Open Access

Sociocultural and ecological factors influencing management of edible and non-edible plants: the case of Ixcatlán, Mexico

  • Selene Rangel-Landa1,
  • Alejandro Casas1Email author,
  • Eduardo García-Frapolli1 and
  • Rafael Lira2
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine201713:59

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-017-0185-4

Received: 31 July 2017

Accepted: 5 October 2017

Published: 30 October 2017

Abstract

Background

Identifying factors influencing plant management allows understanding how processes of domestication operate. Uncertain availability of resources is a main motivation for managing edible plants, but little is known about management motives of non-edible resources like medicinal and ceremonial plants. We hypothesized that uncertain availability of resources would be a general factor motivating their management, but other motives could operate simultaneously. Uncertainty and risk might be less important motives in medicinal than in edible plants, while for ceremonial plants, symbolic and spiritual values would be more relevant.

Methods

We inventoried edible, medicinal, and ceremonial plants in Ixcatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico, and conducted in-depth studies with 20 native and naturalized species per use type; we documented their cultural importance and abundance by interviewing 25 households and sampling vegetation in 33 sites. Consumption amounts and preferences were studied through surveys and free listings with 38 interviewees. Management intensity and risk indexes were calculated through PCA and their relation analyzed through regression analyses. Canonical methods allowed identifying the main sociocultural and ecological factors influencing management of plants per use type.

Results

Nearly 64, 63, and 55% of all ceremonial, edible, and medicinal wild plants recorded, respectively, are managed in order to maintain or increase their availability, embellishing environments, and because of ethical reasons and curiosity. Management intensity was higher in edible plants under human selection and associated with risk. Management of ceremonial and medicinal plants was not associated with indexes of risk or uncertainty in their availability. Other sociocultural and ecological factors influence management intensity, the most important being reciprocal relations and abundance perception.

Conclusions

Plant management through practices and collectively regulated strategies is strongly related to control of risk and uncertainty in edible plants, compared with medicinal and ceremonial plants, in which reciprocal interchanges, curiosity, and spiritual values are more important factors. Understanding how needs, worries, social relations, and ethical values influence management decisions is important to understand processes of constructing management strategies and how domestication could be started in the past and are operated at the present.

Keywords

Cultural importanceDomesticationIxcatecPlant managementRisk managementReciprocity interchangeSpiritual values and plant managementTehuacán Valley

Background

Management of plant resources and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) are intimately related biocultural aspects that crucially influence the modeling of strategies of multiple use of natural resources in rural communities [13]. Understanding how management systems do operate, and identifying the factors influencing and motivating them, is greatly important for analyzing how and why plant management is currently decided, how the ongoing processes of domestication are operating, and how these could have operated in the past [4]. Therefore, studies of these processes may be relevant for designing current strategies of sustainable use of plant resources and ecosystems, as well as for understanding factors that led humans to start domestication and agriculture in the past.

Management can be defined as all practices, interventions, transformations, strategies, or decisions deliberately made by humans on ecosystems, their components, functions, and even their emergent properties, in order to use, conserve, or recover them [5, 6]. In traditional contexts, management practices are based on ancient knowledge transmitted from generation to generation, but innovations are continually constructed influenced by new observations, experimentation, and information from recent sources (information from neighboring villages, schools, communication media, interventions by NGOs, governmental promoters, researchers, among others). Both old and new management practices are organized in dynamic systems of knowledge, beliefs, cultural and spiritual values, and local institutions [7, 8].

For studying domestication, it is particularly interesting to document the morphological and genetic divergences between wild and managed populations directed to maintain or increase the availability of particular phenotypes of managed species. Such aspects provide valuable elements for explaining how processes of domestication currently operate and how these could have operated in the past. The ongoing processes of domestication can be documented in numerous rural communities of the world and are responsible for a continuous mechanism of divergence and generation of a new variation of genetic resources. As a research group, we have focused our attention on domestication processes occurring in Mesoamerica, one of the most active areas of plant management and one of the earliest centers of plant domestication in the World [5, 9, 10]. Numerous studies have documented the consequences of domestication, but relatively few have analyzed what factors motivate people to manage and domesticate plants, animals, and other organisms. In this study, we focus our attention to analyzing the main causes of the process.

Management involves several types of practices, tools, and relations between energy invested and amounts of resources obtained; such aspects reflect different degrees of management intensity [11, 12]. Authors analyzing this topic coincide that management intensity of plants goes from gathering, let standing, special care, protection, and transplanting, to practices procuring increase of desirable plant abundance by enhancing and deliberately propagating them [5, 6]. Some variables have been proposed as relevant for analyzing the degree of management intensity: (1) the number and complexity of practices carried out, (2) the number of people or social units (i.e., persons, households, or communities) participating in such practices, (3) the involvement and level of complexity of planning strategies, (4) social agreements regulating the actions, (5) the occurrence of human selection favoring particular phenotypes and the intensity in which it operates, (6) the deliberate practices favoring human-mediated gene flow and manipulation of plant reproduction, (7) the amounts of fossil or human energy invested in practices, (8) the complexity of tools used, and (9) the amount of products obtained per area unit [1113].

In several case studies with cacti, agaves, herbs, and trees, mainly with edible use, we have documented that managed plants under higher management intensity are those more consumed or commercialized and whose future availability becomes compromised due to their relatively low availability in relation to the demand on them [1117]. In other words, plant management is influenced by the amounts of products required by social units (which is in turn influenced by their cultural and economic value) but also by people’s perception of the product quality and their substitutability or not by other resources. In addition, management is influenced by the natural availability of plant products, determined by parameters like distribution and abundance, their resilience capacity after human impact on populations, their vulnerability, and management feasibility [11, 12, 18], as well as the ease of access to resources regulated by land tenure and communitarian agreements. All these relations have allowed proposing that management is a response to the need of facing risks or uncertainty in the current and future availability of resources [12]. In other words, it is a response of people’s worries for ensuring availability of resources [12, 19] or preventing their loss [15].

However, some studies have documented that cultural motives such as relations of reciprocity among persons and communities, some spiritual aspects, and efforts to maintain customs and traditions [20, 21] commonly motivate management practices. In addition, practices such as tolerance or let standing of plants in disturbed areas may be associated with ethical principles like the right of plants to live, whereas enhancing abundance of some species may be associated to favor variants of higher quality to embellish the sites where they occur [2226]. Transplanting and other forms of propagation may simply be motivated by the need to have particular plants closer because of their beauty, odor, and role in rituals or simply because of curiosity to know how plants grow and reproduce [19, 23]. These scenarios allow supposing that management type and intensity are not only responses to risk, but also practices related to ethic or esthetic values, symbolism, or curiosity, and all factors may be operating simultaneously. Analyzing how people make management decisions on plants with different purposes may allow visualizing more clearly different motives for managing plants and management intensity [12, 27]. Therefore, this study explores management motives for plants with different use types.

We hypothesized that uncertainty in availability of plant resources is a main factor motivating management of plants, especially those directed to satisfy basic needs. We therefore expected that edible plants would have higher management intensity as the higher the risk or uncertainty in their availability, as similarly documented in previous studies [12, 13]. Uncertainty would be influenced by the scarcity of plant resources and human pressures on them; therefore, scarce species with high cultural value would be more intensely managed. Ecological aspects of plants like survival, vigor, or resprouting capacities, which may be affected by use, and others that influence the ease of management like life cycle length, reproductive systems, ease of propagation, and adaptability to human-made environments would influence management types and intensities. Medicinal plants are generally used in smaller amounts than edible plants (except those that are extracted for commercialization); therefore, we expected that the pattern of management as a response to risk would be less pronounced than in edible plants [12]. Finally, we expected that the management of plants used for rituals and ceremonies, is not necessarily influenced by risk since purposes and amounts of plants used for these purposes follow different rationalities in which reciprocity relations, esthetic and symbolic values could be important.

Summarizing, our study aimed to analyze how management type and intensity are influenced by sociocultural and ecological factors in edible, medicinal, and ceremonial plants among the Ixcatec from Santa María Ixcatlán, Mexico. We analyzed whether or not people’s worries about availability of plants operate similarly in plants with different use type and look for evaluating the weight of different motives for decisions on managing plant resources.

Methods

Study area

Santa María Ixcatlán belongs to the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve, Central México (Fig. 1). It is located at elevations from 800 to 2600 m, with annual rainfall of 721 mm and average temperature of 17.2 °C. Climate is temperate sub-humid in high zones and semiarid in lowlands [28, 29]. The traditional General Assembly regulates decisions on land, natural resources, and social life [30]. Ixcatlán is inhabited by 171 households [31], almost all of them catholic [26]; 80% of the people consider themselves to be indigenous, but only 15 persons speak Ixcatec, and this is the only village of the world where the Ixcatec language is spoken [31, 32]. Subsistence of the people is based on the multiple use of natural resources and ecosystems, seasonal agriculture, livestock raising, and forest resource extraction [26]. We previously reported 630 plant species used by local people for satisfying different needs [26], nearly 400 species receiving some type of management in order to increase their abundance [26]. Gathering and management of plants is carried out in 18 types of forests, agroforestry systems, and homegardens over a 41,530-ha territory [26, 3135].
Fig. 1

Location of the community of Santa María Ixcatlán, Oaxaca, Central México

Inventory of edible, medicinal, and ceremonial plants

Ethnobotanical studies by Rangel-Landa et al. [26] documented names, uses, and management of all plant species through semi-structured interviews with 44 persons (see Table 1) in 73 sessions. The information was systematized into the ethnobotanical database of Mexican plants (BADEPLAM), at the Botanical Garden, UNAM, and voucher specimens were deposited in the herbaria MEXU, EBUM, IEB-Bajío, and IBUG. The nomenclature of plant species followed APG III consulted through the site www.theplantlist.org [36].
Table 1

Consultants’ details and the activities in which they collaborated

ID

Sex

Age

Language

Main activities

Participant type

Semiestructured interviews

Free lists

Surveys 2012

In-depth interviews

Homegarden

Agricultural field

Mescal factory

1

Male

25

Spanish

Mescal production

Key participant

Yes

Yes

    

2

2

Male

50

Spanish

Agriculture, mescal production

Key participant

Yes

 

16

  

1

 

3

Male

72

Spanish, Ixcatec

Agriculture, palm weaver

      

6

 

4

Male

66

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

   

12

    

5

Male

46

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

Key participant

Yes

Yes

   

2

 

6

Female

44

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

 

Yes

 

15

 

8

  

9

Male

 

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

 

Yes

   

5

  

10

Male

48

Spanish

Agriculture, commerce

Key participant

Yes

Yes

1

    

11

Male

62

Spanish

Agriculture, mescal production

Key participant

Yes

   

10

  

12

Male

35

Spanish

Agriculture, mescal production, palm weaver

   

13

    

14

Male

67

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

      

3

 

16

Male

73

Spanish

Agriculture, mescal production, palm weaver

  

Yes

     

17

Female

 

Spanish

Student

  

Yes

     

18

Female

60

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

 

Yes

   

13

  

19

Female

35

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

   

1

    

20

Female

62

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

Key participant

Yes

 

7

Yes

15

  

23

Male

72

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

  

Yes

  

3

  

24

Male

70

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

   

14

    

25

Male

51

Spanish

Agriculture, mescal production, palm weaver

   

5

    

26

Male

82

Spanish, Ixcatec

Agriculture, palm weaver

Key participant

Yes

    

4

 

27

Male

 

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

   

6

    

28

Male

68

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

   

4

    

30

Male

59

Spanish

Agriculture, mescal production, palm weaver

  

Yes

     

31

Male

57

Spanish

Shepherd

Key participant

Yes

Yes

 

Yes

   

34

Female

48

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

   

5

    

35

Male

 

Spanish

Student

  

Yes

     

36

Female

70

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

 

Yes

   

7

  

37

Female

46

Spanish

Commerce, domestic chores

  

Yes

 

Yes

   

38

Female

18

Spanish

Student

 

Yes

      

39

Female

 

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

  

Yes

20

    

41

Female

34

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

  

Yes

 

Yes

   

42

Female

64

Spanish, Ixcatec

Domestic chores, palm weaver

Key participant

Yes

Yes

12

 

17

  

43

Male

 

Spanish

Agriculture, mescal production, palm weaver

 

Yes

      

46

Male

54

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

   

15

    

47

Female

41

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

    

Yes

10

  

48

Female

 

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

 

Yes

   

12

  

49

Male

 

Spanish

Commerce

 

Yes

      

50

Female

41

Spanish

Commerce, domestic chores

  

Yes

     

51

Female

35

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

   

6

    

52

Male

76

Spanish, Ixcatec

Agriculture, palm weaver

Key participant

Yes

Yes

9

 

16

  

53

Male

 

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

     

12

  

55

Male

32

Spanish

Agriculture, construction worker, palm weaver

  

Yes

     

57

Female

 

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

 

Yes

   

9

  

58

Female

41

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

Key participant

Yes

Yes

16

    

59

Male

38

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

  

Yes

     

60

Female

83

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

   

11

    

61

Female

88

Spanish, Ixcatec

Domestic chores, palm weaver

   

2

    

63

Female

59

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

 

Yes

    

7

 

64

Male

 

Spanish

Agriculture, mescal production, palm weaver, shepherd

 

Yes

      

65

Male

73

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

 

Yes

 

18

Yes

   

66

Female

51

Spanish, Ixcatec

Domestic chores, palm weaver

Key participant

Yes

Yes

2

    

67

Male

20

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

  

Yes

     

68

Male

61

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

 

Yes

      

69

Male

 

Spanish

Student

  

Yes

     

70

Female

71

Spanish, Ixcatec

Domestic chores, palm weaver

Key participant

Yes

Yes

18

 

4

  

72

Male

86

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

   

11

    

73

Female

82

Spanish, Ixcatec

Domestic chores, palm weaver

Key participant

Yes

   

5

  

74

Male

38

Spanish

Agriculture, construction worker, palm weaver

  

Yes

     

76

Female

65

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

 

Yes

Yes

  

3

  

77

Male

38

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

  

Yes

     

78

Female

40

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

   

10

    

79

Male

59

Spanish

Agriculture, mescal production, palm weaver, construction worker

  

Yes

20

Yes

  

5

81

Female

 

Spanish

domestic chores, palm weaver

  

Yes

     

82

Female

62

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

 

Yes

   

2

  

83

Female

33

Spanish, Ixcatec

Domestic chores, palm weaver

  

Yes

 

Yes

   

84

Male

14

Spanish

Palm weaver, student

Key participant

Yes

   

6

  

85

Male

 

Spanish

Mescal production, palm weaver

 

Yes

      

87

Female

 

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

 

Yes

   

9

  

88

Male

57

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

  

Yes

     

89

Female

72

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

  

Yes

     

90

Male

26

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

  

Yes

 

Yes

   

91

Male

80

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

  

Yes

19

    

93

Female

66

Spanish, Ixcatec

Domestic chores, palm weaver, shepherdess

Key participant

Yes

Yes

17

 

1

  

95

Male

64

Spanish

Agriculture, mescal production, palm weaver

Key participant

Yes

Yes

7

    

97

Female

79

Spanish, Ixcatec

Domestic chores, palm weaver

Key participant

Yes

 

14

 

11

  

98

Male

88

Spanish, Ixcatec

Palm weaver

Key participant

Yes

 

3

 

14

  

100

Female

84

Spanish, Ixcatec

Domestic chores, palm weaver

Key participant

Yes

Yes

4

    

101

Female

94

Spanish, Ixcatec

Domestic chores, palm weaver

 

Yes

      

102

Female

33

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

   

13

    

103

Male

25

Spanish

Agriculture, shepherd

Key participant

Yes

Yes

  

15

  

104

Female

39

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

 

Yes

   

1

  

106

Male

55

Spanish

Agriculture, mescal production, palm weaver

  

Yes

     

107

Male

 

Spanish

Agriculture

   

8

    

108

Female

92

Spanish, Ixcatec

Domestic chores, palm weaver

 

Yes

      

109

Female

32

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

  

Yes

 

Yes

   

110

Female

 

Spanish

Nurse

 

Yes

      

111

Female

24

Spanish

Domestic chores, nurse assistant

 

Yes

      

113

Female

48

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

 

Yes

  

Yes

6

  

114

Female

50

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

    

Yes

   

115

Male

57

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

    

Yes

   

116

Female

55

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

    

Yes

18

  

117

Male

37

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

    

Yes

   

118

Male

31

Spanish

Agriculture, palm weaver

    

Yes

   

119

Female

46

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

    

Yes

   

120

Female

35

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

    

Yes

   

121

Male

39

Spanish

Agriculture, construction worker, palm weaver

    

Yes

   

122

Female

71

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

    

Yes

   

123

Female

74

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

    

Yes

20

  

124

Female

 

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

    

Yes

   

125

Female

81

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

    

Yes

21

  

126

Female

70

Spanish

Domestic chores, palm weaver

    

Yes

   

127

Female

31

Spanish

Domestic chores, commerce

    

Yes

   

129

Male

 

Spanish

Agriculture, mescal production

       

3

130

Male

 

Spanish

Agriculture, mescal production

       

4

131

Male

 

Spanish

Agriculture, mescal production

       

1

In-depth interviews and surveys

In order to analyze how management is influenced by sociocultural and ecological factors, we selected samples of edible, medicinal, and ceremonial plants. The samples included 20 species of native and naturalized plants per use type, representing the management intensity gradient [26].

