Open Access

Traditional knowledge and its transmission of wild edibles used by the Naxi in Baidi Village, northwest Yunnan province

  • Yanfei Geng1, 2,
  • Yu Zhang1,
  • Sailesh Ranjitkar1, 3,
  • Huyin Huai4 and
  • Yuhua Wang1Email author
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201612:10

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-016-0082-2

Received: 14 July 2015

Accepted: 26 January 2016

Published: 5 February 2016

Abstract

Background

The collection and consumption of wild edibles is an important part in livelihood strategies throughout the world. There is an urgent need to document and safeguard the wild food knowledge, especially in remote areas. The aims of this study are to accomplish detailed investigation of wild edibles used by the Naxi in Baidi village and evaluate them to identify innovative organic food products. Also, we aim to explore the characteristics of distribution and transmission of the traditional knowledge (TK) on wild edibles among the Naxi.

Methods

Data was collected through a semi-structured interview of key informants above the age of 20 years, chosen carefully by a snowball sampling. The interviews were supplemented by free lists and participatory observation methods. Informants below 20 years were interviewed to test their knowledge of traditional practices. A quantitative index like Cultural Importance Index (CI) was used to evaluate the relative importance of the different wild edibles. Linear regression and t-test were performed to test variation in the TK among the informants of different age groups and genders.

Results

Altogether 173 wild edible plant species belonging to 76 families and 139 genera were recorded in the study. Cardamine macrophylla, C. tangutorum and Eutrema yunnanense, have traditionally been consumed as an important supplement to the diet, particularly during food shortages as wild vegetables. The age was found to have a significant effect on TK, but there was no significant difference between male and female informant in knowledge abundance. The traditional food knowledge was dynamic and affected by social factors. Also, it was descending partly among younger generations in Baidi.

Conclusion

Baidi village is a prime example of a rapidly changing community where local traditions compete with modern ways of life. Overall, this study provides a deeper understanding of the Naxi peoples’ knowledge on wild edibles. Some wild edibles might have an interesting dietary constituent, which need in-depth studies. Such detail studies can help to promote the market in one hand and protect TK in the other. Protecting TK from disappearing in succeeding generations is necessary, and understanding the dynamics of TK is one important solution to this dilemma.

Keywords

Knowledge dynamicsQuantitative indexOrganic food productsNaxi peopleGender

Background

Wild plants have gained renewed interest in recent years, and the tradition of gathering wild plants continues to the present day [1, 2]. The collection and consumption of wild edibles is an important part of livelihood strategies throughout the world [3]. Wild food also is an essential supplement to the local people’s daily nutrition in developing countries [2, 4, 5]. Schunko and Vogl [6] mentioned that collection and use of wild edibles are not only part of the cultural history of a region but also are part of people’s local identity, pride, and traditions. Moreover, wild foods can contribute to overcoming periods of food scarcity, and dishes made of wild foods can be functional foods [6]. Wild plant sources and their use are under severe threat as a result of economic globalization, environmental degradation and cultural homogenization [7]. There is an urgent need to document the traditional knowledge of plant uses and conserve its habitat [79], especially where it is not yet completely lost [10]. Wild edibles are not an exception to this fact. It is important to document local knowledge before it vanishes along with the knowledgeable people, in the sense that it is slowly disappearing with the demise of those who have traditionally upheld it [11].

China is a fascinating and significant arena for studies on wild food use traditions, particularly Yunnan province [12]. Northwest Yunnan is one of biodiversity hotspots and is home to many minority groups. Some ethnobotanical researchers have documented wild edibles used by different minorities of this region [1318].

The Naxi people, one of the main ethnic groups in northwest Yunnan, have accumulated rich knowledge on using wild edibles. Baidi Village (Sanba Naxi Nationality Township, Shangri-La City, Deqing Prefecture) is located in 27° 30′ N to 27° 28′ N and 100° 01′ E to 100° 05′ E, the Northwest of Yunnan Province, roughly between the two cities Lijiang and Diqing (Fig. 1). It is 103 kilometers from Shangri-La City and 170 kilometers from Lijiang city. The mountain in its territory belongs to Haba Snow Mountain, Yunling Mountain range. Baidi has an area of 8.26 km2 and reaches an elevation of approximately 4500 m while networks of streams and rivers including Geji and Yangtze dissect numerous valleys, which make it encompass a rich diversity of plants. The village has 15 sections or groups of the settlement, eight of which belong to the Naxi (Fig. 1). In the northwest of the village, there is a big limestone terrace, Baishuitai (literal meaning white water terrace). Local people believe this place as a shrine and perform various religious activities [19]. It also is a famous scenic spot that attracts the considerable number of tourists all over the world.
Fig. 1

The location of Baidi village and its small groups

Baidi comprises approximately 3000 inhabitants, and the majority of them are the Naxi ethnic minority along with about 25 % of the Han people and the Yi people. The Naxi in Baidi is culturally related to the Lijiang Naxi, but they are usually considered the purest of their race [20, 21]. Joseph Rock, who is a well-known researcher, studied the Naxi people closely and mentioned that the Naxi in Baidi is the most aboriginal among Naxi, and they follow their old religious customs, which are a mixture of shamanism and the pre-Buddhistic Bon religion of Tibet. There are neither Lama temples nor Chinese temples as in the Lijiang city. The Naxi believes that mountains, rivers, trees, herbs, animals and humans, all have their unique spirits. Among these spirits of nature, the Shu spirits are the most important. According to a Naxi myth, farmland and livestock are in the realm of men while Shu rules the mountains and the rivers. Men frequently invaded the territory of Shu creating hostility and fights between men and Shu. Dongba priests, the mediators with spiritual powers, were then called to regain the harmony between them. They agreed that human beings must worship the Shu god of nature every year, in return Shu would provide men’s need from nature and stop assaulting them. In this way, men and Shu lived in harmony afterward [21]. The religion and ceremonies of the Naxi represent the long history of keeping equilibrium between man and nature to guarantee the sustainability of natural resources.

Wild edibles in this article refer to those plants that grow without cultivation, including fungi and lichen, and consumed by Naxi people or local animals. It mostly includes native species growing in their natural habitat, but sometimes managed, as well as introduced species that have been naturalized [22]. In this paper, we documented angiosperm, gymnosperm, fern, fungi, lichen and algae, which are sources of vegetables, vitamin and functional food, forage, starch and sugar, edible pigments, oil and fats, beverage and honey source.

This study aims to accomplish detailed investigation into wild edibles used by the Naxi in Baidi village and evaluate them to identify innovative organic food products. Also, we aim to explore the distribution of traditional knowledge (TK) and its transmission pathways to the young generation of Naxi.

Methods

Data collection

The fieldwork was conducted in 2013 and 2014. Field studies included free lists, semi-structured interviews, and participatory observation. The total of 86 key informants was selected using snowball sampling [23, 24]. The ages of informants ranged from 21 to 91 (mean age 57 years old), and the sex ratio of informants was almost 1:1 (male to female was 42 to 44). To that 20 other participants below an age of 20 years (mean age 14 years old) were randomly invited. These youngsters were asked to fill the questionnaire with the purpose of documenting the traditional knowledge transmission.

In the first phase of the field research, participants were invited to list all wild edibles still used on a regular basis, and those were used only in the past. The interviews include the questions that were relevant to document detail information on all wild edibles including the source of knowledge about plant use. Every use report on edible plants included (1) number of useful plants mentioned and their botanical families, (2) most frequently used plant parts, (3) most cited species, (4) ways of consumption and preparation, (5) season of collection, (6) habitats where collected. In the second phase, we collected the wild edibles mentioned above with local gatherers. The participatory observation was utilized to secure the cultural implication of plant gathering, preparation, and distribution of wild edibles. Nomenclature of all vascular plants follows Flora of China [25], and the voucher specimens deposited at the herbarium of the Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS (KUN).

Data analysis

Ethnobotanical information collected from 86 key informants was properly documented and analyzed. We classified the wild edibles into the following categories based on usage or main chemical composition: carbohydrates, protein, oil and fats, vegetable, vitamin and functional food, beverage, condiments, forage, honey source and chewing and stimulate plants.

To quantify the use frequency of certain species, we calculated the utilization frequency [26], using following formula:
$$ f=\frac{{\mathrm{N}}_m}{{\mathrm{N}}_i} $$

In this formula, f represents the utilization frequency, Nm is the number of informants mentioned certain species, Ni represents the total number of informants. Higher the value of f, the more frequent is the plant used.

Each species mentioned by an informant within one food category was a use report (UR). To determine diversity of uses and the consensus of informants, we used the Cultural Importance Index (CI), which can be mathematically expressed as [27]:
$$ {\mathrm{CI}}_{\mathrm{s}}={\displaystyle \sum_{\mathrm{u}={\mathrm{u}}_1}^{{\mathrm{u}}_{\mathrm{N}\mathrm{C}}}}{\displaystyle \sum_{\mathrm{i}={\mathrm{i}}_1}^{{\mathrm{i}}_{\mathrm{N}}}}{\mathrm{UR}}_{\mathrm{u}\mathrm{i}/\mathrm{N}} $$

N is the total number of informants, and NC is the total number of use categories. Therefore, the CI is the sum of the proportion of informants that mention each of the use categories for a given species. This index indicates the spread of the use (number of informants) of each species, as well as the diversity of its uses. Every additional use category is a measure of the relative importance of each plant use [27]. Therefore, multiple uses of a species is an indicator of higher CI value.

