci

Cornu Cervi

Franzosen

Syphilis

INT

ANDR

Guaiacum officinale L.

Zygophyllaceae

OIL

36

Franzosen-Oel, Oleum Cuajaci

Oleum Guajaci

Franzosen

Syphilis

INT

ANDR

Guaiacum officinale L.

Zygophyllaceae

OIL

36

Franzosen-Oel, Oleum Cuajaci

Oleum Guajaci

Franzosen

Syphilis

INT

GYN

Linum usitatissimum L.

Linaceae

OIL

36

Franzosen-Oel, Oleum Cuajaci

Oleum Lini

Franzosen

Syphilis

INT

ANDR

Linum usitatissimum L.

Linaceae

OIL

36

Franzosen-Oel, Oleum Cuajaci

Oleum Lini

Franzosen

Syphilis

INT

GYN

Achillea spp.

Asteraceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Schaafgarben

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Achillea spp.

Asteraceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Schaafgarben

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Achillea spp.

Asteraceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Schaafgarben

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Bellis perennis L.

Asteraceae

FLOW

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Gänseblümel

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Bellis perennis L.

Asteraceae

FLOW

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Gänseblümel

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Bellis perennis L.

Asteraceae

FLOW

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Gänseblümel

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis = Betonica officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

FLOW

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Betonien-Blumen

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis = Betonica officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

FLOW

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Betonien-Blumen

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis = Betonica officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

FLOW

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Betonien-Blumen

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Cyanus segetum Hill. = Centaurea cyanus L.

Asteraceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Kornblumen

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Cyanus segetum Hill. = Centaurea cyanus L.

Asteraceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Kornblumen

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Cyanus segetum Hill. = Centaurea cyanus L.

Asteraceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Kornblumen

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Citrus ×aurantium L.

Rutaceae

FRU

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Pommeranzschaalen

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Citrus ×aurantium L.

Rutaceae

FRU

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Pommeranzschaalen

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Citrus ×aurantium L.

Rutaceae

FRU

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Pommeranzschaalen

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck

Rutaceae

FRU

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Citron

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck

Rutaceae

FRU

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Citron

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck

Rutaceae

FRU

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Citron

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Coriandrum sativum L.

Apiaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Coriander

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Coriandrum sativum L.

Apiaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Coriander

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Coriandrum sativum L.

Apiaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Coriander

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Echium vulgare L.

Boraginaceae

LEAF

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Natterblätter

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Echium vulgare L.

Boraginaceae

LEAF

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Natterblätter

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Echium vulgare L.

Boraginaceae

LEAF

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Natterblätter

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

Fabaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Süsseholz

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

Fabaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Süsseholz

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

Fabaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Süsseholz

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Guaiacum sanctum L. or G. officinale L.

Zygophyllaceae

WOOD

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Lignum Sanctum

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Guaiacum sanctum L. or G. officinale L.

Zygophyllaceae

WOOD

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Lignum Sanctum

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Guaiacum sanctum L. or G. officinale L.

Zygophyllaceae

WOOD

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Lignum Sanctum

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Hedysarum spp.

Fabaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Süssen Klee

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Hedysarum spp.

Fabaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Süssen Klee

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Hedysarum spp.

Fabaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Süssen Klee

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Matricaria spp.

Asteraceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Camillen

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Matricaria spp.

Asteraceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Camillen

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Matricaria spp.

Asteraceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Camillen

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Ononis spinosa L.

Fabaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Steinwurzel

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Ononis spinosa L.

Fabaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Steinwurzel

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Ononis spinosa L.

Fabaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Steinwurzel

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn.

Asteraceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Cristinel-Kraut

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn.

Asteraceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Cristinel-Kraut

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn.

Asteraceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Cristinel-Kraut

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Pyrus sp.

Rosaceae

FRU

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Kragel [as the common name of the old pear variety Kragel Birne]

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Pyrus sp.

Rosaceae

FRU

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Kragel [as the common name of the old pear variety Kragel Birne]

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Pyrus sp.

Rosaceae

FRU

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Kragel [as the common name of the old pear variety Kragel Birne]

Brustreinigung

cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Rosa spp.

Rosaceae

FLOW

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Rosenblätter

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Rosa spp.