In-depth interviews were conducted to obtain deeper and detailed information on uses, values, perception about availability, vulnerability, and management practices (Table 2) for the selected species. These interviews were conducted with 25 persons selected at random (17 women and 8 men, see Table 1). In order to estimate the proportion of families that consume the studied plants in the village, we conducted a survey documenting the role of plant resources in people subsistence [26]. The survey included 20 households selected at random.
Table 2

Criteria of variables considered for analyzing sociocultural and ecologic factors that influence management intensity

Matrix

Variables

Description

Criterion and values

Sociocultural

(matrix X)

Uses number

Total number of registered uses

1 per use

SI basic plants

Sutrop’s cognitive prominence index of plants considered as basic to live in Ixcatlán

0–1; 0 is a value assigned when no consultant mentioned the plant, and 1 is a theoretical value that a plant could have if all consultants mentioned it at first rank [39]

SI by use type

Sutrop’s cognitive prominence index of plants by category (edible, medicinal, ceremonial)

0–1; 0 is a value assigned when no consultant mentioned the plant, and 1 is a theoretical value that a plant could have if all consultants mentioned it at first rank [39]

Consumption

Proportion of families that have consumed the species for the analyzed use in the last 2 years

0–1

Use frequency

Frequency of consumption per availability season/year for analyzed use (2)

0 = never been consumed; 1 ≤ 5 times in their life; 2 ≥ 5 times in their life but not regularly; 3 = 1 time every 2 availability seasons; 4 = 1 a 2 times by availability season; 5 = 3 a 10 times by availability season

Recognized variants

Types or varieties recognized (1)

0 = no varieties are recognized; 1 = varieties are recognized for a plant, but each variety is a different species; 2 = varieties are recognized for a species but are used equally; 3 = varieties are recognized and have specialized use

Economic interchange

Type of commercial exchange (1)

1 = direct consumption; 2 = bartering; 3 = sold inside the village by collectors of the community or comers who obtain it in other places; 4 = harvested inside the village and are marketed outside (plants or products)

Reciprocity interchange

Type of exchange of reciprocity (1)

1 = direct consumption; 2 = it is given and received as a gift to/from others; 3 = it is offered in communal celebrations (harvested by sponsors celebration or families who offer the plants to sponsor celebration)

Sociocultural strategies

Strategies to obtain the plant when scarce or unavailable (1)

0 = nothing; 1 = mobility, look elsewhere; 2 = substitution for other species or products; 3 = store them; 4 = ask someone to give them; 5 = seek to obtain it by barter; 6 = buy them

Useful partsa

Number of useful parts

1 per used part

Harvest efforta

Invested effort in harvest in a journey (1)

1 = opportunist; 2 = journey dedicated to harvest the species

Tools for harvesta

Use of tools, supplies, and vehicles in harvest (1)

None, only hands are used; 1 = objects obtained at harvest site; 2 = knife, machete; 2 = Arundo donax pole, baskets, bags; 3 = load animals, vehicles, chainsaws

Ecological

(Matrix W)

Abundance perception

Abundance perception in the territory (2)

1 = very abundant; 2 = abundant; 3 = regular abundance; 4 = scarce; 5 = rare

Vulnerability

Plant vulnerability to factors affecting productivity, quality, and survival (2)

1 = nothing affects and always produces the same; 2 = plague, drought, steady harvest, others

Life cycle

Life cycle type of the species

1 = annual; 2 = perennial

Reproduction

Reproduction type of the species

1 = sexual and asexual; 2 = sexual

Harvested parts

Harvested parts for all use types of the plant in function of survival, resprouting, and reproductive capacity after useful part harvest (1)

1 = living individual; 1 = dry branches; 2 = exudates, thorns; 3 = leaves; 4 = sprout; 5 = mature branches (lignified tissue/flowers); 6 = fruits, seeds; 7 = bark; 8 = all flowers/fruits of the season; 9 = main stalk; 9 = roots; 10 = complete individuals

Nearness to harvest sitea

Closeness perception of harvest sites to consumption site (2)

1 = far away; 2 = far; 3 = not too far; 4 = near; 5 = at hand

Temporal availabilitya

Temporal availability of the useful part for the analyzed use (2)

1 = all year; 2 = months; 3 = weeks; 5 = days

Management

(Response matrix Y)

Collective regulations

Type of regulation for the harvest (1)

0 = without restrictions; 1 = there are “costumbres” traditions that indicate the techniques, quantity, and occasions of harvest; 2 = in addition to communal agreements aimed at regulating the access, they are aware that external institutions protect the species; 3 = complaints have been made or penalties imposed

Management practices

Management practice type (1)

1 = gathering, forage; 2 = gathering with care to avoid damaging the plant; 3 = tolerance; 4 = enhancement; 5 = protection; 6 = transplanting of individuals; 7 = propagation

Artificial selection

Selection of individuals and propagules (1)

0 = without selection; 1 = selection of individuals or parts that are collected for consumption; 2 = selection of tolerated, protected or enhanced individuals; 3 = selection of individuals from which seeds or cuttings are obtained to propagate

Management in AFS

Species presence proportion in homegardens, agricultural fields, and mescal factories

0–3

Practices numbera

Number of management practices carried out

1 by type of practices

Maintaining laborsa

Type of labors carried out to protect, enhance, and cultivate

1 = prepare soil; fix to hosts; exclusion of predators with fences, cages; removal of competitors; pruning, removing dried or diseased leaves; mechanical support; addition of forest soil, sand, ash, residues of organic matter; addition of lime

2 = irrigation

3 = infrastructure and special equipment for maintenance

 

Management system typea

System type where plant is managed with respect to species natural distribution (1)

1 = wild vegetation where plants are distributed naturally; 2 = homegardens, gardens in mescal factories or “palenques,” and agricultural fields, where plants are naturally distributed; 3 = homegardens, mescal factories, and agricultural fields, where plants have been carried; 4 = greenhouses and nurseries

Numbers in variable description indicate the following: (1) addition of the different values registered for the species; (2) average of category values mentioned by consultants

aVariables not included in principal component analysis and partial canonical analysis

Free listing

For exploring the use preferences of the plants studied, we included different valuing criteria (utilitarian, symbolic, esthetic, and emotional) through the free listing technique [37, 38]. We interviewed 38 persons (22 men, 16 women, Table 1) [26], asking them to list plants used: (1) in ceremonies and offerings to Saints and dead people, (2) as food, (3) for health care [26], and (4) for satisfying basic needs, those considered indispensable to live. We estimated their cognitive prominence for each use type through the formula S = F/(N mP), where F is the frequency of each plant species, N the number of people interviewed, and mP the average position in which a plant was named [39]. The index was calculated with Flame v1.0 [40].

Vegetation sampling

In order to identify the places where the plant species studied are managed, and how abundant they are in forests and agroforestry systems (AFS), we sampled vegetation in 7 agricultural plots, 21 homegardens, and 5 AFS associated to sites of mescal production [26].

Selection of variables for the analyses

Socio-ecological and technological variables were selected based on our previous studies [11, 12], which were organized in three main data matrixes. One matrix was with information on indicators of social, cultural, and economic importance of the species studied. A second matrix had information on biological aspects (life cycle length, types of reproduction, growth patterns, among others) and on people’s perception about the availability and vulnerability of each species. The third matrix had information about management practices and management intensity. Information on qualitative variables were categorized assigning numeric values from lower to higher management intensity according to the complexity of strategies and practices, occurrence or not of human selection, and low to high number of persons involved in the management type, among others. We also categorized from lower to higher social, cultural, and economic importance, considering that the higher their importance, the higher the potential risk associated to human pressure. Finally, we categorized from lower to higher vulnerability associated with biological characters considering the impact of human extraction of resources on individual plants and populations (Table 2). We averaged values of different categories, and in variables involving counting or binary records, we calculated the proportions of the states (Table 2). We excluded highly correlated variables, selecting those better representing the importance and management intensity of the plant species analyzed (Table 2).

Data analyses

In order to characterize the use and management of plants with edible, medicinal, and ceremonial uses, we used our previous data about all the species recorded [26] and the in-depth interviews for the selected species. We analyzed these data by cross-checking information and using descriptive statistics. We conducted principal component analysis (PCA) with data about management of all the native and naturalized species in order to classify management intensity among use types. The scores of the first principal component were used as management intensity index [12, 15]. We performed Kruskal-Wallis tests in order to identify differences among scores of management intensity of plants with ceremonial, edible, and medicinal uses. With the data of selected species, we performed two PCA per use type, one with the variables of the management type matrix and the other with the sociocultural and ecological variables (Table 2); the scores were used as an index of management intensity and a risk index, respectively. The relationships between risk and management intensity were analyzed through regression analyses.

Partial canonical analyses were performed using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) per use type, in order to identify which fraction of the variation in plant management is explained by sociocultural and ecological factors and the effect of the interaction between the two types of variables [12, 15, 16, 41]. For each analysis, we used three matrices, a Y matrix containing the response management variables, an X matrix with sociocultural explanatory variables, and a W matrix of the ecological explanatory variables. Through this method, we conducted partial analyses with different combinations of the matrixes of the explanatory variables: (1) CCA for matrix Y, (2) CCA with matrix Y explained by matrix X, (3) CCA with matrix Y explained by matrix W, and (4) CCA with matrix Y explained by the combined effect of the W + X matrices. The total constrained eigenvalue of each analysis was tallied to evaluate how much the management intensity matrix is explained by the sociocultural and ecological variables.

For each analysis, the sum of all canonical eigenvalues divided by the sum of all canonical eigenvalues of the CA with management data allowed calculating the corresponding fraction of variation explained by the analysis. The significance of the models was estimated by permutation tests. All analyses were conducted through the R software [42]. In the PCA and CCA analyses of medicinal plants, Agave potatorum and Quercus acutifolia were excluded since these species were outliers.

Results

Ceremonial plants

We recorded 128 ceremonial plant species, 78 of them native or naturalized (Table 3); 22 species are considered by people to be basic for their life (Table 4). We recorded 48 species used for altars at homes for venerating Saints (Fig. 2). The most valuable species are those appreciated for their beauty and odor of their flowers (Table 5). As part of the communitarian celebrations, local people use 33 species as incense-like resin called copal (Bursera spp.), in the religious processions (Litsea glaucescens), and as ornaments offered to Saints (orchids, Dasylirion serratifolium, Tillandsia grandis, Beaucarnea stricta) (Fig. 2). Brahea spp. leaves blessed are used for weaving shoes for dead people. The copal resin is used in praying, altars, processions, masses, and funerary rites and for protecting against “aires” (negative feelings, dangerous situations that may cause illnesses or accidents).
Table 3

Management of native and naturalized species of Santa María Ixcatlán by use type

 

Ceremonial

Edible

Medicinal

Only gathered

28

30

81

Tolerated

21

40

79

Enhancement

6

7

9

Protection

37

28

31

Transplanting

26

20

15

Propagation

18

11

12

Total

77

80

178

Table 4

Native and naturalized plants of Santa María Ixcatlán with ceremonial, edible, and medicinal use

Family

Species

Voucher numbera

Common name

Ceremonial use

Edible use

Medicinal use

Basic plant Sutrop index

Vegetation typeb

Origin

Management practices

Management site with respect to natural distribution

Amaranthaceae

Alternanthera caracasana Kunth

ERL-21, SRL-93

Maravilla

  

Yes

0

Bal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Amaranthaceae

Amaranthus hybridus L.

SRL-79, SRL-80, SRL-1122, SRL-1141, ERL-74, ERL-102

Quelite tintonil

 

Yes

Yes

0.024

Bal, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Enhancement, forage, gathering, protection, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Amaranthaceae

Chenopodium berlandieri Moq.

SRL-1139

Quelite de manteca, flor de huizontle

 

Yes

 

0.006

Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance

In situ

Amaranthaceae

Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants

ERL-32, ERL-33, ERL-168, RLF-89, SRL-1136

Epazote

 

Yes

Yes

0.065

Bal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, enhancement, protection, propagation, tolerance

In situ

Amaranthaceae

Gomphrena serrata L.

RLF-60, RLF-242, SRL-90, SRL-378, SRL-1175

Gallitos

  

Yes

0

Bal, BEA, BN, Iz, Me, Palm

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Anacardiaceae

Actinocheita potentillifolia (Turcz.) Bullock

RLF-109, RLF-274, SRL-1183, SRL-1368

Tetlate

  

Yes

0

CaCe, Me, Iz, Palm

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Anacardiaceae

Cyrtocarpa procera Kunth

SRL-1358

Chupandio

 

Yes

 

0

CaCe

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Anacardiaceae

Pistacia mexicana Kunth

RLF-326, SRL-1211, SRL-1340, SRL-1523

Socoya

  

Yes

0

BG, CaCe, Iz, SB, Pal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance

In situ

Anacardiaceae

Rhus chondroloma Standl.

RLF-282, SRL-1222, SRL-1460

Zumaque

 

Yes

Yes

0.007

BEA, BEC, Me, Pal, SB, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance

In situ

Anacardiaceae

Rhus standleyi F.A.Barkley

RLF-59, RLF-255, SRL-269, SRL-472, SRL-1248, SRL-1470

Encino chaparro, zomaque grueso

 

Yes

Yes

0.007

BEA, BEC, Iz, Me, Pal, Palm, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Anacardiaceae

Rhus virens Lindl. ex A.Gray

RLF-58, RLF-219, SRL-275, SRL-468, SRL-1218

Zumaque

 

Yes

Yes

0.007

BEA, BN, Iz, Me, BB , TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance

In situ

Apiaceae

Eryngium bonplandii F.Delaroche

RLF-6, SRL-132, SRL-384, SRL-1247

Ojo de gallo

  

Yes

0

BEA, Paz

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Apiaceae

Eryngium comosum F.Delaroche

RLF-127

espinuda

  

Yes

0

Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Apiaceae

Eryngium pectinatum C.Presl ex DC.

RLF-52, SRL-315

   

Yes

0

BEA, BEC

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Apocynaceae

Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold

SRL-1336

   

Yes

0

CaCe

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Apocynaceae

Matelea purpusii Woodson

SRL-1123

Tecacholo

 

Yes

Yes

0

BEA, Pal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, tolerance, propagation

In situ

Apocynaceae

Plumeria rubra L.

Photo record

Cacalosuchil

Yes

  

0

CaMy, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, propagation

Ex situ, in situ

Arecaceae

Brahea dulcis (Kunth) Mart.

RLF-155, RLF-191,SRL-462, SRL-463, SRL-1192, SRL-1193

Palma criolla

Yes

Yes

Yes

0.106

BEA, BEC, BG, BN, Iz, Me, Pal, Palm, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Enhancement, forage, gathering, protection, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

In situ

Arecaceae

Brahea dulcis x B. calcarea Mart. x Liebm.

SRL-1229

Palma media sierra

Yes

  

0

BEA

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection

In situ

Aristolochiaceae

Aristolochia teretiflora Pfeifer

SRL-1130

Orejita de ratón

  

Yes

0

Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Asparagaceae

Agave kerchovei Lem.

Photo record

Maguey rabo de león

 

Yes

 

0

Iz, Pal

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Asparagaceae

Agave potatorum Zucc.

RLF-285, SRL-403, SRL-1209

Maguey papalomé

 

Yes

Yes

0.057

BEA, Iz, Me, Pal, Palm, SB, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Enhancement, forage, gathering, protection, propagation, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Asparagaceae

Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck subsp. tehuacanensis (Karw. ex Salm-Dyck) García-Mend.

Photo record

Maguey cimarrón

 

Yes

Yes

0

BEA, BN, Pal, Palm, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Asparagaceae

Agave scaposa Gentry

Photo record

Maguey potrero

  

Yes

0.006

BEM, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Asparagaceae

Agave titanota Gentry

SRL-404

Maguey tieso

 

Yes

 

0

Iz

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Asparagaceae

Agave triangularis Jacobi

SRL-437

Maguey rabo de león, maguey tieso

 

Yes

 

0

Iz

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Asparagaceae

Agave vivipara L.

SRL-235, SRL-1353, SRL-1389

Maguey espadín

  

Yes

0

CaCe, Iz, Pal, SB, Sol, Ts

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, propagation

Ex situ, in situ

Asparagaceae

Beaucarnea stricta Lem.

RLF-149

Sotol

Yes

  

0.005

Iz

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection

In situ

Asparagaceae

Dasylirion serratifolium (Karw. ex Schult. & Schult.f.) Zucc.

RLF-156, SRL-420, SRL-1473, SRL-1521

Cucharilla, manita

Yes

Yes

 

0.010

BG, Me

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Asparagaceae

Echeandia paniculata Rose

SRL-442, SRL-1114

Cebolla de cacalote

 

Yes

Yes

0

BEA, Iz, Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Asparagaceae

Nolina longifolia (Karw. ex Schult. & Schult.f.) Hemsl.

SRL-228

Sotol

Yes

  

0

BEA, Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Asparagaceae

Yucca periculosa Baker

SRL-1505

Tohuizote

 

Yes

 

0

AA

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Bignoniaceae

Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth

RLF-13, RLF-56, RLF-249, SRL-438, SRL-465, SRL-1307

Tronadora

  

Yes

0

BEA, BN, Iz, Me

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Boraginaceae

Antiphytum caespitosum I.M.Johnst.

RLF-125, SRL-99, SRL-1400, SRL-1466

Semonilla

  

Yes

0

BN, Me, Palm

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Brassicaceae

Brassica rapa L.

SRL-1536

Mostaza

 

Yes

 

0

Bal, Sol, TS

Naturalized, from other continents

Gathering, tolerance, uproot

Ex situ

Brassicaceae

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

SRl-182, SRL-1324

Lentejilla

  

Yes

0

Bal, Sol

Naturalized, from other continents

Gathering, tolerance, uproot

Ex situ

Brassicaceae

Descurainia virletii (E.Fourn.) O.E.Schulz

SRL-35

Mostaza

 

Yes

 

0

Bal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Brassicaceae

Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav.

RLF-309, SRL-39, SRL-1131

Jaramón

  

Yes

0

Bal, Sol, TS

Naturalized, from other continents

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

Ex situ

Brassicaceae

Lepidium virginicum L.