Also, the Cultural Food Significance Index (CFSI) was calculated to evaluate the cultural significance of wild edibles using following formula given by Andrea Pieroni [28]:
$$ \mathrm{CFSI}=\mathrm{QI}\times \mathrm{AI}\times \mathrm{F}\mathrm{U}\mathrm{I}\times \mathrm{P}\mathrm{U}\mathrm{I}\times \mathrm{MFFI}\times \mathrm{TSAI}\times \mathrm{F}\mathrm{MRI}\times {10}^{-2} $$

This index takes into consideration a wide variety of factors in the evaluation of a specific wild edible. The CFSI include quotation frequency (QI, frequency of quotation index), availability(AI, availability index), typology of the used parts(PUI, parts used index), frequency of use (FUI, frequency of utilization index), kind and number of the food uses (MFFI, multifunctional food use index), taste appreciation (TSAI, taste score appreciation index) and perceived role as food medicine (FMRI, food-medicinal role index). The use of this index allows for exploring the potential wild greens.

To analyze how TK varied according to the characteristics of the different informants, we performed linear regression and t-test using R software (version 3.2.2), taking “Number of edible plants cited by each informant” as the variable to the model. We also consider two entities representing personal data, “ages” (a quantitative variable) and “gender” (a qualitative variable taking a value of male or female). Furthermore, documentation of our field investigation was compared with the nutrition information reported in the various relevant literatures.

Results and discussion

The traditional diet culture of the Baidi village has developed from nomadic lifestyle into an agricultural and pastoral context. Cultivated species play a crucial role in the local diet, but they have a long history of wild edibles gathering. The 86 informants (Fig. 2) of Baidi village reported 173 wild edible species belonging to 76 families and 139 genera (Table 1) that they still collecting or had gathered in the past. Table 1 lists the wild edibles mentioned at least by two informants. Botanical and ethnobotanical information about these plants include scientific name, family, voucher or digital photograph number, vernacular name, food categories, part(s) used and mode of consumption (prevalence of use) and collecting habitat (season) [29]. Food categories include carbohydrates, oil and fats, vegetable, vitamin and functional food, beverage, condiments, forage, and honey source. On average, 20.6 edible taxa were listed per informant. The highest number of wild edibles included vegetables (mean – 13.2 species), whereas vitamins and functional foods were frequently used (mean – 7.4). Other categories were less frequent in use such as carbohydrates (mean –0.4), Edible pigments (mean –0.36), Oil and fats (mean – 1.8), Beverage (mean –0.34), Honey source plant (mean –0.23). CI and CFSI values of the wild edibles, except the forage category, cited at least three times were calculated (Table 1).
Fig. 2

The age structure of 86 key informants

Table 1

Inventory of wild edibles gathered and consumed in the Baidi village

Taxon

Family

Vernacular name

Food categories

Part(s) used and mode of consumption (prevalence of usea)

Collecting habitatb (season)

Voucher number

FC

f

CI

CFSI

Angiosperma

          

     Acorus gramineus Sol. ex Aiton

Acoraceae

 

vitamine & functional food

Rhizomes, boiled in water without garnish (TC).

AE(all seasons)

P1408

    

   Amaranthus sp.

Amaranthaceae

 

vegetable

Leaves, fried (TC).

SC-CA-UA (spring)

0354

    

   Chenopodium album L.

Amaranthaceae

mulv

vegetable

Leaves, fried (TC).

CA-UA (spring and summer)

0151

    

   Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad.

Amaranthaceae

 

vegetable

Leaves, fried (TC).

CA-UA (spring and summer)

P1413

    

   Allium sp.

Amaryllidaceae

gu

edible condiments, vegetable

Leaves, fried (TC).

FO (spring and summer)

0355

40

0.47

0.47

24.00

   Pistacia weinmanniifolia J. Poiss. ex Franch.

Anacardiaceae

yizhu

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (AB).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0055

16

0.19

0.19

5.40

   Ligusticum sinense cv. Chuanxiong S. H. Qiu & et al.

Apiaceae

 

vitamine & functional food

Roots, boiled in water (TC).

FO(all seasons)

     

   Oenanthe javanica (Bl.) DC.

Apiaceae

zen axi

vegetable

Leaves, fried (TC).

AE(all seasons)

0045

31

0.36

0.36

27.90

   Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight

Apocynaceae

niezi

vegetable

Leaves and stems, boiled in water (AB).

SC-UA (all seasons)

0088

    

   Marsdenia sp.

Apocynaceae

Lubei

vegetable

Leaves and stems, boiled in water (AB).

SC (spring and summer)

0234

    

   Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch

Araceae

Bulei

carbohydrates

Tubers, dried, smashed and boiled in water for making curd (TC).

FO-CA-SC (autumn)

0052

    

   Arisaema elephas Buchet

Araceae

Babaxiluo

forage, vitamine & functional food

Roots, boiled in water (TC). Leaves, eaten raw as forage (TC).

SC-CA-UA (all seasons)

0048

    

   Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott

Araceae

Rihaxiluo

forage, vitamine & functional food

Roots, boiled in water (TC). Leaves, eaten raw as forage (TC).

SC-CA-UA (all seasons)

0095

    

   Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.

Asparagaceae

Laosha

vitamine & functional food

Roots, boiled in water (TC).

FO-SC-UA (all seasons)

0047

    

   Maianthemum japonicum (A. Gray) La Frankie

Asparagaceae

Abu

vegetable

Leaves, fried (TC).

FO (spring and summer)

0011

53

0.62

0.62

55.65

   Arctium lappa L.

Asteraceae

Elaba

vegetable, vitamine & functional food

Roots, stewed (TC).

SC-CA-U A (all seasons)

0258

4

0.05

0.05

7.02

   Artemisia sieversiana Ehrhart ex Willd.

Asteraceae

 

forage, vitamine & functional food

Whole plant, boiled in water (AB). Aerial part, eaten raw as forage (TC).

FO-SC-CA-UA (spring, summer and autumn)

0137

    

   Carpesium cernuum L.

Asteraceae

La men ga

forage, vitamine & functional food

Whole plant, boiled in water (TC). Aerial part, eaten raw as forage (TC).

SC-UA (all seasons)

0299

    

   Carpesium sp.

Asteraceae

La men ga

forage, vitamine & functional food

Whole plant, boiled in water (TC). Aerial part, eaten raw as forage (TC).

SC-UA (all seasons)

0150

    

   Cichorium intybus L.

Asteraceae

 

vegetable, forage

Leaves, fried (TC).

SC-CA-UA (all seasons)

P1407

    

   Cirsium lidjiangense Petr. & Hand.-Mazz.

Asteraceae

Raqiku

vegetable, vitamine & functional food

Roots, stewed (TC).

SC-CA-UA (all seasons)

0260

3

0.03

0.03

5.27

   Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

Asteraceae

Munukepei; Youcong

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw (TC).

CA (spring, summer, autumn)

0020

    

   Hippolytia delavayi (Franch. ex W. W. Smith) C. Shih

Asteraceae

Bunasi

vitamine & functional food

Roots, boiled in water (TC).

FO (all seasons)

0114

    

   Leibnitzia anandria (L.) Turcz.

Asteraceae

Mumeicidei

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (AB).

CA (spring, summer, autumn)

0061

    

   Sigesbeckia orientalis L.

Asteraceae

Umeiheiba

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

CA (spring, summer, autumn)

0101

    

   Sonchus oleraceus L.

Asteraceae

Umeisennier

vegetable

Leaves, fried (TC).

CA-UA (spring)

P1420

    

   Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.

Asteraceae

Pugongying

vegetable, vitamine & functional food

Whole plant, boiled in water (TC).

SC-CA-UA (all seasons)

0189

70

0.81

0.85

157.50

   Begonia grandis Dryand.

Begoniaceae

Akangzi

vegetable

Tender leaves and stems, eaten raw (AB).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0087

    

   Berberis sp.

Berberidaceae

Ciilv

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0007

4

0.05

0.05

1.35

   Cynoglossum amabile Stapf & J. R. Drumm.

Boraginaceae

 

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (AB).

CA(spring, summer, autumn)

0064

    

   Ehretia dicksonii Hance

Boraginaceae

Buna

forage, vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (AB). Leaves, as forage (AB).

SC-UA (summer)

0207

4

0.05

0.05

1.35

   Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

Brassicaceae

 

vegetable

Leaves, fried (TC).

SC-CA-UA (spring)

0198

    

   Cardamine macrophylla Willd.

Brassicaceae

You

vegetable

Leaves, fried (TC).