Rosaceae

FLOW

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Rosenblätter

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Rosa spp.

Rosaceae

FLOW

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Rosenblätter

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Sassafras spp.

Lauraceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Sassafras

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Sassafras spp.

Lauraceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Sassafras

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Sassafras spp.

Lauraceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Sassafras

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Scabiosa spp.

Dipsacaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Scabiosen

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Scabiosa spp.

Dipsacaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Scabiosen

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Scabiosa spp.

Dipsacaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Scabiosen

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Silene baccifera (L.) Roth = Cucubalus baccifer L.

Caryophyllaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Taubenkropf

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Silene baccifera (L.) Roth = Cucubalus baccifer L.

Caryophyllaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Taubenkropf

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Silene baccifera (L.) Roth = Cucubalus baccifer L.

Caryophyllaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Taubenkropf

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Vaccinium vitisidaea L.

Ericaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Preusselbeeren-Kraut

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Vaccinium vitisidaea L.

Ericaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Preusselbeeren-Kraut

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Vaccinium vitisidaea L.

Ericaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Preusselbeeren-Kraut

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Veronica spp.

Plantaginaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Ehrenpreis

Blutreinigung

Blood purification

INT

CARD

Veronica spp.

Plantaginaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Ehrenpreis

Lungenreinigung

Cleansing the lungs

INT

RESP

Veronica spp.

Plantaginaceae

HERB

37

guthe Kräuter-Thee

Ehrenpreis

Brustreinigung

Cleansing the upper respiratory tract

INT

RESP

Tinctura

38

Tinctur Bezoardica F. Grossmann Krummhübler Art.

Sp. Vini

INT

Actaea racemosa L. = Cimicifuga racemosa Nutt.

Ranunculaceae

SUBT

38

Tinctur Bezoardica F. Grossmann Krummhübler Art.

Radix Serpentariae

INT

Carlina acaulis L.

Asteraceae

SUBT

38

Tinctur Bezoardica F. Grossmann Krummhübler Art.

Radix Carlinae

INT

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl

Lauraceae

OIL

38

Tinctur Bezoardica F. Grossmann Krummhübler Art.

Campher

INT

Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe

Zingiberaceae

SUBT

38

Tinctur Bezoardica F. Grossmann Krummhübler Art.

Radix Zedoar

INT

Dictamnus albus L.

Rutaceae

HERB

38

Tinctur Bezoardica F. Grossmann Krummhübler Art.

Radix Diptam alb.

INT

Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss.

Apiaceae

SUBT

38

Tinctur Bezoardica F. Grossmann Krummhübler Art.

Radix Petros[elini]

INT

Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) W.D.J. Koch = Imperatoria ostruthium L.

Apiaceae

SUBT

38

Tinctur Bezoardica F. Grossmann Krummhübler Art.

Radix Imperat.

INT

Pterocarpus santalinus L. fil.

Fabaceae

HERB

38

Tinctur Bezoardica F. Grossmann Krummhübler Art.

rothen Sandel

INT

Inorganic

39

Tinctur Lunae, Tinktur von Silber

Silber

in bösen Wesen

Against postpartum depression

INT

NERV

Organic

39

Tinctur Lunae, Tinktur von Silber

Urine

in bösen Wesen

Against postpartum depression

INT

NERV

Tinctura

39

Tinctur Lunae, Tinktur von Silber

Sp. Vini

in bösen Wesen

Against postpartum depression

INT

NERV

Inorganic

39

Tinctur Lunae, Tinktur von Silber

Silber

Haupt-Krankheiten

Brain disease

INT

NERV

Organic

39

Tinctur Lunae, Tinktur von Silber

Urine

Haupt-Krankheiten

Brain disease

INT

NERV

Tinctura

39

Tinctur Lunae, Tinktur von Silber

Sp. Vini

Haupt-Krankheiten

Brain disease

INT

NERV

Organic

40

Sp. Tartari, Weinstein-Geist

Weinstein (tartar)

in der Gicht

Against gout

INT

MUSK

Organic

40

Sp. Tartari, Weinstein-Geist

Weinstein (tartar)

bey lahmen Gliedern

Against lame limbs

INT

MUSK

Organic

40

Sp. Tartari, Weinstein-Geist

Weinstein (tartar)

in Lähmung

Against paralysis

INT

NERV

Organic

40

Sp. Tartari, Weinstein-Geist

Weinstein (tartar)

in Scharbock

Against scurvy

INT

MUSK

Organic

40

Sp. Tartari, Weinstein-Geist

Weinstein (tartar)