ERL-109, RLF-70, RLF-103, RLF-179, SRL-1320

Lentejilla

  

Yes

0

Bal, BEA, Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection, tolerance

In situ

Brassicaceae

Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

SRL-199

Berro

 

Yes

 

0.002

VR

Naturalized, from other continents

Gathering

In situ

Bromeliaceae

Catopsis compacta Mez

RLF-335, SRL1253

Soluche de jarrita

Yes

 

Yes

0

BEA, Iz, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Bromeliaceae

Tillandsia acyrostachys E.Morren ex Baker

SRL-1492

 

Yes

  

0

Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering, transplanting of individuals

In situ

Bromeliaceae

Tillandsia bourgaei Baker

SRL-1197

Soluche blanco

 

Yes

 

0

BEA

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Bromeliaceae

Tillandsia grandis Schltdl.

SRL-1472

Jarrilla

Yes

  

0

CaCe, Me, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Bromeliaceae

Tillandsia gymnobotrya Baker

SRL-1201, SRL-1435

Soluche blanco, soluche de flor colorada

Yes

Yes

Yes

0

BEM

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Bromeliaceae

Tillandsia juncea (Ruiz & Pav.) Poir.

RLF-81, SRL-1246, SRL-1254

Soluche

Yes

  

0

BEA, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Bromeliaceae

Tillandsia macdougallii L.B.Sm.

RLF-84, SRL-224, SRL-1242, SRL-1250

Soluche

 

Yes

 

0

BEA, Pal, Sol, VR

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Bromeliaceae

Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L.

SRL-211

Soluchito

  

Yes

0

Palm, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Bromeliaceae

Tillandsia sp.

SRL-1252

Soluche cimarrón, soluche ixtludo

Yes

  

0

BEA, Pal

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Bromeliaceae

Tillandsia sp.

SRL-1243

Soluche

Yes

Yes

 

0

BEA

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Bromeliaceae

Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L.

SRL-138, SRL-1245

Apasle

Yes

  

0

BEA, BEM, Pal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, propagation, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Buddlejaceae

Buddleja parviflora Kunth

ERL-197, SRL-371, SRL-1207, SRL-1522

Lengua de vaca, tepozán

  

Yes

0

BEA, BG, Palm, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Burseraceae

Bursera biflora (Rose) Standl.

RJS-11, RLF-122, SRL-1219

Copal colorado, copal amarillo, copal criollo

Yes

 

Yes

0

Iz, Me, SB

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, propagation, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Burseraceae

Bursera fagaroides (Kunth) Engl.

SRL-349

Copalillo

Yes

  

0

Me

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Burseraceae

Bursera pontiveteris Rzed., Calderón & Medina

SRL-1271

Copalillo blanco

Yes

  

0

Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection

In situ

Burseraceae

Bursera schlechtendalii Engl.

SRL-1367

Aceitillo

  

Yes

0

CaCe

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Cactaceae

Ferocactus recurvus (Mill.) Borg

SRL-1419

Bizniaga grande

 

Yes

 

0

Paz, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Cactaceae

Ferocactus macrodiscus (Mart.) Britton & Rose

SRL-402

Bizniaga

 

Yes

 

0

Paz, Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Cactaceae

Mammillaria haageana Pfeiff.

SRL-387, SRL-1480

Bizniaga chiquita

Yes

Yes

 

0

BEA, Iz, Me, Palm, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Cactaceae

Mammillaria sphacelata Mart.

Photo record

Biznaga

Yes

Yes

 

0

BEA, BN, Me, Pal, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Cactaceae

Opuntia depressa Rose

SRL-238

Nopal de coyote

  

Yes

0

BEA,TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance

In situ

Cactaceae

Opuntia lasiacantha Pfeiff.

SRL-477

Nopal pachón

 

Yes

 

0.042

Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, propagation, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Cactaceae

Opuntia sp.

Photo record

Nopal de coyote, nopal tuna roja

 

Yes

 

0

Palm, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, forage, propagation, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Cannabaceae

Celtis caudata Planch.

ERL-79, ERL-155, ERL-194, ERL-222, SRL-1475

Malintze, moralillo

 

Yes

 

0

Me, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, tolerance

In situ

Chenopodiaceae

Chenopodium murale L.

RLF-184, SRL-194, SRL-1121, SRL-1140, SRL-1321

Quelite de guajolote

 

Yes

Yes

0

Bal, Sol

Naturalized, from other continents

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

Ex situ

Commelinaceae

Tradescantia crassifolia Cav.

SRL-149

   

Yes

0

Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

Ageratina espinosarum (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Rob.

RLF-36, SRL-114, SRL-291, SRL-325, SRL-363, SRL-1279

   

Yes

0

BEA, BEC, BG, BN, Iz, Me, Pal, Palm, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Compositae

Ageratina mairetiana (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.

SRL-186, SRL-390

Hierba de ángel

  

Yes

0.014

BEA, Pal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Compositae

Ageratina sp.

RLF-116, SRL-74

Hierba de ángel

  

Yes

0

Me, Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Compositae

Ageratina sp.

SRL-208

Oreganillo

  

Yes

0

Pal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Compositae

Ambrosia psilostachya DC.

RLF-9

   

Yes

0

BEA, BN, Me, Paz

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

Baccharis salicina Torr. & A.Gray

SRL-1151

Chamizo

  

Yes

0

BEA

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Kunth) H.Rob. & Brettell

SRL-190, SRL-1531, ERL-27, ERL-83, ERL-190, ERL-218

Somiate

  

Yes

0.003

BG, Pal, Palm, Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

In situ

Compositae

Bidens pilosa L.

SRL-4, SRL-1285

Oaxaqueña

  

Yes

0

BG, Pal, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Compositae

Brickellia veronicifolia (Kunth) A.Gray

RLF-11, RLF-203, RLF-206, SRL-293, SRL-361, SRL-1276, ERL-101

Oreganillo, orejita de ratón

  

Yes

0

BEA, BN, Iz, Me, Pal, Palm, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance

In situ

Compositae

Chrysactinia mexicana A.Gray

RLF-154, SRL-1163

Hierba de San Nicolás

  

Yes

0

Palm

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection

In situ

Compositae

Cirsium mexicanum DC.

SRL-435

Lechuga cimarrón

 

Yes

 

0

BG, Pal

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Compositae

Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.

ERL-4, ERL-166, ERL-167, SRL-45, SRL-47

Jazmín

Yes

  

0

Sol

Naturalized-from other parts of Mexico

Gathering, enhancement, protection, propagation, tolerance

Ex situ

Compositae

Dahlia apiculata (Sherff) P.D.Sorensen

RLF-259, SRL-91, SRL-1199, ERL-133, ERL-148

Dalia corriente, ticurrichi

Yes

  

0

BEA, BEM, Pal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, propagation, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Compositae

Dahlia coccinea Cav.

RLF-96, RLF-260, SRL-423, SRL-1160, SRL-1186

Dalia

Yes

  

0

BEA, BEM, BG, Me, Pal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, propagation, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Compositae

Gnaphalium sp.

SRL-297

   

Yes

0

Paz

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

Grindelia inuloides Willd.

RLF-14, SRL-66, SRL-107, SRL-278, SRL-295, SRL-365, SRL-1547

Árnica

  

Yes

0.029

BEA, BN, Pal, Palm, Paz, Sol

Ixcatlán

Enhancement, gathering, protection, propagation, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Compositae

Gymnosperma glutinosum (Spreng.) Less.

RLF-72, RLF-121, SRL-75, SRL-290, SRL-1117, SRL-1287, ERL-25

Cerilla, popote

  

Yes

0.002

Bal, BEA, BN, Iz, Me, Pal, Palm, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Compositae

Helenium mexicanum Kunth

RLF-25, SRL-1116, SRL-1134

Chiche de perro

  

Yes

0

BEA, Palm

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

Montanoa tomentosa Cerv.

RLF-300, SRL-2

Oaxaqueña

  

Yes

0

Iz, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

Neurolaena lobata (L.) R.Br. ex Cass.

SRL-198

Naranjillo

Yes

 

Yes

0

VR

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

Parthenium bipinnatifidum (Ortega) Rollins

ERL-9, RLF-87, RLF-178, SRL-34, SRL-82, SRL-445, SRL-1325

Hierba cenizo

  

Yes

0

Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Compositae

Parthenium tomentosum DC.

SRL-1213, SRL-1375

Palo prieto

  

Yes

0

CaCe, SB

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

Perymenium sp.

RLF-251

Cahual

  

Yes

0

Iz

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Compositae

Pinaropappus roseus (Less.) Less.

RJS-8, SRL-407, SRL-1526

Chipule

  

Yes

0

Bal, BG, Iz, Paz

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

Piqueria trinervia Cav.

RLF-8

   

Yes

0

BEA

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Compositae

Porophyllum linaria (Cav.) DC.

RLF-18, SRL-158, SRL-357, SRL-1150, ERL-141

Pepitza

 

Yes

Yes

0

BEA, BN, Me, Palm, Paz, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, propagation, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Compositae

Porophyllum ruderale subsp. macrocephalum (DC.) R.R.Johnson

RLF-318, SRL-1539

Papaloquelite

 

Yes

 

0.004

Me, Sol

Ixcatlán

Enhancement, gathering, protection, propagation, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Compositae

Psacalium paucicapitatum (B.L.Rob. & Greenm.) H.Rob. & Brettell

RLF-193, SRL-1159

Hierba de camote de venado

  

Yes

0

BEA, Iz

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, In situ

Compositae

Roldana ehrenbergiana (Klatt) H.Rob. & Brettell

SRL-1152

Hierba de perro

  

Yes

0

BEA

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

Sanvitalia procumbens Lam.

RLF-42, SRL-12, SRL-1179

Ojo de gallo

  

Yes

0

Me, Palm, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Compositae

Senecio praecox (Cav.) DC.

ERL-191, SRL-1487

Consuelda, pata de león

  

Yes

0

Me, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Compositae

Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L.

ERL-10, SRL-1126

Chicoria

  

Yes

0

Sol

Naturalized, from other continents

Gathering, tolerance, uproot

Ex situ

Compositae

Stevia lucida Lag.

SRL-332, SRL-339

Chamalacate

Yes

  

0

BN, Iz, Me, Palm, TS

Ixcatlán

Gathering, forage, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Compositae

Stevia sp.

RLF-170, RLF-183, SRL-32, SRL-97, SRL-1281

Cahual delgado

  

Yes

0

BN, Pal, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance

In situ

Compositae

Stevia sp.

RLF-276

Cahual prieto

  

Yes

0

BEA, Pal

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

Stevia sp.

SRL-1262

 

Yes

 

Yes

0

Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

Stevia sp.

SRL-1295

   

Yes

0

Pal

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Compositae

Stevia caracasana DC.

RLF-211, SRL-1289, SRL-1293, SRL-1402

 

Yes

  

0

Iz, Pal, Palm

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Compositae

Tagetes erecta L.

ERL-12, ERL-62, ERL-117, ERL-118, ERL-134, ERL-149, ERL-151, ERL-152, ERL-159, SRL-7, SRL-408, SRL-1142

Cempasuchí

Yes

  

0.003

Sol, TS

Naturalized-from other parts of Mexico

Enhancement, protection, propagation, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ

Compositae

Tagetes lucida Cav.

RLF-3, SRL-377, SRL-1232, SRL-1426

Pericón

Yes

Yes

Yes

0.003

BEA, Paz

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

Tagetes lunulata Ortega

ERL-137

Cempasuchí chiquito

Yes

  

0

Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, enhancement, forage, protection, tolerance

In situ

Compositae

Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund

ERL-106, SRL-89

Achicoria

 

Yes

Yes

0

Sol

Naturalized, from other continents

Gathering, tolerance, uproot

Ex situ

Compositae

Tridax coronopifolia (Kunth) Hemsl.

SRL-104

   

Yes

0

BN

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

Viguiera dentata (Cav.) Spreng.

RLF-227, SRL-164, SRL-1277, SRL-1302

Chimalacate

Yes

Yes

Yes

0

BEA, BEC, BG, Iz, Me, Pal, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Compositae

Viguiera grammatoglossa DC.

RLF-233, RLF-298, SRL-347, SRL-1286

Cahual prieto

  

Yes

0

BG, Iz, Me, Pal, Palm, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Compositae

Zinnia peruviana (L.) L.

RLF-12, RLF-234, SRL-367, SRL-1173, SRL-1261, SRL-1317

Gallito

Yes

 

Yes

0

BEA, BN, Iz, Me, Palm, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Compositae

 

SRL-1214

Jazmincillo, cahual blanco

Yes

  

0

SB

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

 

SRL-1372

   

Yes

0

CaCe

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

 

ERL-121, SRL-1275

Cahual prieto

  

Yes

0

Pal, Sol, VR

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Compositae

 

SRL-1478

Hierba de ángel, oaxaqueña

  

Yes

0

BEA

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Compositae

 

SRL-1339

Cempasuchí de molito de campo

  

Yes

0

CaCe

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Convolvulaceae

Dichondra argentea Humb. & Bonpl. ex Wild.

RLF-71, SRL-134, SRL-167

Orejita de ratón

  

Yes

0

BEA, BEC, BN, Me, Palm

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Convolvulaceae

Ipomoea aff. populina House

SRL-1306

Jícama

 

Yes

 

0

Me

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Convolvulaceae

Ipomoea conzattii Greenm.

SRL-1491, SRL-1510

Jícama de cerro

 

Yes

 

0

CaMy, Me

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Convolvulaceae

Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth

ERL-14, RLF-44, RLF-45, SRL-145, SRL-448

Quiebra platos

  

Yes

0

BEA, Me, Paz, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Crassulaceae

Echeveria gigantea Rose & Purpus

SRL-1313

Siempreviva grande, lengua de vaca, oreja de toro

  

Yes

0

MR, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Crassulaceae

Echeveria nodulosa (Baker) Otto

SRL-356, SRL-1187, SRL-1255, SRL-1436

Siempreviva chiquita

  

Yes

0

BEA, Me, Iz, Palm, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Crassulaceae

Sedum dendroideum Moc. & Sessé ex DC.

SRL-77, SRL-195, ERL-97, ERL-174

Siempreviva

Yes

 

Yes

0

NE, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, propagation, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Cucurbitaceae

Cucurbita pedatifolia L.H.Bailey

ERL-120, RLF-268, SRL-1135

Calabacita amarga

  

Yes

0

Bal, Pal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Cucurbitaceae

Cyclanthera dissecta (Torr. & A.Gray) Arn.

SRL-151

Chayotito

  

Yes

0

Me, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Cucurbitaceae

Schizocarpum filiforme Schrad.

SRL-1260

Chayotito

  

Yes

0

Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Cucurbitaceae

Sicyos laciniatus L.

ERL-100, RLF-90, SRL-14

Chayotillo, pegajosa

  

Yes

0

Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Cupressaceae

Juniperus flaccida Schltdl.

ERL-187, RLF-126, RLF-134, SRL-123, SRL-412, SRL-1119

Nebro

Yes

 

Yes

0.053

BEA, BEC, BG, BN, Iz, Me, Pal, Palm, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

In situ

Cupressaceae

Taxodium huegelii C.Lawson

SRL-210, SRL-434, SRL-1294

Sabino

Yes

  

0.004

BG, Pal, Palm, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, propagation, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Cyperaceae

Carex sp.

RLF-133

Pasto

  

Yes

0

Me

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Cyperaceae

Eleocharis acicularis (L.) Roem. & Schult.

RLF-138

Pasto de arroyo

  

Yes

0

VR

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Ebenaceae

Diospyros oaxacana Standl.

SRL-1446

Zapotito

 

Yes

 

0

VR

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Ericaceae

Arbutus xalapensis Kunth

ERL-172, RLF-124, RLF-279, SRL-1477

Madroño, ollita

Yes

 

Yes

0.018

BEA, BEC, BEM, BN, Me, TS

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Euphorbiaceae

Cnidosculus tehuacanensis Breckon

Photo record

Mala mujer

  

Yes

0

Iz, Palm

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia dioeca Kunth

ERL-107, RLF-7, SRL-359

Celedonia

  

Yes

0

BEA, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia macropus (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss.

SRL-1120

Hierba de chicle

 

Yes

Yes

0

Palm

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Euphorbiaceae

Jatropha neopauciflora Pax

SRL-1357

Sangre de grado, aceitillo

  

Yes

0

CaCe

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Euphorbiaceae

Ricinus communis L.

ERL-116, ERL-144, ERL-145, ERL-243, SRL-23, SRL-1129

Gría

  

Yes

0

Bal, Sol

Naturalized, from other continents

Enhancement, gathering, protection, tolerance, transplanting of individuals, uproot

In situ

Fagaceae

Quercus acutifolia Née

SRL-1226, SRL-1516

Encino colorado

Yes

 

Yes

0.072

BEM

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals, propagation

Ex situ, in situ

Fagaceae

Quercus castanea Née

RLF-78, SRL-1233, SRL-1408, SRL-1425, SRL-1431

Encino prieto, encino blanco

Yes

 

Yes

0.056

BEA, BEM, BN, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance

In situ

Fagaceae

Quercus conspersa Benth.

SRL-1156

Encino colorado

Yes

 

Yes

0.072

BEM

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection

In situ

Fagaceae

Quercus laeta Liebm.

RLF-68, SRL-143, SRL-253, SRL-385, SRL-1230

Encino prieto, encino amarillo

Yes

  

0.140

BEA, BEC, Pal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection, propagation, tolerance

Ex situ, in situ

Fagaceae

Quercus liebmannii Oerst. ex Trel.

SRL-1107, SRL-1514

Encino amarillo

Yes

  

0.140

BEA, Me, Palm, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection, propagation, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Fagaceae

Quercus obtusata Bonpl.

SRL-1423

Encino prieto

Yes

  

0.056

BEM

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection

In situ

Fagaceae

Quercus polymorpha Schltdl. & Cham.