FO (spring and summer)

0266

76

0.88

0.94

205.20

   Cardamine tangutorum O. E. Schulz

Brassicaceae

You

vegetable

Leaves, fried (TC).

FO(spring and summer)

0353

76

0.88

0.94

205.20

   Eutrema yunnanense Franch.

Brassicaceae

Bei

vegetable, forage

Leaves, fried (TC). Eaten raw by animals.

FO (spring and summer)

0352

73

0.85

0.85

65.70

   Nasturtium officinale R. Br.

Brassicaceae

Shuicai, Xiyangcai

vegetable

Leaves, fried (CC).

AE(all seasons)

0166

45

0.52

0.52

206.72

   Thlaspi arvense L.

Brassicaceae

Jucu

oil & fats, vitamine & functional food

Seeds, dried and boiled in water (AB). Whole plant, boiled in water as functional food (AB).

SC-UA (summer)

0129

    

   Adenophora stricta Miq.

Campanulaceae

Apudada

vitamine & functional food, vegetable

Roots, stewed in meat (TC). Leaves, eaten raw (TC).

CA(all seasons)

0038

38

0.44

0.45

106.88

   Cannabis sativa L.

Cannabaceae

Samei

oil & fats

Seeds, dried and boiled in water (AB).

SC-CA-UA (summer and autumn)

P1422

67

0.78

0.78

24.12

   Dipsacus asper Wall. ex DC.

Caprifoliaceae

 

vitamine & functional food

Roots, boiled in water (TC).

FO-SC-CA-UA(all seasons)

P1421

    

   Sambucus adnata Wall. ex DC.

Caprifoliaceae

Shousi

vitamine & functional food

Whole plant, boiled in water (TC).

FO-SC(all seasons)

 

3

0.03

0.03

1.01

   Sambucus javanica Blume

Caprifoliaceae

Munongzi

vitamine & functional food

Whole plant, boiled in water (TC).

SC-CA-UA (all seasons)

0227

    

   Valeriana jatamansi Jones

Caprifoliaceae

Matixiang

vegetable, vitamine & functional food

Whole plant, stewed (TC).

SC-CA-UA (all seasons)

0041

67

0.78

0.90

120.60

   Viburnum betulifolium Batalin

Adoxaceae

Efuni

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0122

30

0.35

0.35

12.15

   Viburnum cylindricum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Adoxaceae

 

oil & fats

Seeds, dried and boiled in water (AB).

FO-SC (winter)

0035

    

   Viburnum foetidum var. ceanothoides (C. H. Wright) Handel-Mazzetti

Adoxaceae

Ciifuni

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0213

30

0.35

0.35

12.15

   Cuscuta chinensis Lam.

Convolvulaceae

Mulupabie

vegetable, vitamine & functional food

Whole plant, boiled in water (TC).

SC-CA-UA (all seasons)

0156

    

   Cornus capitata Wall.

Cornaceae

Laka

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0086

52

0.60

0.60

14.04

   Cyperus sp.

Cyperaceae

Wongdanzi

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

CA(spring, summer and autumn)

     

   Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb.

Dioscoreaceae

Rua ba; Luanba

carbohydrates

Tubers, dried and boiled in water (TC).

FO-CA-SC (autumn)

0094

7

0.08

0.08

4.73

   Dioscorea yunnanensis Prain & Burkill

Dipsacaceae

 

vitamine & functional food

Roots, boiled in water (TC).

FO-SC-CA-UA (all seasons)

P1409

    

   Diospyros lotus L.

Ebenaceae

Tazhu

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

P1417

3

0.03

0.03

1.01

   Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.

Elaeagnaceae

 

vegetable

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

SC-UA (autumn)

0211

    

   Hippophae rhamnoides L.

Elaeagnaceae

Zhu

beverage

Fruits, fermented for sour taste (AB).

FO-SC (autumn)

     

   Pyrola atropurpurea Franch.

Ericaceae

 

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

FO (spring, summer and autumn)

     

   Vaccinium fragile Franch.

Ericaceae

Anmiximi

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (AB).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0021

    

   Bauhinia sp.

Fabaceae

Huangrekei

forage

Leaves, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

FO (spring, summer and autumn)

0142

    

   Cassia sp.

Fabaceae

Wujibaba

forage

Leaves, eaten raw or boiled in water for livestocks (TC).

FO (spring, summer and autumn)

0319

    

   Lespedeza sp.

Fabaceae

Fushibeibei

forage

Leaves, eaten raw or boiled in water (AB).

FO (spring, summer and autumn)

0100

    

   Lespedeza thunbergii subsp. elliptica (Benth. ex Maxim.) H. Ohashi

Fabaceae

 

forage

Leaves, eaten raw or boiled in water (AB).

FO(spring, summer, autumn)

0091

    

   Medicago lupulina L.

Fabaceae

Mosu

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

CA(spring, summer and autumn)

0239

    

   Piptanthus nepalensis (Hook.) Sweet

Fabaceae

Murekei

forage

Leaves, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

FO(spring, summer and autumn)

0105

    

   Trifolium repens L.

Fabaceae

 

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw (TC).

CA(all seasons)

P1415

    

   Quercus sp.

Fagaceae

Laba

forage

Tender Leaves, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

FO (all seasons)

0098

    

   Gentiana rigescens Franch.

Gentianaceae

Yinini; Zii

vitamine & functional food

Whole plant, boiled in water (TC).

FO-SC (all seasons)

0326

    

   Helwingia chinensis Batalin

Helwingiaceae

Ninahagubii

vegetable

Tender leaves, fried (AB).

FO (spring and summer)

0215

4

0.05

0.05

0.90

   Hypericum forrestii (Chitt.) N. Robson

Hypericaceae

Muwaniba

honey source plant

Flowers, sucked (AB).

SC-CA-UA (summer)

0243

    

   Itea yunnanensis Franch.

Iteaceae

Piejulu

forage

Tender leaves, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0077

    

   Juglans cathayensis Dode

Juglandaceae

Gudu

oil & fats

Seeds, dried and boiled in water (AB).

FO-SC-CA-UA (autumn and winter)

P1412

67

0.78

0.80

20.35

   Dracocephalum sp.

Lamiaceae

Bingba

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (AB).

FO (spring, summer and autumn)

0039

    

   Elsholtzia strobilifera (Benth.) Benth.

Lamiaceae

 

edible condiments

Seeds, dried, for seasoning (AB).

SC-CA-UA (autumn and winter)

0192

    

   Mentha canadensis L.

Lamiaceae

Angzhi

vegetable, edible condiments

Tender leaves and stems, fried, or cold and dressed with sauce (TC).

CA-UA (all seasons)

0012

43

0.50

0.50

169.31

   Origanum vulgare L.

Lamiaceae

Kedu

edible condiments

Seeds and leaves, dried, for seasoning (AB).

SC-CA-UA (autumn and winter)

0058

    

   Salvia trijuga Diels

Lamiaceae

 

vitamine & functional food

Roots, boiled in water (TC).

FO-SC-UA (all seasons)

0119

    

   Streptolirion volubile Edgew.

Commelinaceae

Mailexu

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw (TC).

CA(spring, summer and autumn)

0030

    

   Malva verticillata L.

Malvaceae

 

carbohydrates

Tubers, dried and boiled in water (TC).

FO-CA-SC (autumn)

0152

    

   Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.

Moraceae

Kesulu

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0040

3

0.03

0.03

1.01

   Morus mongolica (Bureau) C. K. Schneid.

Moraceae

Ciilu

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0132

    

   Epipactis mairei Schltr.

Orchidaceae

aba

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (AB).

FO(spring, summer and autumn)

0026

    

   Habenaria sp.

Orchidaceae

 

vitamine & functional food

Tubers, boiled in water (AB).

FO (autumn)

0037

    

   Oxalis acetosella L.

Oxalidaceae

Tuolaibaba

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

CA (spring, summer and autumn)

0313

    

   Plantago asiatica L.

Plantaginaceae

Umeiheizhou

vegetable, vitamine & functional food

Whole plant, boiled in water (TC).

SC-CA-UA (all seasons)

0049

64

0.74

0.78

144.00

   Avena fatua L.

Poaceae

Wongdaba

carbohydrates forage

Seeds, dried, smashed and fried (TC). Whole plant for animal (TC).

CA (summer and autumn)

P1419

    

   Catabrosa aquatica (L.) P. Beauv.

Poaceae

Zii

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

CA (spring, summer and autumn)

0256

    

   Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) P. Beauv.

Poaceae

Bai

carbohydrates

Seeds, dried (AB).

SC-CA-UA (summer, autumn and winter)

0146

    

   Phyllostachys glauca McClure

Poaceae

Zhusun

vegetable

Young shoots, fried (TC).

SC-CA-UA (spring and early summer)

0154

5

0.06

0.06

1.13

   Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv.

Poaceae

Kucuzii

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

CA (spring, summer and autumn)

     

   Fagopyrum dibotrys (D. Don) H.Hara

Polygonaceae

Saidiku

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

CA (all seasons)

0015

    

   Fagopyrum gracilipes (Hemsl.) Dammer ex Diels

Polygonaceae

Niarlagulepo

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

CA (spring, summer and autumn)

0141

    

   Oxyria sinensis Hemsl.