Wassersucht

Oedema

INT

CARD

Organic

40

Sp. Tartari, Weinstein-Geist

Weinstein (tartar)

Räudigkeit der Haut

Erythema

INT

DERM

Organic

40

Sp. Tartari, Weinstein-Geist

Weinstein (tartar)

eröfnet Verstopfung des Eingeweides

Removes intestinal obstruction

INT

GAST

Organic

40

Sp. Tartari, Weinstein-Geist

Weinstein (tartar)

Krätze

Scabies

INT

DERM

Organic

40

Sp. Tartari, Weinstein-Geist

Weinstein (tartar)

Franzosen

Syphilis

INT

ANDR

Organic

40

Sp. Tartari, Weinstein-Geist

Weinstein (tartar)

Franzosen

Syphilis

INT

GYN

Organic

40

Sp. Tartari, Weinstein-Geist

Weinstein (tartar)

Windsucht

Tympanites

INT

GAST

Elixir

41

Liquor anod Michaeli

rothen Schlagwasser oder Englischen Balsam

Inorganic

41

Liquor anod Michaeli

Sp. Nitri dulcis

Inorganic

42

Sp. Salammoniaci anisat. Salmiac-Geist mit Anis

Kalck

Magen

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Inorganic

42

Sp. Salammoniaci anisat. Salmiac-Geist mit Anis

Kalck

Nieren

For the kidneys

INT

URO

Inorganic

42

Sp. Salammoniaci anisat. Salmiac-Geist mit Anis

Kalck

stärkt die Brust

Strengthens the breast

INT

RESP

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (as salty liquorice)

Fabaceae

SUBT

42

Sp. Salammoniaci anisat. Salmiac-Geist mit Anis

Salmiac

Magen

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (as salty liquorice)

Fabaceae

SUBT

42

Sp. Salammoniaci anisat. Salmiac-Geist mit Anis

Salmiac

Nieren

For the kidneys

INT

URO

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (as salty liquorice)

Fabaceae

SUBT

42

Sp. Salammoniaci anisat. Salmiac-Geist mit Anis

Salmiac

stärkt die Brust

Strengthens the breast

INT

RESP

Pimpinella anisum L.

Apiaceae

HERB

42

Sp. Salammoniaci anisat. Salmiac-Geist mit Anis

Anis

Magen

Against stomach problems

INT

GAST

Pimpinella anisum L.

Apiaceae

HERB

42

Sp. Salammoniaci anisat. Salmiac-Geist mit Anis

Anis

Nieren

For the kidneys

INT

URO

Pimpinella anisum L.

Apiaceae

HERB

42

Sp. Salammoniaci anisat. Salmiac-Geist mit Anis

Anis

stärkt die Brust

Strengthens the breast

INT

RESP

Tinctura

43

Unächt. Recept zur Ess. dulcis

Spiritus abgezogen von Englisch Balsam oder vom rothen Schlagwasser

Pterocarpus santalinus L. fil.

Fabaceae

HERB

43

Unächt. Recept zur Ess. dulcis

rothen Sandel

Tinctura

44

Tinct. Benzoes

Sp. Vini

vor die Brust

For the breast

INT

RESP

Tinctura

44

Tinct. Benzoes

Sp. Vini

vor die Brust

For the breast

EXT

OTH

Styrax spp.

Styracaceae

EXUD

44

Tinct. Benzoes

Gummi Benzoe

vor die Brust

For the breast

INT

RESP

Styrax spp.

Styracaceae

EXUD

44

Tinct. Benzoes

Gummi Benzoe

vor die Brust

For the breast

EXT

OTH

Rosa spp.

Rosaceae

FLOW

45

Tinctura Rosarum, Rosen-Tinctur

Rosenblätter

kühlet und stärket das Herz

Strengthens the heart

INT

CARD

Rosa spp.