SRL-1503

Encino prieto

Yes

  

0

BG, Pal

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection

In situ

Fagaceae

Quercus urbanii Trel

RLF-161, SRL-252, SRL-475, SRL-1228

Encino cucharilla

Yes

  

0.074

BEA, BEC, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection, tolerance

In situ

Iridaceae

Tigridia pavonia (L.f.) DC.

RLF-201

 

Yes

  

0

Iz

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Krameriaceae

Krameria cytisoides Cav.

RLF-97, SRL-251, SRL-1265, SRL-1376

Chayotillo de burro, borreguito

  

Yes

0

Me, Palm

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Lamiaceae

Clinopodium mexicanum (Benth.) Govaerts

RLF-131, RLF-262, SRL-1190, SRL-1280, SRL-1403

Chipito

 

Yes

Yes

0

BEA, Me, Pal, Sol, VR

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Lamiaceae

Hyptis sp.

SRL-209

   

Yes

0

Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Lamiaceae

Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.

SRL-1315

 

Yes

  

0

Sol

Naturalized, from other continents

Gathering, enhancement, protection, propagation, tolerance

Ex situ

Lamiaceae

Marrubium vulgare L.

ERL-80, RLF-64, SRL-29, SRL-1146

Manrrubio

  

Yes

0

Bal, Pal, Sol

Naturalized, from other continents

Gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Lamiaceae

Salvia candicans M.Martens & Galeotti

SRL-155, SRL-1456

   

Yes

0

Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Lamiaceae

Salvia oaxacana Fernald

RLF-232, SRL-1161, SRL-1188

Mirto cimarrón

  

Yes

0

BEA

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Lamiaceae

Salvia purpurea Cav.

RLF-1, RLF-194, SRL-116, SRL-273, SRL-1195, SRL-1202, SRL-1397, SRL-1420

Terciopelo

Yes

 

Yes

0

BEA, BEC, BN, Iz

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Lamiaceae

Salvia sessei Benth.

RLF-33, RLF-195, SRL-1162

Oaxaqueña

  

Yes

0

BEA, BEM

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Lamiaceae

Salvia sp.

Photo record

Mirto

  

Yes

0

Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Lamiaceae

Salvia sp.

SRL-140

Marrubio macho

  

Yes

0

BEA

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Lamiaceae

Salvia thymoides Benth.

RLF-245, SRL-1469

Oreganillo cenizo

  

Yes

0

Iz, Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Lamiaceae

Salvia tiliifolia Vahl

ERL-28-ERL-112, RLF-162, SRL-3

Chía

  

Yes

0

Bal, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Lamiaceae

Salvia circinnata Cav.

RLF-215, SRL-1291

   

Yes

0

Iz, Palm

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Lauraceae

Litsea glaucescens Kunth

SRL-1157, SRL-1515

Laurel

Yes

Yes

 

0.010

BEA

Ixcatlán

Gathering, propagation

In situ

Leguminosae

Calliandra sp.

SRL-276

Guaje de gamito

 

Yes

 

0

BEA, BEC, BG, BN, Me

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Leguminosae

Crotalaria pumila Ortega

SRL-103, SRL-364

   

Yes

0

BN, Palm

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Leguminosae

Dalea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F.Macbr.

RLF-115, RLF-168, RLF-222, SRL-154, SRL-417, SRL-1185, SRL-1299

Hierba de Obo

  

Yes

0

BG, Iz, Me, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Leguminosae

Dalea sp.

SRL-348

  

Yes

 

0

Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Leguminosae

Dalea tomentosa (Cav.) Willd.

RLF-214, SRL-214

   

Yes

0

BN, Iz, Palm

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Leguminosae

Desmanthus sp.

RLF-225

Tepeguaje cimarrón

 

Yes

 

0

Iz

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Leguminosae

Desmanthus virgatus (L.) Willd.

SRL-368

Guajito de gabito

 

Yes

 

0

Palm

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Leguminosae

Leucaena sp.

SRL-1158

Guaje de gamito

 

Yes

 

0

BEA

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Leguminosae

Lupinus leptophyllus Cham. & Schltdl.

SRL-1410

 

Yes

  

0

BEA

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Leguminosae

Phaseolus sp.

SRL-1206

Ejote de venado

 

Yes

 

0

BEA

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Leguminosae

Piscidia grandifolia (Donn.Sm.) I.M.Johnst.

SRL-1210

   

Yes

0

SB

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Leguminosae

Prosopis laevigata (Willd.) M.C.Johnst.

SRL-1388

Mezquite

 

Yes

Yes

0

Pal, SB, Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance

In situ

Leguminosae

Senna guatemalensis (Donn.Sm.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby

RLF-246, RLF-295

 

Yes

 

Yes

0

Iz

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Leguminosae

Trifolium sp.

SRL-375

   

Yes

0

BEA

Naturalized, unknown origin

Forage, gathering

Ex situ

Leguminosae

Zornia reticulata Sm.

SRL-300

   

Yes

0

Paz

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Leguminosae

 

SRL-1212

Tepeguaje

  

Yes

0

SB

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Leguminosae

 

SRL-1217

   

Yes

0

SB

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Linaceae

Linum sp.

RLF-175

   

Yes

0

Palm, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Loasaceae

Mentzelia hispida Willd.

RLF-54, RLF-94, SRL-428

Pegajosa

  

Yes

0

Bal, BEA, BG

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Lythraceae

Cuphea sp.

RLF-100, RLF-143, RLF-172, SRL-20, SRL-350, SRL-1178

 

Yes

 

Yes

0

Me, Sol, Palm, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Lythraceae

Cuphea sp.

SRL-25

 

Yes

  

0

BN, Palm, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Lythraceae

Cuphea sp.

SRL-105, SRL-296

 

Yes

  

0

BEA, BN, Paz

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Malpighiaceae

Bunchosia sp.

SRL-451

Huevo de gato

 

Yes

 

0

Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Malpighiaceae

Galphimia multicaulis A.Juss.

RLF-65, RLF-293, SRL-1177

Flor de chivo

Yes

  

0

BEA, BEC, Iz, Me, Palm

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Malpighiaceae

Gaudichaudia galeottiana (Nied.) Chodat

RLF-241

   

Yes

0

Iz

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Malpighiaceae

Malpighia galeottiana A.Juss.

SRL-362, SRL-471, SRL-1272

Nanche

 

Yes

 

0

Me, Palm, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance

In situ

Malvaceae

Anoda cristata (L.) Schltdl.

RLF-67, RLF-277, SRL-6, SRL-446, SRL-1125

Quelite de malva, violeta

 

Yes

Yes

0

Bal, BEA, Pal, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Malvaceae

Malva parviflora L.

ERL-30, ERL-90, SRL-205, SRL-1124, SRL-1143

Malva

  

Yes

0

Bal, Sol, TS

Naturalized, from other continents

Enhancement, forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Martyniaceae

Proboscidea louisianica (Mill.) Thell.

SRL-1318

Cuerno de toro

 

Yes

 

0

Bal, Palm, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Meteoriaceae

Meteorium deppei (Hornsch. ex Müll. Hal.) Mitt.

SRL-1432

Musgo

Yes

  

0

BEA, BM, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Moraceae

Ficus crocata (Miq.) Mart. ex Miq.

SRL-76, SRL-1171

Amate

 

Yes

 

0.006

Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Moraceae

Morus celtidifolia Kunth

ERL-55, ERL-78, ERL-55, ERL-78, ERL-124, ERL-128, ERL-129, ERL-214, ERL-220, ERL-221, SRL-55, SRL-1517

Moral, morera

 

Yes

 

0.051

AA, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, tolerance

In situ

Nyctaginaceae

Mirabilis jalapa L.

ERL-29, ERL-99, SRL-11, SRL-421, SRL-1145

Hierba cuchi, maravilla

  

Yes

0.003

Bal, BG, Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Onagraceae

Gaura coccinea Nutt. ex Pursh

SRl-17, SRL-411

Gradiolita

  

Yes

0

Bal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Onagraceae

Oenothera pubescens Willd. ex Spreng.

RLF-76, RLF-113, SRL-22, SRL-40, SRL-150, SRL-213

Campanita grande

  

Yes

0

Bal, BEA, Me, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Onagraceae

Oenothera rosea L’Her. ex Aiton

SRL-1127, SRL-1322

Sanguinaria

  

Yes

0

Bal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Orchidaceae

Barkeria lindleyana subsp. vanneriana (Rchb.f.) Thien

SRL-1509

Monjita de peña

Yes

  

0

CaMy

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Orchidaceae

Dichromanthus cinnabarinus (Lex.) Garay

RLF-223, RLF-289, SRL-1155, SRL-1172

Cola de león

Yes

 

Yes

0

BEA, Iz, Palm

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Orchidaceae

Encyclia hanburyi (Lindl.) Schltr.

SRL-1519

Monjita morada de campo

Yes

  

0

Me, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Orchidaceae

Epidendrum radioferens (Ames, F.T.Hubb. & C.Schweinf.) Hágsater

RJS-3

Monjita colorada

Yes

  

0.002

BEA, BEM, Pal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Orchidaceae

Euchile karwinskii (Mart.) Christenson

RJS-1

Monjita amarilla

Yes

 

Yes

0.002

BEA, Pal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, propagation, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Orchidaceae

Laelia albida Bateman ex Lindl.

ERL-126

Monjita blanca

Yes

  

0.002

Pal, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, propagation, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Orchidaceae

Laelia anceps Lindl.

SRL-1541

Monjita morada

Yes

  

0.002

AA, Pal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, propagation, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Orchidaceae

Rhynchostele maculata (Lex.) Soto Arenas & Salazar

ERL-173, SRL-1476

Monjita pinta

Yes

  

0.002

BEA, BEM, Pal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Orchidaceae

Spiranthes sp.

RLF-208

Monjita de peña

Yes

  

0

Iz

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Orobanchaceae

Castilleja tenuifolia M.Martens & Galeotti

SRL-117, SRL-223, SRL-329, SRL-1438, SRL-1485

Romero cimarrón

Yes

 

Yes

0

BEA, BN, Me, Palm

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Orobanchaceae

Conopholis alpina Liebm.

SRL-218, SRL-1481

Flor de elote

  

Yes

0

BEA, Pal

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Orobanchaceae

Lamourouxia dasyantha (Cham. & Schltdl.) W.R.Ernst

SRL-1379, SRL-1429

Lisión

Yes

  

0

BEA, BEC, BEM, Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Orobanchaceae

Lamourouxia viscosa Kunth

RLF-209, SRL-372, SRL-1292

Moco de pavo, flor de miel

Yes

  

0

Iz, Pal, Palm

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis aff. latifolia Kunth

ERL-75, RLF-142, SRL-148

Coyule

 

Yes

 

0

Iz, Me, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection, tolerance

In situ

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis aff. nelsonii (Small) R.Knuth

SRL-1273

Coyule

 

Yes

 

0

Iz, Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection, propagation

Ex situ, in situ

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis sp.

RLF-139

Coyule delgado

 

Yes

 

0

BEA, BEC, BN, Me

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Papaveracea

Argemone mexicana L.

ERL-244, RLF-180, SRL-455

Chicalote

Yes

 

Yes

0

Bal, Pal, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Passifloraceae

Passiflora bryonioides Kunth

SRL-1148

Granadilla

 

Yes

 

0

Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, tolerance

In situ

Passifloraceae

Passiflora suberosa L.

SRL-444, SRL-1164, SRL-1165

   

Yes

0

Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Passifloraceae

Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult.

SRL-1220, SRL-1356, SRL-1467

Tamorreal

 

Yes

Yes

0

CaCe, SB, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Phytolaccaceae

Phytolacca icosandra L.

RLF-236

   

Yes

0

Iz

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Piperaceae

Peperomia quadrifolia (L.) Kunth

ERL-146, SRL-1404, 1430

Verdolaga

 

Yes

 

0.014

BEM

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Plantaginaceae

Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst.

SRL-301, SRL-1132

Verdolaga de agua

 

Yes

Yes

0

Paz, VR

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Plantaginaceae

Penstemon barbatus (Cav.) Roth

RLF-23, RLF-49, SRL-133, SRL-464, SRL-1314

Bandera

Yes

 

Yes

0

BEA, Palm

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Plantaginaceae

Russelia obtusata S.F.Blake

RLF-263, SRL-234, SRL-342, SRL-424, SRL-1494

Bandera

  

Yes

0

BEA, BG, BN, Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Plantaginaceae

 

SRL-1198

Bandera

  

Yes

0

BEA

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Poaceae

Piptochaetium fimbriatum (Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth) Hitchc.

RLF-137, SRL-260, SRL-413

Pasto

  

Yes

0.038

BEA, BG, Me, Paz

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Poaceae

Setaria grisebachii E.Fourn.

RLF-231,RL-358

Pasto de semilla

  

Yes

0.038

Iz, Palm, Paz

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Poaceae

 

SRL-311

Pasto de semilla

  

Yes

0.038

Paz

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Polemoniaceae

Loeselia caerulea (Cav.) G.Don

RLF-265, SRL-96, SRL-353, SRL-1267, SRL-1282, SRL-1364, SRL-1401, SRL-1458

   

Yes

0

BEA, BN, CaCe, Me, Pal, Palm

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Polygalaceae

Polygala scoparia Kunth

RLF-224, RLF-287

   

Yes

0

BN, Iz

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Portulacaceae

Portulaca oleracea L.

Photo record

Verdolaga de suelo

 

Yes

 

0

Bal, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Enhancement, gathering, tolerance, transplanting of individuals, uproot

In situ

Primulaceae

Anagallis arvensis L.

ERL-108, ERL-228, RLF-200, SRL-87, SRL-100, SRL-1133

Jabonera, hierba de pollo

 

Yes

Yes

0

Bal, BN, Iz, Palm, Sol, TS

Naturalized, from other continents

Gathering, tolerance

Ex situ

Pteridaceae

Adiantum poiretii Wikstr.

SRL-202,SRL-427

   

Yes

0

BG, VR

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Ranunculaceae

Delphinium bicornutum Hemsl.

SRL-1200

Conejito

Yes

  

0

BEA

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Ranunculaceae

Thalictrum gibbosum Lecoy.

RLF-212, RLF-302

Chichicasle

  

Yes

0

Iz

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Rhamnaceae

Condalia mexicana Schltdl.

RLF-86, SRL-457, SRL-1147

Espino capulín

 

Yes

 

0

Pal, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Rosaceae

Crataegus mexicana Moc. & Sess‚ ex DC

SRL-1424

Tejocote

 

Yes

 

0.002

Paz, TS

Ixcatlán

Gathering, propagation, tolerance

In situ

Rosaceae

Lindleya mespiloides Kunth

SRL-1223, SRL-1493

Hierba de pajarito, campanita grande

Yes

 

Yes

0

Me, SB

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Rosaceae

Malacomeles denticulata (Kunth) G.N.Jones

RLF-10, RLF-243, SRL-261, SRL-338, SRL-474, SRL-1257, SRL-1258

Tlasisle

 

Yes

Yes

0

BEA, BEC, BN, Iz, Me, Palm, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance

In situ

Rubiaceae

Bouvardia longiflora (Cav.) Kunth

Photo record

Huele de noche

Yes

  

0

Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Rubiaceae

Bouvardia ternifolia (Cav.) Schltdl.

RLF-41, RLF-166, SRL-262, SRL-334, SRL-1417

Ventorilla, flor de triste

Yes

 

Yes

0

BEA, BEC, Me, Palm, Paz, TS

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Rubiaceae

Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc.

SRL-336, SRL-470, SRL-1111, SRL-1331, SRL-1441

Campanita

Yes

  

0.002

CaCe, Me, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Rubiaceae

Crusea sp.

RLF-136, SRL-1180

 

Yes

  

0

Me, Palm

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Rubiaceae

Galium sp.

RLF-82, RLF-280, SRL-344

   

Yes

0

BEA, Me, Pal, Palm

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Rubiaceae

Randia capitata DC.

RLF-281, SRL-1208

Limoncito de coyote

  

Yes

0

BEA, Pal, VR

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Rutaceae

Ptelea trifoliata L.

ERL-196, RLF-27, RLF-308, SRL-274, SRL-466, SRL-467

Hierba de zorrillo

  

Yes

0.002

BEA, BEC, BG, BN, Iz, Me, Palm, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Rutaceae

Zanthoxylum sp.

SRL-1348

   

Yes

0

CaCe

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Santalaceae

Phoradendron sp.

RLF-228, SRL-1268

Injerto

  

Yes

0

Iz, Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering, uproot

In situ

Selaginellaceae

Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev.) Spring

SRL-374, SRL-1497

   

Yes

0

BEA, Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Solanaceae

Capsicum annuum L.

ERL-165, ERL-204

Chilar de monte

 

Yes

 

0.006

SB, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering

Ex situ, in situ

Solanaceae

Capsicum sp.

RLF-135

   

Yes

0

Me

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Solanaceae

Jaltomata procumbens (Cav.) J.L.Gentry

SRL-180, SRL-1297

Hierba mora

 

Yes

Yes

0

Palm, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Solanaceae

Lycianthes ciliolata (M.Martens & Galeotti) Bitter

SRL-1149

Ojo de toro

 

Yes

Yes

0

BEA, BG, Pal, Palm, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Solanaceae

Nicotiana glauca Graham

ERL-37, RLF-105, SRL-171, SRL-1274

Gigante

  

Yes

0

Bal, Pal, Sol, TS

Naturalized, from other parts of American Continent

Gathering, tolerance

Ex situ

Solanaceae

Physalis philadelphica Lam.

ERL-36, ERL-63, ERL-64, ERL-113, RLF-312, SRL-26, SRL-1138, SRL-1298

Miltomate, tomate, tomate de milpa

 

Yes

Yes

0

Sol, Ts

Ixcatlán

Gathering, enhancement, protection, propagation, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

In situ

Solanaceae

Solanum americanum Mill.