Polygonaceae

Huaji

vegetable, forage

Young shoots, eaten raw by people (AB). Leaves, eaten by animals (TC).

SC-CA-UA (spring, summer and autumn)

0176

10

0.12

0.23

15.19

   Polygonum capitatum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Polygonaceae

Niaorla

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw (TC).

CA (spring, summer and autumn)

0144

    

   Polygonum paleaceum Wall.

Polygonaceae

Yeku

vitamine & functional food

Roots, boiled in water (TC).

FO (all seasons)

     

   Polygonum runcinatum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Polygonaceae

Lagasidi

vegetable

Leaves, fried (TC).

SC-CA-UA (spring, summer and autumn)

0237

6

0.07

0.07

4.68

   Rumex acetosa L.

Polygonaceae

Lagasidi

vegetable

Young shoots, eaten raw (AB).

SC-CA-UA (spring, summer and autumn)

0236

    

   Myrsine africana L.

Primulaceae

Lagancii

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (AB).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0076

    

   Clematis armandii Franch.

Ranunculaceae

Ehake

vegetable

Young shoots, fried (TC).

SC-CA-UA (spring)

0163

    

   Clematis ranunculoides Franch.

Ranunculaceae

Umeijuzi

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

CA (spring, summer and autumn)

0046

    

   Thalictrum aquilegiifolium L. var. sibiricum Regel & Tiling

Ranunculaceae

Renuba

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

CA(spring, summer and autumn)

0042

    

   Ziziphus montana W. W. Smith

Rhamnaceae

Cipa

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0349

17

0.20

0.20

5.74

   Amygdalus davidiana (Carrière) de Vos ex Henry

Rosaceae

Buji,buka

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0217

    

   Cerasus cerasoides (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) S. Y. Sokolov

Rosaceae

 

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

P1402

    

   Docynia delavayi (Franch.) C. K. Schneid.

Rosaceae

Sibu

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

 

51

0.59

0.59

11.48

   Fragaria nilgerrensis Schltdl. ex J. Gay

Rosaceae

Anmenbuzi; Alibuji; Ameibuji

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

P1414

    

   Fragaria vesca L.

Rosaceae

Ameibuji

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0226

14

0.16

0.16

3.15

   Malus rockii Rehder

Rosaceae

 

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

     

   Malus yunnanensis (Franch.) C.K. Schneid.

Rosaceae

Lvba

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0210

    

   Osteomeles schwerinae C. K. Schneid.

Rosaceae

Dazhu

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (AB).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0346

18

0.21

0.21

4.05

   Potentilla kleiniana Wight & Arn.

Rosaceae

 

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

CA (spring, summer and autumn)

0079

    

   Prinsepia utilis Royle

Rosaceae

Chuda

vitamine & functional food, beverage, oil & fats

Fruits, eaten raw (AB). Seeds, smashed and boiled in water for oil (CC). Leaves, for making functional tea (TC).

SC-CA-UA(spring, summer and autumn)

0159

45

0.52

0.57

177.69

   Pyracantha angustifolia (Franch.) C. K. Schneid.

Rosaceae

Anmilaximi; Saigulu; Youlubuzhu

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (AB).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0229

9

0.10

0.10

2.63

   Pyracantha fortuneana (Maxim.) H. L. Li

Rosaceae

Abalugu

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (AB).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0004

9

0.10

0.10

2.63

   Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don

Rosaceae

 

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

P1410

    

   Rosa sp.

Rosaceae

Haducii

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0128

    

   Rubus biflorus Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.

Rosaceae

Cipaaha

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0265

29

0.34

0.34

9.79

   Rubus sp.

Rosaceae

Ciinaaha

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0172

29

0.34

0.34

9.79

   Sorbus hemsleyi (C. K. Schneid.) Rehder

Rosaceae

Emaiji

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0274

48

0.56

0.56

135.00

   Sorbus hupehensis C. K. Schneid.

Rosaceae

Yumaiji

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC). Dried and pounded to powder to cure high blood pressure (TC).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0275

48

0.56

0.56

135.00

   Rubia membranacea Diels

Rubiaceae

 

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

CA(spring, summer and autumn)

0121

    

   Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

Rutaceae

 

edible condiments

Fruit shells, dried, for seasoning (TC).

FO-SC-CA (autumn)

0139

    

   Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.

Rutaceae

Yehuajiao

edible condiments

Fruit shells, dried, for seasoning (TC).

FO-SC-CA (autumn)

0078

5

0.06

0.08

13.78

   Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

Saururaceae

Arunaha; Azina

vitamine & functional food, vegetable

Tender leaves, stems and roots, fried, or cold and dressed with sauce (TC). Leaves, boiled in water (TC).

CA-UA (all seasons)

0044

74

0.86

1.21

2164.50

   Schisandra sp.

Schisandraceae

 

beverage

Fruits, for making liqueur (TC)

FO (spring)

     

   Debregeasia orientalis C. J. Chen

Urticaceae

Pimi

vegetable

Young shoots and flower, eaten raw (AB).

SC-CA-UA (spring)

0143

12

0.14

0.14

8.10

   Verbena officinalis L.

Verbenaceae

 

vegetable, vitamine & functional food

Whole plant, boiled in water (TC).

SC-CA-UA (all seasons)

0014

11

0.13

0.13

96.80

   Viola sp.

Violaceae

Lagagudu; Lagaseimei

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (AB).

FO-CA-UA(summer and autumn)

0180

4

0.05

0.05

1.35

   Ampelopsis delavayana Planch.

Vitaceae

Gaiha

vitamine & functional food

Fruits, eaten raw (TC).

FO-CA-UA (summer and autumn)

0084

    

Gymnosperm

          

   Pinus armandi Franch.

Pinaceae

Situo

carbohydrates

Seeds, eaten raw (TC).

FO-SC (autumn)

0250

10

0.12

0.12

2.25

Fern

          

   Equisetum hyemale L.

Equisetaceae

 

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (AB).

CA (spring, summer and autumn)

     

   Adiantum sp.

Pteridaceae

 

forage

Aerial part, eaten raw or boiled in water (TC).

FO (spring, summer and autumn)

0303

    

   Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum (Desv.) Underw. ex Heller.

Pteridaceae

Ade

vegetable

Leaves, fried (TC).

FO (spring and summer)

0222

38

0.44

0.44

51.3

   Pteridium revolutum (Blume) Nakai

Pteridaceae

Angzhide

vegetable

Leaves, fried (TC).

FO (spring and summer)

0267

38

0.44

0.44

51.3

Mushroom

          

   Auricularia sp.

Auriculariaceae

Muer

vegetable

Fruit body, fried (TC).

FO (summer and autumn)

P1416

    

   Boletus edulis Bull.

Boletaceae

Chumugulu

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (summer and autumn)

0342

8

0.09

0.09

4.80

   Tylopilus balloui (Peck) Sing

Boletaceae

Niuganjun

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (summer and autumn)

     

   Tylopilus sp.

Boletaceae

Bamu

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (summer and autumn)

 

10

0.12

0.12

5.20

   Cantharellus cibarius Fr.

Cantharellaceae

Jiyoujun

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (summer and autumn)

P1405

10

0.12

0.12

6.00

   Cordyceps sobolifera (Hill.) Berk. et Br.

Clavicipitaceae

Chongcao

vitamine & functional food

Fruit body, stewed (TC).

FO (summer)

     

   Entoloma clypeatum (L.) P. Kumm.

Entolomataceae

Yiwojun

vegetable

Fruit body, fried (TC).

FO (summer and autumn)

P1406

    

   Gomphus sp.

Gomphaceae

Labajun

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (summer and autumn)

     

   Hericium sp.

Hericiaceae

Houtoujun

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed (TC).

FO (spring, summer and autumn)

 

5

0.06

0.06

2.60

   Laccaria laccata (Scop.) Cooke

Hydnangiaceae

Tashimu

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (summer and autumn)

0282

    

   Hygrophorus sp.

Hygrophoraceae

Huanglasan

vegetable

Fruit body, fried (TC).

FO (autumn)

 

3

0.03

0.03

1.80

   Engleromyces sp.

Hypocreaceae

Zhujun

vegetable

Fruit body, dried and stewed (TC).

FO (summer)

     

   Lentinula sp.

Marasmiaceae

Zhemu

vegetable

Fruit body, fried (TC).

FO (summer and autumn)

 

6

0.07

0.07

3.60

   Morchella esculenta Pers.

Morchellaceae

Aboduoluoluo

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed (TC).

FO (summer)

     

   Coriolus versicolor L.

Polyporaceae

Lingzhi

vitamine & functional food

Fruit body, stewed (TC).

FO(autumn)

P1401

    

   Polyporus sp.

Polyporaceae

Musi

vegetable

Fruit body, fried (AB).