Rosaceae

FLOW

45

Tinctura Rosarum, Rosen-Tinctur

Rosenblätter

stärket die Leber

Strengthens the liver

INT

GAST

Rosa spp.

Rosaceae

FLOW

45

Tinctura Rosarum, Rosen-Tinctur

Rosenblätter

stärket den Magen

Strengthens the stomach

INT

GAST

Gentiana spp.

Gentianaceae

SUBT

46

Ess. Gentiana, Enzian-Wurzel-Essenz

Enzian-Wurzel

allen 3 und 4 tägigten Fiebern

In all 3 and 4 days of fever

INT

FEV

Gentiana spp.

Gentianaceae

SUBT

46

Ess. Gentiana, Enzian-Wurzel-Essenz

Enzian-Wurzel

in Schwachheit des Magens

In weakness of the stomach

INT

GAST

Therapeutic effects of medicinal plants in traditional and modern medicine

It is estimated that over 50% of the available drugs are currently somehow derived from medicinal plants [67, 68]. Herbal medicine (phytotherapy) is widely being used across the world on a constantly growing basis. Plant drug application is based on the experiences of traditional medicine or on new scientific research and experimental results, i.e. conventional medicine. Many medicinal plants are applied through self-medication or at the recommendation of a physician or pharmacist [69]. Phytotherapy is among the major “complementary” treatments in current use by doctors and other therapists throughout Europe [70]. Contemporary European use and trade in medicinal and aromatic plants are extensive, with eight countries (Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Italy, the UK, the Russian Federation (not disaggregated by Russia-in-Europe) and Poland) being the top 20 global importers by volume of pharmaceutical plants. The top six exporters of these plants in Europe include Germany, Poland, Spain, Bulgaria, Albania and France [71, 72]. A large part of modern drugs has its roots in ancient traditions. Until today, ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine, and the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims guide and shape the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine [73].

Medicinal plants used by herbalists from Krummhübel were remedies for multiple ailments. The taxa that achieved the highest use or were recognised as the most versatile remedies with multiple pharmacological indications were Aloë spp., Copaifera officinalis L., Guaiacum officinale L., Commiphora spp. and Crocus (probably) sativus L. Comparison of the uses of the plants considered with their contemporary use, described in publications involved with herbal medicine and pharmacognosy (e.g. [36, 7477]), showed some novelties.

The most frequently mentioned properties of Aloë spp. are gastrointestinal activities, hepato-protective properties and beneficial effects against skin problems such as wounds, injuries and infective diseases in both the Islamic traditional medicine [78] and in modern medicine [36, 74, 76, 77]. According to Krummhübel herbalists, it has also antihelminthic properties and can be used as a remedy for the treatment of scurvy.

Copaiba (Copaifera sp.) has a wide range of ethnopharmacological indications, including the treatment of the following: cystitis, urinary incontinence, gonorrhoea and syphilis; respiratory ailments including bronchitis, strep throat, haemoptysis, pneumonia and sinusitis; infections in the skin and mucosa such as dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis and wounds; ulcers and lesions of the uterus; leishmaniasis and leucorrhea; anaemia; headaches; and snake bites. It is also used for its aphrodisiac, stimulant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, anti-tetanus, antirheumatic, antiherpetic, anthelminthic, anticancer, antitumour (prostate tumours) and antiparalytic properties ([63] and references cited herein). Many of these indications were also mentioned by Krummhübel herbalists and are recognised by modern medicine [74, 76, 77].

Guaiacum (Guaiacum officinale L.) is stated to possess antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, mild laxative and diaphoretic properties [74, 76, 77]. Traditionally, it has been used for subacute rheumatism, also in syphilitic and gouty affections, and specifically for chronic rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis [75]. Additional medicinal uses mentioned by Krummhübel herbalists include the treatment of oedema and scabies as well as blood purification.

Myrrh is a sap-like substance (resin) that is released from cuts in the bark of trees belonging to the genus Commiphora. Myrrh has antimicrobial, astringent, carminative, expectorant, anticatarrhal, antiseptic and vulnerary properties. Traditionally, it has been used for aphthous ulcers, pharyngitis, respiratory catarrhs, common cold, furunculosis, wounds and abrasions, specifically for mouth ulcers, gingivitis and pharyngitis [75]. It is unknown which Commiphora species was used by Krummhübel herbalists, but they recommended it, among others, as a remedy for scurvy and plague as well as to stimulate appetite.

Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is used in folk medicine as an antispasmodic, eupeptic, gingival sedative, anticatarrhal, nerve sedative, carminative, diaphoretic, expectorant, stimulant, stomachic, aphrodisiac and emmenagogue. Furthermore, modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that saffron extract or its active constituents have antitumor effects, radical scavenger properties and hypolipemic effects [75]. Krummhübel herbalists additionally used this plant in their medical mixtures as remedies for scurvy, any injuries and to support postpartum recovery.

Since time immemorial, people have tried to find medications to alleviate pain and to cure various diseases. In every period, every successive century from the development of humankind and advanced civilisations, the healing properties of certain medicinal plants were identified, recorded and passed on to successive generations. The benefits of one society were conveyed to another, which upgraded the old properties and discovered new ones, until the present days. The continuous and perpetual interest of people in medicinal plants has led to today’s modern and sophisticated fashion of their processing and usage [69].

Conclusions

This paper presents a data mining approach and a survey of the herbal drugs contained in Reitzig. Our study revealed that many plants used in medical treatments by Krummhübel herbalists were also known in other regions between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries. The medicinal plants documented in all ethnobotanical studies considered include Angelica ssp., Carlina acaulis L., Gentiana spp., Juniperus spp., Rosa spp. and Veronica spp. However, eight, mainly exotic plants, were exclusive in therapeutic mixtures of Krummhübel herbalists. They encompass Copaifera officinalis L., Drimys winteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst., Hedysarum spp., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Piper longum L., Silene baccifera (L.) Roth and Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry. Although these taxa originate from various parts of the world, they were quite frequently used in several remedies by Krummhübel herbalists and are still important herbs in modern phytotherapy. Besides, the preserved recipes of Krummhübel herbalists also cover animal, fungus and mineral formulations and other organic and inorganic ones. Comparing such old data with contemporary herbal medicine and phytotherapy might enhance our understanding of modern practices and help to document the tradition of use, which is required for the regulatory approval of new herbal drugs. We showed that therapeutic effects of medicinal plants used by Krummhübel herbalists in traditional and modern medicine are mainly congruent, but there are also some novelties.

Currently, based on the achievements of Krummhübel herbalists, it seems to be important to attempt to reproduce therapeutic mixtures from the preserved recipes. This would provide an opportunity to learn more about the real effects of the former medicines and their therapeutic activities. The obtained data can also be used in the search for new drugs.

Declarations

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Mrs. Bożena Polak, M.Sc. (an academic teacher of the German language at the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland) for helping in translating some of the old German phrases. We also wish to thank Mrs. Anne Roestel (Deutsches Apotheken-Museum, Heidelberg, Germany) for helping in determining the composition and use of certain inorganic components of medicinal mixtures produced by Krummhübel herbalists. We thank the three anonymous reviewers for their careful reading of our manuscript and their insightful comments and suggestions to improve the quality of the final paper.

Funding

No funding was received for this research.

Availability of data and materials

Data on the ethnobotanical/medical uses of plants are presented in this article in Table 1.

Authors’ contributions

KS, IS and JP conceived and designed the study. JP and MP conducted the data collection and analysed the data. Literature retrieval was done by KS, IS and JP. KS, IS and JP drafted the manuscript. JP participated in the design and coordination. JP identified the plant species and reviewed the ethnobotanical literature. JP and MP revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

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Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Division of Botany, Institute of Biology, University of Opole, Oleska 22, 45-052 Opole, Poland
(2)
Department of Physiotherapy, Institute of Physiotherapy, Opole University of Technology, Prószkowska 76, 45-758 Opole, Poland
(3)
Museum of Natural History, University of Wrocław, Sienkiewicza 21, 50-335 Wrocław, Poland
(4)
Department of Plant Biology, Institute of Biology, Faculty of Biology and Animal Science, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Kożuchowska 5b, 51-631 Wrocław, Poland

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