SRL-1234

Ticungo

 

Yes

 

0

Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Solanaceae

Solanum erianthum D.Don.

ERL-91

Tepozán

  

Yes

0

Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Solanaceae

Solanum lanceolatum Cav

ERL-195

Tepozán

  

Yes

0

BEA, BEC, BG, Palm, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Solanaceae

Solanum lesteri Hawkes & Hjert.

RLF-151

Hierba del tomate pinto

 

Yes

 

0

Paz

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Solanaceae

Solanum rostratum Dunal

SRL-380

Chicalote de burro

  

Yes

0

BEA

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Solanaceae

Solanum rudepannum Dunal

RLF-22, RLF-95, RLF-120, RLF-275, SRL-128, SRL-302

Tepozán

 

Yes

Yes

0

Sol, BEA, BEC, Me, Pal, Paz

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Thelypteridaceae

Thelypteris sp.

SRL-161, RLF-303

 

Yes

  

0

BEA, Iz, Pal

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Tropaeolaceae

Tropaeolum majus L.

ERL-18, ERL-89, RLF-182, SRL-60, SRL-196

Mastuerzo

Yes

 

Yes

0

Sol

Naturalized, from other parts of American Continent

Gathering, enhancement, protection, propagation, tolerance

Ex situ

Urticaceae

Parietaria pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd.

ERL-73, RLF-88, RLF-266, SRL-18

Paletaria

  

Yes

0

BEA, Pal, Sol, VR

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Urticaceae

Urera caracasana (Jacq.) Gaudich. ex Griseb.

SRL-1543

Chichicasle

  

Yes

0

Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance

In situ

Verbenaceae

Glandularia elegans (Kunth) Umber

RLF-5, SRL-110, SRL-279, SRL-1326, SRL-1479

   

Yes

0

Bal, BEA, BN, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

Verbenaceae

Lantana achyranthifolia Desf.

RLF-61, RLF-62, SRL-109, SRL-152, SRL-369, SRL-1296

Hierba buena de monte

  

Yes

0

BEA, BN, Me, Pal, Palm

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

Verbenaceae

Lantana camara L.

RLF-197, SRL-115, SRL-459, SRL-1112, SRL-1154, SRL-1169, SRL-1365

Tiundica, siete negritos

 

Yes

Yes

0

BEA, BEC, BN, CaCe, Iz, Me, Palm, Sol

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Verbenaceae

Lantana velutina M.Martens & Galeotti

ERL-185, RLF-31, RLF-204, SRL-272, SRL-1115, SRL-1168

Tiundica blanca, cinco negritos

 

Yes

Yes

0

BEA, BEC, BN, Iz, Me, Pal, Palm, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Verbenaceae

Lippia graveolens Kunth

 

Oreganillo, salvarreal de castilla

 

Yes

Yes

0

CaCe, Me, Pal

Ixcatlán

Forage, gathering

In situ

Verbenaceae

Lippia oaxacana B.L.Rob. & Greenm.

SRL-71, SRL-1378, SRL-1454, SRL-1549

Salvarreal

 

Yes

Yes

0.014

Me, Sol

Ixcatlán

Gathering, protection, transplanting of individuals

Ex situ, in situ

Vitaceae

Cissus sp.

RLF-101, RLF-173, SRL-1373, SRL-1535

Tripa de diablo

  

Yes

0

CaCe, Sol, TS

Ixcatlán

Gathering, tolerance, uproot

In situ

   

Octavillo

Yes

  

0

BEM

Ixcatlán

Gathering

In situ

aKey to collector. ERL = Erandi Rivera Lozoya; RJS = José Rosario Jiménez Salazar; SRL = Selene Rangel Landa; RLF = Ricardo Lemus Fernández

bKey to vegetation type. AA = ancient settlements; Bal = urban secondary vegetation; BEA = Quercus liebmanni and Q. laeta forest; BEC = Quercus urbanni forest; BEM = Quercus spp.forest; BG = gallery forest (Taxodium huegelii); BN = Juniperus flaccida forest; CaCe = Cephalocereus colummna-trajanni shrubland; CaMy = Pseudomytrocereus fulviceps shrubland; Iz = Izotal (shrubland dominated by rosettes); Me = Mexical; Pal = mescal factories; Palm = palm shrubland of Brahea dulcis; Paz = grassland; SB = tropical dry forest; Sol = homegardens; TS = agricultural fields; VR = riparian vegetation

Fig. 2

Ceremonial, edible, and medicinal plants of Santa María Ixcatlán community. a Offering “adornment” of Brahea dulcis leaves, Euchile karwinskii flowers, Litsea glaucescens branches, and wasp honeycombs to San Ramón in Palm Sunday celebration. b Beaucarnea stricta arch to welcome the Saints in “posadas” celebrations. c Tillandsia grandis and Dasylirion serratifolium arch to welcome the Saints in “posadas” celebrations. d Bursera biflora resin. e Porophyllum ruderale subsp. macrocephalum cultivated in a homegarden. f Dysphania ambrosioides transplanted in a bucket to protect it from animals and to facilitate its care. g Tender branches of Amaranthus hybridus collected during agricultural labor.; h Boiled floral buds of Dasylirion serratifolium. i Grindelia inuloides plant cultivated in a homegarden. j Red Ricinus communis variety managed in a homegarden. k White Ricinus communis variety. l Bunch of Tagetes lucida dry plants

Table 5

Sociocultural parameters estimated for species considered in in-depth studies

ID

Species

Us

SIB

SIU

Con

UF

Var

EI

RI

SCS

UPa

HEfa

HToa

Ceremonial

 Bbif

Bursera biflora (Rose) Standl.

7

0

0.028

1

5

1

1, 3

1, 2, 3

1, 2, 3, 6

4

3

9

 Blon

Bouvardia longiflora (Cav.) Kunth

1

0

0.006

0.01

3

0

1

1

0

2

1

1

 Bstr

Beaucarnea stricta Lem.

2

0.005

0

1

4

0

1

1, 2, 3

1

1

2

4

 Calb

Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc.

3

0.002

0.066

0.99

4

0

1

1, 2

0

2

1

0

 Dser

Dasylirion serratifolium (Karw. ex Schult. & Schult.f.) Zucc.

5

0.010

0

1

4

2

1

1, 2, 3

1

2

3

7

 Dspp

Dahlia apiculata (Sherff) P.D.Sorensen; Dahlia coccinea Cav.

2

0

0

0.12

4

1

1

1

0

2

1

1

 Ekar

Euchile karwinskii (Mart.) Christenson

3

0.002

0.033

0.99

3.5

0

1

1,3

0

2

3

5

 Erad

Epidendrum radioferens (Ames, F.T.Hubb. & C.Schweinf.) Hágsater

2

0.002

0

0.85

3

0

1

1,3

0

3

1

1

 Lalb

Laelia albida Bateman ex Lindl.

2

0.002

0.052

0.77

4

0

1

1,3

0

2

1

2

 Ldas

Lamourouxia dasyantha (Cham. & Schltdl.) W.R.Ernst

2

0

0.039

0.17

3

2

1

1, 2

0, 2

2

1

3

 Lgla

Litsea glaucescens Kunth

3

0.010

0

1

6

0

1

1, 2, 3

3, 4

1

3

3

 Lmes

Lindleya mespiloides Kunth

2

0

0.015

0.05

4

0

1

1, 2

0, 2

2

1

1

 Mdep

Meteorium deppei (Hornsch. ex Müll. Hal.) Mitt.

2

0

0

1

4

1

1

3

0, 2

1

2

6

 Octa

“Octavillo”

2

0

0.025

0.01

2

0

1

1, 2

0, 1, 2

1

2

3

 Prub

Plumeria rubra L.

2

0

0.007

0.05

2

2

1, 3

1

0

2

3

3

 Rmac

Rhynchostele maculate (Lex.) Soto Arenas & Salazar

2

0.002

0.005

0.92

2

0

1

1,3

1

2

3

5

 Spur

Salvia purpurea Cav.

3

0

0.016

0.05

3.3

2

1

1

0

2

1

1

 Tgra

Tillandsia grandis Schltdl.

2

0

0.009

1

5

0

1

3

1

1

2

9

 Tluc

Tagetes lucida Cav.

4

0.003

0.007

0.5

1

0

1

1, 2

0, 3

2

1

1

 Tusn

Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L.

5

0

0

1

3

0

1

1

0, 2

1

1

1

Edible

 Acris

Anoda cristata (L.) Schltdl.

4

0

0.012

0.05

2

0

1

1

0

3

2

1

 Ahyb

Amaranthus hybridus L.

3

0.024

0.252

0.95

4.5

3

1, 3

1, 2

4

1

3

1

 Aker

Agave kerchovei Lem.

4

0

0.015

0.2

3

0

1

1

0, 1

3

3

4

 Apot

Agave potatorum Zucc.

8

0.057

0.072

0.25

3.5

2

1, 2, 3, 4

1, 2, 3

1, 4, 6

5

3

7

 Bdul

Brahea dulcis (Kunth) Mart.

11

0.106

0.002

1

2

0

1, 2, 3, 4

1,3

1, 3, 6

5

3

7

 Cber

Chenopodium berlandieri Moq.

2

0.006

0.022

0.15

3

3

1

1, 2

0

1

3

1

 Crme

Crataegus mexicana Moc. & Sess‚ ex DC

1

0.002

0.011

0.35

4

3

1, 2, 3

1, 2

0, 1, 2, 3, 6

1

2

1

 Damb

Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants

3

0.065

0.024

1

6

3

1, 3

1, 2

3, 4, 6

2

2

1

 Dser

Dasylirion serratifolium (Karw. ex Schult. & Schult.f.) Zucc.

5

0.010

0.110

0.95

4

2

1

1, 2, 3

0, 1

2

3

7

 Lgla

Litsea glaucescens Kunth

3

0.010

0.026

0.14

3.5

0

1

1, 2, 3

3, 4

1

3

3

 Lspp

Lantana camara L.; L. velutina M.Martens & Galeotti

5

0

0

0.05

4.5

1

1

1

0

2

1

1

 Mspp

Mammillaria haageana Pfeiff.; Mammillaria sphacelata Mart.

3

0

0

0.05

3.3

1

1

1, 2

0

2

1

1

 Noff

Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

1

0.002

0.013

0.15

2.5

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

 Olas

Opuntia lasiacantha Pfeiff.

6

0.042

0.043

1

6

3

1, 3

1, 2

1, 2, 4, 6

5

3

5

 Ospp

Oxalis aff. latifolia Kunth; Oxalis aff. nelsonii (Small) R.Knuth

2

0

0.007

0.45

3

1

1, 3

1, 2

0

1

3

1

 Plin

Porophyllum linaria (Cav.) DC.

2

0

0.078

0.95

6

0

1, 3

1, 2

4, 6

3

1

1

 Pole

Portulaca oleracea L.

3

0

0.010

0.05

4

0

1

1

0

1

3

1

 Pphi

Physalis philadelphica Lam.

2

0

0.015

1

6

3

1, 2, 3

1,3

2, 3, 5, 6

1

3

1

 Pqua

Peperomia quadrifolia (L.) Kunth

2

0.014

0.070

0.95

4

3

1

1, 2

0

1

3

1

 Prud

Porophyllum ruderale subsp. macrocephalum (DC.) R.R.Johnson

1

0.004

0.161

0.9

5

0

1, 3

1, 2

0

1

1

1

Medicinal

 Amai

Ageratina mairetiana (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.

3

0.014

0.150

0.85

2

2

1

1, 2

1, 3, 4

3

3

1

 Apsi

Ambrosia psilostachya DC.

1

0

0.032

0.85

2.5

0

1

1, 2

1, 2, 3, 4

1

3

1

 Bsal

Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Kunth) H.Rob. & Brettell

6

0.003

0.029

0.85

3

0

1

1, 2

4

3

2

3

 Clme

Clinopodium mexicanum (Benth.) Govaerts

2

0

0.136

0.85

4

0

1

1, 2

1, 3, 4

2

3

1

 Cmex

Chrysactinia mexicana A.Gray

1

0

0.017

0.85

3.5

0

1

1, 2

1, 3, 4

3

3

1

 Dcar

Dalea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F.Macbr.

2

0

0.010

0.85

2.5

0

1

1

0

1

3

1

 Gglu

Gymnosperma glutinosum (Spreng.) Less.

3

0.002

0.031

0.85

0.5

0

1

1

0

1

2

0

 Ginu

Grindelia inuloides Willd.

1

0.029

0.094

0.85

2.5

0

1

1, 2

1, 2, 3, 4

1

3

1

 Loax

Lippia oaxacana B.L.Rob. & Greenm.

2

0.014

0.264

0.85

3.5

0

1

1, 2

1, 3, 4

1

3

1

 Mpar

Malva parviflora L.

3

0

0.032

0.85

3.5

0

1

1, 2

0

3

2

1

 Mpur

Matelea purpusii Woodson

2

0

0.015

0.85

3.5

0

1

1, 2

0

2

3

1

 Mvul

Marrubium vulgare L.

1

0

0.056

0.85

3

0

1

1, 2

0

1

2

1

 Ppen

Parietaria pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd.

1

0

0.016

0.85

1

0

1

1, 2

0, 2

1

2

1

 Pros

Pinaropappus roseus (Less.) Less.

1

0

0.012

0.85

1

0

1

1

0

3

1

1

 Rcom

Ricinus communis L.

4

0

0.016

0.85

3

3

1

1, 2

0

2

2

1

 Spra

Senecio praecox (Cav.) DC.

3

0

0.009

0.85

1

0

1

1, 2

3, 4

2

3

1

 Tdif

Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult.

2

0

0.037

0.85

2

0

1

1,2

3

1

1

1

 Tluc

Tagetes lucida Cav.

4

0.003

0.052

0.85

4.5

0

1

1, 2

0, 3

2

1

1

 Apot

Agave potatorum Zucc.a

8

0.057

0.039

0.85

2

2

1, 2, 3, 4

1, 2, 3

1, 4, 6

5

3

7

 Qacu

Quercus acutifolia Néea

7

0.072

0.010

0.85

1

1

1, 3

1,3

0, 2

4

2

11

ID identification tag assigned to the species analyzed, Us uses number, SIB Sutrop index for plants considered basic to life, SIU Sutrop index by use type, Con consumption, UF use frequency, Var recognized variants, EI economic interchange, RI reciprocity interchange, SCS sociocultural strategies, UP useful parts, HEf harvest effort, HTo tools used for harvest

aExcluded variables and species in the performance of principal component analyses (PCA) and canonical correspondence analyses

Commercialization of ceremonial wild plants is uncommon, except the resin of Bursera spp., which is used for celebrating the day of the dead. People used to share part of flowers collected in forests or managed in homegardens (mainly Chiococca alba, Lindleya mespiloides, orchids, and copal resin (Bursera spp.)) and give them as presents to people who organize the communitarian feasts. Dasylirion serratifolium, Beaucarnea stricta, and Tillandsia grandis are involved in practices of reciprocity among most of the local households in communitarian feasts (Table 5).

Ornamenting of altars is mostly attended with plants cultivated in homegardens. Due to the scarcity of copal and other plants used in ceremonies, people practice gathering them in different sites throughout their territory (Tables 5 and 6). In addition, we recorded storing of copal resin for use throughout the year (Table 5).
Table 6

Meaningful consultant’s commentaries about the use, abundance, and their motives to manage plants

Use

ID

Species

Management motives and observations about use and availability

Ceremonial

Bbif

Bursera biflora (Rose) Standl.

Trees are abundant, but copal could becomes scarce.

Care should be taken to not damage the tree, to tree continue producing the copal.

Only the one produced naturally, by the worm [butterfly larvae] in hot terrain is good for burning.

Not [transplant or cultivation] because the tree would not survive or produce copal here in the village.

I have a little tree that I take out of the forest for the luxury of my house and I hope that someday it will produce copal, although maybe it would not be enough or good. I plant a stick, there in the mountain where I go to collect the “copal”, I did to see if it [roots].

Ceremonial

Blon

Bouvardia longiflora (Cav.) Kunth

Now it is almost no longer used, there are other flowers [flowers of introduced species].

Ceremonial

Bstr

Beaucarnea stricta Lem.

The gathering is dangerous, the plant is in very difficult places to walk.

Care must be taken to not injure the tree, the [apical meristem], so that the plant continues to produce, sometimes the tree is damaged, but that should not be done.

Ceremonial

Calb

Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc.

Before it was used [to offer it] in the church, but now no longer because they criticize, only is placed on the altars of the houses.

I really like its flowers, its scent, I put it on my altar.

Once I brought a little tree to the house but It do not survive.

Out of curiosity I try to [cultivate], but it does not [germinate].

Ceremonial

Dser

Dasylirion serratifolium (Karw. ex Schult. & Schult.f.) Zucc.

It should leave part of the trunk, if there is good rain it can sprout.

It has not occurred to us to bring the plant to the village, “it is natural” [it occurs naturally in the field], we always have found it to make the adornments.

Ceremonial

Dspp

Dahlia apiculata (Sherff) P.D.Sorensen; Dahlia coccinea Cav.

I like to have them in the house, for luxury [ornamental use] and put the flowers on the altar.

Ceremonial

Ekar

Euchile karwinskii (Mart.) Christenson

It must remain [peudobulbs] to have it for another time, they are the ornament of the trees [in the forest].

After the flower dries, the (pseudobulb] is placed in some tree in the house, and so it is going to have for luxury [ornamental use] and have flowers to adornment the altar.

When I am gathering firewood and I cut a branch that have “monjitas” [orchids], sometimes I transplant it in other branch and sometimes I bring it to the house.

Ceremonial

Erad

Epidendrum radioferens (Ames, F.T.Hubb. & C.Schweinf.) Hágsater

It must remain [peudobulbs] to have it for another time.