FO-SC (spring and summer)

0278

3

0.03

0.03

1.80

   Ramaria rubri-attenuipes R.H. Petersen & M. Zang

Ramariaceae

Saobajun

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (summer)

 

12

0.14

0.14

6.24

   Lactaricus sp. 1

Russulaceae

Wenzhishi

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (spring and summer)

0338

14

0.16

0.16

8.40

   Lactaricus sp. 2

Russulaceae

Baipajun

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (spring and summer)

0341

17

0.20

0.20

10.20

   Lactaricus sp. 3

Russulaceae

Minuka

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (spring and summer)

0284

    

   Lactarius hatsudake Tanaka

Russulaceae

Tongbulu

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (summer)

0285

    

   Lactarius sp. 4

Russulaceae

Angzhishi

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (spring and summer)

0288

    

   Lactarius sp. 5

Russulaceae

Jucu

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (spring and summer)

0281

    

   Russula sp. 1

Russulaceae

Kaca

vegetable

Fruit body, fried (TC).

FO (summer and autumn)

0286

9

0.10

0.10

5.40

   Russula sp. 2

Russulaceae

Zhebu

vegetable

Fruit body, fried (TC).

FO (summer and autumn)

0340

9

0.10

0.10

5.40

   Russula sp. 3

Russulaceae

Huotanjun

vegetable

Fruit body, fried (AB).

FO (summer)

     

   Russula sp. 4

Russulaceae

Azimenihu

vegetable

Fruit body, fried (TC).

FO (summer and autumn)

0283

    

   Russula virescens (schaeff . ex Zanted) Fr.

Russulaceae

Qingtoujun

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (summer)

 

4

0.05

0.05

2.40

   Thelephora sp.

Thelephoraceae

Ganbajun

vegetable

Fruit body, fried (TC).

FO (summer)

     

   Tricholoma matsutake Sing

Thelephoraceae

Songmaojun

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (autumn)

     

   Tricholoma sp.

Thelephoraceae

Songmaojun

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (autumn)

     

   Tricholoma sp.

Thelephoraceae

Yumu

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, fried (TC).

FO (autumn)

 

19

0.22

0.22

41.04

   Lyophyllum fumosum (Pers. : Fr.) P. D. Orton.

Tricholomataceae

Yiwojun

vegetable

Fruit body, fried (TC).

FO (summer and autumn)

     

   Lyophyllum sp.

Tricholomataceae

Menzher

vegetable

, stewed (TC).

FO (summer and autumn)

0280

31

0.36

0.36

22.32

   Marasmius sp.

Tricholomataceae

Huangpijun

vegetable

Fruit body, fried (TC).

FO (summer)

 

3

0.03

0.03

1.80

   Termitomyces sp. 1

Tricholomataceae

Mulu

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, dried, dried and fried, salted (TC)

FO (summer and autumn)

P1403

36

0.42

0.42

116.64

   Termitomyces sp. 2

Tricholomataceae

Umu

vegetable

Fruit body, stewed, dried, dried and fried, salted (TC)

FO (summer and autumn)

P1403

    

Lichen

          

   Lobaria retigera Trevis.

Lobariaceae

 

vegetable

Whole plant, stewed, or cold and dressed with sauce (AB).

FO (all seasons)

0219

42

0.49

0.49

3.47

   Lobaria yunnanensis Yoshim

Lobariaceae

 

vegetable

Whole plant, stewed, or cold and dressed with sauce (AB).

FO (all seasons)

0253

42

0.49

0.49

3.47

   Thamnolia vermicularia (Sw.) Ach. Ex Schae

Thamnoliaceae

 

beverage

Whole plant, for making tea (TC).

RP (spring)

     

Algae

          

   Nostoc commune Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault

Nostocaceae

Baqi

vegetable

Aerial part, fried (TC).

AE (summer)

0279

    

   Nostoc sphaeroids Kutz

Nostocaceae

Bacai i e

vegetable

Aerial part, fried (TC).

FO (summer)

P1411

    

Species in inventory are ordered from higher to lower plants, and they are arranged firstly by family taxa and then by genus taxa. Vernacular name of wild edibles are written using Chinese pinyin

The types of collecting habitats are based on the characterization proposed by Calabuig (2008)

FC frequency of citation, CFSI cultural food significance index, CI cultural importance index

aPrevalence of use: AB Abandoned, CC currently consumed, TC traditionally consumed

bCollecting habitat: FO Forests (oak woods, pine woods, etc.); SC Scrublands (Pistacia, etc.); AE Aquatic environments (streams, ditch, wet places, etc.); RP Rock places (rocky slopes, rocks, etc.); CA Cultivated areas (orchards, farmland, etc.); UA Urban and periurban areas (villages, roads etc.)

Voucher number with P means voucher photograph number, and the one without P means voucher specimen number

Diversity of wild edibles

Almost all major groups of wild plants in Baidi village have edible members that are reported to have been used by the indigenous Naxi people. Exceptions to the bryophytes, documented wild edibles include algae, lichen, fungi, fern, gymnosperm and angiosperm (Table 2). Most of the documented species were angiosperm with 126 species belonging to 53 families. Rosaceae was the biggest family with 18 wild edibles (Fig. 3), whereas 32 families contained only one edible plant species. Fungi was the second largest group containing 37 species representing 17 families. Gymnosperm included one species (one family), fern four species (two families), lichen three species (two families), and algae two species (one family). About one-sixth of 173 wild edibles were included in more than one food category, as listed in Table 3. As to the collecting habitats [29], most of these plants were collected from the wild populations nearby the village. It was also common that there was a small-scale cultivation of wild plants in the home gardens and all the space surrounding human habitations. Different plant parts were used as a source of food in Baidi village, but the most used parts were different depending on the purpose of the foods (such as forage and food medicines). Leaves, fruits, and the complete aerial parts were the mostly consumed by humans while the animals consumed leaves.
Fig. 3

Family distribution of wild edible plant species of angiosperm category

Wild vegetables

This group was the biggest food category with 75 edible species belonging to 40 families. Russulaceae belonged to fungi had the highest number of species (11 species) eaten as vegetables (Fig. 4). Often wild vegetables were cooked in oil or fat or consumed in stews and soups. The most common procedure was to boil them first and then fried with garlic and chilies. The pork fat was common compared to vegetable oil for frying. The consumption of wild vegetable eaten raw was very rare.
Fig. 4

Percentage of wild vegetables in each family

The most frequently reported species were Cardamine macrophylla Willd., C. tangutorum O. E. Schulz., Eutrema yunnanense Franch. and Houttuynia cordata Thunb. All of these consumed after frying, except the last one, consumed as a salad with sauce. The first three species grow in the mountains, local people collected these species most often while grazing their cattle and horses during the spring and summer seasons. Houttuynia cordata grew wild in cropland and was collected by the local people when they finished their farm work. These four wild vegetables had been consumed for a long time, especially in the time of food shortages, later became the most popular vegetables in Baidi village. Wild gathered vegetables had different chemical composition and nutritional value from cultivated ones, according to Zeghichi [30]. Another two wild vegetables often used in the past, especially in time of food shortage, were the well-known Lobaria retigera Trevis. and L. yunnanensis Yoshim. (laolongpi is a vernacular name for both). These two plants are still consumed in other regions, like the Naxi in Lijiang city. These two species are proved to have high nutritional values such as antioxidant activity [31], but the Naxi in Baidi village abandoned this food tradition because of the unpleasant taste.

Most of the wild vegetables were defined as “bitter”, according to the Naxi, who related this to the concept of “healthy”. This kind of vegetable was considered “healthy” without any specification. According to Johns [32], such use had cultural significance related to the ingestion rather than taste.

Mushrooms also played a significant role in the local diet. Of 37 fungi species, most were eaten as vegetables and could be gathered during spring and fall. The mushrooms were consumed while fresh or after drying, and mostly grilled like meat. The harvesting of fungi for markets also had been one of main economic activities in the Baidi village. According to informants, Boletus edulis Bull., Cantharellus cibarius Fr. and Entoloma clypeatum (L.) P. Kumm., for example, were sold to Lijiang city, and to other provinces, such as Guangdong in Southern China. Women and children were the primary collectors of mushrooms. Mushrooms are the source of food in more than 80 countries worldwide, and their commercial harvesting is an important business in many countries, such as Turkey, the USA and Bhutan [33].

Vitamin and functional food

This food category included mainly wild fruits, which had a high content of vitamins and minerals, and food medicines consumed as both edible plants and medicinal plants. This group, with 60 species, was the second largest regarding the number of wild edibles cited.

Of the 30 wild edible fruits, Rosaceae was the largest family. Most of them did not have market value and sporadically gathered for household consumption, except Malus pumila Mill. and Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don. The most frequently eaten fruit was Cornus capitata Wall. for the Naxi. According to Johns [34], wild fruits are more fibrous and contain higher concentrations of vitamins and a greater diversity of secondary compounds compared to the cultivated species. Our study showed that many wild fruits were used as snacks, mainly by children in the past when cultivated fruits were not frequently available. They were probably a good source of vitamins and minerals but have become less important now, such as Rubus biflorus Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.

We documented 33 species belonging to food medicines. It is interesting that food medicines can also be wild vegetables and wild fruits. For example, Houttuynia cordata was delicious salad and antiphlogosis medicine. Similarly, Sorbus hupehensis C. K. Schneid. was tasty fruit and medicine to high blood pressure. Balick and Cox [35] explained aboriginal people do not make a clear distinction between edible and medicinal plants; we documented similar findings in the traditional practice of the Naxi in Baidi village. This kind of practices also exists in other Naxi villages in Shangri-La [15]. Moreover, some food preparations were taken exclusively for medicinal purpose, for example, Habenaria sp. fried with eggs was the most commonly used medicine for a cough [36, 37].

Carbohydrates and edible condiments

In the past, underground parts of some wild edibles such as Dioscorea oppositifolia that contain a high amount of starch used to be consumed, especially in the time of hardship. We documented six wild edibles used as the source of carbohydrates, out of that two were abandoned, and the remaining four were occasionally consumed. The main reason for the decrease in consumption was the diversity and abundance of cultivated crops in Baidi village. It was very common that wild edibles once frequently consumed in the past were now considered as weeds and rarely eaten. Such kind of change in perception has been reported from several places in Turkey, India and Brazil [3840].

There were only six condiments from the wild source in the diet of Baidi village according to this study. The most often consumed species was Zanthoxylum armatum DC. The use of condiments not only enhances the flavor of certain dishes but also provides preservative and medicinal properties (anti-parasitic) [41].

Oil and fats, beverage and honey source plant

The Naxi in Baidi used total five wild edibles as a source of oil and fats, of which Juglans mandshurica Maxim. and Cannabis sativa L. were most commonly used. These two species were still widely used to make oil and fats. Similarly, Prinsepia utilis oil, rich in flavonoid and have been proved to have an anti-bacteria effect [42, 43], was also frequently used.

A total of four wild edibles recorded were used as the beverage. Fruits of Schisandra sp. were usually soaked in wine, which make the liquor medicinal [44, 45]. Leaves of the three species (Hippophae rhamnoides, Prinsepia utilis and Thamnolia vermicularia), were used to make vinegar and tea. Tea made of Prinsepia utilis has been proved to have significant immunosuppressive and antitumor activity [46, 47].

Hypericum forrestii (Chittenden) N. Robson was the only honey source plant. The local name for this species is “muwaniba”, which means it blooms during Dragon Boat Festival. This species with bright flowers attracts lots of bees during the flowering season, and local children have the habits of sucking its nectar for a sweet taste.

Forage

Altogether 40 wild species belong to 20 families were used as animal fodder in Baidi village. According to informants, they divided fodder plants into two groups: cropland group and mountain group based on the habitats. In mountain group, Eutrema yunnanense was the favorite fodder for the cattle. In cropland group, Fagopyrum gracilipes (Hemsl.) Dammer was often intentionally cultivated as animal fodder. Naxi women collected and carried those fodders from the cropland for stall feeding. The fodder plants also included Oxyria sinensis Hemsl. and Cichorium intybus L., the local people once consumed both of these during the food scarcity.

Evaluating and selecting of wild edibles based on traditional wisdom

Twenty wild edibles were selected (Table 4) using four quantitative indices (FC, f, CI and CFSI). The ranks of some species based on different indices were different, indicating that different indices assigned particular importance of the various attributes, such as the multiplicity of uses and taste appreciation [27].
Table 2

Number of species and number of families in different plant categories

Plant categories

Number of families

Number of species

Angiosperm

53

126

Gymnospermae

1

1

Fern

2

4

Fungi

17

37

Lichen

2

3

Algae

1

2

Total

76

173

Table 3

Number of species in different food categories

Food categories

Number of species

Vegetable

75

Vitamin and functional food

60

Forage

40

Carbohydrates

6

Edible pigments

6

Oil and fats

5

Beverage

4

Honey source plant

1

Table 4

Evaluation of wild edibles (except forage category) of the Baidi village using four indices

Latin name

Vernacular name

Indices

Ranking

FC

f

CI

CFSI

FC

f

CI

CFSI

Cardamine macrophylla Willd.

You

76

0.88

0.94

205.20

1

1

2

3

Cardamine tangutorum O. E. Schulz

You

76

0.88

0.94

205.20

1

1

2

3

Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

Arunaha; Azina

74

0.86

1.21

2164.50

2

2

1

1

Eutrema yunnanense Franch.

Bei

73

0.85

0.85

65.70

3

3

4

13

Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.

Pugongying

70

0.81

0.85

157.50

4

4

4

6

Cannabis sativa L.

Samei

67

0.78

0.78

24.12

5

5

6

18

Juglans cathayensis Dode

Gudu

67

0.78

0.80

20.35

5

5

5

21

Valeriana jatamansi Jones

Matixiang

67

0.78

0.90

120.60

5

5

3

9

Plantago asiatica L.

Umeiheizhou

64

0.74

0.78

144.00

6

6

6

7

Maianthemum japonicum (A. Gray) La Frankie

Abu

53

0.62

0.62

55.65

7

7

7

14

Cornus capitata Wall.

Laka

52

0.60

0.60

14.04

8

8

8

24

Docynia delavayi (Franch.) C. K. Schneid.

Sibu

51

0.59

0.59

11.48

9

9

9

26

Sorbus hemsleyi (C. K. Schneid.) Rehder

Emaiji

48

0.56

0.56

135.00

10

10

11

8

Sorbus hupehensis C. K. Schneid.

Yumaiji

48

0.56

0.56

135.00

10

10

11

8

Nasturtium officinale R. Br.

Shuicai

45

0.52

0.52

206.72

11

11

12

2

Prinsepia utilis Royle

Chuda

45

0.52

0.57

177.69

11

11

10

4

Mentha canadensis L.

Angzhi

43

0.50

0.50

169.31

12

12

13

5

Lobaria retigera Trevis.

Laolongpi

42

0.49

0.49

3.47

13

13

14

38

Lobaria yunnanensis Yoshim

Laolongpi

42

0.49

0.49

3.47

13

13

14

38

Allium sp.

Gu

40

0.47

0.47

24.00

14

14

15

19

Food botanicals with high CI values

Wild edibles that had high CI values were Houttuynia cordata (1.21), Cardamine macrophylla (0.94), C. tangutorum (0.94), Valeriana jatamansi Jones (0.90) and Eutrema yunnanense (0.85). Whole plants of Houttuynia cordata and Valeriana jatamansi were consumed as functional food having a medicinal property, whereas the others were frequently eaten leafy vegetables.

Wild edibles with high CI values might have an interesting dietary constituent and needed further research. Also, a plant with a low CI value could be an important plant for a few people [27].

Food botanicals with high CFSI values

Wild edibles that had high CFSI values had different ranks from those with high CI values, and they were Houttuynia cordata (2164.50), Nasturtium officinale (206.72), Cardamine macrophylla (205.20), Cardamine tangutorum (205.20) and Prinsepia utilis (177.69). Three of them (Houttuynia cordata, Cardamine tangutorum and Cardamine macrophylla) were also in the front rank when assessed with CI values, but only Houttuynia cordata was positioned the same place when assessed with CFSI and CI values. Eutrema yunnanense growing on the high-elevation mountains ranked 13th with CFSI index, attributed to its low availability index value, multifunctional food use index value and food-medicinal role index value. The local people consumed Eutrema yunnanense only as vegetables, and the collection was often time-consuming due to its mountain-grown habitat. While Nasturtium officinale and Prinsepia utilis were in the front position for their high availability index value, and food-medicinal-role index value respectively.

Traditional wisdom from the Naxi

Our interview indicated a long history of consumption of Cardamine macrophylla, C. tangutorum and Eutrema yunnanense (Fig. 5). The results of quantitative indices showed that Cardamine macrophylla, C. tangutorum, and Eutrema yunnanense were in front positions. Hence, we selected these three species as most promising organic products.
Fig. 5

Three wild edible species with most promising exploitation prospects. a Cardamine tangutorum, whole plant; b. C. tangutorum, inflorescence; c C. macrophylla; d. Eutrema yunnanense. a-c photo by Renbin Zhu, (d) photo by Dahai Zhu

Relevant literature studies show that high levels of vitamin C, minerals, fibers and protein have been reported in Cardamine macrophylla [4852]. Also, low concentration of heavy metal has been found in this wild edible species. As its affinity, C. tangutorum, theoretically also had abundant nutrient components. Furthermore, other species of Cardamine are consumed as wild vegetables in Tanzania, India, Poland, United States and Slovakia [5357]. Eutrema wasabi Maxim. is one of the raw materials of mustard. The species has proved to have anti-bacterial activity and flavor components [58, 59], and it has been developed as a condiment for many years by Lijiang Washabi Company Eutrema yunnanense widely consumed in Baidi village seems to be a potential vegetable. Additionally, as an affinity of E. wasabi, this species may have a similar chemical component with E. wasabi, and consequently use a substitute for E. wasabi.