They are the ornament of the trees [in the forest].

After the flower dries, is placed in some tree in the house, and so it is going to have for luxury [ornamental use] and have flowers to adornment the altar, however it is difficult, it is a delicate plant.

Ceremonial

Lalb

Laelia albida Bateman ex Lindl.

I take care it [cultivation] to have flowers for the altar in Todos Santos [celebration] and for the luxury of my home.

Ceremonial

Ldas

Lamourouxia dasyantha (Cham. & Schltdl.) W.R.Ernst

There is much when rain is good, but when it is not given, I use whatever available flower.

Ceremonial

Lgla

Litsea glaucescens Kunth

There is a lot in the forest, there is always when it is needed and the tree will regrow if you do not hurt it.

I have not had the curiosity [transplanting] and the need because there is [enough], and there is also little terrain to have it maybe it will dry.

Out of curiosity, I put some seeds but they did not germinate.

Ceremonial

Lmes

Lindleya mespiloides Kunth

There is a lot in the forest, but sometimes there are no flowers due to the drought.

Ceremonial

Mdep

Meteorium deppei (Hornsch. ex Müll. Hal.) Mitt.

After the celebration, I put it in my yard for luxury, but it dried.

Ceremonial

Octa

“Octavillo”

I have always found when I am going to collect, but sometimes, in order to not go up to the mountain, I better buy others [other plants in regional markets].

I think it would not survive [transplanting, cultivation], is a delicate plant and its environment is very different, more template.

Ceremonial

Prub

Plumeria rubra L.

I have not tried [propagation], I have not had the curiosity, I like it a lot but I do not try to have it, but there are people that have it.

I plant a stick to have the tree here in the house, but it rotted, maybe I try again later.

Ceremonial

Rmac

Rhynchostele maculate (Lex.) Soto Arenas & Salazar

It must remain [peudobulbs] to have it for another time.

They are the ornament of the trees [in the forest].

After the flower dries, the [pseudobulb] is placed in some tree in the house, and so it is going to have for luxury [ornamental use] and have flowers to adornment the altar.

It is difficult take care of it because it is delicate, but it is a pride to have it.

Ceremonial

Spur

Salvia purpurea Cav.

Used more before. There is much when rain is good, but when it is not given, I use whatever available flower, now there are other flowers [introduced that are grown or bought in local stores].

Once I take one from the mountain, to have the flowers for my altar and luxury of the house, but it dried and I have not tried again.

Ceremonial

Tgra

Tillandsia grandis Schltdl.

There has always been when it is needed.

Once I brought some small plants [transplanting] but dried, is very delicate, needs its natural environment.

Ceremonial

Tluc

Tagetes lucida Cav.

There is much when rain is good, but when it is not given, I use whatever available flower.

Ceremonial

Tusn

Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L.

I have this plant, I bring it from the mountain and from the adornment of holidays, it is for decoration of my trees and also to feed the cattle when there is nothing, to clean the frets, for what is could needed here I got it near, in my house.

Edible

Acris

Anoda cristata (L.) Schltdl.

Before the people collected it, they gathered.

Now it is scarce and people say that who eats it does not have money to buy food.

Edible

Ahyb

Amaranthus hybridus L.

It is very tasty, it is important to eat it, but it is left to the time and the rain, there has been no need to cultivate it, it is only left on the edge of the cropland to produce seed.

There are different colors but if it is “tierno” [shoots] taste does not change, but others prefer the green.

When there are a lot and is “sazón” [mature] it could damage the other plants so it is plucked.

Edible

Aker

Agave kerchovei Lem.

People say that when someone eats “cacayas” [floral buttons] it’s because they do not have money for food, but we like it.

Only is gathered, it is close, it is not necessary to propagate it.

Edible

Apot

Agave potatorum Zucc.

This “cacaya” was eaten a lot, was eaten boiled with sauce when there was nothing else or when corn was scarce it was mixed with the nixtamal [boiled corn] to raise it to make the tortillas.

When we cooked maguey with coyule [Oxalis spp.] we gave to friends and relatives and other part is for sell it.

Now people have it in their fields for mescal, but it was getting scarce, now they are sowing it [mescal producers and external institutions].

Its leaf and thorns vary in shape and color, its size is different, ones gives more mescal, although we like it to be large we cut everything.

When we collect seed for [cultivate] it, we go to sites where we know the maguey is big and produce more mescal, others only get the first [capsules with seeds] available.

Edible

Bdul

Brahea dulcis (Kunth) Mart.

When a field is opened [for agriculture], the palm is left, it is our sustenance, the hat.

I do not wave the hat but my neighbors do it, is the sustenance of the town, it is the motive because I left it in my terrain [tolerance].

Edible

Cber

Chenopodium berlandieri Moq.

Abundance: Before there was more because they no longer work the land as the older.

On the edge of the land some are left (tolerated) to produce seeds and there are for the next year.

Edible

Crme

Crataegus mexicana Moc. & Sess‚ ex DC

Before there were more, now no one cares for them, the animals eat [cattle].

There are with large and small fruit, with sweet and sour taste.

I tried to [propagates] but it does not [germinate].

Edible

Damb

Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants

Sometimes my neighbor and my aunt ask me for some of it and as I have, I give them a little.

I saw a little plant that I liked for its large and green leaves and brought it to my house, I take care of it and now I have all the time.

There are green, purple and “criollo” (from the store), the last does not have smell, nor taste.

Edible

Dser

Dasylirion serratifolium (Karw. ex Schult. & Schult.f.) Zucc.

Although the plant is abundant, the “manita” [Floral buttons ] becomes scarce because of the drought, when that happens we were left with the desire to eat it that year.

It has not occurred to me to take the “manita” plant to the village, “it is natural”.

There are green “manitas” that are sweet and purples that are bitter, but at the whim we eat the same two.

Edible

Lgla

Litsea glaucescens Kunth

For food it requires little, a few twigs.

I have not had the curiosity, the need [propagation], I only go to the field and collect it.

Out of curiosity, I put some seeds but they did not germinate.

Edible

Lspp

Lantana camara L.; L. velutina M.Martens & Galeotti

They eat it when they go to the field, but they are not sweet, they are simple.

Edible

Mspp

Mammillaria haageana Pfeiff.; Mammillaria sphacelata Mart.

I brought one to my house for luxury, not to eat the “chilitos” [fruits], I like the way it looks.

Edible

Noff

Nasturtium officinale R.Br.

It is no longer consumed because there is no one who collects it.

When harvested, the root must be left to it could sprout.

Edible

Olas

Opuntia lasiacantha Pfeiff.

As I have many plants I always have, I give it to my family when they ask me and sometimes other people come to ask me, sometimes I give them and others I sell it depending on how much it is.

I brought a “penquita” [cladode] and now all those who fall and take root I care of them because it is the “nopal” that I like, those that come from outside are not good.

There are some more spiny than others and they give “tunas” [fruits] of different color.

Edible

Ospp

Oxalis aff. latifolia Kunth; Oxalis aff. nelsonii (Small) R.Knuth)

I brought this [Oxalis plant] out of curiosity, for luxury of the house [ornamental], when we want make the “conserva” [Traditional dish prepared with Agave potatorum stems and Oxalis leaves] we go to the mountain where it grow big.

Edible

Plin

Porophyllum linaria (Cav.) DC.

Its left on the edge of the cropland to produce seed.

Some people have had the curiosity to cultivate it, they have it all the time, sometimes they give me a little.

I only like the plants that I have inside of the “corralito” [space inside the yard delimited by a fence] or that are in crop lands, it is abundant in roads and the yard but is nasty by the animals.

Edible

Pole

Portulaca oleracea L.

I leave some plants to flower and give seed to have in abundance next year, although when it is a lot it is plucked.

Edible

Pphi

Physalis philadelphica Lam.

Last year was good [good production], it reach to give 6 kilos to my brothers who live outside

It is abundant, but it is because we take care of it. I leave some [fruits] so that the next year can continue, in homegardens is watered, fertilized, so that they can produce [fruits].

There is “milomate” of the maize crop land, “dulce” (sweet) from the wheat cropland and one big that we get in the store, the last one is not so good and to have [manage and cultivate] we choose the miltomate and the sweet, of which it is pretty [big].

Edible

Pqua

Peperomia quadrifolia (L.) Kunth

Now that we are old and we can not go to the mountain, we just eat it when my son-in-law shares us.

There is, but it is retired, in rains it is more [juicy].

The one from Gandudo is more tastier.

Somebody brought to have here, but it dries, here is not their environment.

Edible

Prud

Porophyllum ruderale subsp. macrocephalum (DC.) R.R.Johnson

I have not had the curiosity to sow it, but there are some people who have it in their homes, they take care of it and have to eat all the year.

When it is collected only the tender twigs should be cut so that it continues to sprout.

Medicinal

Amai

Ageratina mairetiana (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.

Only the twigs are cut, the rest is left and thus sprouts.

Only the twigs are cut, if everything is harvested, it runs out.

When there is one in the house or the agricultural field, is [tolerated].

Medicinal

Apsi

Ambrosia psilostachya DC.

In the harvest, the twigs are cut and the stem is left so it can sprout.

We do not bring it to the house because we do not know if it will survive, we do not know what it need to produce.

We store it because there is no in dry season.

Medicinal

Bsal

Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Kunth) H.Rob. & Brettell

Before, many people had it in their homes, now they do not like it so much. It is easy to have it, does not need care as fertilizer or irrigation.

I have it, because when it is needed, I only go to the yard, besides it’s luxury [ornamental] for my house.

Medicinal

Clme

Clinopodium mexicanum (Benth.) Govaerts

It is not necessary to cut all the plant, only the twigs, leaving the stem can sprout and continues [be available].

I always have dry, it is more to drink, because it is almost not used as medicine.

For medicine, it is collected when it’s needed, is not necessary to bring it [to the houses].

Here [mescal factory] it is natural [natural distribution], we only take care of it when is harvested and that the animals (cattle) do not foraged it.

Medicinal

Cmex

Chrysactinia mexicana A.Gray

I have not tried to bring it to the house, but if I would do it, it could be, to do not have to go by it, although I do not know if it could survive.

I always have some of this plant, I let it dry and I keep it for when it is needed, when I go to the field and there are, I gather it, so I always have.

When I need it and I do not have it stored, I ask someone to give me a little.

Medicinal

Dcar

Dalea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F.Macbr.

This is no longer used so much, but when I need it I’m going to gather it to the edge of town or somebody brings it to me

Medicinal

Gglu

Gymnosperma glutinosum (Spreng.) Less.

There is much everywhere, you only have to gather it when do you need it.

Medicinal

Ginu

Grindelia inuloides Willd.

There are those who have it (managed in the houses or dry), when it is needed, we asks them for it or we are going to look for it to field. I think it is not difficult, but maybe the soil did not help to survival of the one that I tries to propagate.

Medicinal

Loax

Lippia oaxacana B.L.Rob. & Greenm.

Only the twigs are cut so that it can sprout.

When drying this plant does not lose its quality, it is very strong.

We store it so we can have it when we need it.

I worry that there is not [available when its needed], but I do not bring seedlings to the house because if I bring them and they dry, I will only run out them.

I brought a little plant but it dried.

Medicinal

Mpar

Malva parviflora L.

I leave some plants on the edge to have it, but when there is a lot, it must be rooted out.

Medicinal

Mpur

Matelea purpusii Woodson

I brought it to my house because I’m [need it], so I always have it here.

Medicinal

Mvul

Marrubium vulgare L.

Is very resistant, while more you cut, more there are. I leave some plants on the edge to have it, but when there is a lot, it must be rooted out.

Medicinal

Ppen

Parietaria pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd.

There are at the edge of the village, in my house I leave them in case that someday I would need it.

Medicinal

Pros

Pinaropappus roseus (Less.) Less.

Before it was used when it was at hand, there are others that are used for [the same].

Medicinal

Rcom

Ricinus communis L.

I have of the two [green and red] each one has its use, they are also luxury [ornamental].

I brought the first from the road, I transplant the [seedlings] and take care of them, there are those who have taken the seed of those that they need to sow it. When they are abundant, they have to be rooted out.

Medicinal

Spra

Senecio praecox (Cav.) DC.

Now little is used, before it was stored, now only a few use it.

I brought a little plant, out of curiosity, now it is luxury of my house [ornamental] and by the time I need it I have it at hand.

Medicinal

Tdif

Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult.

When drying this plant does not lose its quality, it is very strong.

When I need it and I do not have it stored, I ask someone to give me a little.

Medicinal

Tluc

Tagetes lucida Cav.

I always have dry for when it is needed, this plant does not lose its quality when is drying, it is very strong.

If part of the stem is left it can sprout, it must be left to continue [be abundant].

Medicinal

Apota

Agave potatorum Zucc.

Now few cooked the “conserva” [maguey stem cooked with Oxalis spp. leaves], but when they do it, they share it with their friends or they also sell it.

The cacayas are eaten [flowers] when we meet one while walking in the field, to make mescal we have to go especially to cut the maguey and sometimes we have to buy it to other communities.

Now there is scarce before there was here on the shore, now we have to walk to find, about three hours or more to [prepare] the mescal.

Now [governmental] programs bring the maguey, we plant them in the fields and some [mescal producers] are already producing the plant, but it still lacks [time] to have it again.

Medicinal

Qacua

Quercus acutifolia Née

When needed [for medicinal use] we look for it, just a few branches with tender leaves.

It is also widely used by firewood.

For wood, trees should not cut only the branches.

I have two little trees, I brought acorns to feed my animals, but I leave some because I like these plants, but it is difficult they are delicate they hardly [germinate or survive], it takes a lot of patience and a lot of cares.

aExcluded variables and species in the performance of principal component analyses (PCA) and canonical correspondence analyses

Several species considered scarce in the wild are, however, enough for satisfying the needs of the community; this is particularly the case of Tillandsia grandis (Table 5). The availability of useful plants depends on seasonality, annual rainfall, and incidence of pests (Tables 5 and 6).

Gathering was the only practice for 28 ornamental species (Table 3); species used for ornamenting the altars are gathered by women in areas close to the village, but plants used in communitarian celebrations, as well as the resin of Bursera spp., are carried out by men (Table 5). Journeys for gathering these products may take several hours or days and are considered dangerous activities, particularly those to obtain Beaucarnea stricta, T. grandis, and Burmannia biflora (Table 6). For the extraction of these plants, several techniques are common to prevent damage, such as leaving stems and main branches of the most valuable species (orchids, B. biflora, B. stricta, C. alba, and L. glaucescens). These techniques favor survival and resprouting of plants (Table 6). In total, 22 species that germinate and become spontaneously established in AFS are tolerated and their abundance enhanced, by leaving plants producing seeds or deliberately dispersing seeds in sites propitious for their growth (Tables 3 and 7). About 38 species receive special care such as irrigation, addition of organic matter, control of pests, and removal of competitors (Tables 3 and 7). Transplanting of juvenile plants of 26 species and propagation of 19 species is conducted with the purpose of having them closer to homes (mainly homegardens) in order to enjoy their beauty, having available their flowers, satisfying their curiosity to know how plants grow, and experimenting horticultural practices (Tables 3 and 6). We recorded experiments of in situ vegetative propagation of B. biflora and transplanting of several species of orchids and Bromeliaceae species (Tables 6 and 7). We in addition documented reasons why local people do not practice management. They consider unviable planting plants that are abundant or have special requirements and low probability of survival or those for whom they do not have information about plants’ requirements to survive and grow (Table 6) or when people have limitations of space for maintaining plants.
Table 7

Ecological and management parameters estimated for species considered in in-depth studies

 

Management parameters

  

Management parameters

   

ID

APe

VEA

LCi

Rep

HPa

Neaa

TAva

CRe

MPr

Sel

MAFS

MLaa

MSTa

Ceremonial

 Bbif

4

2

2

2

1, 1, 2, 9

1

2

1

2, 6

0

0.05

1

1, 3

 Blon

2

2

2

2

5

3

2

0

1

1

0

0

1

 Bstr

3.3

3

2

2

3

3.3

1

1, 2

2

1

0

0

1

 Calb

1.5

3.5

2

2

1, 5

3.5

2

1

2

1

0

0

1

 Dser

2

2

2

2

8, 9

4

1

1, 2

1, 2

1

0

0

1

 Dspp

2.5

2

2

1

5, 9

3.5

2

1

2, 7

1

0.17

4

1, 3

 Ekar

3.5

2

2

1

1, 8, 9

1

3

1

1, 2, 5, 6

1

0.63

1

1, 3

 Erad

3.5

1

2

1

1, 8, 9

1.5

3

1

1, 2, 5, 6

1

0.32

1

1, 3

 Lalb

5

2

2

1

1, 8, 9

1

3

1

1, 2, 5, 7

1

1.29

1

1, 3

 Ldas

1.5

3

2

2

5

3

3

0

1

1

0

0

1

 Lgla

2

2

2

2

5

3.5

1

1, 2, 3

2

0

0

0

1

 Lmes

2

3

2

2

5

4

3

0

1

1

0

0

1

 Mdep

1

1

2

1

10

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

 Octa

3

4

2

2

5

3

1

1

2

1

0

0

1

 Prub

4

0

2

2

5

1

2

0

1, 7

1

0.10

3

1, 3

 Rmac

3.5

2

2

1

1, 8, 9

1

3

1

1, 2, 5, 6

1

0.30

1

1, 3

 Spur

3.5

2

1

2

5

3

3

1

1, 2

1

0

0

1

 Tgra

4

4

2

2

10

2

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

 Tluc

2.7

2

2

2

9

4

2

0

1

0

0

0

1

 Tusn

1

0

2

1

5, 10

4

1

0

1, 6

0

1.33

1

1, 3

Edible

 Acris

2

1.5

1

2

4, 10

4

2.5

0

1, 3

1

0.39

 

2

 Ahyb

2

3

1

2

4, 10

4

2.5

1

1, 2, 3, 4, 5

1, 2

1.33

 

2

 Aker

1

1.5

2

1

1, 1, 8

4

2

0

1, 3, 6

1

0.07

 

1, 2

 Apot

2

2

2

2

1, 1, 3, 8, 10

2.8

1

1, 2

1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

1

1.16

 

1, 2, 3, 4

 Bdul

1

2

2

1

1, 3, 8, 9, 9

4

2

1, 2

1, 2, 3, 5, 4, 6

1

2.01

 

1, 2, 3

 Cber

3

3

1

2

4, 10

4.5

2.5

0

1, 3, 4

1

0.53

 

2

 Crme

4

4

2

2

6

2

2

1

2

2

0.07

 

1, 2

 Damb

2

4

1

2

3, 4

5

1.5

1

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

1, 2, 3

0.62

 

2

 Dser

4

2

2

2

8, 9

3

2

1, 2

1, 2

1

0

 

1

 Lgla

2

2

2

2

5

3.5

1

1, 2, 3

2

0

0

 

1

 Lspp

1

2

2

2

4, 6

3.5

2

0

1, 3, 6

0

0.84

 

1, 2, 3

 Mspp

1.5

2

2

1

1, 6

4

3

0

1, 3, 6

0

0.68

 

1, 2, 3

 Noff

3.5

1

2

2

4, 10

4

2

0

1

1

0

 

1

 Olas

3

3

2

1

4, 6

5

2

0

1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

1, 2, 3

0.70

 

1, 2, 3

 Ospp

2

2

2

1

3

4

2

0

1, 3, 6

1

1.59

 

1, 2, 3

 Plin

1

2

1

2

10

4.3

2

0

1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

1

0.53

 

1, 2, 3

 Pole

2.3

0.7

1

2

4, 10

3.6

2

0

1, 3, 4, 6

1

0.30

 

2

 Pphi

2.5

4

1

2

6

4.5

2

0

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

1, 2, 3

1.97

 

2

 Pqua

3.5

1.5

2

1

9

1.5

1.5

0

1

1

0

 

1

 Prud

2

2

2

2

4

4

2

1

2, 3, 4, 5, 7

1

0.24

 

1, 3

Medicinal

 Amai

3.5

1.5

2

2

5

3.5

2

1

1, 2, 3, 5, 6

1

0.37

 

1, 2, 3

 Apsi

3

2

2

1

5

3

2

1

1, 2, 3

1

0.07

 

1, 2

 Bsal

1

1

2

2

1, 1, 3, 5

5

1

0

1, 3, 5, 6

0

1.04

 

2

 Clme

2.5

1.5

2

1

5

4

2

1

2, 5

1

0.60

 

1, 2

 Cmex

4

2

2

2

5, 10

3

2

1

1, 2

1

0

 

1

 Dcar

3

2

2

2

4

4

2

0

1, 3

1

0.07

 

1, 2

 Gglu

2

1

2

2

5

4

2

0

1, 3

0

1.94

 

1, 2

 Ginu

2

2

2

2

5, 10

4

2

1

2, 4, 5, 6

0

0.30

 

1, 2, 3

 Loax

2.5

2.5

2

2

4, 5

3

2

1

1, 2

1

0

 

1

 Mpar

1

2

1

2

10

5

2

0

1, 3, 4

1

0.72

 

2

 Mpur

2

2

2

2

6, 9

4

2

0

1, 7

1

0.19

 

1, 2, 3

 Mvul

1

2

2

2

4

5

1

0

1, 3

1

0.77

 

2

 Ppen

1

1

2

2

10

5

2

0

3, 5

0

0.25

 

1, 2

 Pros

1

1

2

2

3

4

2

0

1

1

0.67

 

1, 2

 Rcom

1

1

2

2

0, 3

5

1

1

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

1, 2

0.43

 

2

 Spra

4

0

2

2

2

3

1

0

1, 3, 5, 6

0

0.10

 

1, 3

 Tdif

2

0

2

2

5

2

2

0

1, 2

0

0

 

1

 Tluc

2.7

2

2

2

9

4

2

0

1, 2

0

0

 

1

 Apot

2

2

2

2

1, 1, 3, 8, 10

2.8

1

1, 2

1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

1

1.16

 

1, 2, 3, 4

 Qacu

2

0

2

2

1, 5, 6, 7, 9

4

2

1, 2, 3

2, 5, 6, 7

1

0.03

 

1, 3

ID identification tag assigned to the species analyzed (check Table 3 to identify the species), APe abundance perception, VEA vulnerability to environmental factors, LCi life cycle, Rep reproduction, HPa harvested part, Nea nearness to harvest site, TAv temporal availability, CRe collective regulations, MPr management practices type, Sel artificial selection, MAFS management in AFS, PrN practice number, MLa maintaining labors, MST management system type

aExcluded variables and species in the performance of principal component analyses (PCA) and canonical correspondence analyses

Selective harvesting of plants based on use quality of their parts and absence of signs of herbivory are criteria for gathering most species documented. Although local people recognize at least five species with intraspecific varieties (identified according to flower color and forms), their use and management are indistinct (Tables 5 and 7). Except for Tagetes erecta, in which people select seeds for cultivation, and Cosmos bipinnatus, a species commonly producing violaceus ligula, people select the scarcer variety with white ligula.

Local regulations forbid extraction of plants for commercialization out of the village and establish restrictions in using some plants in communitarian celebrations (Table 7).

Edible plants

We recorded 138 plant species used as food, 80 of them being wild and naturalized species and 20 considered as “basic” (Tables 3 and 4). The most valuable species are Amaranthus hybridus, Porophyllum spp., Opuntia lasiacantha, Dysphania ambrosioides, Dasylirion serratifolium, Peperomia quadrifolia, and Physalis philadelphica, which are consumed by more than 90% of households from 1 to 10 times per season (Fig. 2, Table 5). About 40 species are occasionally consumed where they are gathered and rarely carried to homes. These are the cases of Chrysactinia mexicana and Cyrtocarpa procera. Other 30 species are consumed occasionally, but it is considered that most of them were highly consumed in the past; these are the cases of Chenopodium spp., Anoda cristata, Nasturtium officinale, Agave kerchovei, and A. potatorum. Consumption of these plants has decreased due to higher presence of cultivated and processed food (Table 6). Other species are consumed occasionally by few households, as is the case of L. glaucescens which is used as a condiment or Tagetes lucida, Lippia sp., and Turnera diffusa, which in the past were commonly used as infusions and now were substituted by coffee.

Commercialization of managed weedy plants is allowed, and the most common is the green tomato P. philadelphica. Others occasionally commercialized are O. lasiacantha and cooked A. potatorum (Table 5). P. philadelphica, C. mexicana, Porophyllum spp., and D. ambrosioides are interchanged in local stores (Table 5). Local people share with relatives and friends part of the plants gathered or harvested (Tables 5 and 6). These are the cases of D. serratifolium, P. quadrifolia, C. mexicana, P. philadelphica, D. ambrosioides, Opuntia spp., Porophyllum spp., A. potatorum, and A. hybridus.

Most edible plant species are considered abundant (Table 7), but such abundance is associated with care during extraction or the management in crop fields and homegardens as it was documented for P. philadelphica (Table 6). Most species are considered vulnerable to environmental factors and pests (Table 7), and some of the most appreciated resources are perceived to be scarce. This is the case of D. serratifolium, which due to the scarcity of its inflorescences people stopped consuming them (Table 6).

Gathering of edible plants is generally carried out while practicing other activities—by men when plants are gathered from the forest and by women and children when plants are harvested from agricultural fields and homegardens. Gathering is the only practice for 30 species, which are immediately consumed (Table 3). Practices of care during gathering of useful parts aim to procuring plant survival, and these are carried out only in gathered plants and those under management (Tables 6 and 7). In order to ensure further availability, the abundance of seven species is enhanced by letting individual plants produce seeds and deliberately dispersing their seeds in appropriate places (Tables 3 and 7). At least 40 species are let standing in AFS, with the purpose of ensuring their availability (Tables 3, 6, and 7). For ensuring productivity and quality of products for consumption, 28 species receive irrigation, addition of organic matter, and exclusion from domestic animals (Tables 3 and 7). Nearly 20 species of weedy plants (among them P. philadelphica and D. ambrosioides) are transplanted into homegardens where people consider the plants to have better conditions for growing (Table 3). Other species occurring in the wild are transplanted to homegardens with the purpose of having them closer and to consume them for longer time (Porophyllum spp.) or for ornamental purposes (Mammillaria spp. and Lantana spp.) (Fig. 2, Tables 3 and 7). We recorded the deliberate propagation of 11 species through seeds and vegetative parts (Tables 3 and 6), as food (Porophyllum spp., D. ambrosioides, P. philadelphica, Opuntia spp.), for ornamental purposes, and for satisfying curiosity (Oxalis aff. nelsoni). Other species have started to be propagated, as is the case of A. potatorum, and others have had failed attempts (L. glaucescens, C. mexicana).

From seven species whose varieties are distinguished by morphology, flavor, and odor, we identified human selection in five of them; the preferred variants are tolerated, protected, or enhanced. For D. ambrosioides, O. lasiacantha, and P. philadelphica, we documented human selection favoring plants providing seeds or cladodes for cultivation (Tables 6 and 7).

Local customs and regulations forbid gathering wild edible plants for commercializing them out of the village, with the only exception of Brahea dulcis and A. potatorum, which are edible, but parts commercialized are destined for other uses. In the Communitarian Assemblies, we recorded discussions among local people and the Biosphere Reserve authorities for regulating and planning the use of A. potatorum, B. dulcis, and D. serratifolium. In the case of L. glaucescens, the Assembly decided to allow external people to extract it, but the permit stopped.

Medicinal plants

We recorded 219 medicinal plant species, 178 of them being native and naturalized, and 22 considered “basic plants” (Tables 3 and 4). Currently, 85% of households use medicinal plants, generally complementing their healing treatment with massages, cupping therapy, and treatments by the national system of health through the local health center and private physicians. Women heads of families mainly make the decision on the appropriate treatment, while for traditional treatments, it is common to consult the relatives with more experience or one of the four traditional physicians in the village. The native plant species are mainly used for attending accidents (hurts, cuttings, twists, fractures, bites of poisonous animals), respiratory and stomach infections, pains, child tantrums, angers, “susto” (frightens), illnesses caused by “aires,” monitoring of pregnancy, and recovering of childbirth. Medicinal plants may be ingested and placed in affected body zones, steam baths, and “limpias” (ceremonies for cleaning the body and spirit).

Almost all medicinal plants are collected when they are needed, but for some of them (Lippia oaxacana, T. lucida, T. diffusa, Chrysactinia mexicana, Ambrosia psilostachya), people used to store dry materials or ask somebody else to get the needed plant (Fig. 2, Table 5).

No commercialization of medicinal plants was recorded; most medicinal plants are shared. Some plants are interchanged for plants with other uses, for instance, Quercus acutifolia, used and commercialized as fuelwood, and A. potatorum used in mescal production (Table 5). Except C. mexicana and Pittocaulon praecox, all medicinal plants are considered abundant, but dryness and frosts are factors affecting their availability (Table 7).

Gathering of wild medicinal plants is conducted by men and women; men gather plants occurring far away and women those occurring in homegardens. Gathering is the most common practice for all medicinal plants, and the only practice for 81 species (Tables 3 and 4). Practices for preventing damage of gathered plants are common on the most valuable plants (Ambrosia psilostachya, Clinopodium mexicanum, C. mexicana, L. oaxacana, T. diffusa, T. lucida, Ageratina mairetiana, Grindelia inuloides) (Table 7, Fig. 2). In AFS, 79 medicinal plants are let standing during vegetation clearing, as well as the 65 species distributed in homegardens (Table 3). Among them, Ricinus communis, Marrubium vulgare, and Malva parviflora are submitted to practices for controlling their abundance through weeding, similarly to 37 other species (Table 1). We recorded 31 species receiving care such as removal of competitors, addition of organic matter, and irrigation (Table 3). Abundance of nine species is enhanced by leaving plants to produce seeds or by spreading the seeds in appropriate sites for their germination and growth (Tables 6 and 7). We also documented the transplanting of 25 species, 8 of them from forests to homegardens (G. inuloides, P. praecox, and A. mairetiana) for their medicinal and ornamental uses (Tables 3 and 7). In addition, we recorded the propagation by seeds of 12 species, 2 of them mainly motivated to have them available when needed (G. inuloides and Matelea purpusii) (Fig. 2, Tables 3, 6, and 7). We documented failed attempts of transplanting and propagating six species, among them A. mairetiana, A. psilostachya, G. inuloides, and L. oaxacana (Table 6). Reasons for not transplanting individual plants from forests to homegardens were the following: lack of information about plant requirements and the supposition or experience that in changing habitat, plants do not survive and that using appropriate techniques of extraction or storing strategies are enough for ensuring their availability (Table 6). We recorded the recognition of varieties of three species, but people make differential use and management only of R. communis (Fig. 2, Table 7).

Management intensity and risk

Management intensity of edible, ceremonial, and medicinal plants studied is explained mainly by practices and communitarian regulations in the first component and by their presence in AFS in the second component (Fig. 3). Management intensity among use types was significantly different (KW X 2 = 9.9, df = 2, p = 0.007). Edible plants had the highest management intensity, most of them managed in AFS involving human selection, while most species used for ceremonial and medicinal purposes are gathered from forests and protected through communitarian regulations (Fig. 3).
Fig. 3

Management of ceremonial, edible, and medicinal plants according to principal component analysis (PCA). Edible plants tended to be managed most intensely, since ceremonial and medicinal plants are less intensely managed. Variation in spatial arrangement is mainly explained in the first principal component by management practices and collective regulations = (eigenvalues 0.631, −0.133 respectively) and by collective regulations and management in AFS in the second principal component (eigenvalues 0.986, −0.007 respectively)

In plants with ceremonial use, the regression analysis indicates no relation among management intensity and risk indexes (R 2 = 0.003, p = 0.819) (Fig. 4, Table 8). Partial CCA explains 95% of the variation of management, significantly explained by the intersection of sociocultural and ecological factors (14%) (Fig. 5a, Table 9). In plants with intermediate management intensity (Table 8), management regulated by collective rules occurs in plants basic for life and exclusively with sexual reproduction. These are the cases of L. glaucescens, D. serratifolium, B. stricta, and T. grandis (Fig. 5b, Table 9). Plants intensively managed (Table 8) in AFS are those providing several parts or the whole plant as resources, having asexual reproduction, and being abundant, like Tillandsia usneoides, or that are scarce, like Laelia albida, Euchile karwinskii, Epidendrum radioferens, and Rhynchostele maculata (Fig. 5b, Table 9).
Fig. 4

Relation between management intensity and risk. Regression analysis of the management intensity index as a function of the risk index due to sociocultural and ecological factors. Indexes were calculated as the scores of the first principal components performed by use type

Table 8

Management intensity and risk indexes of ceremonial, edible, and medicinal plants

Ceremonial

Edible

Medicinal

ID

Management intensity index

Risk index

ID

Management intensity index

Risk index

ID

Management intensity index

Risk index

Bbif

0.12

0.62

Acri

0.13

0.27

Amai

0.29

0.47

Blon

0.05

0.28

Ahyb

0.47

0.54

Apsi

0.15

0.37

Bstr

0.19

0.47

Aker

0.14

0.27

Bsal

0.27

0.38

Calb

0.10

0.43

Apot

0.55

0.62

Clme

0.22

0.38

Dser

0.19

0.53

Bdul

0.61

0.57

Cmex

0.11

0.46

Dspp

0.19

0.32

Cber

0.18

0.41

Dcar

0.09

0.33

Ekar

0.29

0.42

Crme

0.15

0.57

Gglu

0.28

0.28

Erad

0.25

0.38

Damb

0.62

0.59

Ginu

0.24

0.43

Lalb

0.38

0.43

Dser

0.19

0.56

Loax

0.11

0.46

Ldas

0.05

0.39

Lgla

0.27

0.40

Mpar

0.21

0.33

Lgla

0.27

0.49

Lspp

0.20

0.35

Mpur

0.14

0.39

Lmes

0.05

0.35

Mspp

0.18

0.31

Mvul

0.17

0.33

Mdep

0.01

0.37

Noff

0.05

0.31

Ppen

0.11

0.31

Octa

0.10

0.36

Olas

0.58

0.61

Pros

0.13

0.25

Prub

0.13

0.34

Ospp

0.33

0.35

Rcom

0.41

0.41

Rmac

0.25

0.39

Plin

0.35

0.45

Spra

0.15

0.35

Spur

0.11

0.34

Pole

0.21

0.28

Tdif

0.03

0.33

Tgra

0.09

0.49

Pphi

0.75

0.62

Tluc

0.03

0.43

Tusn

0.23

0.36

Pqua

0.05

0.45

   

Tluc

0.03

0.37

Prud

0.31

0.42

   

Indexes were calculated based on the score of the first principal component of PCA performed by use type and variable kind, management variables for the management intensity index, and sociocultural and ecological variables for the risk index

ID identification tag assigned to the species analyzed; check Table 3 to identify the species

Fig. 5

af Relative influence of risk due to sociocultural and ecological factors in plant management. Schemes show the relative influence of sociocultural and ecological factors and their interactions on management of ceremonial, edible, and medicinal plants based on partitioned canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) performed by type use. Ordination planes of CCA performed by type use show how species (numbers) and management variables (red words) are influenced by sociocultural and ecological variables (blue arrows)

Table 9

Significance of explanatory variables on management associated with the canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) for ceremonial, edible, and medicinal plants

Risk variable

Ceremonial

Edible

Medicinal

 