Apart from the consumption in the rural area, the market of these wild edibles was expanded in the nearby city areas in the recent years. However, the scientific research regarding nutritional, phytochemical or phytopharmacological analysis was not conducted on the wild edibles recorded in Baidi village. In the context of increasing interest in the health potential foods, such as functional food and pharmafood, studies on wild edibles regarding the nutritional and medicinal qualities, and as potential alternative crops may be very useful [60]. The resurgence of the interest in the wild edibles was also consistent with a reappraisal of traditional cuisines, for example in European countries and with the general claim for ‘natural’ foods [61].

Age, gender and knowledge dynamics

Age, gender, and traditional knowledge

All the informants in Baidi agreed that they consumed less number of wild edibles compared to the previous decades. Our results indicate the younger people almost could not identify, gather and process these species. Similarly, many middle-aged informants regarded the consumption of wild edibles as a symbol of poverty as they consumed these wild edibles during the time of scarcity. However, the gathering of wild edibles, such as Cardamine macrophylla, C. tangutorum and Eutrema yunnanense in the spring still represents a significant role in the daily diet. Overall, the number of wild edibles cited by informants increased with age according to our regression analysis (Fig. 6), even the correlation was weak (P value < 0.01, the coefficient = 0.19). Concurrent to our results, differences in the knowledge of wild food plants and wild edible fungi among different age groups is reported in two valleys of Shaanxi, central China [62]. However, decreasing knowledge trends in youngsters are common as in the case of other parts of the Himalayas [7]. A study in a Caribbean village finds that the older the people, the less they are affected by external influences [63]. In Baidi, many young people have migrated to other cities in Yunnan to search for employment and education in recent decades. According to our informants, such migration severely disrupted the transfer of local wild edibles knowledge between generations and led to the loss of TK.
Fig. 6

The relationship between informant age and number of species cited. (R2 = coefficient, and ** means P value is less than 0.01.)

The t-test results showed that there were no significant differences between females and males (P value = 0.361), even the number of species cited by women and men in different age groups fluctuated all the time. According to Pfeiffer and Butz [64], gender is a critical variable that influences local knowledge distribution, as it is highly correlated with other sociocultural factors including occupation, education, resource access, and social status and networks. Women tend to know more traditional knowledge [65, 66] because of the sociocultural factors mentioned above. Women are usually unemployed in the rural areas, dedicating themselves to the household and subsistence activities, and they combine this information with their cultural background as well as external knowledge to improve their subsistence [67]. Contrast to that in Baidi there was no clear-cut division of responsibilities for women and men, and they worked together in agriculture, leading to the matched food knowledge between men and women.

Knowledge transmission between Baidi Naxi and outsiders

According to our informants, two wild edibles, Nasturtium officinale and Prinsepia utilis, were currently consumed, and they represented different ways of knowledge acquisition. For Nasturtium officinale, local people learned the food use from the tourists from Guangdong province, and they spread the knowledge to near villages. For Prinsepia utilis, over the half of informants knew the fruits can be used to extract oil, but only one informant consumed the oil product. Some informants acquired the knowledge from their neighbors, relatives, and friends in nearby villages. There was one local market in Haba village (26 Km from Baidi village) for local people around to exchange goods, where also was a site for friends union and information dissemination. Since, the relatives play an important role as transmitters of knowledge and markets are significant sites for food knowledge transmission [68, 69], knowing who holds the traditional knowledge and ensuring the path to transmit it is meaningful ways to protect the knowledge.

The local name of the wild edibles was also helpful in recognizing the knowledge transmission pathways. The wild edibles that have a local Naxi name indicate prolonged consumption history, such as Eutrema yunnanense. The species that do not have local Naxi name may be introduced later, e.g. Nasturtium officinale (Xiyang cai, xiyang means western countries in Mandarin, cai means vegetable) and some fungi (muer, niuganjun etc.). It indicates that Naxi people may learn to use them from the Han Chinese as well as other minorities. Compared with another study in Shangri-La, many species utilized by the Naxi also are used by Tibetans [15], which may be one of the evidence of knowledge transmission.

Conclusion

Baidi village is an excellent example of a rapidly changing village where local traditions compete with modern ways of life. Although many traditions have been lost in the past years, the Naxi in Baidi still preserves most of food traditions, especially the gathering of the wild species.

We documented 173 wild edible plant species representing 76 families 139 genera from our ethnobotanical survey. Some species were traditionally consumed as an important supplement to the diet, particularly during food shortages e.g. Cardamine macrophylla, C. tangutorum and Eutrema yunnanense, which also were potential wild food products with high nutritional value. The age factor significantly differred the traditional knowledge distribution, but there was no significant difference in knowledge between male and female informants. The traditional food knowledge of the Naxi in Baidi is dynamic, affected by social factors and communicated with the outsiders’ food knowledge. Overall, this study provides a deeper understanding of the Naxi traditional knowledge on wild edibles. The study suggests some wild edibles might have an interesting dietary constituent, which necessitates further investigation on the nutrition value as well as market opportunities. With scientific evidence on nutrition value and market opportunity, more people will be attracted toward the wild edibles that will help in addressing food security issues along with conservation of traditional knowledge of the aboriginal population.

Declarations

Acknowledgments

Special gratitude is expressed to the families of Xihong He for their kind hospitality, and to the Jinfu He for his genuine assistance. We are thankful to the families Cuiliu Yang for their helpful comments and suggestions. We are also thankful for the help of other members of our group (Liji He, Zhenzhen Chai, Shan Li, Ruyan Fan). We also thank Renbin Zhu and Dahai Zhu for providing pictures of Cardamine tangutorum and Eutrema yunnanense. This research was funded by National Nature Science Foundation of China (31270379). Sailesh Ranjitkar is supported by the CGIAR research programs on ‘Forests, Trees and Agroforestry’ (CRP 6.2).

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences
(2)
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
(3)
World Agroforestry Centre East and Central Asia
(4)
College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University