Df

X 2

F

p

Df

X 2

F

p

Df

X 2

F

p

Sociocultural and ecological variables

 Uses number (Us)

1

0.017

3.24

0.103

1

0.014

1.98

0.105

1

0.016

1.46

0.175

 SI basic plants (SIB)

1

0.190

35.41

0.002

1

0.008

1.09

0.219

1

0.021

1.84

0.11

 SI by use type (SIU)

1

0.003

0.47

0.695

1

0.003

0.45

0.497

1

0.026

2.33

0.09

 Consumption (Con)

1

0.029

5.35

0.024

1

0.013

1.80

0.125

    

 Use frequency (UF)

1

0.040

7.48

0.012

1

0.013

1.83

0.180

1

0.024

2.15

0.078

 Economic interchange (EI)

1

0.010

1.85

0.22

1

0.006

0.79

0.389

    

 Reciprocity interchange (RI)

1

0.006

1.08

0.454

1

0.173

24.47

0.002

1

0.052

4.68

0.007

 Recognized variants (Var)

1

0.008

1.41

0.345

1

0.048

6.79

0.003

1

0.014

1.24

0.269

 Sociocultural strategies (SCS)

1

0.014

2.62

0.13

1

0.028

4.00

0.034

1

0.025

2.22

0.084

 Abundance perception(Ape)

1

0.026

4.88

0.045

1

0.027

3.76

0.035

1

0.011

1.01

0.398

 Harvested parts (HPa)

1

0.048

8.89

0.008

1

0.008

1.20

0.326

1

0.004

0.40

0.735

 Life cycle (LCi)

1

0.002

0.37

0.734

1

0.005

0.74

0.465

1

0.001

0.06

0.981

 Reproduction (Rep)

1

0.052

9.65

0.002

1

0.026

3.73

0.066

1

0.019

1.70

0.183

 Vulnerability (VEA)

1

0.015

2.72

0.111

1

0.007

0.97

0.416

1

0.001

0.06

0.967

 Residual

5

0.027

  

5

0.035

  

5

0.056

  

Sociocultural variables

 Uses number (Us)

1

0.017

1.028

0.352

1

0.014

1.29

0.114

1

0.016

1.77

0.106

 SI basic plants (SIB)

1

0.190

11.232

0.005

1

0.008

0.71

0.321

1

0.021

2.24

0.084

 SI by use type (SIU)

1

0.003

0.148

0.925

1

0.003

0.29

0.680

1

0.026

2.83

0.051

 Consumption (Con)

1

0.029

1.698

0.212

1

0.013

1.17

0.215

    

 Use frequency (UF)

1

0.040

2.374

0.131

1

0.013

1.19

0.217

1

0.024

2.61

0.037

 Economic interchange (EI)

1

0.010

0.587

0.587

1

0.006

0.51

0.529

    

 Reciprocity interchange (RI)

1

0.006

0.343

0.808

1

0.173

15.89

0.001

1

0.052

5.68

0.001

 Recognized variants (Var)

1

0.008

0.447

0.687

1

0.048

4.41

0.029

1

0.014

1.51

0.189

 Sociocultural strategies (SCS)

1

0.014

0.832

0.487

1

0.028

2.60

0.099

1

0.025

2.70

0.048

 Abundance perception(Ape)

10

0.170

  

10

0.109

  

10

0.092

  

Ecological variables

 Abundance perception(Ape)

1

0.034

1.73

0.169

1

0.047

2.29

0.047

1

0.018

1.21

0.214

 Harvested parts (HPa)

1

0.089

4.51

0.023

1

0.011

0.55

0.443

1

0.010

0.64

0.509

 Life cycle (LCi)

1

0.001

0.05

0.983

1

0.024

1.18

0.196

1

0.002

0.14

0.953

 Reproduction (Rep)

1

0.033

1.68

0.221

1

0.045

2.19

0.075

1

0.017

1.12

0.274

 Vulnerability (VEA)

1

0.052

2.63

0.107

1

0.004

0.20

0.815

1

0.042

2.77

0.03

 Residual

14

0.277

  

14

0.284

  

12

0.181

  

Number of permutations = 999; p values in italics are significant at 0.05

In edible plants, the regression analysis indicates that there is a highly significant relation among management intensity and risk indexes (R 2 = 0.48, p = 0.0007) (Fig. 4, Table 8). Partial CCA explained 92% of the variation of management, significantly explained by sociocultural factors (60%) and the intersection of sociocultural and ecological factors (14%) (Fig. 5c, Table 9). Plants with the lowest management intensity (Table 8) are those protected through collective regulations, like D. serratifolium and L. glaucescens, which are shared among relatives and used in communitarian ceremonies, as well as in those gathered and perceived to be scarce, like N. officinale, P. quadrifolia, and C. mexicana (Fig. 5d, Table 9). Plants with the highest management intensity like P. philadelphica, O. lasiacantha, A. hybridus, and D. ambrosioides (Table 8) are those with different varieties, under human selection through several types of practices, considered to be abundant, shared among members of the community, and obtained through different strategies, among them interchange and commercialization (Fig. 5d, Table 9).

In medicinal plants, the regression analysis indicates no significant relation among management intensity and risk (R 2 = 0.19, p = 0.074) (Fig. 4, Table 8). Partial CCA explains 79% of the variation of management, mainly by sociocultural factors (46%) (Fig. 5e, Table 9). Plants with low risk like Pinaropappus roseus and Gymnosperma glutinosum are directly consumed by people who gather them and, along with Marrubium vulgare, occur in most of the homegardens and crop fields sampled. These plants are only gathered and let standing (Fig. 5e, Table 9). Management through collective regulations determining care during gathering was documented on C. mexicana, L. oaxacana, and A. psilostachya, with relatively high management intensity and risk (Table 8) associated to their value in reciprocity, use frequency, strategies for obtaining them, and the perception of vulnerability to environmental factors (Fig. 5e, Table 9).

Discussion

Management intensity

As we hypothesized, the gradient of management intensity is higher in edible plants, which are managed through different types of practices in AFS, more frequently, and involving human selection. Contrarily, plants used for ceremonies and as medicine are mostly tolerated or simply gathered. These general trends are similar to other reports for edible plants studied in the region which are managed with more complex practices than other useful plant species [6, 22, 4345].

Collective regulations importantly influence the management intensity, but differently to that proposed for a general model of management intensity [46], the highest complexity of such regulations was observed in plants that are only gathered in areas of common access, such as the most valuable medicinal and ceremonial plants. For the contrary, edible species are mainly managed in AFS, where managers have higher control of access to plant resources. These differences reflect the trade-offs in managing natural resources of common use, as it has been discussed previously for edible plants of the region and for several resources of common use [13, 47]. In the case studied, this pattern is illustrated by the fact that collective regulations appear to be effective for plants culturally valuable but not for plant resources with high economic value. The inefficacy of collective regulations for plants like A. potatorum appears to be due to the lack of rules coherent with the weakening of local institutions for ordering the use of a resource of increasing demand [28]. The failure of regulations for achieving a balance between cost and benefit of its management has enhanced private management in sites for exclusive use. But also, external actors have promoted the reforestation in areas of common use [16, 26], actions that should be accompanied by strengthening the effectiveness of local institutions.

The selective management characterizes the high management intensity in plants under the three types of use, according to flavors, colors, and sizes of plants or plant parts, which indicates ongoing processes of domestication, which may have advanced expressions like in P. philadelphica or, rather incipient, like in O. lasiacantha and R. communis [5, 15, 48]. The indistinct use of species with varieties recognized such as Chenopodium berlandieri suggests that there exists a process of decreasing of consumption and interest in human selection, differently to what is happening with A. potatorum, whose propagation starts with gathering seeds from several sites where agaves are recognized to have differential productivity. Such contrasting situations indicate the dynamic aspect of the processes of domestication, in which changes in values, the introduction of new food or products, and changes in markets, among other factors, have direct effects on management of plant resources.

Sociocultural and ecological factors and management intensity

As expected, management intensity in edible plants is associated with their high risk to disappear, compared to the pattern found in medicinal and ceremonial plants. However, in the analysis about how sociocultural and ecological factors influence on variation of management, we found a high variety of interactions. The economic value, which has been considered one of the most important factors motivating plant management [12, 13], was not significant in any of the systems studied. This result can be due to the low proportion of plant species that are interchanged through barter and commercialization, as well as the isolation of the community, a factor recognized to be significant for introducing non-timber forest products in markets [49]. Nevertheless, among the more intensely managed species, we recorded some whose management represents expenses (P. philadelphica) or their commercialization represents main incomes for households (B. dulcis and A. potatorum), which indicates a relation between management intensity and the economic role of plants in subsistence [46].

Consumption was only significant in ceremonial plants, explaining the gradient of management intensity according to the feasibility of propagation, which may be difficult in plants highly used (Tillandsia grandis and Chiococca alba), compared with species lowly used but having vegetative propagation that makes easy their management (Plumeria rubra, Dahlia sp.).

The perception of abundance and its interaction with cultural value and management feasibility was a meaningful factor for explaining gradients of management intensity of ceremonial and edible plants. For instance, Peperomia quadrifolia, a highly valued species as food, is only gathered following the principle of leaving part of the plant in order that it continues propagating, since it is scarce, but it has very specific habitat requirements. Tillandsia usneoides is intensely managed in homegardens, although it is abundant in forests, since it is easily propagated; P. philadelphica, a basic species, is considered abundant because of the effect of intense management. The examples suggest that the balance between the invested effort in management and benefits obtained according to needs is an important factor for making decisions [50].

The interchange of plant species related to reciprocity was significant for explaining variation of management of edible and medicinal plants. In both use types, the interchanged plants are the most valuable species. In the case of edible plants, our analysis explained the variation in the extremes of the gradient of management intensity; plants of difficult access are managed by collective regulations, and those intensely managed are in AFS. Among the medicinal plants, our analysis identified those species managed following collective regulations and stored, but in the case of emergency, people practice interchange. Importance of this factor coincides with other reports analyzing management of AFS, where it has been found that the social relations of local people are a main factor influencing biodiversity in these systems since plant species are introduced to the systems and because numerous species are maintained to be shared [44, 51, 52]. The study of these relations is covering importance for understanding management of AFS. We suggest that these may be considered for understanding management of species, since these are expressions of affect, respect, and solidarity, through which people construct social nets of mutual support that are part of the cultural identity and strategies for facing risks in their subsistence [28, 5355].

In edible and medicinal plants, the interest for obtaining resources through sociocultural strategies influences the management intensity. Strategies like mobility for increasing the harvesting area and gathering for storing, among other practices, may determine some degree of risk on plants, which are placed through collective regulations and management practices.

The cognitive prominence by use type may be an indicator of resource quality, but this was no significant factor in our analysis. The perception about the quality of resources arose as a factor related to the place where plants grow. This aspect enhances plant management in AFS [51, 53, 56], which was documented with P. philadelphica and O. lasiacantha. In wild plants, this perception influences the communitarian regulations, as was recorded for Bursera biflora, whose resin is naturally produced and is preferred over that produced after cutting the stem [57].

Management motives

Interactions between cultural importance, perception of scarcity, and feasibility of management suggest that several factors contribute to motivate management techniques, which was confirmed through the in-depth interviews qualitatively analyzed (Table 6). The worries expressed by people about the future availability of plants with ceremonial, edible, and medicinal uses suggest that uncertainty is a main motive determining management. Such worries can be explained because of the fact that in the analysis of cognitive prominence of plants considered as basic, people mentioned plants with the three uses, which means that they are considered indispensable elements of subsistence. This fact coincides with the general hypothesis of control of uncertainty as a main motive of management for ensuring resource availability [12]. However, the differences documented in types of management strategies and their intensity among use types may be due to the differential operation of other motives, as we hypothesized in this study.

Making easier the access to plants was an important motivation for transplanting or cultivating wild and weedy plants for the three use types analyzed. For edible and medicinal plants managed in homegardens, the main management motive is to have them close to home [22, 45, 58, 59]. And this is why people transplant and propagate plants that are naturally abundant into other ecosystems (e.g., Porophyllum spp.), protect with different labors the maintenance of D. ambrosioides, or tolerate weedy and ruderal plants like Malva parviflora and Barkleyanthus salicifolius. In ceremonial plants, the need to have flowers easily accessible is also an important motive for transplanting and propagating plants (for instance orchids and Dahlia spp.), but this motive is associated with the purpose of embellishing an area (60% of the ceremonial plant species are considered ornamental), a quality highly valued by the Ixcatec [6, 23, 24, 26, 52, 53, 60].

The symbolic value associated with plants and animals has been proposed relevant for making management decisions [8, 61, 62]. It is particularly important in plants used for ceremonies, like B. biflora [21], L. glaucescens, Euchile karwinskii, and other orchids, and may influence the perception of importance of being careful during their gathering and as a motive for propagation.

Our study suggests that ethical principles are important for regulating use and management in order to prevent damage to plants (Table 6), recognizing them as living beings with “the right to exist.” This is expressed in numerous tolerated plants with low cultural and economic value or even those without use [26]. Such criteria interact with others particularly in weedy and ruderal plants, with edible and/or medicinal uses such as A. hybridus, M. parvifolia, R. communis, and M. vulgare in which the perception of their potential as invasive plants determines a balance of efforts for maintaining and removing them [23, 26]. Other motives identified in the maintenance of homegardens [59, 63, 64], such as experimental curiosity, were mentioned by people in order to develop continual innovation in management techniques.

This study aspires to contribute to understand the multifactorial influence of social and ecological aspects on decisions for managing plant resources [26, 65] with different purposes. It is clear from this and other studies that management of edible resources are mainly influenced by factors associated with availability of food or means for obtaining it, whereas medicinal plants, which are consumed less frequently, involve quality rather than quantity, and ritual plants involve symbolic aspects. The three groups of plants involve management, but the intensity required in each case varies. However, some plant resources are particularly valuable because of their multi-functionality [65]; these are species that in this study are called “basic” by local people and are outstandingly important resources receiving the greatest management intensity.

Ixcatlán is the only site in the world where the Ixcatec language is spoken, and only 15 persons speak this language. Our ethnobiological studies look for contributing to efforts of a linguistic group working in favor of conserving and recovering this language. Information recovered in this study includes audio and image systems that have helped to produce educative materials useful for teachers in schools for teaching the Ixcatec language. In addition, the information about resource use, and particularly about management techniques, are helpful for planning actions for ordination, conservation, and recovering forest areas and resources, as well as agroforestry systems, which are part of the biocultural heritage of the Ixcatec for the Ixcatec people, people of the Biosphere Reserve Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, and the Mexican people.

Conclusions

For managing edible, medicinal, and ceremonial plants, the Ixcatec have developed a broad variety of practices and regulations. Management strategies are motivated as responses to uncertainty in their availability and other motivations like embellishing an area, satisfying customs, emotions, and curiosity operating simultaneously in the decisions. Such a variety of factors is associated to a well-being premise combining both material and spiritual needs, as well as maintaining social relations and traditions that are part of the Ixcatec cultural identity [27, 50].

The highest management intensity in economic valuable species, mainly edible plants, indicates that uncertainty is significant in indispensable plants for satisfying subsistence needs. However, species of medicinal and ceremonial uses and some edible plants are managed through diverse management practices without response to abundance perception. These facts make necessary to analyze more deeply how needs, worries, external pressures, and management responses are articulated with subsistence strategies of households and communities in these processes, as well as the role of systems of ethical values and traditional regulation institutions.

Our study confirms the importance of sociocultural factors associated with use and interchange of resources, and ecological processes influencing the vulnerability and feasibility of managing them [12, 16, 17]. The multiple criteria may be useful to analyze conditions guiding early management motives that modeled the biocultural heritage of peoples of the Tehuacán Valley.

Abbreviations

AFS: 

Agroforestry systems

CCA: 

Canonical correspondence analyses

PCA: 

Principal component analyses

TEK: 

Traditional ecological knowledge

UNAM: 

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Declarations

Acknowledgements

We deeply thank the people of Santa María Ixcatlán and the authorities for their generosity and friendship. We also thank Erandi Rivera, Emanuel Emiliano González, and Ricardo Lemus for their collaboration in fieldwork and María Eugenia Salazar and Erandi Rivera for sharing panels a, j, y, and k in Fig. 2. We thank the anonymous referees for their comments and suggestions that helped to improve this manuscript.

Funding

The authors thank the Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) and the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, Mexico) for supporting PhD studies and a grant for the first author. We also thank for the financial support for fieldwork the Red Temática: Productos Forestales No Maderables supported by CONACYT, CONACYT (Project CB-2013-01-221,800), the PAPIIT, UNAM (Research project IN209214), Fundación Alfredo Harp Helú Oaxaca, and Fundación UNAM (project IE-282.311.190).

Availability of data and materials

Data that support the analysis and additional data are provided in Tables 1, 5, and 7.

Authors’ contributions

SRL is the main author, involved in the study design, field work, and analysis of the data; wrote the first draft; and concluded the final version of this paper. AC is main coordinator-supervisor of the research project, participated in data analyses, and reviewed several drafts of the manuscript. EGF and RL contributed to designing and following the progress of the research and reviewed the final drafts of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Authors’ information

SRL is a postgraduate student at the Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad (IIES), UNAM. AC and EGF are full-time researchers at IIES, UNAM. RL is a full-time researcher at UBIPRO-FES Iztacala, UNAM.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Permits for conducting our investigation were obtained from local authorities (municipal and land tenure), the Communitarian Assembly, and federal agencies (SEMARNAT and Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve-CONANP), to realize the investigation. Prior oral informed consent was obtained from all participants to realize the interview, survey, free lists, and visit and gather plants in their homegardens or agricultural fields. Reports of activities and preliminary investigation outcomes have been done via oral and written reports to the authorities and public presentations to the community of Ixcatlán.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

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Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad, UNAM
(2)
UBIPRO, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, UNAM

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