References

  1. Łuczaj Ł, Köhler P, Pirożnikow E, Graniszewska M, Pieroni A, Gervasi T. Wild edible plants of Belarus: from Rostafiński’s questionnaire of 1883 to the present. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9:21.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Lulekal E, Asfaw Z, Kelbessa E, Van Damme P. Wild edible plants in Ethiopia: a review on their potential to combat food insecurity. Afr Focus. 2011;24:71–121.Google Scholar
  3. Cunningham AB. Applied ethnobotany. People, wild plant use and conservation. 1 publth edition. London: Earthscan; 2001.Google Scholar
  4. Pardo-de-Santayana M, Tardío J, Blanco E, Carvalho AM, Lastra JJ, San Miguel E, et al. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal): a comparative study. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007;3:27.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Luczaj L, Szymański WM. Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007;3:17.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Schunko C, Vogl CR. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2010;6:17.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Rajbhandary S, Ranjitkar S. Herbal drugs and pharmacognosy – monographs on commercially important medicinal plants of Nepal. Kathmandu: Ethnobotanical society of Nepal; 2006.Google Scholar
  8. Pieroni A. Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;70:235–73.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Signorini MA, Piredda M, Bruschi P. Plants and traditional knowledge: an ethnobotanical investigation on Monte Ortobene (Nuoro, Sardinia). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2009;5:6.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Grasser S, Schunko C, Vogl CR. Gathering “tea” – from necessity to connectedness with nature. Local knowledge about wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2012;8:31.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. González JA, García-Barriuso M, Amich F. The consumption of wild and semi-domesticated edible plants in the Arribes del Duero (Salamanca-Zamora, Spain): an analysis of traditional knowledge. Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2011;58:991–1006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Kang YX, Luczaj L, Kang J, Wang F, Hou JJ, Guo QP. Wild food plants used by the Tibetans of Gongba Valley (Zhouqu county, Gansu, China). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10(1):20.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Xin T, De Riek J, Guo H, Jarvis D, Ma LJ, Long CL. Impact of traditional culture on Camellia reticulata in Yunnan, China. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2015;11(1):1–11.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Zhang LL, Zhang Y, Pei SJ, Geng YF, Wang C, Yuhua W. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal dietary plants used by the Naxi People in Lijiang Area, Northwest Yunnan, China. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2015;11(1):40.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ju Y, Zhuo JX, Liu B, Long CL. Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9:28.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Yang LX, Ahmed S, Stepp J, Mi K, Zhao YQ, Ma JZ, et al. Comparative homegarden medical ethnobotany of Naxi healers and farmers in Northwestern Yunnan, China. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10(1):6.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu YC, Dao ZL, Yang CY, Liu YT, Long CL. Medicinal plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la, Yunnan, China. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2009;5:15.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Huber FK, Ineichen R, Yang YP, Weckerle CS. Livelihood and conservation aspects of non-wood forest product collection in the Shaxi Valley, Southwest China. Econ Bot. 2010;64:189–204.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. He JQ, He JR. The cultural transmission and religion harmony for multivariant nationalities—the Eryueba among the Naxi in Baidi village, Shangri-La as a case study. Thinking. 2009;S1:4–8.Google Scholar
  20. Yang FQ. A brief history of modern Naxi Yunnan. Kunming: Yunnan People’s Publishing House; 2012.Google Scholar
  21. Rock JFC. The ancient Nakhi kingdom of southwest China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1947.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Menendez-Baceta G, Aceituno-Mata L, Tardío J, Reyes-García V, Pardo-de-Santayana M. Wild edible plants traditionally gathered in Gorbeialdea (Biscay, Basque Country). Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2012;59(7):1329–47.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Heckathorn DD. Snowball versus respondent-driven sampling. Sociol Methodol. 2011;41:355–66.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Blernackl P, Waldorf D. Snowball sampling: problems and techniques of chain referral sampling. Sociol Methods Res. 1981;10:141–63.Google Scholar
  25. Flora of China Editorial Committee. Flora of China. Beijing: Science Press, and St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press; 1994–2013.Google Scholar
  26. Ladio AH, Lozada M. Nontimber forest product use in two human populations from northwest Patagonia: a quantitative approach. Hum Ecol. 2001;29:367–80.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. Tardío J, Pardo-de-Santayana M. Cultural importance indices. a comparative analysis based on the useful wild plants of southern Cantabria (Northern Spain). Econ Bot. 2008;62:24–39.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  28. Pieroni A. Evaluation of the cultural significance of wild food botanicals traditionally consumed in Northwestern Tuscany, Italy. J Ethnobiol. 2001;21:89–104.Google Scholar
  29. Calabuig EL (Coord.). Arribes del Duero: Guia de la naturaleza. Leon: Edilesa; 2008.Google Scholar
  30. Zeghichi S, Kallithraka S, Simopoulos AP, Kypriotakis Z. Nutritional composition of selected wild plants in the diet of Crete. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2003;91:22–40.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang XM, Li J, Li ZX, Zhao WQ. Antioxidant activity of extracts of Laolongpi in vitro. Mod Tradit Chin Med. 2010;30:79–80.Google Scholar
  32. Johns T, Chapman L. Phytochemicals ingested in traditional diets and medicines as modulators of energy metabolism. In: Arnason JT, Mata R, Romeo JT, editors. Phytochemistry of medicinal plants. New York: Plenum Press; 1995. p. 161–88.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  33. Boa E. Wild edible fungi: a global overview of their use and importance to people. Rome: FAO; 2004.Google Scholar
  34. Johns T. With bitter herbs they shall eat it: chemical ecology and the origins of human diet and medicine. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press; 1990.Google Scholar
  35. Balick MJ, Cox PA. Plants, people and culture, the science of ethnobotany. New York: Scientific American Library; 1996.Google Scholar
  36. Jagtap SS, Satpute RA, Rahatgaonkar AM, Lanjewar KR. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, antimicrobial and quantitative multi-elemental analysis of Habenaria longicorniculata J. Graham. J Acad Ind Res. 2014;3:108–17.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  37. Rajendran A, Rao NR, Kumar KR, Henry AN. Some medicinal orchids of southern India. Anc Sci Life. 1997;17:10–4.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dogan Y, Ugulu I, Durkan N. Wild edible plants sold in the local markets of Izmir, Turkey. Pak J Bot. 2013;45:177–84.Google Scholar
  39. Kumar A. Ethnobotanical study of wild vegetables used by rural communities of Kannauj district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Emir J Food Agric. 2013;25:760–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  40. Do Nascimento VT, De Lucena RFP, Maciel MIS, De Albuquerque UP. Knowledge and use of wild food plants in areas of dry seasonal forests in Brazil. Ecol Food Nutr. 2013;52:317–43.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Blanco E. Etnobotánica o la respuesta a nuestras necesidades. La naturaleza: tradiciones del entorno vegetal; 2000.Google Scholar
  42. Lv C, Pu ZH, Yin ZQ, Li C, Du YH. Study on the anti-bacteria effect of extracts from Prinsepia utilis Royle Oil Meal in vitro. J Anhui Agric Sci. 2009;37:10533–5.Google Scholar
  43. Zhan SQ, Yuan DS, Li XT, Li JL, Yin ZQ. Identification and determination of total flavonoid: from Prinsepia utilis Royle. Med Plant. 2010;1:12–5.Google Scholar
  44. Chen AJ, Li CH, Gao WH, Hu ZD, Chen XG. Separation and determination of active components in Schisandra chinensis Baill. and its medicinal preparations by non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis. Biomed Chromatogr. 2005;19:481–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  45. Li RT, Sun HD. Studies on the chemical constituents and bioactivities of five Schisandra medicinal species and Elsholtzia bodinieri. J Grad Sch Chin Acad Sci. 2008;25:569–75.Google Scholar
  46. Xu YQ, Yao Z, Hu JY, Teng J, Takaishi Y, Duan HQ. Immunosuppressive terpenes from Prinsepia utilis. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2007;9:637–42.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Bhattarai NK. Medical ethnobotany in the Karnali Zone, Nepal. Econ Bot. 1992;46:257–61.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  48. Li SL, Yu DP, Li CH, Xie KP, Qi DJ. Development and utilization of Cardamine macrophylla Wild. Resour Dev Market. 2010;26:139–40.Google Scholar
  49. Dong WW, Lu ZC, Qu Y, Lu RH. Study on nutritional components of Cardamine macrophylla wild. Nat Prod Res Dev. 2007;19:442–4.Google Scholar
  50. Xiang JQ, Li YJ, Yang YK, Long L, Yin HQ, Shai CQ, et al. Research stutus of Cardimine. J Hubei Univ Nationalities (Natural Science Edition). 2011; 29:440–3.Google Scholar
  51. Kang YX, Łuczaj Ł, Ye S, Zhang SJ, Kang J. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi of Heihe valley (Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, central China): herbophilia and indifference to fruits and mushrooms. Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2012;81:405–13.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  52. Wang LX. Exploitation and utilization on wild vegetable resources in Huangshan region. Resour Dev Market. 2006;22:469–71.Google Scholar
  53. Vainio-Mattila K. Wild vegetables used by the Sambaa in the Usambara Mountains, NE Tanzania. Ann Bot Fennici. 2000;37:57–67.Google Scholar
  54. Kayang H. Tribal knowledge on wild edible plants of Meghalaya, Northeast India. Indian J Tradit Know. 2007;6:177–81.Google Scholar
  55. Łuczaj Ł. Changes in the utilization of wild green vegetables in Poland since the 19th century: a comparison of four ethnobotanical surveys. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;128:395–404.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Pemberton RW, Lee NS. Wild food plants in South Korea; market presence, new crops, and exports to the United States. Econ Bot. 1996;50:57–70.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  57. Łuczaj Ł. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia. Acta Soc Bot Pol. 2012;81:245–55.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  58. Lu LH, Guo Q, Yan WL, Wu DC, Liu XF, Fan MR, et al. Study on volatile components of Yunnan Eutrema Wasabi Maxim. Yunnan Chem Technol. 2011;38:18–20.Google Scholar
  59. Zhang JJ, He FF. Study on the callus and cells’ suspension culture on Eutrema Wasabia and the flavor components. Pharm Biotechnol. 2011;18:21–5.Google Scholar
  60. Etkin NL. Medicinal cuisines: diet and ethnopharmacology. Int J Pharmacogn. 1996;34:313–26.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  61. Rigat M, Bonet MÀ, Garcia S, Garnatje T, Vallès J. Ethnobotany of food plants in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): non-crop food vascular plants and crop food plants with medicinal properties. Ecol Food Nutr. 2009;48:303–26.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kang YX, Łuczaj Ł, Kang J, Zhang SJ. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi in two valleys of the Qinling Mountains (Shaanxi, central China). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9(1):26.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Quinlan MB, Quinlan RJ. Modernization and medicinal plant knowledge in a caribbean horticultural village. Med Anthropol Q. 2007;21:169–92.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Pfeiffer J, Butz R. Assessing cultural and ecological variation in ethnobiological research: the importance of gender. J Ethnobiol. 2005;25:240–78.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  65. Panyaphu K, Van On T, Sirisa-ard P, Srisanga P, Kaow SC, Nathakamkitkul S. Medicinal plants of the Mien (Yao) in northern Thailand and their potential value in the primary healthcare of postpartum women. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;135:226–37.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Junsongduang A, Balslev H, Inta A, Jampeetong A, Wangpakapattanawong P. Karen and Lawa medicinal plant use: Uniformity or ethnic divergence? J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;151:517–27.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Garibay-Orijel R, Ramírez-Terrazo A, Ordaz-Velázquez M. Women care about local knowledge, experiences from ethnomycology. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2012;8:25.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Haselmair R, Pirker H, Kuhn E, Vogl CR. Personal networks: a tool for gaining insight into the transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyrolean (Austrian) migrants in Australia, Brazil and Peru. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10:1.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Powell B, Ouarghidi A, Johns T, Tattou MI, Eyzaguirre P. Wild leafy vegetable use and knowledge across multiple sites in Morocco: a case study for transmission of local knowledge? J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10:34.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Geng et al. 2016

Advertisement